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CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF GRAMMAR

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Учебное пособие является продолжением издания, разъясняющего употребление грамматических явлений английского языка. Во второй части пособия содержатся упражнения разнообразного характера, позволяющие закрепить и усвоить теоретический грамматический материал, изложенный в первой части пособия.

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2015-05-07

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра иностранных языков

A.M. Митина, А.А. Курылев, Е.В. Новоженина,

О.В. Леднева, А.В. Олянич, Н.В. Багметова

CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF GRAMMAR

Учебное пособие

по грамматике английского языка

для основного и дополнительного образования

Часть вторая

Под общей редакцией A.M. Митиной

РПК «ПОЛИТЕХНИК»

Волгоград

ББК Ш. 143.21-929

Рецензенты

доктор филологических наук, профессор В.И. Карасик

кандидат филологических наук, доцент Покровская Я.А.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета

Волгоградского государственного технического университета

Check Your Knowledge of Grammar: Учебное пособие / Митина А.М., Курылев А.А., Новоженина Е.В., Леднева О.В., Олянич А.В., Багметова Н.В. Под ред. А.М. Митиной / ВолгГТУ, Boлгоград, 2000. - 54 c.

ISBN 5-230-03742-3

Учебное пособие является продолжением издания, разъясняющего употребление грамматических явлений английского языка. Во второй части пособия содержатся упражнения разнообразного характера, позволяющие закрепить и усвоить теоретический грамматический материал, изложенный в первой части пособия. Упражнения носят коммуникативный характер и, в отличие от упражнений первой части пособия, имеют целью развить навыки грамотного общения на английском языке.

Пособие предназначено для студентов основного и дополнительного образования.

Библиогр.: 7 назв.

ISBN 5-230-03742-3        

 © Волгоградский государственный

             технический университет

UNIT I 

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

Exercise 1. Put the verb into the correct form.

Examples: Water ….boils ....(boil) at 100 degrees centigrade.

Bob .... doesn’t go .... (not/go) to the cinema very often.

How many languages ....do you speak.... (you/speak)

  1.  The swimming bath ... ... … …(open) at 9.00 and ... … … …(close) at 18.30 every day.
  2.  What time … … … …(the banks/close) in Britain?
  3.  I have a car but I … … … …(not/use) it very often.
  4.  How many cigarettes … … … …(you/smoke) a day?
  5.  ‘What … … …(you/do)?’ ‘I’m an electrical engineer.’
  6.  ‘Where … … … …(your father/come) from?’ ‘He … …(come) from Scotland.’
  7.  If you need money, why ... ... … …(you/not/get) a job.
  8.  I … … … …(play) the piano, but I ... ... ... ...(not/play) very well.
  9.  Rice ... ... … …(not/play) in Britain.

Exercise 2. Use the sentences to make questions. Begin your question with the word(s) in brackets.

Examples: Tom plays tennis. (How often?) … …Haw often does Tom play tennis?

Ann watches television. (How often?) How often ............…………....................

I write to my parents. (How often?) ...............................………………...............

I have dinner in the evening. (What time/usually?).......………............................

George works. (Where?) ..........................................…………………….............

I go to the cinema. (How often?) .............................…………………….............

People do stupid things. (Why?) .............................………………......................

The cur breaks down. (How often?) ..…………............................……................

Bob plays tennis. (When?).………………............................................................

He lives in city. (Where?)………………..............................................................

My parents are happy. (Why?)..................…………….........................................

Exercise 3. Read the sentences and correct them. The English is correct but the information is wrong.

Example: The sun goes round the earth. The sun doesn’t go round the earth.

The earth goes round the sun.

  1.  The sun rises in the west …………………………….………….………............
  2.  Mice catch cats .…………………………..………..………….….……….........
  3.  Carpenters make things from metal .......……………………..............................
  4.  The River Amazon flows into the Pacific Ocean……………..............................
  5.  Water boils at 50 degrees Celsius……………………………….........................

Exercise 4. Read the sentences about Brian Johnson and arrange them in the correct order.

Here is a typical day for Brian Johnson.

He goes to work by underground.

He gets up at 7 30.

He works for an advertising agency in Manchester.

It makes him 30 minutes to get to the agency.

He usually has lunch in the agency canteen.

He starts work at 9 o’clock.

He has breakfast at 8 o’clock.

He goes to bed at about 11.

After dinner he watches TV or goes out with his wife.

He finishes work at 5.

Then he goes home and has dinner.

What is your typical day like? Describe it please.

Exercise 5. