The headline features of the translation of newspaper «Day» and information materials


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Objective on the characteristics newspaper and information transfer is to investigate lexical and grammatical aspects of translation, transmit extra translation problems, show the features category abbreviations in the newspaper and informational text and reveal stylistic means that the most used in newspaper and information texts.



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Language is one of the major components that build the nation. It is accompanied by a man from the first days of life and death, it is developing with society. It is not surprising that over the centuries, many scientists are conducting research on the opening of the main laws of language not only in general, but also its individual parts.

To know the language - means to own all its structures and words. Therefore dictionary - is one of the aspects of language that should be taught in schools and universities. The question is what words and idioms pupils and students have to remember. In connection with this, it should be carefully chosen words - according to the principles of selection of linguistic material conditions of teaching and learning a foreign language.

Translation has a long history, which are deeply rooted in the days when there was a need for people that have owned several languages and could act as intermediaries in communication different language nations. But as an independent science, translation formed only in the early twentieth century. In terms of expansion of international relations and the exchange of information, translation quickly developed a process that continues to this day, because it is constantly updated by neologisms and borrowings. There are new theories and views on translation problems.

Nowadays, dynamic development, that is constantly and affects all areas of human activity, when the exchange of information was perhaps never as grand, directly proportional to grow and requirements for translation, namely the quality parameters [1, p.48].

Materials newspaper and informational genre constitute the main content of newspaper texts. Translator of newspaper and informational literature often have to translate articles and notes informational nature of British and American newspapers, and he should be familiar stylistic features such material.

Playing an important role in society, newspaper and informational messages in one or another degree attracted the attention of various social sciences - economics, law, sociology, psychology, and this area attracts and linguists.

The most popular translation is the translation of newspaper and broadcast messages [5].

Background "newspaper and information transfer" is that in today's newspaper and translating text information is particularly important, acting as a means of advertising and a way to inform the public. The amount issued annually newspaper and informational text-based foreign language (English-speaking) audience large enough and in accordance with the expansion of international relations continues to increase. Here and performances of state, party and public figures; publication chronicles, economic news and the sport and of course advertising.

The object of our study is the headline features of the translation of newspaper texts and information materials [21].

The present study is the article from the newspaper "Day".

Background research is as follows: active influence of the media on the formation, development and change of social consciousness is obvious that recognizes both domestic and foreign researchers, so the study of linguistic problems related to the interaction of man and of the press, causing significant interest.

Objective on the characteristics newspaper and information transfer is to investigate lexical and grammatical aspects of translation, transmit extra translation problems, show the features category abbreviations in the newspaper and informational text and reveal stylistic means that the most used in newspaper and information texts.

For the task used technique to study complex material that includes a comparative analysis of publications on issues phraseology and translation.



1.1 Types of texts

At the present stage of human development, phase of deepening cooperation, mobility between people and organizations, phase of globalization in the world economy has special importance translation activities.

  Translation is an important means of communication between individuals belonging to different habitats and culture represents communication in the broadest sense of the word and not just interpersonal, whose aim is to establish a mutual understanding between people, but also intercultural, ie interaction speakers of different languages and different cultures. The rapid development of the media, new newspapers, magazines analytical numerous online publications, in other words a broad market supply journalism, has meant that the quality, validity, objectivity and clarity of presentation of the language were the main factors when choosing edition.

Another factor that affects the choice of publication, have a good reputation, rozreklamovanist, availability, and brightness covers and accuracy headlines on the front pages. The direct connection with the translation is that many newspapers and magazines come as amended in various languages, and some Ukrainian edition publishes analytical articles written by international experts in a foreign language.

As mentioned in the introduction, this study deals with the peculiarities translate newspaper and informational texts. However, before proceeding to consider these features, it is advisable to apply some basic theoretical concepts of translation, which are characteristic of the process, and that formed the basis of this study [21].

Famous linguist A.D. Schweitzer defines translation as "single and two-phase process interlingual and intercultural communication in which the citizen on the basis of meaningful (" Translation ") analysis of the original text creates a secondary text (metatext), replacing the original in a different language and cultural environment; process characterized by the installation of communicative effect the transfer of the original text, partially modified by differences between the two languages, between two cultures and two communicative situations ". This definition A.D. Schweitzer translation links such thing as - "the language and social structure" and "language and culture". This A.D. Schweitzer concept of translation, is directly related to the topic of translation features newspaper-messages and so in this work he preferred [3].

As is known in the rapid development of law, economic, sociology, psychology, forced development of advertising there a special need for translators in this field of expertise. Today newspaper and translating information texts was not only necessary but also commonplace life of the world community. This knowledge of the theoretical foundations of the process is not only a must, but a guarantee of quality translation.

Thus, this section is devoted to the definition of translation adequacy of translation and related pragmatic adaptation [22].

Translation is the process of transforming the content of the speech fragment (sentences, paragraphs, text) one language to another. The main requirement for translation is adequate, that is accurate form and content of the original equivalent means. Adequate translation of foreign recipient is in response that meets the communicative installation sender.

The term "pragmatics" introduced American explorer Charles Morris. He offered to share semiotics as the science of signs into three sections: syntactic that examines the relationship between the characters themselves, semantics, which studies the relationships between characters and objects and pragmatics, which studies the relationships between characters and those who use them. "Since most interpreters (and possibly all) characters are living organisms, the sufficient characteristic pragmatists would be evidence that it deals with all the psychological, biological and sociological phenomena observed in the functioning of characters"[16].

There are three areas of definition of pragmatics. Supporters of the first direction are determined pragmatics as the study of the interaction of linguistic forms and contexts of their use and interpretation of linguistic resources in communicative contexts. Another area of pragmatics as regards the real situation of communication which determines the choice of language tools to solve communication problems. The third area is treated as a pragmatic study of the potential of language to influence people. The human factor is a key concept in pragmatics. Pragmatics studies all the conditions under which people use language signs. Under this condition adequately understand the choice and use of language units to achieve the ultimate goals of communication - the impact on the partner.

Pragmatic adaptation text in translation is given sufficient attention in many books and manuals translation theorists such as L.S. Barkhudarov, E.V. Breus, V.V. Vinogradov, V.N. Komissarov, Y.I. Retsker, and others[2,3,5,6].

Adaptation - this type of interpretation of the dominant pragmatic guidance and orientation stereotypes expectations speakers recipient and its culture. The difference between the translation-adaptation of translation, reproduction, and the free play of texts based or other types intertext is that the translation-adaptation involves the comparison and verification of the original text, under the dominant focus on linguistic and cultural priorities of the recipient.

The degree of proximity/distance from the original text can vary for different types of adaptive texts. There is also the concept of "pragmatic translation problems" that will cover the facts as linguistic and extra-linguistic order. Most often pragmatic translation factors include genre and stylistic features of the text of the original language and the target language, their unequal pragmatic value, the functional role of the sign in a given message, pragmatic task of the translator. These factors also rank as national cultural specificity recipients of the original and translation, communications background knowledge of participants, their social and psychological characteristics. Sometimes pragmatic adaptation caused by different semantic structures correlative words in languages that are involved in the translation process. This is clearly seen in the translation from Ukrainian to English.

Before translation, the translator must install a number of significant issues that contribute to the reproduction of the original pragmatic potential to achieve the task, ie to achieve the desired effect on the recipient of the translated text. First, the translator must understand communicative intention of the creator of the text caused some needs. Second, establish a dominant feature of the text. Each text has a dominant feature, which aims to provide a pragmatic definition of influence on receptor text. This function takes into account the creator of the text in its assembly, such as text socio - political nature are intended to impress the audience. Thirdly, the pragmatic aspects of translation focuses on communicative orientation effective message. A. Noybert identifies four types of texts, given that the involvement of pragmatic points depends on the type of text is translated.

The first type of texts – are the texts of ideological nature, intended to influence foreign audiences, that citizens of other countries. These texts are composed so as to make some impact on a particular receptor. Accounting pragmatic points in the translation of such texts is necessary to achieve the desired effect;

The second type of texts - a fiction designed for carriers MI, but in many cases they are translated into other languages, so pragmatic factors they play an important role;

The third type of text - a text that the media are only interested in IM, for example, newspaper materials. The texts of this type are transferred in a narrow scale, and therefore the pragmatic aspects are not taken into account. However, when you need to shift, for example, any newspaper article to be read by native and should consider pragmatics original;

The fourth types of texts – are the scientific and technical texts, created for research purposes and are focused on the media as MI and PA speakers in dealing with this or that problem in science. There is no need to adopt a pragmatic MI due to the presence of PT Media information required to understand and disclosure of the contents of the text, as in this case there is no need for further explanation [9].

Translators often have to look for special measures to transfer semantic and stylistic components of the original. In this case, achieved pragmatic equivalence between the original and the translation, which defines communicative effect of newspaper reports. On the pragmatic aspects of translation theorist wrote a famous researcher V.N. Komissarov. Thus, according to his scientific research, theory of levels of equivalence based on the allocation in terms of content and translation of the original five levels:

1. The level of linguistic signs;

2. The level of expression;

3. The level of communication;

4. The level of description of the situation;

5. The level of communication goal.

At each of these levels using locale (units of words) owning the content, passed a special kind of information. This prerequisite equivalence V.N. Komissarov considers preserving the dominant function expression [21].

So, we have to note that any text is a communication contains certain message that can be transmitted from the source to the receptor. And it is the ability to create text communicative effect is called pragmatic aspect of translation.

The study newspaper and informational texts, we assume that the target audience speaks a different language and have other specific characteristics of social and cultural environment. In connection with this, pragmatic adaptation - it changes made to the text translator translation to achieve the desired response from the target audience, in other words, should properly convey basic communicative function of the original.

Translators of newspaper and informational texts face significant challenges in transmission capacity pragmatic original. In particular, due to the translation of the text in a newspaper of facts, events and promotions associated with the culture of a people, different national traditions, names of dishes, clothing details, etc.

An important role in the theoretical study of translators studies take the process of translation, the translator mental activity, studies his techniques. The study is widely used different theoretical models and possible methods of transition from the original to the translation (translation transformation).

 The task of the translator in the translation of newspaper texts

XXI century is a new task in the information space of humanity. Thanks to the media, role of translation in human life is steadily increasing. Today, translation links almost all areas of human activity. The movement of information flows knows no borders, no time and no space. An endless variety of the modern world transmitted by the media sensations and interpretations of numerous international information processes include participants - journalists, reporters, commentators, cameramen.

Therefore, the growing importance of translation activity, and with them there grows and translation problems. Aggravation of language problems prompted the search for new solutions. Previously translation activities considered only in connection with the translation of fiction, but today more and more important - and volume, and social values - have come to occupy a special character translation - informational, economic, legal and technical.

Translator must understand the meaning of good headlines and well and able to properly communicate with the source language to the target language. After all headlines of American newspapers are characterized by the fact that the title may have a double meaning, as the combination of the words chosen so that the content can be done exactly the opposite translation, so it's important to feel this nuance. For example headline "Milk drinkers are turning to powder" can be translated as "People who drink milk turn into powder" although, of course, should translate as "People who like milk, begin to take milk."[19]

Translation Practice knows many cases, when compared with the original translation something "was added" and something "lost" or changed. Modern realities make us attentive to treat translation newspaper and informational texts in terms of their psychological impact on the mass audience. While translating newspaper and informational texts translator must consider: the purpose of the text, the nature of the consumer, as the language of the original text, cultural and individual features of the language in the cultural context of the consumer and much more. Translation of newspaper and information texts can be defined as close to "adequate." This type of interpretation called it a practical necessity. This approach requires a solid knowledge interpreter object, referred to the original author wanted to say newspaper text that is communicative task text. Translation of newspaper text and information when changing verbal forms must be, however, just passed by content.

