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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТА

Контрольная

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Представленная контрольная работа предназначена для студентов, владеющих английским языком в объеме программы средней школы. Контрольная работа включает грамматико-лексический материал, предназначенный для прохождения в I семестре.

Русский

2015-04-23

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5 чел.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА

ПО

АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ №1

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-ЗАОЧНИКОВ

ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТА

ИМПЭ

Липецк 2013 ГОД


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

к контрольной работе по английскому языку № I

для студентов-юристов заочной формы обучения

Представленная контрольная работа предназначена для студентов, владеющих английским языком в объеме программы средней школы. Контрольная работа включает грамматико-лексический материал, предназначенный для прохождения в I семестре. Правильное выполнение работы на 60% и последующее обсуждение ее с преподавателем может являться основанием для получения зачета по английскому языку за I семестр.

Работа состоит из следующих разделов:

I.   Обзор грамматических времен The  Simple   Present,   Past, Future Tense.  Овладение временными формами английских глаголов является одним из основных программных требований. Прежде чем приступить к выполнению упражнений,   ознакомьтесь с объяснением временных грамматических явлений в учебнике "Английский для Бас", авторы: Б.С.Шахназарова, К.В.Журавченко, изд-во "Вече", М., 1994.

Учебник также снабжен тренировочными упражнениями.

Времена системы "The Simple Tenses"    освещаются на стр.  90-91 Глагол "to have"    "иметь,  обладать;  стр. 133-136 "The Simple Present Tense"    Простое настоящее время;  стр.  174-177 "The Simple Past  Tense"    Простое прошедшее время;  стр. 216-218 "The Simple Future Tense"    Простое будущее время.

В упражнении № I Вам предлагается образовать одну из временных форм. Предложения составлены на лексическом материале обиходного характера   без усложненных конструкций,  отвлекающих внимание от грамматики. Упражнение включает 25 предложений.

Целью упражнения № 2 является отработка вопросительной и отрицательной формы английских глаголов. Упражнение включает 19 предложений.

В упражнении № 3 предлагается поставить вопросы к выделенным членам предложения. Всего 10 предложений.

Второй крупный раздел английской грамматики - образование сравнительной и превосходной степени прилагательных. Данной теме посвящены следующие разделы учебника "Английский для ВАС": Степени сравнения прилагательных на стр. 275-277, 279.

Упражнение I второго раздела предлагает дать сравнительную и превосходную степень приведенных наиболее употребительных прилагательных.

Упражнение № 2 второго раздела ставит задачу закончить предложения, используя превосходную степень прилагательных.

Упражнение № 3    тренирует употребление сравнительной и превосходной степеней.

Приведенные грамматические упражнения составлены таким образом, чтобы   наряду с проверкой знаний студентов они способствовали закреплению грамматики.

В III разделе приводятся два текста в виде писем,  которые сопровождаются рядом вопросов,  отвечая на которые,  студенты будут тренировать употребление времен.  Работа над письмами также способствует накоплению обиходной лексики.

Раздел IV отводится работе над текстами общественно-политического и юридического характера. Навыки перевода спецтекстов являются основным требованием к студентам-заочникам. При работе над текстами следует обратить внимание на юридическую терминологию.

Общее понимание содержания является целью работы над газетными статьями. Приведенные тексты снабжены целым рядом английских слов и выражений с переводом,  чтобы облегчить студентам понимание текстов.

I. Обзор грамматических времен: The Simple Present, Past, Future Tense

Упражнение № I. Поставьте глагол в нужном времени

пример:  Nobody (to get) early for fun.

Nobody gets early for fun.

