Экономическая теория и математическое моделирование

Karl Marx, a German economist and political scientist who lived from 1818 to 1883, looked at capitalism from a more pessimistic and revolutionary viewpoint. Where Adam Smith saw harmony and growth, Marx saw instability, struggle, and decline.



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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования






Факультет-     заочный               _________________________

Направление – 230700 «Прикладная информатика»

Кафедра ИС

Контрольная  работа   по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (Английский)»

Контрольный материал за 4 семестр



                                                        Студент гр.









Юрга 2014

вариант 2



Задание 1.   Прочтите текст и переведите письменно выделенный отрывок.


Профессия менеджера

After a decade of working for one of the largest Anglo-French joint ventures, Bilger is well attuned to Anglo-Saxon attitudes. He speaks frequently of shareholders and of the need to keep costs down but he still remains very French. His explanations are fluent and polished and his arguments have none of the down-to-earth style you might expect from someone running a British engineering company.

Although Britain and France are neighbours, their business cultures could hardly be further apart. What, I ask, had he found most irritating about the English once he was put in charge of a company full of them? 'What I found most irritating about our British colleagues was their great reluctance to go through what we French would consider a rational process of making a decision,' he answered thoughtfully. 'They insist on going straight to the point, whereas we like to have a systematic agenda. But over time I came to appreciate that this had its virtues as well.'

После 10 лет работы в одном из крупнейших англо-французских совместных предприятий, Бильджер хорошо приспособился к англо-саксонской жизненной позиции. Он часто говорит об акционерах и о необходимости снижения затрат, но он все еще остается настоящим французом по своим взглядам. Его объяснения быстрые и безупречные, и его доводы не настолько приземленные, насколько вы можете услышать от какого-нибудь руководителя британской машиностроительной компании.

Хотя Великобритания и Франция - соседи, их культура ведения бизнеса едва ли может быть в дальнейшем обособлена друг от друга. Что, я спрашиваю, он счел самым раздражающим в англичанах, как только его назначили руководить компанией, полной англичан? 'Что я счел самым раздражающим в наших английских коллегах, так это их большое нежелание пройти через то, что мы французы, считаем рациональным процессом принятия решения», ответил он задумчиво. Они настаивают на том, чтобы перейти сразу к делу, тогда как нам нравится иметь систематическую повестку. Но с тех пор я пришел к пониманию, что тут есть также свои преимущества'.

Задание  2.  Соответствуют ли данные утверждения содержанию текста? Поставьте знак T , если утверждение верное и знак  F, если неверное.

  1.  British and French business cultures have many things in common. - F
  2.  The British tend to take decisions more quickly than the French. - T
  3.  The French do not like having long discussions to analyze things in detail. -F
  4.   The French feel they are systematic and logical in their approach to business. -T
  5.  British business people like to follow a strict agenda at meetings. - F
  6.  Alstom is no longer a purely French-British company. -T
  7.  In Alstom the French and English languages have equal status. -F
  8.  In Britain, manufacturing companies attract the best-qualified and cleverest people. -F
  9.  Alstom remains a technological chief. - T
  10.   At Alcatel-Alsthom his big project was overseeing the formation in 1996. –F

Задание 3.   Заполните список этапов образования и карьеры Бильжера.

Complete the chart showing the different stages of Bilger's education and career.

First higher education institution       a) Institut des Etudes Politiques

Second higher education institution   b) Ecole Nationale d'Administration.

First main employer                           c) Compagnie Générale d’Électricité ,1982

Second main employer                      d) GEC Alsthom, 1991–1998

New name of company from 1988    e) GEC-Alsthom

Current name of company                 f) ALSTOM SA


Задание 4.   Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы.

Karl Marx: It's Exploitation!

Karl Marx, a German economist and political scientist who lived from 1818 to 1883, looked at capitalism from a more pessimistic and revolutionary viewpoint. Where Adam Smith saw harmony and growth, Marx saw instability, struggle, and decline. Marx believed that once the capitalist (the guy with the money and the organizational skills to build a factory) has set up the means of production, all value is created by the labor involved in production. In Marx's view, presented in his 1867 tome Das Kapital (Capital), a capitalist's profits come from exploiting labor—that is, from underpaying workers for the value that they are actually creating. For this reason, Marx couldn't abide the notion of a profit-oriented organization.