Continuing the talk about the role of translation in today's world, you can not avoid words relative to newspaper advertising, which is used to create universally phrases or patterns to support the feeling associated with the feature of the advertised product.

Materials newspaper and genre information constitute the main content of newspaper texts. Translator political literature often have to translate articles and notes informational nature of British and American newspapers and translator should be well acquainted with stylistic features such material.

Newspaper - a means of information and means of influencing a broad and diverse audience of readers. Since usually read a newspaper at a time when it is difficult to focus (in the subway, at lunch, after work, etc.), it is necessary to submit material briefly but notice all the necessary information.

The overall picture of the American press is quite diverse, ranging from serious issues and the "tabloid newspapers".

For practical interpreter of the most significant are the following features American presses:

1. Conversational nature of a number of materials

2. Emotive through the use of jargon paraphrase

3. Formal titles and applications

4. Specificity headline

5. Lexical features newspaper and informational materials

6. Use of terms[21]

In some cases, an interpreter before the goal is not only to translate, but also to process text. In the current studies increasingly traced judgment that texts requiring accompanying study should be regarded as facts rather than translation, linguistic mediation, which is owned and adaptation. So if there was a problem before the translator to achieve a given communicative effect, which usually involves a pragmatic adaptation, this kind of "beyond the translation as a process of creating text, communicative equivalent of the original."

In theoretical discussions often thought that an experienced mediator and translator "in certain situations" applies pragmatic adaptation or "radical rework the original" in order to achieve the desired effect pragmatic. In such cases of translation tend to use partial recognition of the need for adaptive processing elements, but specify that in the translation process should distinguish these aspects of its implementation of its own translation functions. However, software conclusion is that most species' adaptive transcending "is not even consistent with partial functional or structural identification of the source and final word [10].

However receptor belonging to another language translation team to another culture often leads to what appears pragmatically equivalent translation inadequate. In this case, the translator has to resort to pragmatic adaptation translation, making your text changes as needed. In practice, the translation most commonly used four types of such adaptation.

In the newspaper-style information is widely used proper names, names that have a more specific message describing any developments in certain areas, or those relating to specific individuals or institutions. Because of this receptor should be some prior knowledge that will allow him to associate the name with the subject or object, called. For example, any American readers are well aware that Amtrak is a railway company or Frick Collection- Art Museum in the city, New York.

When translated into Ukrainian American type of place names (Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Idaho), Canada (Manitoba, Alberta) or English (Middlesex, Surrey) etc. are usually added the word "state, province, county," which point denoting the names to make them understandable to the reader Ukrainian: Alabama, Alberta, County Middlesex County and t. n. adding explanatory elements may be required and in the transfer of names of institutions, companies, publications, and so on. n. A similar addition provides an understanding of the realities of various names associated with the peculiarities of the life of members of other cultures. Messages additional information may result in more significant adaptation text. In some cases, an adequate understanding of receptor message transfer can be achieved by the omission of some unknown details of it.

Adaptation made through certain transformations, although not always possible to clearly classify each example translation through interweaving categories. There are 4 grammatical transformations, including:

1) Permutation - a change in the location of the language elements in the target text as compared to the original text;

2) Replacement - the most common and diverse type of translation transformation. In the translation process, replacement can be exposed as a grammatical unit and vocabulary;

3) Addition. This type of translation transformation based on restoring the translation of words omitted;

4) The omission - a phenomenon opposite addendum. During down means the omission of certain "excess" of words in translation.

YA.Y. Retsker in turn allocates 7 lexical transformations:

1) Differentiation values: translation transformation which is dominant contextual meaning: Materials are ANYTHING from which products can be made (this is all the materials from which it can produce the product)

2) Specification of meaning: lexical transformation as a result of which the word (term) broader semantics replaced the original word (term) narrower semantics: There are many points at the debates to discuss. (You can find a lot of provisions that should be discussed during the debate)

3) Generalization: the narrow sense of the word in the translation of the word is replaced with a broader meaning: The first factories were driven by water (first factories were working on water)

4) Semantic development: lexical transformation associated with contextual substitution, which resulted in using the word whose meaning is a linguistic development in the original meaning of the word: Only when this theory became available was possible to understand these complicated problems (only when this theory was not full disclosure was possible to solve more complex problems)

5) Antonymic translation, transformation form when a word or phrase is replaced by the opposite, the content does not change; He failed to do this work. (He could not do this work);

6) Complete restructuring: a kind of semantic development when processing sentences are subject to all: Do not mention it. (Do not thank) Help yourself (help yourself);

7) Compensation for losses in the process of translation occurs when translating cultural words painted. There is the translation context. Compensation may be semantic or stylistic nature. Semantic, that no equivalent for vocabulary - realities. (Wait for the winter holidays. Wait till the Christmas holidays). Stylistic to arouse the translation reader's the same emotions as in the original [22].

The second type of pragmatic adaptation aims to achieve the correct perception of the original content, to convey the emotional impact of receptor translation of the source text. The need for such adaptation occurs because in every language there are some names of objects and situations with which the representatives of the linguistic community are special associations. Consider some typical cases of discrepancy between perception similar message source and target. The names of the same trees in different languages can because people are not the same association. For Ukraine and language rights, chestnut - is not just a tree, but a kind of symbol of his country, something near and dear ones. The English name chestnut - «chestnut» is not associated with such associations, and translates this comparison can cause confusion. It should also be borne in mind that the perception of words and similar expressions depends on the frequency and degree of familiarity of their use. Pragmatic adaptation of the second and first types can be linked, if the basis of inadequate perception is a misunderstanding or an incomplete understanding of the original message.

