Менеджмент, консалтинг и предпринимательство

The earliest computers were highly technical machines, understandable only to scientists. Steven Jobs reasoned that if computers were made easier to use and less expensive, the public would buy them. He was right.



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The earliest computers were highly technical machines, understandable only to scientists. Steven Jobs reasoned that if computers were made easier to use and less expensive, the public would buy them. He was right. With $1,300 (most of which came from the sale of his second-hand Volkswagen van), Jobs produced what he called the Apple I computer. The success of the Apple I gave him the money to finance the design of new and improved personal computers.

In 1980 Apple sold its stock to the public for the first time, with a market value of $1.79 billion!

Bill Gates was intrigued by the success of the new personal computers coming onto the market in the 1970 s. Gates realized that the success of personal computers  would depend  on the availability of  “user-friendly”  (easy-to-use) software. In 1975 he co-founded Microsoft Corporation which designed the basic operating software for all IBM and IBM-compatible  personal computers.

Today Microsoft Corporation is the largest software  company, and Bill Gates, by owning 40 percent of its stock, has become the world’s youngest billionaire.

But you don’t need to be a computer whiz to be a success in business !

When she, was eight years old, Carolyn Bennett was ' given a kaleidoscope. The colorful shapes she saw through the view-finder fascinated her, Carolyn never lost interest in kaleidoscopes and as a young adult learned to make them. At first she gave her kaleidoscopes to friends and relatives as presents. Soon, people were asking her to sell them her kaleidoscopes. The demand was so great that in 1978 she quit her teaching job and entered the kaleidoscope manufacturing business.

In 1987, C. Bennett Scopes, as her business is called, produced more than 50,000 Scopes retailing for $10 to $450.

You’ve probably heard of rags-to-riches stories. Sam Johnson, owner of the Lincoln/Mercury automobile agency bearing his name in Charlotte, North Carolina lived one. Poverty was no stranger to young Sam who was one of  11 children of share-cropping parents.

Starting at the very bottom of the auto-sales business in 1959, Sam’s first job was as a $25 a week car washer for a Buick dealer in St. Louis. Two years later, his boss gave him cars on consignment for sales on the side, and two years after that he was working for the agency as a full-time salesman.

Johnson did so well at sales, that by 1973 he had saved enough to buy his first Ford dealership, a run-down agency that he was able to buy at a bargain price in East St. Louis. Johnson turned the St. Louis agency around, and as sales climbed he was able to put aside the money he needed to buy a part, and then full ownership of the Sam Johnson Lincoln Mercury agency in Charlotte, North Carolina.

That was in 1981. Today, Johnson Lincoln Mercury grosses well over $80 million a year, and Sam Johnson has time to assist other members of the African- American community in learning about and starting careers in the automobile sales industry.

Jobs, Gates, Bennett and Johnson have a number of things in common. For one thing, they can be described as entrepreneurs, people who own and operate their own business in the hope of earning a profit. The search for profits is the driving force behind production in a free ‘enterprise system. In order to make a profit, an entrepreneur must create a useful product, develop an efficient method of production, finance production, and market the product at a price that exceeds the cost. Entrepreneurs enter business knowing that success is not guaranteed, and if things do not go as planned, they could wind up losing money.

In this chapter you will learn about what it takes to be 'an entrepreneur, and about the risks and rewards of business ownership.


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