  1.  Vegetarians are people who (not eat) meat.
  2.  Some people still think the sun (to go) round the earth.
  3.  I (to play) tennis every weekend.
  4.  He (not to speak) English.
  5.  Paul (to be) on holiday.
  6.  You (not be) right.
  7.  The play (to be) funny.
  8.  I (to lose) my keys yesterday.
  9.  I (not to see) her in the morning.
  10.  I (to meet) her two days ago.
  11.  Yesterday she (to. buy) some new clothes.
  12.  I (to give) her some chocolate when I met her.
  13.  Two days ago I (to take) my books back to the library.
  14.  Last night I (to sleep) at a friend's house.
  15.  He (not to feel) very well  yesterday.
  16.  She (to have) only a toast for her breakfast yesterday.
  17.  My sister (to go) to Prance last year.
  18.  She (to read) a lot when she was a child.
  19.  They (to talk) to us tomorrow.
  20.  He (to help) write a letter in English after lunch.
  21.  I (to get up) at six o'clock tomorrow.
  22.  Next Sunday they (to go) to the park.
  23.  She (to help) us, but not to-day.
  24.  My mother (to come) to see us next summer.
  25.  She (to go) to the cinema with us after work.

Упражнение № 2. Поставьте глаголы в отрицательной и вопросительной форме

пример:  My sister went to Spain last summer.

My sister did not go to Spain last summer.

Did my sister go to Spain last summer.

  1.  I have breakfast at eight o'clock.
  2.  When I was a child I wanted to be a doctor.
  3.  Alice came back from America last month.
  4.  I get up late on Sunday.
  5.  I watch TV every day.
  6.  Glen works very hard.
  7.  Peter is very good at tennis.
  8.  I shall be there tomorrow.
  9.  She will join us, but not today.
  10.  They will see each other tomorrow.

Упражнение № 3. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным членам предложения.

пример:  I play bridge on Sunday.

When do you play bridge?

  1.  We have some friends to lunch every Sunday.
  2.  My aunt comes to Moscow very often.
  3.  She spent last summer in France.
  4.  Simon always does his Maths homework.
  5.  Tim usually goes to school by taxi.
  6.  Torn and James are often very busy on Mondays.
  7.  She will go to the cinema with us if she is free.
  8.  They will help us translate the text as it's too difficult.
  9.  She didn't tell the truth yesterday, so I couldn't help her.
  10.  We shall go there as soon as he comes.

II. Сравнительная и превосходная степень прилагательных

Упражнение №  1. Напишите сравнительную и превосходную форму следующих прилагательных

пример:   old   -     older      -     oldest

  1.  tall
  2.  beautiful
  3.  fat
  4.  interesting
  5.  nice
  6.  good
  7.  bad
  8.  modern
  9.  popular
  10.  happy
  11.  big
  12.  cold
  13.  slow
  14.  expensive
  15.  easy
  16.  important
  17.  old
  18.  high
  19.  long
  20.  hot
  21.  pretty
  22.  роlite

Упражнение № 2. Закончите предложения, используя превосходную степень прилагательных

пример:   The woman is very old.

She is the oldest woman in the world.

1. It was a very happy day.

It was of my life.

2. Mount Everest is a very high mountain.

It's mountain in the world.

3.  She's a very popular singer. She's singer in the country.

4.  It's a very good film.

It's film of the year.

5. Sidney is a large city.     

It's city in Australia.

6.  Money is important but it isn't

thing in life.

7.  The river Severn is very long.

It's river in England.

8. It's usually very hot in July.

It's month of the year.

9. The Europa Hotel is very expensive.

It's hotel in the world.

10. Yesterday it was very cold.

It was day of the year.

11. She's   very pretty.

She's girl in our school.

12. He's a very interesting man.

He's man in our city.


Упражнение № 3. Поставьте прилагательные в сравнительной или

превосходной степени.

пример:    January is (cold) than November.

January is colder than November.

  1.  Moscow has one of (good) football teams in Russia.
  2.  My English is (good) now than it was a year ago.
  3.  I can't stay here, I have (important) things to do.
  4.  January is (cold) than November.
  5.  Some people think that Paris is (beautiful) city in the world
  6.  Sue's car isn't big. She wants a    car.
  7.  You are not very tall. Your brother is
  8.  Bill doesn't work very hard.
  9.  I work
  10.  My chair isn't very comfortable.
    Your chair
  11.  Jill's idea wasn't very good. My idea is
  12.  These flowers aren't very nice. The blue ones are
  13.  My case isn't very heavy. Your case is
  14.  It isn't very warm today. It was
  15.  Britain isn't very big. France is
  16.  London isn't very beautiful. Paris is
  17.  This knife isn't very sharp.
  18.  Have you got a one.
  19.  People today aren't very polite.
    In the past they were

Ш. Прочтите письма и письменно ответьте на вопросы, используя

the  Simple  Present,   Past,   Future  Tense

Darling John.