In applying the third type of adaptation translator focuses not on the average, and the specific receptor and the specific situation of communication in an effort to provide the desired effect. Because such adaptation is usually associated with a significant deviation from the original message. Here there are several typical situations:

a) Translator in a particular situation deems it necessary to convey not said, and what is meant;

b) To achieve the desired effect on this receptor necessary means other than those used in the original, it should resolve itself translator;

c) The translation of names of literature, film, television, pragmatic adaptation of this type often found to make these names familiar and natural to the accepted culture.

The fourth type of pragmatic adaptation can be described as a decision to "extra translation important task." Sometimes the translator can use translation to achieve some other goal, which is to solve the problem, not directly linked to an exact reproduction of the original. And to solve this "problem", he can change and even distort the original violating basic principles of their profession.

Specificity newspaper and informational material is also phraseological units. Socio-political style more than any other style is close to fiction. In the socio-political texts, articles, surveys are widely used shape phraseology. Characterized metaphors, it gives utterance expression, brightness, originality.

Translator political literature often have to translate articles and notes informational nature of British and American newspapers and translator should be well acquainted with stylistic features such material.

By way of translation into Ukrainian figurative rhetoric can be divided into four groups:

1) Idiom with full analogue of the Ukrainian language and completely copied in translation: a domino effect - domino effect;

2) Idiom, which partly coincide with imagery in Ukrainian: to buy a pig in a poke - buy a pig in a poke;

3) Idiom, the translation of which completely changed the image: to hang fire - stop work;

4) Idiom, which are translated neutral in vocabulary: to cut no ice - do not reach [11].

Translation of phraseology - a special problem, because usually pass them literally impossible, because they constitute a single image - hence the need for consideration as a single semantic unit; and replacing them with the words in the literal sense of the atmosphere can cause the disappearance of familiar images of the reader. Technology transfer phraseology has long been developed; the translator has to consider them as a single semantic unit and try to find a target language counterpart - the idiom, preferably with the same degree of semantic coherence. If in language no such equivalent, there is no need to reduce the degree of semantic unity and idiom to replace phraseological unity where imagery remains. When translated into modern phraseology newspaper and informational text translator has to be very careful and take into account the phenomenon of deformation and contamination phraseology. One of the simplest examples of deformation is incomplete composition. In this case, the translation, if discovered translator equivalent, it must restore the principle incomplete, in other words, saying break in the translated text so as to preserve the original semantics [12].

For adequate translation of the phraseology translator should:

1) Knowledge of phraseology;

2) Recognition of phraseology in the text;

3) The correct perception of the recognized phraseology;

4) Proper translation, which involves the transfer of semantics and expressive and stylistic features of phraseology [13].

So to translate newspaper and journalistic works should be known well in public, which directed these texts.



2.1 Newspaper texts with cultural and historical realities

Materials newspaper and genre information constitute the main content of newspaper texts. Translator political literature often have to translate articles and notes informational nature of British and American newspapers and translator should be well acquainted with stylistic features such material.

Newspaper - a means of information and means of influencing a broad and diverse audience of readers. Since usually read a newspaper at a time when it is difficult to focus (in the subway, at lunch, after work, etc.), it is necessary to submit material briefly but notice all the necessary information.

A characteristic concentric presentation of information facilitates the reader to select the paper that interests him. The title gives the most general orientation. As estimated S.P. Suvorov, a headline in Daily Worker consisted of an average of five words, and often the first place contained a word that reported what was going on. This word is given entirely on their own. Subtitled, if given, expands the information typed less large print, but still always highlighted Printing 28 days strike notice now given. The first few terms of the text (sometimes typed in bold) contain the substance of the message. Followed by the details those are partially typed [21].

Thus, the reader can get an idea of the key the most common events of the day in headings and subheadings and readable only that he was particularly interested.

Considerable difficulty is translating titles, which is the predicate verb in personal form, but no subject. Literally translated titles are not possible, you can save only restoring dropped the subject, but in order to do this, often have very carefully view the full article. Because of this type of verbal headers best to translate the nominative offers.

Translators should always bear in mind some of the features the use of temporary forms in the headlines. It is first necessary for a proper understanding of the contents of the header and sometimes indifferent and to select the translation.

Modern British and American newspapers in the headlines usually are not perfect time. When it comes to events that happened in the recent past, usually used "present historical time." However, if the action of the title was already over by the time of publication of material in Ukrainian translation should use the past tense. Past Indefinite is used in headings relating to past events in cases where the title is the fact the time or just when the reader knows that the event belongs to the past.

It is extremely important for the translator feature titles British and American newspapers representing the widespread use of these attribute groups.

There is another feature of newspaper headlines that the translation should not be overlooked. That variety of cuts, which are often found in titles and are difficult to understanding. Often these cuts then decrypted in the text of the note or message. However, there are times when the most common cuts, to which the reader of American and British newspapers are used to not even explained by these headings.

Abbreviations common in English and American press can be divided into several major groups. However, it should be said at once that group are given below does not exhaust the whole variety of newspaper cuts. In fact, not be a mistake to say that in the headlines every word may appear to the reader in an abbreviated form.

It briefly dwell on a single headline features associated with the fact that very often the appointment title is that it struck the imagination of the reader, attracted his attention at any cost. Therefore, we see frequent use in headings emotive words, jargon, idioms and phrases unexpected and all kinds of allusions. Very often in the headlines for giving them greater potency in a reader coexists allusions or figurative expressions. Of course headings difficult to understand if we are not familiar with the literature, political life and the life of the country.

Every country, every nation, every place has its special conditions of which it is the key characteristics that distinguish different cultures, giving them something personal emergency, unique. In every language there are special words belonging to a national lexicon, without full analogues in other languages. Such words are called cultural-painted words or realities.

Translation reality - is part of a large and important issue of transfer of national and historical identity, which dates back to the dawn of translation theory as an independent discipline. Reality without make up the equivalent of vocabulary, but as the most studied linguistic units.

