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The semantic structure and semantic changes of English words

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Meaning can be described as a component of the word through which a concept is communicated. The complex relationships between referent (object, denoted by the word), concept and word are represented by a triangle: No immediate relation between word and referent it is established only through the concept.

Английский

2015-02-18

28.43 KB

1 чел.

The semantic structure and semantic changes of English words.

Meaning can be described as a component of the word through which a concept is communicated. The complex relationships between referent (object, denoted by the word), concept and word are represented by a triangle:

No immediate relation between word and referent it is established only through the concept.

The four most important typs of meaning are

1. every word combines lexical and gram. Meaning,

2. many words not only refer to some object, but also serve to express the speakers attitude towords the object. Thus their lexical meaning splits into denotational and connotational meanings.

3.denot.meaning is further divided into semantic componenents or semes.

4.a word may have polysemantic meaning – lexical semantic variants.

Lexical meaning is retained in all the forms of the given word. lex. Meaning is the feature of an individual lex. units, while gram. meaning is common to a clases.

The conceptual meaning of a word is expressed in its denotational meaning. The object denoted is denotatum and is sometimes identified with referent . The cannot meaning may reflect the speakers style communication, his approval or disapproval of the object spoken of.

The denot. Meaning lincs the word with its referent and it is rather stable. The con. meaning depends on where, when, how, by whom, for what, purpose and in what contest it is or may be used. There fore a words connotations are many and varied. There are four main types:1.stylistic

2.emotional, 3. evaluative,4. expressive or intensifying connotations.

1. horse-stylisticalyneutral.

steed-poetic, nag-sl.

2.to ask – to beseech

it expresses approval or disapproval:magic, sousery, which –craft (колдовство) all this words have negative connotation.

3)magnifisent – splendid, remarcable.

Surperb – first-class, exellent.

Semantic changes:

1)Transferens basedon Resemblence is also referred to as linguistic metaphor a new meaning appears as a resalt of associating two objects (phenomena, qualities) e.g . the noun “star”(heavenlybady) developed the meaning “famous actor”

branch(limb of tree) – field of science.

2) Transference based on Contiguity(смежность и ассоциация) another term is linguistic metonimy. The assosiation is based upon suble psychological links between different objects and phenomina.

e.g. China is the sense of “dishes made of por celain(‘poslin) фарфор.

China is believed to be birthplace of porcelain.

3) Broadening (or Generalization) of meaning sometimes the process of transference may result

in a change in range.of meaning, e.g. the verb arrive (Fr) began its “life in England” in the narrow maening “ to come to shore, to land.

In modern Eng. it developed the general meaning “to come” .

4) Narrowing ( or specialization) of meaning. In middle Eng. the word “girl had meaning of “ a small child of either “sex”. Then it developed the meaning of a small child of the female sex – young unmarried woman.

We must distinguish between the etymological meaning – the earliest known meaning; archaic – no longer active, but still servying in restricted contexts, e.g. In idioms or compound words . The present day meaning.. Original meaning – serves as a basis for derivation. Contextual meaning created by individual author or speaker, and hardly ever equire permanent states in the language.

The extreme case of contextual meaning is a nonce usecoined for a unique context. E.g. Unbirthday present.


 

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