87839

Minor Types of Word Formation

Лекция

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

In Modern English acronyms, initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time. There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups: the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied in English...

Английский

2015-04-23

96.5 KB

6 чел.

Lecture 9.

Minor Types of Word Formation.

1. Shortening

  •  acronomy
  •  blending (telescoping)
  •  clipping = curtailment
  •  back-formation
  1.  Sound Imitation
  2.  Sound Interchange
  3.  Distinctive Stress
  4.  Reduplication

ABBREVIATION

In the process of communication words and word-groups can be shortened. The causes of shortening can be:

  •  Linguistic; (the demand of rhythm)
  •  Extra-linguistic (changes in the life of people).

In Modern English acronyms, initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time.

There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups:

 the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied in English by monosyllabic words. When borrowings from other languages are assimilated in English they are shortened. It is modification of form on the basis of analogy, e.g. the Latin borrowing «fanaticus» is shortened to «fan» on the analogy with native words: man, pan, tan etc.

There are two main types of shortenings: graphical and lexical.

Graphical abbreviations

Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups in written speech while orally the corresponding full forms are used.

They are used for the economy of space and effort in writing.

The oldest group of graphical abbreviations in English is of Latin origin. In Russian this type of abbreviation is not typical. These are Latin abbreviations in the spelling while orally the corresponding English equivalents are pronounced in the full form:

Latin e.g. - for example (exampli gratia),

a.m. - in the morning (ante meridiem),

No - number (numero),

p.a. - a year (per annum),

d - penny (dinarius),

lb - pound (libra),

i. e. - that is (id est), etc.

1. Graphical abbreviations of Latin origin have different English equivalents in different contexts: p.m. can be pronounced «in the afternoon» (post meridiem)

and «after death» (post mortem).

2. Graphical abbreviations of native origin, where in the spelling there are abbreviations of words and word-groups of the corresponding English equivalents in the full form:

a) days of the week, e.g. Mon - Monday, Tue - Tuesday etc

b) names of months, e.g. Apr - April, Aug - August etc.

c) names of counties in UK, e.g. Yorks - Yorkshire, Berks –Berkshire, etc

d) names of states in USA, e.g. Ala - Alabama, Alas – Alaska, etc.

e) names of address, e.g. Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr. etc.

f) military ranks, e.g. capt. -captain, col. - colonel, sgt – sergeant, etc.

g) scientific degrees, e.g. B.A. - Bachelor of Arts, D.M. - Doctor of Medicine . (of Latin origin: e.g., M.B. - Medicinae Baccalaurus).

h) units of time, length, weight, e.g. f. / ft -foot/feet, sec. - second, in. -inch, mg. – milligram, etc.

The reading of some graphical abbreviations depends on the context:

« corresponds to:

 male, married, masculine, metre, mile, million, minute,

«l.p.»: long-playing, low pressure.

Initial abbreviations

Initialisms are the bordering case between graphical and lexical abbreviations. When they denote some new offices they are closer to graphical abbreviations because full forms are used in oral speech: J.V. - joint venture.

In the course of time they acquire the shortened form of pronouncing and become closer to lexical abbreviations:

 BBC is pronounced in the shortened form.

Initialisms are denoted in different ways. Very often they are expressed in the way they are pronounced in the language of their origin:

 ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, and United States) is given in Russian as АНЗУС,

 SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) was for a long time used in Russian as СОЛТ, now a translation variant is used (ОСВ -Договор об ограничении стратегических вооружений). This type of initialisms borrowed into other languages is preferable, e.g. UFO - НЛО, AIDS-СПИД.

Types of initialisms in English:

a) Initialisms with alphabetical reading:

 UK, BUP (British United Press), CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament), etc

b) Initialisms read as words:

 UNESCO, UNO, NATO, etc.

c) Initialisms which coincide with English words in their sound form are called acronyms: CLASS (Computor-based Laboratory for Automated School System).

Some scientists unite groups b) and c) into one group which they call acronyms.

Some initialisms can form new words in which they act as root morphemes by different ways of word building:

a) affixation:

ex- POW(prisoner of war), to waafize (WAAF),  AIDSophobia, etc.

b) conversion:

to fly IFR (Instrument Flight Rules),

c) composition:

 STOLport (STOL-system of landing), USAF (USA Force) man, etc.

d) Compound-shortened words:

The first component is an initial abbreviation with the alphabetical reading and the second one is a complete word:

 A-bomb, U-pronunciation, V -day, etc.

In some cases the first component is a complete word and the second component is an initial abbreviation with the alphabetical pronunciation:

 Three -Ds (Three dimensions) - стереофильм.

         Abbreviations of words

Abbreviation of words consists in clipping a part of a word. As a result we get a new lexical unit where either the lexical meaning or the style is different from the full form of the word. Different lexical meanings in:

«fantasy» and «fancy», «fence» and «defence». Different styles:

 «laboratory» and «lab», «doctor» and «doc»;

Abbreviation does not change the part-of-speech meaning, as in the case of conversion or affixation, it produces words belonging to the same part of speech as the primary word:

prof and professor are nouns.

Mostly nouns undergo abbreviation, sometimes it is abbreviation of verbs:

 to rev - to revolve, to tab - to tabulate.

 But mostly abbreviated forms of verbs are formed by means of conversion from abbreviated nouns:

 to taxi, to vac,  etc.

Adjectives can be abbreviated mostly in school slang and are combined with suffixation:

 Comfy(comfortable), dilly(delicious), mizzy(miserable), etc.

As a rule pronouns, numerals, interjections, conjunctions are not abbreviated. The exceptions are:

fif (fifteen), teen-ager, in one’s teens (aphaeresis from numerals from 13 to 19).

Lexical abbreviations are classified according to the part of the word which is clipped.

Apocope: Mostly the end of the word is clipped, because the beginning of the word in most cases is the root and expresses the lexical meaning of the word.

E. x.: A group of words ending in «o»:

 disco (dicotheque), expo (exposition), intro (introduction), etc.

On the analogy there developed in Modern English a number of words where «o» is added as a kind of a suffix to the shortened form of the word:

 combo (combination) - небольшой эстрадный ансамбль,

 Afro (African) -прическа под африканца, etc. Aphaeresis: the beginning of the word is clipped:

chute (parachute), varsity (university), copter (helicopter) , thuse (enthuse) etc.

Syncope: the middle of the word is clipped: mart (market), fanzine (fan magazine) maths (mathematics). 

Combination of apocope and aphaeresis:

The beginning and the end of the word are clipped, e.g. tec (detective), van (avanguard) etc.

Sometimes shortening influences the spelling of the word, e.g. «c» can be substituted by « before « to preserve pronunciation:

 mike (microphone), Coke (coca-cola), etc.

The same rule in the following cases:

Fax (facsimile), teck (technical college), trank (tranquilizer) etc.

The final consonants in the shortened forms are substituted by letters characteristic of native English words.

    SECONDARY WAYS OF WORDBUILDING

          SOUND INTERCHANGE

Sound interchange is the way of word-building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is non-productive in Modern English; it was productive in Old English and can be met in other Indo-European languages.

The causes of sound interchange:

1. The result of Ancient Ablaut which cannot be explained by the phonetic laws during the period of the language development known to scientists:

 To strike - stroke, to sing – song, etc.

2. The result of Ancient Umlaut or vowel mutation which is the result of palatalizing the root vowel because of the front vowel in the syllable coming after the root (regressive assimilation):

Hot - to heat (hotian), blood - to bleed (blodian) etc.

3. Vowel and consonant interchange.

In Nouns: voiceless consonants;

In verbs: corresponding voiced consonants because in Old English these consonants in nouns were at the end of the word and in verbs in the intervocalic position:

bath - to bathe, life - to live, breath - to breathe etc.

             STRESS INTERCHANGE

Stress interchange is mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable:

`accent - to ac`cent.

This phenomenon is explained in the following way: French verbs and nouns had different structure when they were borrowed into English; verbs had one syllable more than the corresponding nouns. When these borrowings were assimilated in English the stress in them was shifted to the previous syllable (the second from the end).

Later on the last unstressed syllable in verbs borrowed from French was dropped (the same as in native verbs) and after that the stress in verbs was on the last syllable while in nouns it was on the first syllable:

to af`fix -`affix, to con`flict- `conflict, to ex`port -`export, to ex`tract - `extract, etc.

As a result of stress interchange there is also vowel interchange because vowels are pronounced differently in stressed and unstressed positions.

            SOUND IMITATION

            (ONOMATOPOEIA)

It is the way of word-building when a word is formed by imitating different sounds.

Semantic groups of words formed by means of sound imitation:

a) Sounds produced by human beings:

To whisper, to giggle, to mumble, to sneeze, to whistle, etc.

b) Sounds produced by animals, birds, and insects: to hiss, to buzz, to bark, to moo, to twitter, etc.

c) sounds produced by nature and objects :

to splash, to rustle, to clatter, to bubble, to ding-dong, to tinkle, etc.

The corresponding nouns are formed by means of conversion:

 clang (of a bell), chatter (of children,) etc.

                  BLENDS

Blends are words formed from a word-group or two synonyms. In blends two ways of word-building are combined: 

  •  abbreviation and composition.

The end of the first component (apocope) and the beginning of the second component (aphaeresis) are clipped: a compound- shortened word. 

One of the first blends in English was the word «smog» from two synonyms: smoke and fog (smoke mixed with fog). From the first component the end is taken away, from the second one the beginning, «o» is common for both of them.

Blends formed from two synonyms are: slanguange, to hustle, gasohol, etc.

Mostly blends are formed from a word-group: acromania (acronym mania), cinemadict (cinema adict), chunnel (channel, canal), dramedy (drama comedy), detectifiction (detective fiction), faction (fact fiction) (fiction based on real facts), informecial (information commercial), Medicare

( medical care) , magalog ( magazine catalogue) slimnastics (slimming gymnastics), sociolite (social elite), slanguist

(slang linguist) etc.

               BACK FORMATION

It is the way of word-building when a word is formed by dropping the final morpheme to form a new word. It is opposite to suffixation. 

It appeared in the language as a result of misunderstanding the structure of a borrowed word .

Prof. Yartseva explains this mistake by the influence of the whole system of the language on separate words. It is typical of English to form nouns denoting the agent of the action by adding the suffix -er to a verb stem (speak- speaker).

The French word «beggar» was borrowed into English, the final syllable «ar» was pronounced in the same way as the English -er and Englishmen formed the verb «to beg» by dropping the end of the noun. Other examples:

To accreditate (from accreditation), to bach (from bachelor), to collocate (from collocation), to enthuse (from enthusiasm), to compute (from computer), to emote (from emotion) to reminisce

(from reminiscence), to televise (from television) etc.

In cases of back formation the part-of-speech meaning of the primary word is changed, verbs are formed from nouns.

edit < editor

ed < editor

story < history

fancy < fantasy

specs < spectacles

kidult < kid+adult

BBC

fridge

phone

SOS

Shortening

Clipping

Curtailment

Abbreviation

Acronomy

Blending

Back-Formation

A

R

N

O

L

D

   SHORTENING

       CLIPPING

  CURTAILMENT

            Shortening       

  Final       Initial     Medial

(apocope)  (aphaeresis)  (syncope)            

Coke, lab    story     pants

Ad, prom    cello

Sub

A

N

T

R

U

S

H

I

N

A

      Shortening

    (contraction).

1) making wds from a syllable or two of the original wd.

        i.e. clipping

2) making a new wd. from the initial letters of a wd. group.