In the writings of translator word "reality" as a term appeared in the 40s. For the first time it has taken A. Fedorov renowned expert in labor "Oh artistic translates" (1941). Also, the term "reality" is found in the thesis H.Shatkova 1952

on the problems arising from the translation bezekvivalentnyh vocabulary.

In 1952, L. Sobolev gave the first definition of the term "reality" as a lexical unit: "The term" reality "denote domestic and specific words and phrases national with no equivalents in everyday life, and hence in the languages of other nations. "

The deepest of translator this category, namely realities worked on Bulgarian of translation - S.Vlahov and S.Floryn. They are the authors of the book "Neperevodymoe translates into" (1980), and, we believe gave the most accurate definition of reality: "These are the words and phrases, is features characteristic of life (life, culture, social and historical development) and other people alien to the other. "[19, p. 513].

Translation reality is part of the problem of transmission of national and historical flavor of a country. Realities - artefacts that are characteristic of a people, nation or community and expressing national identity and character. In linguistics and translation studies realities called words and expressions that denote these items. In the writings of translator "reality" as the term was 40 years. His first applied A.Fedorov. The reality characteristics of the language of literature and media culture are inextricably linked with certain people. There are many classifications realities mainly includes such groups as geographical, ethnographical and socio-political realities.

The problem of translation realities translator is very common. Since reality represent concepts that are absent in other cultures, they are always particularly difficult in the translation process. On the other hand, these difficulties provide interest in this issue.

In the translation process, there are two basic realities of complex points: lack of language translation equivalent for lack of speakers of the language object that represents reality (referent) and to convey not only semantics but also color - national and historical coloring [20].

By S. Florin and S. Vlasov in the practice of translation, the following communication tools realities:

1.Transcription (transliteration)

2. Translation (replacement):

1. Neologisms:

A) Vellum

B) In half vellum

C) Familiarization

D) Semantic neologism;

2. Approximate translation:

A) Compliance by the nature and type

B) Functional analogue

B) Description, explanation, interpretation

C) Contextual translation [19, p. 513]

This problem is very similar problem of translation phraseology. Phraseological involves the use of translation in the translated text stable units of varying degrees of closeness between one unit corresponding target language - from full and absolute equivalent to the approximate phraseology compliance.

1. Absolute (full) phraseological equivalent - it Idiom MP, on all counts equivalent transferable units. Must possess the same denotative and connotative meaning regardless of context, that the two units should be no disagreement on the semantic content, stylistic relation metaphor and emotionally expressive colors, they should be about the same component composition, have a number of similar lexical and grammatical indicators.

2. Partial (incomplete) phraseological equivalent - is a unit of language, which is the equivalent, complete and absolute correlate unit pointedly in IYA, but not in all its senses.

For example, the English expression of a stalking horse * can be used in two different ways: 1) an excuse (hanging horse), 2) shill, The Stool Pigeon.

Partial replacement is relatively, because the phenomenon is less ambiguity characteristic phraseology.

3. Relative phraseological equivalent differs from partial that is different from the original PI with any of the parameters: different components of FD, small changes in the shape, syntactic construction, compatibility, etc.

Phraseological translation often use with groups FO:

a) International phraseology - phraseology, included in the language of historical, mythological, literary sources, borrowed from the language in the language, or there were different people independently of the others because of common human thought and understanding between individual moments of social life, employment, production, of Science and Arts. Many of these units belong to the popular expressions.

Among FL, established on a national basis, we can distinguish two groups: phraseological units built on the same form (eg, Achilles 'heel - the Achilles' heel, weak, easily vulnerability), and FL, built in different ways (for example, a carrot and stick policy * - the policy of “carrot and stick”; to cast sheep’s eyes at smb. * - look at smb. faithfully, lovingly), and there are cases of complete non-metaphorical.

b) stable comparison (kind as an angel * - good as an angel)

c) verbal-personal communication. (To introduce law * - introduce a bill; to voice one 's protest * - protest against).

No new bilingual translation conveys this PI with lexical and phraseological no means of language. It usually resorts in the absence of idiomatic equivalents or variations in MP. This translation is not completely full, there is always some loss (imagery, expressiveness, connotation shades of meaning).

1. Strictly lexical translation is used when this concept in one language indicated phraseology, and another - the word.

2. Tracing (literal translation) apply in cases where other methods can not be transferred PI integrity of semantic and stylistic and expressive emotional value, and for whatever reason it is necessary to transfer the imagery basis.

A prerequisite for tracing is sufficient motivation PI values mentioned components. Tracing can be used, first, on figurative idioms, idiomatic mainly Ones, kept enough fresh metaphors, secondly, a number of proverbs that do not have overtones. Thirdly, the transfer of resistant comparisons, but making sure that the media MP perceive them correctly.

3. Descriptive translation phraseology reduced to no translation of phraseological and its interpretation (explanation, comparison, description, interpretation) [12].

Ways of translation

2.2.1 Lexical transformations

Lexical most appropriate transformation seen in artistic and journalistic newspaper articles.

The discrepancy between the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the original and the translation complicates understanding interpreter copyright text and translation suggests "limiting case of understanding" [H. Gadamer] and leads to differences in interpretation of translators of the same text.

Let us analyze the following example:

З давніх-давен саме хліб уособлював Україну.

For a long time the bread is represented Ukraine.

In this example, be pragmatic adaptation unit since ancient times, and personified. So, the verb represented transmitted by contextual replacement. To receive appropriate expression Ukrainian anciently expression was used by us for along time, which helps to convey the meaning of the phrase means of said Ukrainian English adequately. Pragmatic Adaptation in translation was made by applying the relevant Ukrainian English equivalent expression of old, which means that the action took place long ago.

Let the following example:

Зараз наша країна переживає скрутні часи.

Now our country is going through difficult times.

Pragmatic adaptation period of hard times requires the use of lexical - semantic transformation specification. Use the specified transformation allows transferring the contents of all sentences in general through English language.