So I am in Mexico City. I learn Spanish. I work very hard.

Mexico City is much larger than Cleveland, and it's more interesting. I think it's the best city in the world. But there's too much traffic and smog, and there aren't enough restaurants with American food, but I like it. All of my teachers are very nice. Some of them are better than others. None of them speak English to us, so we all have to speak Spanish.

I'll write again soon.

All my love, Mary.

  1.  Where is Mary?
  2.  What language does she learn?
  3.  Does she work hard?
  4.  Is Mexico City larger than Cleveland?
  5.  Is it more interesting?
  6.  Is Mexico City the biggest city in the world?
  7.  Is there too much traffic and smog in the city?
  8.  Are there many restaurants with American food there?
  9.  Are Mary's teachers very nice?
  10.  Do they speak English to their students?

Dear Peter ,

Well, this is my second week in Paris. I like it very much. I usually get up at ten o'clock & have breakfast in a street cafe. French breakfasts are very small, but the coffee's not bad. I always go to school by Metro. I usually arrive at school at twelve o'clock. I learn French every day. School usually finishes at five o'clock. In the evening I occasionally stay in the hotel, but I usually go out for dinner with a friend. Life is very interesting here. Next weekend I'm going to the coast. Give my regards to everybody.

Love, Ann.

  1.  Where is Ann?
  2.  Does she like Paris?
  3.  When does she get up?
  4.  Where does she have breakfast?
  5.  Are French breakfasts very small?
  6.  Is the coffe bad?
  7.  Does she go to school by Metro?
  8.  What language does she learn?
  9.  At what time does school finish?
  10.  Where does she occasionally stay in the evening?
  11.  Who does she usually go out with?
  12.  Is life interesting there?

Dear Louise,

Thank you for the book you sent me. I was very pleased because it arrived on my birthday. I also got a new watch from my parents and a printer for ray computer. Now I'll be able to print my letters

to you, which is good because I write so badly. I had a party in a night club and all of my friends from the University came. We also went to a restaurant where we ate and drank for hours and took lots of photographs. It was wonderful. My friend's father came and drove us home at 3 o'clock in the morning and we all slept at Sam's house.

What are you going to do next week-end? I will probably be in London. May be we could meet. I'm going to go shopping and I'm going to the cinema to see the new Tom Cruise film. I think he acts really well, he's my favorite.

Please write to me soon.

Your friend, Helen.

  1.  What did Louise send to Helen?
  2.  When did the book arrive?    .
  3.  What did she get from her parents for her birthday?      
  4.  Where did she have a party?
  5.  Did many friends from the University come to Helen's party?
  6.  Did they go to the restaurant?
  7.  Did they eat, drink and take lots of photographs there?
  8.  Who came and drove them home?
  9.  Where will she be next week-end?
  10.  What is she going to do in London?

IV. Прочитайте текст. Сделайте письменный перевод текстов, обращая внимание на экономическую терминологию

FOREIGN TRADE ZONES/FREE TRADE ZONES

Foreign Trade Zоnеs (FТZs) аге areas in the country that are treated аs foreign territory. Foreign goods сап bе imported into thеsе агеаs without payment of duties imposed bу the national government. These goods сап then bе sold and shipped from the FTZ to other countries duty-free. When these goods аге shipped into the country to which FTZ belongs, the duty is imposed.

The advantage оf FTZ is that it provides jobs for native workers and markets for goods produced in the country. There are now ninety sеvеn such zones in the USA, for example. They are doing more than $ 7 billion of business аnd create more than 30 thousand jobs. The most well-known аге the Brooklyn Navy Yard (New York), Del Rio (Техаs). Port Everglades (Florida), etc. In the Brooklyn Navy Yard over 150 firms do business. Manу U.S. workers there repackage goods for аn FTZ to deley customs duties оn goods that are not yet геаdу for market. For example, а winе соmрапу in the New Orleans FТZ is aging its wine for future distribution.