         Abbreviation

G

I

N

Z

B

U

R

G

         Shortening

  1.  Transformations of Wd-Groups into Wds
  2.  Substantivization
  3.  Abbreviation

Culater; zipcode; bud

  1.  Blending

II. A change of the wd-structure resulting in a new lexical item

 i.e. clipping

         

   

Clipping

  1.  Apocope

Wds. shortened at the end ad, sub

  1.  Aphaeresis

Shortened at the beginning phone, plane

  1.  Syncope

Wds. in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the middle. Maths, specs

  1.  Wds. that have been

clipped both at the begin-ning /at the end.Flu, fridge

BACK-FORMATION

       Classification

VN to hawk hawker,

          To peddle peddler

V Adj

          to frivol frivolous

N Adj greed greedy

V Adv

        to grovel groveling

V compounds

To tongue–tie tongue-tied  

To house-break house-breaker  

     ABREVIATION

     JUST FOR FUN…

The following paragraph is an entertaining way to demonstrate the many popular initials that are heard spoken by members of any age group. Note that the following initials are extremely popular and common to all Native Americans.

“Get a B.L.T. (a sandwich: bacon, lattice, tomato) and an O.J. (orange juice) for the V.P. (Vice President)A.S.A.P. (as soon as possible), O.K? Then go pick up the T.V. and V.C.R. (video cassette recorder) and go borrow the P.C. from your father’s C.P.A. (certified public accountant) and the C.D. from your friend the D.J., the one with B.O.P.U(body odor phew) ! If you can’t fit it all in your V.W(vervolwer)., then use my R.V.(recreational vehicle=motorhome) but don’t touch the C.B. (Citizens’ Band (radio) I got really P.O.’d (pissed off) at the last guy who drove my car ‘cause he was wearing nothing but P.J.s (pyjamas) then got a D.U.I. (driving under influence) from the C.H.P. (California Highway Patrol) and ended up in the E.R. (emergency room) in a hospital in L.A. hooked up to an I.V. (intravenous) and that’s no B.S!”(bullshit)

          BLENDING

Blends

Blendings

Fusions

Pormanteau words

Blends – an error in which two words or phrases are combined onto one in speaking, reading, writing, singing.

foreigncy (foreign + currency)

Sprinkling (spring + cleaning)

Nominal Compound-Blends

Screamager 

screaming + teenager

Busnapper <

bus + kidnapper

Neednessity <  

need + necessity

Bromidiom <

bromide + idiom

Beermare <

beer + night + mare

Nightscaping <

night landscaping

Bomphlet <

bomb + pamphlet

Adjectival Com-Blends;

Solemncoly <

solemn + melancholy

Verbal Comp. Blends:

 Smoothercate <

smoother + suffocate

Distrubut. Models: 

      AD, ABD, ACD

A – начальный элемент   1-го слова

B – конечный элемент

1-го слова

C – начальный элемент    2-го слова

D – конечный элемент

2-го слова

Recent examples:

Acrobatics    Autocide

Edutament   Kidult

Faction  Flunk  Oxbridge

Тематическая классификация редупликативов

Секс            Музыка      

Fig-fig

Gi-gi

La-la

Papa

She-she

Наркотики

Ju-ju

Dizzy-wizzy

Bo-bo

Shi-shi

Tragic-magic

Гангстеры  - полицейские

Cop-shop

County-mounty

Chop-shop

Gang-bang

Hush-hush

Bang-bang

Wah-wah

Popsy-wopsy

Boogie-woogie

Root-toot-toot

Военная

Служба

Fling-wing

Fly-fly boy

Bow-bow

Haba haba

Ta-ta

Woof-woof

Bee-bee

Rusty-dusty

Dust-dust

Boom-boom

Huff-duff

Деньги

Jingle-jangle

Oofty-goofty

Boo-boo

Lu-lu

Duc-ducs

Funny-money

Mean-green

Синонимические Ряды

Редупликативов

Чушь, пустая болтовня

Blah-blah

Hocus-pocus

Chin-chin

Talk-talk

Yak-yak

Yatata-yatata

Yuk-yuk

Uble-guble

Chit-chat

Chitte-chatter

Yackety-yak

Wiggle-waggle

Fiddle-faddle

Holly-golly

Slang-whang

Abba-dabba

Abracadabra

Gibber-gabber

О.К.