Here is another example:

Це вона не спить уночі, пече запашні палянички.

That she doesn’t sleep at night, baking scented palyanichki (bread and bakery products).

Palyanychky - little dough product. This name may be unknown to foreign language readers that in the absence of adding expression bread and bakery products, during transmission through English language do not understand the meaning of all sentences. So communicative effect and actually ethno-national flavor in the transmission of said sentence means in English will be lost. The very name is translated using transcending.

Let the following example:

Окрім того, Грушевський – найвидатніший український історик, інтелектуал зі світовим ім’ям.

In addition, Grushevskii is the most prominent Ukrainian historian, an intellectual with a worldwide reputation.

Plug the phrase beside passed the English expression in addition, that helps adapt the unit to the specified standards of English when it is passed.

Consider the following:

Для них він назавжди став «зубром українського буржуазного націоналізму», твори якого в агонічному нападі намагалися вилучити із продажу в книгарнях, і насамперед, – із бібліотек, а їхнього автора – із пам’яті народу.

For them, he became forever «Wisent of Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism» (in Soviet ideology there exists the concept of Ukrainian bourgeos and they was an outspoken opponent), which works in attack tried to remove from sale in bookstores, and first of all – from a library, and their author – from the people memory.

The English reader hardly knows what "bison Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism" (ardent opponent of bourgeois society). Consequently, the lack of information when adding a translation he does not understand the meaning of all sentences, its communicative effect will be lost.

Desire and often the need for transcription in the transmission realities due to the fact that, therefore, the translator may have an opportunity to overcome two difficulties mentioned above, however, if the choice between transcription done poorly, it can greatly complicate the understanding of translation reader [19,p. 514].

Consider the following:

М. Грушевський похований на Байковому неподалік каплиці.

M. Grushevsky buried in the Baikove cemetery near the chapel.

Baikove cemetery - cemetery in Goloseyevsky district of Kyiv, interesting history and culture, one of the oldest in the city. The English reader may not know that Baikove - a cemetery, so the translation was necessary to add clarifying information such as explaining the word "cemetery"[22].

2.2.2 Grammatical transformations

By journalistic text is not indifferent registrar events, and their active and commentator. His goal - to persuade the recipient, to make influence on the reader, to give him some ideas. The author's position is a direct and open. We now consider examples:

А застосовувані вітчизняні технології водопідготовки здатні довести вихідну воду до рівня показників безпеки лише в тому разі, коли перша відповідає вимогам І (!) класу.

A technology used for domestic water programs are realized to be able to bring water to the original level of safety only when the first reply to the requirements of I (!) Grade.

In this example, a pragmatic adaptation is subject to a sentence of token indicators. Foreign-language reader is not clear sentence of this unit, so when it is passed in English we use the transformation addition, both translated and original level.

Let us analyze the following example:

Проте відповідають на нього не держстандарти, а наш організм – ясна річ, аж ніяк не поліпшенням свого стану.

However, it does not meet the state standards, and our bodies – it’s an evident thing not by improving any state give the answers to it.

In this example, the transfer of Ukrainian-phrase your body is performed by replacing contextual our bodies. Also used grammatical transformation replacement singular to plural.

Consider the following:

За даними Держкомводгоспу, 69,1% проб, узятих з місцевих водойм, показали: вода не відповідає бодай за одним показником санітарним нормам і правилам.

According to the Derzhkomvodhosp (State Water Resources Agency of Ukraine), 69.1% of samples taken from local reservoirs, have shown that water does not replt at least one indicator sanitary norms and rules.

Derzhkomvodhosp - governance of water management. The English reader may not understand its significance, so its transmission means and Ukrainian language was necessary to add clarifying information (State Water Resources Agency of Ukraine).

Let us analyze the following example:

Натомість талановиті українські митці змушені бути «заробітчанами» на виробництві того-таки російського «мила».

Instead, the talented Ukrainian artists showed to be a «guest workers» producing the same Russian «soap».

In the English medium, transfer Ukrainian units of the same is carried out through English language, taking into account the grammatical rules of the language. Thus in this context Ukrainian translation unit that there should be done with the English the same.

Consider the following:

В Києві ось уже 15 років поспіль відбувається «Відкрита ніч».

In Kiev for 15 years passing the Ukrainian film festival «Open Night».

Open Night - Ukrainian film festival. For foreign language reader, this expression is not clear, therefore, to implement equivalent communicative message we used adding Ukrainian film festival. Without the use of specified transformation addition lost pragmatic adequacy of the translation.

Let the following example:

І якщо з юних літ не навчитися тамувати в собі роздратування, недовіру і злість, душа людська обростає ненавистю, поїдає саму себе.

And if not from a young age to learn how to suppress a irritation, distrust and anger, the human soul acquires hatred eats itself.

The phrase acquires hatred passed us in English acquires hatred. So, seeing use in the context of replacing cluttered - acquire.

Consider the following:

Educators - musicians need to keep up with current trends in science.

Teacher - musicians need to keep up with the current trends in science.

Ukrainian phrases go up in English transmitted using contextual transformation replacement to keep up.

Consequently, the translation analytical and journalistic text, the translator must consider not only the content but also communicative functionality of the text. For this purpose it is made pragmatic adaptation. According to our observations pragmatic adaptation sentences analytical and journalistic texts by using contextual replacement and addition[22].

2.2.3 Lexical and grammatical transformations

The main role in information genres performs dialogical cycle information content. This creates a direct dialogic nature. But structural spacious informational genres characteristic of dialogue as the use of hidden, because of the specificity of certain information genres: not only inform the target audience about the phenomenon, event, issue, famous person, but also to assess the dynamics that inform, to encourage the reader to the action. For this dialogic cycles involving journalists - evaluation and incentive.

Consider the following:

Свобода слова для України по-американські або як грантоїд «Українська правда» захищає американські інтереси.