This situation of management exploiting labor is the main reason of the class struggle. Marx saw the class struggle at the heart of capitalism, and he predicted that that struggle would ultimately destroy capitalism. To Marx, class struggle intensifies over time. Ultimately, in Marx's view, society moves to a two-class system of a few wealthy capitalists and a mass of underpaid, underprivileged workers.

Marx predicted the fall of capitalism and movement of society toward communism, in which “the people” (that is, the workers) own the means of production and thus have no need to exploit labor for profit. Clearly, Marx's thinking had a tremendous impact on many societies, particularly on the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in the twentieth century.

While Marx's theories have been discredited, they are fascinating and worth knowing. They also say something about weaknesses in capitalism.

  1.  Who is Karl Marx? - Karl Marx is German economist and political scientist who lived from 1818 to 1883.
    1.  What was Marx’s view at capital and capitalists? – He looked at capitalism from a more pessimistic and revolutionary viewpoint. Marx saw instability, struggle, and decline and believed that once the capitalist has set up the means of production, all value is created by the labor involved in production. In Marx's view a capitalist's profits come from exploiting labor—that is, from underpaying workers for the value that they are actually creating. For this reason, Marx couldn't abide the notion of a profit-oriented organization.
      1.  How did Marx consider class struggle? - Marx saw the class struggle at the heart of capitalism, and believed that struggle would ultimately destroy capitalism. To Marx, class struggle intensifies over time. He believed society moved to a two-class system of a few wealthy capitalists and a mass of underpaid, underprivileged workers.
        1.  What was Marx’s prediction about development of the society? - Marx predicted the fall of capitalism and movement of society toward communism, in which “the people” (that is, the workers) own the means of production and thus have no need to exploit labor for profit.
        2.  Why his theories are still studied by future economists? - His theories are still studied by future economists because they had a tremendous impact on many societies. They also say something about weaknesses in capitalism.

Задание 5.   Подберите определения к словам из левой колонки.

1) corporation  -     c) group of persons authorized to act as an individual              

2) unemployment - i) state of being unemployed          

3) deficit      -         e) amount by which something is too small

4) budget          -    g) similar estimate made by a business company               

5) debt    -              b) payment which must be paid to somebody                       

6) consumer    -    j) person who uses and buys goods

7) poverty  -         d) state of being poor                     

8) to claim   -       f) demand recognition of the fact that one is or owns                                  

9) to devote    -     a) give up (oneself, one's time, energy etc.)

10) welfare    -      h) comfortable living and working condition                 


Задание 6. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. When my grandfather was a young man, he studied physics. 2. Do you speak Spanish? 3.  My uncle is a great specialist in   biology. 4.  Japanese is more difficult than French. 5.  We listened to a very interesting lecture on the English literature yesterday. 6. Yesterday at the lesson of geography the teacher told us very interesting things about  famous travelers. 7. My father speaks  English and French, but he does not speak German. 8. We had a lesson of mathematics yesterday. We wrote a test-paper in mathematics.  The teacher said: "I shall correct the test-papers in the evening. Tomorrow you will know the results".

Задание 7. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.

1. These are my stockings. 2. They have new suits. 3. These metals are very hard. 4. Those ships are Russian ones. 5. We heard their voices. 6. Their dogs do not like bread. 7. The plates were on the tables. 8. These towns are very large. 9. We were talking to them at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Are those girls your sisters? 11. We shall give you our books. 12. These stories will be good ones. 13. Are these good matches? 14. The boys put their books on the desks. 15. They took off their hats. 16. Those houses are new. 17. The young men put their hands in their pockets. 18. Are these students coming with us, too? 19. The women didn't say anything. 20. Do they speak English?

Задание 8. Вставьте somebody, anybody, nobody или everybody.

1. Has anybody in this group got a dictionary? 2. Somebody left a magazine in our classroom yesterday. 3. The question was so difficult that nobody could answer it. 4. I am afraid I shan't be able to find anybody in the office now: it is too late. 5. Everybody knows that water is necessary for life. 6. Is there anybody here who knows French? 7. You must find somebody who can help you. 8. Nobody  knew anything about America before Columbus discovered it. 9. I saw somebody in the train yesterday who looked like you. 10. There is somebody in the next room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the story. Nobody knows it. 12. Is there anybody in my group who lives in the dormitory?  