Hunkie-dunkie

Okey-dokey

Okle-dokle

A-OK

Akey-okey

Великолепный

Bitchen-twitchen

Super-duper

Tip-top

Ducky-wucky

Wonderful-schmonderful

Rooting-tooting

Killer-diller

Hot-shot

Hotsy-totsy

Hipper-dipper

Дурак, сумасшедший

Foo-foo

Dum-dum

Dumb-dumb

Dead-head

Yo-yo

Hoddy-dobby

Gaga

Coo-coo

Ding-a-ling

Nitwit

Обман

Razz-matazz

Hanky-panky

Flim-flam

Razzle-dazzle

Jiggery-pokery

Hocus-pocus

Hotsie-totsie

Razzle-dazzle

Пьяный

Zig-zag

Dee-dee

Coo-coo

Boozy-woozy

DD

Rum-dumb

Skunk-drunk

N

-y(ie)

-er

(-or)

-ure

-ury   

-ion

 Housie-housie

       Домик

Anchor-clanker

     Моряк

Culture-vulture

  Любитель      искусства

Century-schmentury

      Век

Motion-lotion

   Бензин

Adj

-y(ie)

-ful    

Classy-chassy

Привлекатель-ная женская фигура

Careful-schmareful

Аккуратный

P-le 1

-ing

Rooting-tooting

Восхитительный

Основные модели образования редупликативов

Модель

Пример

N+N

Culture-vulture

Любитель

Искусства

A+A

Teeny-weeny

Крохотный

A+N

Fat-cat

Богатый человек

V+V

Win-win

Взаимовыгодный

Ving+Ving

Rooting-tooting

Восхитительный

НОМИНАЛИЗАЦИЯ

(П.В. Царев)

breath-takingly (поразительно)

long-awaited (message)

paper-thin

the 20000-dollar-a-year-job

four-in-a-room-arrangement

a sit-down dinner party

out-of-office hours

forget-me-not gaze

don’t give-me-a-damn attitude

a £63-a week pay claim

one-person operated

                TEST in LEXICOLOGY

  1.   The word radar is the case of:
    1.  conversion
    2.  borrowing
    3.  abbreviation
    4.  back-formation

  1.   Define the type of Word-formation of the word fall out, adj.:
    1.  Conversion
    2.  suffixation
    3.  borrowing
    4.  conversion and composition

  1.  The word slimnastics is the case of:
    1.  abbreviation
    2.  blending
    3.  back-formation
    4.  borrowing

  1.   The words dog-legged, left-handed are:
    1.  root words
    2.  derivatives
    3.  compound words
    4.  compound derivatives

  1.   The suffix –ity found in the words cruelty, oddity, purity, stupidity is a …
    1.  denominal suffix
    2.  deverbal suffix
    3.  noun-forming suffix
    4.  adjective- forming

  1.   The prefix fore- in the word foreknowledge means …
    1.  ‘before’
    2.  ‘placed at the front’
    3.  ‘inside, within’
    4.  ‘after’

  1.   The structural pattern of the word heavy-hearted is …
    1.  a + (n + -ed)
    2.  (a + n) + -ed
    3.  (a + n) + -sf
    4.  a + n + -ed

  1.   The word globesity is a
    1.  shortening
    2.  blend
    3.  acronym
    4.  initialism
  2.  The word red-brick is a …
    1.  nominal compound
    2.  adjectival-nominal compound
    3.  verbal-nominal compound
    4.  adverbial compound

  1.   The noun look-see meaning ‘a brief look of inspection’ is a …
    1.  compound proper
    2.  reduplicative compound
    3.  derivational compound
    4.  derivative


 

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