Speech freedom in Ukraine in U.S. version or as hrantoyid (which is consider to be the term that denotes that smth lives at the expense of western grants) «Ukrainian Truth» protects American interests.

Hrantoyid - a contemptuous name of the organization or person who lives on Western grants. In addition, we used transcoding transformation transformation and adding description that allows explain the meaning of the English unit specified recipient.

Let's analyze another example:

Залишені на цьому Інтернет-ресурсі коментарі з власними думками щодо актуальних політичних подій я узагальнив потім у кількох моїх блогах на Кореспонденті.

Left on this online resource comments with own thoughts on current political events I summarized than in a few of my blogs on Reporters web site.

In this case, the name is unknown correspondent of the English-speaking reader. Correspondents - is popular in Ukraine political web - site, so adequate transfer content sentence analysis with that name is transferred using transformation addition (Reporters web site)

We proceed to analyze the following example:

Потім якийсь, судячи по всьому, штатний коментатор «УП» або американського посольства під псевдо Yes, який дуже агресивно, іноді навіть по-хамськи реагував на будь-які критичні зауваження інших коментаторів до висловлювань посла.

Then some, judging by everything, staff commentator «UP» (newspaper) or the American Embassy under the pseudoname Yes, that is very aggressive, sometimes even rude respond to any criticisms of other commentators to the Ambassador statements.

In the example below the abbreviation "UP" and pseudo Yes phrases in English to be transmitted using the transformation addition (newspaper), and using povnoъ form pseudoname, the value of which is clear from the context.

We proceed to analyze the following example:

Тому для нашої безпеки Україні потрібен ЄС та НАТО! приклад-вбивство рашою рибалок в Азовському морі…

So for our security Ukraine needs the EU and NATO; for example – murder of Russia a fishermen in the Azov Sea​​…

Rashoyu word is not clear for the English reader. This figurative image that indicates contempt for the Russians. That is why it is passed by the British equivalent to Russia.

Consider another example:

Шановний представник американського посольства, не треба тут ображати тих, кому не подобається, як агенти ЦРУ, на кшталт Любарця, провокують наших громадян на незаконні дії, організовують усілякі акції непокори, бунти, а потім, прикриваючись американським паспортом, валять у свій рідний Солт Лейк Сіті.

Dear representatives of the U.S. Embassy is not necessary to offend those who do not like the CIA, like Lyubarts provoke our citizens in illegal activities, organizing all actions of disobedience, riots, and then, under cover up an American passport, go to at their home in Salt Lake City.

Pragmatic adaptation performed by applying an appropriate English equivalent. The expression is neutral overthrow go to, that would be understandable to the English reader.

We now consider another example:

Якщо вам подобається, що чужі спецслужби хазяйнують у вас в країні, то напевно патріотизму у вас – нуль.

If you like that someone else's secret service play the master in your country, then probably you have the patriotism at zero rate.

The transfer is done by Ukrainian boss of semantic play the master, and adequate transfer phrase you zero through English language requires a transformation addition you have the patriotism at zero rate.

So, pragmatic adaptation of information and journalistic texts, requires a number of translation transformations, in particular, require the use of translation transformations as adding, replacing contextual, semantic development, descriptive translation [22].


Today the press has a special place in the global information space. Subject publications covering not only the internal problems of the country, but the area of external relations and therefore constantly in close contact with other languages. It promotes active interaction of words and phrases, the emergence and dissemination of new phraseology. In the media using different expressive figurative means, including special place phraseological units, or phraseological units. Phraseological fund modern language is rich and diverse, and every aspect of his research deserves special attention.

In today's world, the study of the general theory of translation is quite necessary science theory notmention newspaper and information transfer. Studies of the translation of the genre, despite the steady increase in newspaper publications and reference material gaining popularity.

  Therefore increases and the need to learn a foreign language, namely English, with a view to its practical use in newspaper and information sphere. It is in this lies the relevance of the topic.

Exploring and analyzing translations newspaper and informational materials, we came in to the following conclusions.

1. Translation of newspaper and informational materials determined a significant, albeit incomplete parallelism vocabulary - words that many of the original translation equivalents can be found most similar in meaning.

2. While translating newspaper and informational messages are translated using typical syntactic structures similar to the structure of the original.

3. The biggest equivalence is achieved when translating socio-political articles, and the lowest in the translation of spoken language.

4. While translating headline in most cases there is a lack of lexical and syntactic structure. Saving translated purposes of identification and communication of the same situation as in the original text. Also stored general concepts by means of which an overall view of the original text.

The study found that the translation of newspaper and informational materials, translator has more choices of linguistic resources. Terms of newspaper texts translated characterized by considerable softness unlike official business texts.

Linguists do not have a view on how the transformation idiomatic units, but in general, the transformation can be divided into five general groups:

1) Semantic transformation

2) Lexical transformation

3) Syntactic transformation,

4) Morphological transformation

5) Derivation of transformation

Translator, the translation of information and journalistic texts, he has to take into account the dynamics of the text, to encourage the reader to the action.

As noted, S. Antonenko, shifting text should read it, pay special attention to the coordination and combination of words in the target language.

Remember that word acquires meaning only in context, and therefore: a) encountering unknown, or already known word should double-check all of its value in monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, b) based on the invariant meaning based on context, find equivalent.

Translation of title made only after all the text was translated and realized his communicative intention.

Read your own translation, check whether it is possible to clarify the meaning of statements apply one of the methods of achieving adequacy: Change causation, the assimilation of concepts, their expansion or contraction, adequate replacement or compensation.

To ensure uniform communicative effect of translation and the original stratification should be considered stylistically marked vocabulary.

And most importantly, keep in mind that different people have different ideas of reality and consequently conceptual picture. Translator does not deal with reality and with the statements, that a certain interpretation done by the sender of information that builds its expression under the influence of various factors communicative tasks (external situation, emotional state, focus on the recipient, etc.) and allows for a variety of structural and systemic between elements of the language (etymology, rhythm, intonation).


