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Adjective.Semantic and structural classification

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

In the sentence the adj. performs the function of an atribute and a predicative. As for morphological features, the Eng. Adj. having lost all its forms of gram. Argument with the noun, is distinguished only by the category of comparison. All the adj. are devided into 2 groups: qualitative and relative.

Английский

2015-02-18

28.26 KB

3 чел.

Adjective.Semantic and structural classification.

The adj. Expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance. Unlike nouns adj. Do not possess a full nominative value. Adj. are distinguished by a specific combinability with nouns, which they modify;by a combinability with link-verbs,both functional and notional; by a combinability with modifying adverbs.

In the sentence the adj. performs the function of an atribute and a predicative. As for morphological features, the Eng. Adj. having lost all its forms of gram. Argument with the noun, is distinguished only by the category of comparison. All the adj. are devided into 2 groups: qualitative and relative.

Relative adj. express such properties of a substance as are determined by the direct relation of the substance to some other substance: wood-wooden hut, history-historical event.

Qualitative adj. denote various qualities of substances which admit of a quantitative estimation: an awkward situation- a very awkward situation.

Thus qualitative adj. are capable of forming degrees of comparison while relative are not.

The category of comparison expresses the quantitative characteristics of the quality of a nounal referent,i.e. it gives a relative evaluation of the quantity of a quality. The category is constituted by the opposition of the 3 forms known as a degrees of comparison: positive degree having no features of comparison; the comparative degree having the feature of restricted superiority (limits the comparison to two elements only); the superlative degree having the feature of unrestricted superiority.

The synthetical forms of comparison in –er and (-est) coexist with the analytical forms of comparison effected by the auxiliaries more and most. The analitical forms of comparison perform a double function. On the one hand, they are used with the evaluative adjectives due to their phonemic structure (two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable ending in other grapho-phonemic complexes than –er, -y, -le,-ow,or words of more than two-syllable composition) cannot normally nake the synthetic forms of comparison on the other hand, they are used to express emphasis.

Let’s consider the use of the most-combination with the indefinite article.

E.g. The speaker launched a most significant personal attac on the Prime Minister. The most significant of the arguments in a dispute is not neccesserily the most spectacular one.

While the phrase “a most significant attac” gives the idea of rather a high degree of the quality expressed irrespective of any comparison with other attacs, the phrase “the most significant of the arguments” expresses exactly the superlative degree of the quality.

The definite article with the elative most construction is also possible. E.g. I found myself in the most awkward situation.

That the categorial form of the superlative is essential also for the expression of the elative semantics can be very well illustrated by the elative use of the comparative degree. E.g. There is nothing more refreshing than a good swim.

Now lets consider the relation to the category of comparison of some usually noncomparable evaluative adjectives. They contain certain comparative semantic elements in their semantic structures. Here belong adj. that are themselves grading makes of evaluation (less/least), adj. of indefinitely moderated quality (whitish [waiti$]-белесый, half-ironical, semi-detached); adj. expressing the highest degree of a respective quality (“extremals”) The semantics of extremals is emphasized by the definite article introducing their nounal combinations: E.g. The ultimate outcome of the talks was encouraging. The final decision has not yet been made public.

 


 

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