Слова и выражения

zone - зона

area - зона, часть территории

treatотноситься к(к ч.-л.)

territory - территория

duty-free - беспошлинно

belong - принадлежать 

advantageпреимущество, выгода

job - работа, рабочее место 

such - такой, такая 

create - создать

well-known – общеизвестный

vу - морской, военно-морской 

yard - здесь: верфь

package - упаковка, упаковать 

repackage - переупаковывать 

delay - откладвать, оттягяватъ (время)

customs - таможня

wine - вино

age - здесь: выдерживать (вино)

distribution – распределение, здесь: торговля

НELPING FOREIGN ТRADЕ

There are sоmе institutions аnа policies in the world that foster international trade. If these institutions did not exist, mаnу companies would not at аll bе able to go international. Тhe U.S. government created the Export - Irnport Bank (Eximbank) in order to reduce unemployment in the country. Eximbank makes loans to U.S. exporters аnd foreign buyers о! U.S. imports if private financing is not available. А firm сап also buу insurance from the Foreign Credit Insurance Association (FCIA) to соvег political risk (such аs expropriation and loss due to war). Тhe exporter сап аlso buу insuгаnсе coverage оп credit sales to foreign customer.

More known аге the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and the internationa1 Monetary Fund (IМF). Тhe former fosters the economic development оf member nations bу making loans to them. The latter eliminates trade barriers and promotes financia1 cooperation among membег countries. Thus, if firms in Argentina wish to buу from American firms but Argentina lacks American dоllars, Argentina сап borrow USD from IМF. Then it рауs the loan back.

Тhе General Agreement оn Tariffs аnd Trade (GATT) 15 аn international agreement in which member countries agreed to try to reduce trade bаггiers. Since 1948 GATT has arranged several rounds оf negotiations to out tariff оп thousands оf ргоduсts and to remove mаnу nontariff bаrгieгs to trade (Tokyo Round - 1975-1979, Geneva Round - 1983).

The International Development Аssосiаtiоn (IDA) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) make loаns to private businеssеs if they cannot obtain funds from other sources.

Слова и выражения

institutiоn - организация

роlicу - политические, организационные меры

foster - способствовать

exist - cуществовать

in order to - с целью, с тем, чтобы

reduce - сократить

emрlоу – нанимать на работу

employment – занятость, обеспеченность работой, работа

loan – ссуда, ссужать

private - частный 

associationассоциация 

expropriation - экспроприация 

loss - потеря

coverage - от cover - покрытие, прикрытие

customer – клиент, покупатель, потребитель

reconstruction - реконстрyкция

thus - таким образом

World Bank - Мировой банк (Международный Банк Реконструкции и развития)

monetary – монетарный, здесь: валютный

fund - фонд

funds - финансовые средства

IMF - Международный Валютный фонд

former - первый, предыдущий, идущий впереди

1atter - последний, замыкающий

membег - член, участник

membег countries - страны участницы

eliminate - уничтожать

barrier - барьер

promote - способствоватъ, продвигать

cooperation - сотрудничество, кооперация

1ack - иметь недостаток (в ч-л)

borrow - брать взаймы

general - общий, генеральный

GATT - Генеральное Соглашение по Тарифам и Торговле

several - несколько

round - круг, раунд (переговоров)

remove - передвинуть, убрать

nontariff - не связанные с тарифами

IDA - Международная Ассоциация Развития

IFC - Международная Финансовая Корпорация

source - источник

FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

Foreign trade is vital to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. With a large population, small land area and few natural resources, the country depends on foreign trade to supply the raw materials for British factories and to provide a market for the sale of the thousands of types of manufactured goods produced by British industry.

The United Kingdom’s principal exports are vehicles, machinery, manufactured goods, and textiles. Her main imports are foodstuffs and most of the raw materials for industry. The United Kingdom imports one half of the food needed to feed the population.