  1.  Особливості перекладу газетних заголовків статей соціально-економічної тематики (на матеріалі іспанської та української мов) / З. Антоненко //Мовні і концептуальні картини світу . - 2013. - Вип. 2. - С. 48-59. - Режим доступу: http://nbuv.gov.ua/j-pdf/Mikks_2013_2_9.pdf
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  12.  Берловська В.Д., Гребінник Г.Ю. Англійська загальнонаукова лексика і фразеологія // Навч. посіб. для аспірантів. – Харків, 2006. – 165 с.
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23.   Вікіпедія. Фразеологія – ел. режим   http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A4%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%96%D1%8F

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25. Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary // Access mode: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/

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27. Газета «День» англійською - ел. доступ. http://www.day.kiev.ua/en/archivenewspaper

28. Газета «День» українською – ел. доступ. http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/archivenewspaper


Ukrainian Santa Clauses boost spirits of passengers - Музику «забрали» в небо

The year 2014 is drawing to a close, having been dominated in this country and on The Day’s pages in particular by Taras Shevchenko’s genius, his life, work, and prophetic visions of our future. - Завершується 2014 рік, який і в нашій країні, і на шпальтах «Дня» минув, сказав б, під знаком Шевченкового генія, його долі, творчості, пророчих озарінь нашого майбутнього.

Among other things, the legacy of Yaroslav the Wise offers a lesson for today’s so-called elite on how to govern the country; maybe, someone will learn this difficult art, after all? - Крім усього іншого, спадщина Ярослава Мудрого — урок для сучасної «еліти», як треба керувати державою; може, хтось таки засвоїть це складне мистецтво?

Amazingly, this trial did neither embitter Yaroslav nor make him a despot, as he managed to combine adequate strength and power of the state with genuinely democratic and humanist attitudes (by the standards of the 11th century, of course), making Kyivan Rus’ famous all over Europe and the world. How did he do it? The Day will reveal the answers throughout 2015. -  І що вражає: це випробування не озлобило Ярослава, не зробило його деспотом — він спромігся поєднати належну міць і силу держави зі справжнім демократизмом і гуманізмом (за критеріями ХІ століття, звісно), уславив Київську Русь на всю Європу, на весь світ. Як йому це вдалося? Про це та інші ідеї у зв’язку з роком Ярослава Мудрого, читайте на сторінках «Дня» впродовж 2015 року.

The auction’s lots were embroidered shirts created by art designer Liudmyla Bushynska, working under the RUTA brand.- Лотами стали вишиванки дизайнера бренду RUTA Людмили Бушинської. 

The All-Ukrainian Festival Golden Bird, for which the auctions were fundraisers, is scheduled to be held in Vinnytsia next spring. - Всеукраїнський фестиваль «Золотий Птах», для якого збирають кошти, має відбутися навесні у Вінниці.


Курсову роботу присвячено особливостям перкладу в газетних творах культурно-історичних реалій з української на англійську мови.

У ході роботи описано поняття та види текстів, описано суть та функції газетних творів, описано категорію культурно-історичних реалій в українській та англійській мовах, здійснено аналіз фактичного матеріалу досліджень – слів з досліджуваними елементами, на прикладі газети «День».

Ключові слова : текст, газетний текст, переклад, реалії, фразеологізми.


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  Виды: физиологическая восстановление органов тканей клеток после разрушения их в процессе жизнедеятельности организма непрерывное восстановление структур на клеточном тканевом и внутриклеточном уровнях; благодаря физиологической регенерации поддерживается структурный гомеостаз и обеспечивается возможность постоянного выполнения органами их функций; самообновление пролиферативная регенерация вид физиологической; восполнение численности клеток за счет их деления обновление производных эпидермиса волосы ногти...
34291. Гомеостаз 15.84 KB
  Иммунитет невосприимчивость организма к инфекциям и инвазиям чужеродных организмов. Иммунитет: специфический носит индивидуальный характер и формируется на протяжении всей жизни человека в результате контакта его иммунной системы с различными микробами и антигенами; специфич. сохраняет память о перенесенной инфекции и препятствует ее повторному возникновению; неспецифический носит видоспецифический характер обеспечивает борьбу с инфекцией на ранних этапах ее развития когда специфический иммунитет еще не сформировался. Также...
34292. Аномалия 16.16 KB
  Пороки развития аномалии развития совокупность отклонений от нормального строения организма возникающих в процессе внутриутробного или реже послеродового развития. По этиологическому признаку пороки делят на: наследственные пороки возникшие в результате мутаций гамет реже зиготы; в зависимости от того на каком уровне произошла мутация делятся на генные и хромосомные; экзогенные пороки обусловленные повреждением тератогенными факторами эмбриона или плода лекарственные препараты вирусы промышленные яды алкоголь табачный...
34293. Оплодотворение 27 KB
  Начало оплодотворения момент слияния мембран сперматозоида и яйцеклетки окончание оплодотворения момент объединения материала мужского и женского пронуклеусов. III стадия проникновение самый активный сперматозоид проникает головкой в яйцеклетку сразу после этого в цитоплазме яйцеклетки образуется оболочка оплодотворения которая препятствует полиспермии. Условия необходимые для оплодотворения: концентрация сперматозоидов в эякуляте не менее 60 млн в 1 мл; проходимость женских половых путей;...
34294. Особенности человека как объекта генетических исследований 778.5 KB
  Вопервых у человека не может быть произведено искусственного направленного скрещивания в интересах исследователя. Наконец изучение генетики человека затрудняется наличием в его геноме большого числа групп сцепления генов 23 у женщин и 24 у мужчин а также высокой степенью фенотипического полиморфизма связанного с влиянием среды. Все перечисленные особенности человека делают невозможным применение для изучения его наследственности и изменчивости классического гибридологического метода генетического анализа с помощью которого были открыты...