88553

Gepatit A

Реферат

Медицина и ветеринария

The source of the pathogen is sick subclinical or symptomatic form of the disease. The virus is excreted in the feces of sick for 2-3 weeks, starting with the incubation period, and stored in the first days of jaundice. Particular epidemiological significance patients with beszheltushnymi, blurred forms of hepatitis A.

Английский

2015-05-02

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.Gepatit A - an acute viral infection anthroponotic belonging to the group of intestinal infections with fecal-oral transmission mechanism, characterized by a primary lesion of the liver, with a predominance of mild.

4-5.Virus hepatitis A belongs to the family Picornaviridae, genus gepatnovirusy. This virus consists of a protein capsule or capsid 27 nm in diameter, within which there is a single stranded RNA molecule. The hepatitis A virus is highly resistant to adverse environmental factors. The lyophilized samples may be kept at 25 ° C for at least 30 days. Heating to 60 ° C for 10-12 hours results in only a partial inactivation of the virus. Boiling destroys the virus of hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is insoluble in fats, resistant to solvents and, like other enteroviruses can persist for a long time under acidic conditions.

6.Esche 1888 SP Botkin suggested the infectious nature of catarrhal jaundice, epidemic, which from time to time observed since ancient times, and have not its relationship with cirrhosis and "acute yellow atrophy" of the liver.

In 1898, at the suggestion of AA Kessel disease was given the name "infectious disease".

In 1973, S. Feinstone opened hepatitis virus A, the causative agent of the so-called "military jaundice" of the Middle Ages, which allowed later to get the culture of antigen required to create diagnostic tests and vaccine development, which was obtained in 90 years.

To date, known hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, G, TTV, SEN-V, and the list continues to grow

7-8 .. The source of the pathogen is sick subclinical or symptomatic form of the disease. The virus is excreted in the feces of sick for 2-3 weeks, starting with the incubation period, and stored in the first days of jaundice. Particular epidemiological significance patients with beszheltushnymi, blurred forms of hepatitis A.

Fecal-oral mechanism of infection with hepatitis A is realized through water, food, household contact-way. Particularly dangerous waterway distribution, which is caused by fecal contamination of water bodies that serve as a source of water supply. Contact-household path is due to the low level sankultury and often implemented in children's groups. Registered group diseases associated with food mode of transmission. Importance as sources of infection are persons engaged in cooking, sellers of foodstuffs. The incidence of hepatitis A among male homosexuals than among heterosexuals. Hepatitis A can sometimes be transmitted sexually.

 1.Klinicheskoe within the lung. In most cases there are only nonspecific symptoms: slight fever, weakness, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea.

.

9-10.Simptomy.

 The incubation period of hepatitis A usually lasts 14-28 days.

The symptoms of hepatitis A may be mild to severe. They may include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, dark urine and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes). Not all infected people exhibit all the symptoms.

Signs and symptoms in adults are more common than in children, and the probability of severe and death is higher in the elderly. Infected children aged up to six years is usually not observed any noticeable symptoms, and only 10% develop jaundice. Among older children and adults, infection usually causes more severe symptoms, with jaundice occurring in more than 70% of cases

11-12 .Otmechayut summer-autumn season morbidity, reflecting a pronounced enhancement of skidding (importation) infection from disadvantaged areas with migration flows and the supply of various food products of poor quality, realized in terms of wholesale and unauthorized (street) trade. Among adults, the risk of infection with viral hepatitis. And first of all workers exposed to foodservice, kitchens and medical, children, health and other institutions. High risk further relates servicemen and persons traveling or residing in unimproved sanitation and communal respect of the territory is used for household purposes water from open reservoirs, as well as medical staff. In recent years, the risk groups began to rank individuals with chronic diseases of the liver and biliary tract, homosexuals and drug addicts, as among them are described clusters of cases of hepatitis A.

14. Prevention

Good hygiene, disinfection regime in hospitals

Compliance with the rules of preparation, transportation, food distribution

Mode of water treatment and water

Vaccinal

treatment

Patients prescribed bed rest for a period of pronounced intoxication syndrome and nutrition. In the diet exclude refractory fats difficult digestible meats (lamb, pork, waterfowl), fried foods, canned foods, pickles, onions, garlic and spices. Alcohol is strictly forbidden. Recommended for lacto-vegetarian food. Additionally, the food groups added vitamins C and B.

15. In developing countries with very poor sanitation and hygienic practices, the majority of children (90%) acquire hepatitis A virus infection before they reach 10 years of age. People infected in childhood, do not experience any noticeable symptoms. Epidemics are uncommon because older children and adults tend to have immunity. Incidence rates with clinical manifestations in these areas are low and outbreaks are rare.

Areas with medium-prevalence

In developing countries, countries with economies in transition, and regions with varying sanitation children often escape infection in early childhood. But, paradoxically, these improved economic and sanitary conditions can lead to the appearance of increased sensitivity in the older age groups and higher disease rates due to the fact that the infection becoming teenagers and adults. There may be large outbreaks.

Areas with low prevalence

In developed countries with good sanitary and hygienic conditions infection is low. Disease may occur among adolescents and adults in high-risk groups, such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, people who travel to areas of high endemicity, as well as in isolated populations, such as closed religious community.

16. In recent years the Russian Federation has been a significant

reduce morbidity index with 79.5 per 100 thousand. Population in 2001. to

never before recorded level of 6.3 in 2010

The sharp decline in the incidence of some scientists

due to the decline in fertility and the consequent reduction

the number of children attending kindergartens, reductions

number of traveling in the summer months in the southern regions of the country in the camp

recreation and a number of other social

factors contributing to the latent virus circulation-pathogen

hepatitis A, which ensures the formation of a high-level

herd immunity. The problem of viral hepatitis A, despite a reduction in morbidity, which is observed in recent years, both in Russia and in other countries around the world continue to be valid.

Viral hepatitis A treat for intestinal infections, which are most prevalent in the world. According to WHO, the world each year about 1.4 million. Of cases [13]. However, the spread of viral hepatitis A in the territories is extremely uneven.

Russia as a whole is a region with intermediate endemicity, while in some territories incidence rates vary considerably in the different parts of the country range from 9 to 210 per 100 thousand. Population [67]


 

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