Britain has very sound economic ties especially with the European Union countries, the United States of America and the Commonwealth, which includes Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many other smaller countries and territories.

The Commonwealth, officially called «the Commonwealth of Nations», has grown out of the old British empire which came to an end with the Second World War. The British monarch is still the head of the present Commonwealth.

Слова и выражения

vital – жизненный, насущный, существенный

land – земля

to depend on – зависеть от

raw – сырой, необработанный

manufactured – промышленный

to produce – производить

exports – статьи экспорта

vehicle – перевозочное средство

machinery – машинное оборудование, машины

textiles – текстиль, ткань

imports – статьи импорта, импорт

foodstuff – продукты питания

needed – необходимый

to feed – кормить

sound – здоровый

tie – связь

especially – особенно

officially – официально

to grow – расти, вырастать

empire – империя

war – война

monarch - монарх

ECONOMICS. MICROECONOMICS and MACROECONOMICS

Economics is a social science studying economy. Like the natural sciences and other social sciences, economics attempts to find laws or principles.

Economics tries to find laws or principles by building models. The predictions of the models form is the basis of economic theories. Then the predictions of the models are compared with the facts of the real world.

Economics is a science consists of two disciplines that is microeconomics and macroeconomics.

Microeconomics is the branch of economics that studies individual producers, consumers, or markets. Microeconomics also studies how government activities such as regulations and taxes affect individual markets. Besides microeconomics tries to understand what factors affect the prices, wages and earnings.

Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies the economy as a whole. It tries to understand the picture as a whole rather than small parts of it. In particular, it studies the overall values of output, of unemployment and of inflation.  

Слова и выражения

microeconomics – микроэкономика

macroeconomics – макроэкономика

to consist of something – состоять из чего-либо

discipline – дисциплина

branch – отрасль, ветвь, отделение

producer – производитель. изготовитель

consumer – потребитель

activities – деятельность

such as – такой, как

regulation – правило, регулирование

tax – налог

price – цена

wages – заработная плата

to earn – зарабатывать, получать

earnings – заработок, прибыль

as a wholeв целом

rather thanскорее чем

in particular – в частности, в особенности

overall – общий, полный

value – ценность, стоимость

output выпуск, продукция, производительность

inflation – инфляция

IV. Прочитайте текст. Сделайте письменный перевод второго абзаца. Найдите в тексте ответы на вопросы и подчеркните их (юрид. фак.)

THE US CONGRESS

Congress, the legislative branch of the federal goverment, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the "Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. The Senators represent all of the people in a state and their interests.

The House has 435 members. They are elected every two years for two-years terms. They represent the population of "congressional  districts" into which each state is divided. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or Representatives may serve.

Almost all elections in the United States follow the "winner-take-all" principle: 'the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because (legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary.

the US CongressКонгресс США

legislative branch – законодательная ветвь

is made up ofсостоит 

the Senate – Сенат

the House of Representatives – Палата представителей

to elect  выбирать 

term of office  – выборный срок 

to represent – представлять

Representative  член палаты представителей, конгрессмен 

congressional districts   выборные округа 

"winner-take-all"  все достается победителю 

vote   голос

to introduce – вводить 

  1.  What is the US Congress made up of?
  2.  How many Senators are there in the US Congress?
  3.  Do the Senators represent all of the people in a state and their interests?
  4.  How many members does the House have?
  5.  Whom do the Representatives represent?
  6.  What principle almost all the elections in the United States follow?
  7.  Who is the winner?
  8.  What does Congress make?
  9.  When does legislation become law?

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юридическую терминологию

THE PROBLEM OP PUNISHMENT

Compared with other aspects of the Criminal Law, the question of punishment is the most difficult. For the lawyer it is a question which presents special problems for a variety of reasons. The punishment of a criminal is a combined operation of Parliament, the courts, and the administration. The range of penalties which may be imposed is in most cases set by the legislature, which fixes the maximum sentences for different offences. For the majority of offences only the maximum penalty is prescribed by law, so that the court is left free to select in each case the appropriate sentence.