Задание 6.   Прочтите текст и заполните таблицу.

Factors influencing the demand

Factors influencing the supply

1 prices are not so high as the equilibrium price;

2 the prices of other goods

3 consumer incomes                                                                 

1 prices are above the equilibrium price;

2 technology

3 the input price

4 degree of government regulation

Demand and Supply

Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at certain price. Other things equal*, at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.

Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at certain price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.

The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.

There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.

An increase in the price of a substitute good (or a decrease in the price of a complement good) will at the same time raise the demanded quantity. As consumer income is increased, demand for  normal goods will also increase but demand for  inferior goods will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.

As to supply, some factors are assumed3 as constant. Among them are technology, the input price, as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices.

Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.

Задание 7. Вставьте подходящее слово и переведите предложения письменно.

1. The fashion for mini-skirt reduced the demand for textile materials.- Мода на мини-юбки снизила спрос на ткани.

2. Even in some middle-income countries many people are very poor. – Многие люди очень бедны даже в некоторых  в странах со средним уровнем дохода.  

3. Government regulations sometimes impose a change in technology that producers do not want to use. – Государственное регулирование иногда вносит изменения в  технологический процесс, которые не хотят использовать производители.

4. Stabilization of prices is of great importance to industrial nations as well the Third World countries. – Стабилизация цен очень важна для промышленных стран, а так же и для стран третьего мира.

5. Freeing up (освобождение) prices leads to their increase. – Освобождение цен ведет к их повышению.

6. Inferior goods are usually low-quality goods for which there are higher-quality substitutes sold at higher prices. – Низкосортные товары – это обычно низко- качественные товары, вместо которых продают более качественные заменители по более высоким ценам.  

7. A decrease in input prices makes the production less expensive. – Снижение цен производственного фактора делает производство дешевле.

Задание 8. Подберите к словам в левой колонке определения.

1. private   -    e) belonging to a particular person or group

2. statistics     - i) the study of information based on the numbers of things  

3. analysis     - b) a detailed examination of something

4. finance    -   f) the use or management of money        

5. market    -    d) demand for things; trade        

6. politician  -  h) a person who is involved in politics

7. influence   -  j) the power to produce an effect

8. income    -    a) money received regularly from wages

9. consultant     - g) a person who is qualified to give expert advice

10. agency      - c) the office or business of an agent



Перед выполнением заданий 9, 10, 11 изучите раздел грамматики на  стр.121-128  пособия.

Задание 9.  Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные формы герундия.

1. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football. - Просмотр футбольных матчей может быть достаточно интересным, но, конечно, гораздо интереснее играть в футбол. 2. She stopped coming to see us, and I wondered what had happened to her.  - Она перестала приходить к нам, и я хотела знать, что с ней случилось. 3. Can you remember having seen the man before? - Вы не помните, Вы раньше видели этого человека? 4. She was terrified of having to speak to anybody, and even more, of being spoken to.  - Она приходила в ужас от необходимости говорить с кем-нибудь, и в еще больший ужас, когда с ней говорили. 5. He was on the point of leaving the club, as the porter stopped him. – Он был готов уйти из клуба, когда портье остановил его. 6. After being corrected by the teacher, the students' papers were returned to them.  - Когда преподаватель проверил работы, их возвратили студентам. 7. I wondered at my mother's having allowed the journey. - Я удивился, что мама разрешила эту поездку. 8. I understand perfectly your wishing to start the work at once.  - Я прекрасно понимаю ваше желание начать работу сейчас же. 9. Everybody will discuss the event, there is no preventing it.  - Все будут обсуждать это событие, этому ничего не может помешать. 10. At last he broke the silence by inviting everybody to walk into the dining-room.  - Наконец, он нарушил молчание, пригласив всех пройти в

