Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur (1483-1530)


Исторические личности и представители мировой культуры

In 1494 when Bobur was only 12 years old, he became a ruler. In 1503–1504 he conquered Afghanistan. During 1519 – 1525s he tried to conquer India five times. He became the founder of Bobur’s Empire which lasted more than three centuries (1526-1858).



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Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur (1483 - 1530)

Z.M. Bobur was born in 1483, February 14, in Andijon. He was the fifth generation of Amir Temur. In 1494 when Bobur was only 12 years old, he became a ruler. In 1503 – 1504 he conquered Afghanistan. During 1519 – 1525s he tried to conquer India five times. He became the founder of Bobur`s Empire which lasted more than three centuries (1526 - 1858). He died in 1530, December 26, in Agra. His grave was in Agra but then it was brought to Kabul. He gathered his lyric testament in 1519 in Kabul into “Kabul Devonu”, and in 528 – 1529 in “Hind Devoni”. There is the information that he created the completed devon. The general amount of his poems is more than 400. 119 of them are written in such as style that is called “gazal” and 231 of them are “ruboi”.His poems can be divided into such types as poems about love, didactive poems and others.

Bobur wrote his lyric works in such genres like “gazal”, “ruboi”, “tuyuq”, “qit`a”, “fard”, “kichik (little) masnaviy. In 1504 he invented the “Hatti Boburiy” alphabet book. It consisted of poems and “Koran”, which was copied out. The most popular and discussed book of Bobur is “Boburnoma”. He also called it “Vaqoye”. He described the events of 1494 – 1529 years in it there. There are more than ten manuscript copies of “Boburnoma”. This work was issued in 1857 in Qozon by N.I.Ilminskiy, and in 1905 it was published by Mrs Beveridge in London. In Uzbekistan the first Professor Fitrat announced some of Navoi’s poems in 1928. In 1948 – 1949 “Boburnoma” was edited in two volumes. And in 1960, 1989 it was republished again in the corrected version.

Russian and West European scientists such as Veselovskiy, Ilminskiy, Erskin, Eduard Holden, and Elfiniston appreciated “Boburnoma”. Javaharlal Neru wrote in his book “The discovering of India” about Bobur and Bobur`s generation influence on development of India and the world`s civilization.

Bobur`s “Mubayyin-l-zakot” gives us information on the tax work of 1521. And his work “Muxtasar”, which was written in 1523 – 1525, is about “aruz”. These two works have been kept till today. Bobur was also engaged in translation. He translated Hoja Ahror`s work “Volidiya” from Persian/Farsi into Uzbek. There is also the information that Bobur wrote such books as “Harb ishi” (Military Work) and “Musiqa ilmi” (The knowledge of Music), but they were not found.

Babur 1483–1530, founder of the Mughal empire of India. His full name was Zahir ud-Din Muhammad. A descendant of Timur (Tamerlane) and of Jenghiz Khan, he succeeded (1494) to the principality of Fergana in central Asia. His early life was spent in an ultimately unsuccessful struggle to retain his inheritance and to recover Samarkand (Timur's capital) from the Uzbeks. In 1504, however, he captured Kabul and established a kingdom in Afghanistan. After the failure of his final attempt (1512) on Samarkand, Babur began raids southward into India. In 1525, responding to an invitation from the governor of the Punjab to overthrow the sultan of Delhi, Babur launched an invasion. Although his force was small, he defeated the sultan at Panipat in 1526 and captured Agra and Delhi. He finally conquered nearly all of N India. Babur was also a distinguished poet. His autobiography, The Baburnama (tr. by A. S. Beveridge, 1922, and by W. M. Thackston, 1996), is his most important work. His son Humayun succeeded him. Babur's name is also transliterated Baber and Babar.