If the accused has never before been convicted of crime, the sentence is not likely to be severe, unless the crime is one of violence. First offenders are usually treated with sympathy. If, on the other hand, the accused man has a long record of convictions, the judge will pass a more severe sentence.

After the court has selected what sentence seems suitable, the carrying out of this sentence falls to the lot of those who administer the penal system.

One result of this is that once sentence has been passed, the courts are no longer concerned with the offender's fate: their task is concluded.

Слова и выражения

punishment

- наказание

criminal law

- уголовное право

laywer

- юрист

variety of reasons

- ряд причин

criminal

- преступник

combined operation

- совместные действия

penalty

- наказание

legislature

- законодательство

sentence  

- приговор

to be prescribed  

- быть предписанным

appropriate sentence  

- соответствующий приговор

accused

- обвиняемый

to be convicted of crime

- подвергаться судимости

severe

- суровый

violence

- насилие

offender       

- нарушитель

treat

- обращаться

long record of convictions

- длинный список судимостей

judge

- судья

pass a sentence  

- выносить приговор

suitable  

- соответствующий

carry out

- выполнять

penal system

- пенитенциарная (карательная) система

fate  

- судьба

CRIMINAL COURTS

Criminal Law is that part of the law of the land which is concerned with crimes. The English criminal law has never been reduced to single code, but many particular topics have been codified by separat statutes. No rule of Criminal Law is of more importance than that which requires the prosecution to prove the accused's guilt or establish his innocence.

In England a person accused of crime must always be supposed innocent until he has been proved guilty. Newpapers mustn't describe the accused as "the thief" or "the murderer", :    "the accused" or "the prisoner".

In England there are two main classes of criminal courts, those in which the trial of the more serious offences takes place before a judge and jury, and those in which less serious offences are tried before magistrates without jury. The courts in the first class are either assizes or quarter sessions. The second class consists of magistrates' courts.

In London and surrounding area the Central Criminal Court takes place of the assizes. Trials are there presided over either by a High Court judge of by one of the special judge of that court.

Слова и выражения

is concerned with  

- заниматься, иметь дело с

reduce

- сводить

code  

- кодекс

topic  

- предмет обсуждения

codify

- кодифицировать

statutes

- законодательный акт

require  

- требовать

prosecution

- следствие, расследование

guilt  

- вина

establish  

- установить

innocence

- невиновность

accused of  

- обвиненный в

to be proven guilty

- доказать виновность

thief

- вор

murderer  

- убийца

prisoner

- заключенный

trial

- суд

jury

- присяжные заседатели

offence  

- проступок

magistrate  

- мировой Судья

assize

- выездная судебная сессия,  суд присяжных

quarter sessions     

- суд четвертных , квартальных сессий

to preside

- председательствовать

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By Simon Saradzhyan staff writer

Police in Volgograd were still looking Friday for six stolen containers of highly radioactive material that can cause serious harm or even death to anyone coming into close contact with it.

The six containers, containing the radioactive isotope Cesium-137, were stolen from a LUKoil oil refinery in Volgograd on May 7, prompting authorities in the Volgograd region to mobilize hundreds of police and civil defense troopers to help in the search.

Police believe the thieves 'may intend to smuggle the cesium - which is not suitable for use in nuclear weapons - out of Russia for sale.

But the biggest fear is that the thieves have no idea of the danger presented by the cesium and might open up the lead containers.

police

to steal

civil defense troopers

search

thieves

to smuggle

for sale

EX-PRESIDENT ARRESTED

CARACAS, Venezuela (Reuters) - Venezuela's former president Carlos Andres Perez was placed under house arrest Tuesday on charges that he and his female companion embezzled state funds.

If convicted, it would be the second time that Perez has been found guilty of corruption stemming from his controversial second presidency from 1989 to 1993.

Perez and Cecilia are accused of moving public funds into joint bank accounts in the United States.

to place under house arrest

to embezzle

state funds

convicted

to find guilty of corruption     

to be accused of