столовую. 11. On being told the news she turned pale. - Когда ей сообщили новость, она побледнела. 12. The place is worth visiting.  - Это место стоит посетить. 12. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. - Я избегал говорить с ними об этом деле. 13. She burst out crying. - Она расплакалась. 14. They burst out laughing.  - Они рассмеялись. 15. She denied having been at home that evening. - Она отрицала, что была дома в тот вечер. 16. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of travelling.  - Он любил говорить об удовольствии, которое доставляют ему путешествия. 17. Excuse my leaving you at such a moment.  - Извините меня за то, что я ухожу от  вас в такой момент. 18. Please forgive my interfering. - Пожалуйста, простите меня за то, что вмешиваюсь. 19. He gave up smoking a few years ago. - Он бросил курить несколько лет назад. 20. They went on talking.  – Они продолжили разговор. 21. He keeps insisting on my going to the south.  - Он продолжает настаивать на том, чтобы я поехала на юг. 22. Oh please do stop laughing at him.  - Ну, пожалуйста, перестаньте смеяться над ним. 23. Do you mind my asking you a difficult question?  - Вы не возражаете, если я вам задам трудный вопрос? 24. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? - Вы не возражаете , чтобы прийти снова через пару дней. 14. I don't mind wearing this dress.  - Я не против того, чтобы носить это платье. 25. She could not help smiling. - Она не могла сдержать улыбку. 16. I cannot put off doing this translation. - Я не могу отложить выполнение этого перевода. 26. Though David was tired, he went on walking in the direction of Dover. - Хотя Дэвид устал, он продолжал идти в направлении Дувра.

Задание 10. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива.

1. Не seems to read a lot. 2. Не seems to be reading now. 3. He seems to have been reading since morning. 4. He seems to have read all the books in the library. 5. I want to take you to the concert. 6. I want to be taken to the concert by my father. 7. She hoped to help her Mends. 6. She hoped to be helped by her friends. 9. I hope to see you soon. 10. We expect to be back in two days. 11. He expected to be helped by the teacher. 12. The children seem to have been playing since morning. 13. I am glad to have done all the homework yesterday. 14. She seems to have been working at this problem ever since she came here. 15.  I am sorry to have broken your pen.

Задание 11. Раскройте скобки, употребляя Present Participle или Perfect Participle.

1. Doing his homework, he was thinking hard. 2. Having done his homework, he went for a walk. 3 Selling fruit, he looked back from time to time, hoping to see his friends. 4. Having sold all the fruit, he went to see his friends. 5. Having eaten all the potatoes, she drank a cup of tea. 6. Drinking tea, she scalded her lips. 7. Running in the yard, I fell and hurt my knee. 8. Looking through some magazines, I came across an interesting article about UFOs. 9. Having written out and having learnt  all the new words, he was able to translate the text easily. 10. Living in the south of our country, he cannot enjoy the beauty of St. Petersburg's White Nights in summer. 11. Talking to her neighbour in the street, she did not notice how a thief stole her money. 12. Having read the story, she closed the book and put it on the shelf. 13. Having bought some juice and cakes, we went home. 14. Sitting near the fire, he felt very warm.

Задание 12. Прочтите и переведите текст; опираясь на текст, напишите собственный аудиторский отчет по финансовому состоянию какого либо предприятия по вашему выбору (можно вымышленного).

Board of Directors, Stockholders, Owners, and Management of

Corbik Fuel Company, Inc.

68 Anna St.

Cardiff, Wales

We have audited the accompanying balance sheet of Corbik Fuel Company, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2013 and the related statements of income and cash flows for the year then ended. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.

We conducted our audit in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in Wales. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2013, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in Wales.

AUDITOR’S SIGNATURE                                              Lisa Brave

Auditor Lisa Brave

32, Brown St. Cardiff


       January, 13   2014

Задание 13.  Ознакомьтесь с теоретическим материалом в приложении и напишите аннотацию к тексту (не более 500 знаков).

After the deal

The text under consideration is an article named “After the deal” published in The Economist. The problem discussed in the article is devoted to the problem of merger boom in Europe. The situation is analyzed by the example of Daimler-Benz's takeover of Chrysler. The consequences of mergers are considered in considerable detail. The author considers certain difficulties such as culture differences or absence of consistent approach to the production cycle. A forecast of the nearest future of mergers is paid attention.      

After the deal

Doing deals is easy. As mergers hit record levels, now comes the hard part

The merger wave, which in 1998 was a predominantly American affair, is now sweeping over Europe. Cross-border (international) deals, such as Daimler-Benz's takeover of Chrysler, accounted for a quarter of mergers in 1998; more are expected as firms go global.

In many cases this consolidation makes sense - at least on paper. But just as certain as the flow of deals is that most will be failures. Study after study of past merger waves has shown that two out of every three deals have not worked.

Success in the future will depend more than ever on the merged companies' ability to create added value. And that will depend mainly on what happens after the deal has been done. Yet many deal makers have neglected this side of the business. Once the merger is done, they simply assume that computer programmers, sales mangers and engineers will cut costs and boost revenue according to plan.

Yet, just when post – merger integration has become decisive, it has become harder to pull off. Not only are modern firms complicated global affairs, but executives are putting today's deals together in a hurry. Few give enough thought to the pitfalls.

One set of obstacles is 'hard' things, such as linking distribution or computer systems. In particular, many recent mergers have been undone by the presumption that information technology is easy to mesh together.

More difficult are the 'soft issues'; and here the same word keeps popping up - culture. People never fit together as easily as flow charts. Culture permeates a company, and differences can poison any collaboration. After one large US merger, the two firms had a row over the annual picnic: employees of one company were accustomed to inviting spouses, the others were totally against the idea. The issue was resolved by inviting spouses only in alternate years.

Two new things have made culture clashes harder to manage. The first is the growing importance of intangible assets. In an advertising agency, for instance, most of the value can walk out of the door if key people leave.

The second new thing is the number of cross-border mergers. In this area DaimlerChrysler may prove to be an interesting case study in differing management cultures. One worry is compensation: Chrysler's pay levels are much higher than the German company's. So a US manager posted to Stuttgart may end up reporting to a German manager who is earning half his salary.

Nor is pay the only difference. Chrysler likes to pride itself on its flexible approach, where speed and ingenuity are prized. When designing new models, teams of engineers, designers and marketing people work on each model. Daimler-Benz has a more traditional structure, in which designers and marketing people mix less and engineers are in charge.

Some recent deals will no doubt prove a stunning success. Nevertheless, there are three ominous signs about the current merger boom. First, much of the attention seems to be on the deal itself rather than the integration that must follow. Second, many deals are rushed. And third, mergers have too often become a strategy in their own right.

So the things that are so impressive about today's mergers - their size, complexity and daring -could count against them if the economy turns down.

From The Economist


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  ЭА осуществляемый на уровне отдельной фирмы предприятия называется обычно анализом хозяйственной деятельности. Предмет любой науки это часть или сторона объективной действительности которая изучается только данной наукой; это хозяйственные процессы предприятий объединений ассоциаций социально-экономическая эффективность и конечные финансовые результаты их деятельности складывающиеся под воздействием объективных и субъективных факторов получающие отражение через систему экономической информации. Как видно из определения ЭА имеет...
44811. Анализ школьных учебников и методической литературы по химии 21.71 KB
  Анализ школьных учебников и методической литературы по химии. B сложной системе обучения химии учебник занимает важное место. В нем присутствуют все структурные элементы которые присущи обучению химии в целом: содержание предмета химии методы обучения средства обучении и организация учебной деятельности учащегося. Межпредметные связи в преподавании химии.
44812. Модель. Моделирование баз 41 KB
  При предметном моделировании строят физическую модель которая соответствующим образом отражает основные физические свойства и характеристики моделируемого объекта при этом модель и реальный объект мотуг иметь разную физическую природу. Если же модель и объект одной и той же физической природы то моделирование будет физическим. Абстрактное моделирование связана с построением абстрактной модели которая представляет собой математические диаграммы и т.
44813. Системы пакетной обработки 28.86 KB
  Например одна часть приложения выполняющаяся на компьютере пользователя может поддерживать специализированный графический интерфейс вторая работать на мощном выделенном компьютере и заниматься статистической обработкой введенных пользователем данных а третья заносить полученные результаты в базу данных на компьютере с установленной стандартной СУБД. Разделение данных:Разделение данных предоставляет возможность доступа и управления базами данных с периферийных рабочих мест нуждающихся в информации. Разделение ресурсов...
44815. Работа с файловой системой Linux 37.82 KB
  Аналогичным образом можно поступать и с другими символами, перечисленными выше, т. е. их можно включать в имена файлов, если имя файла взять в двойные кавычки или отменить специальное значение символа с помощью обратного слэша.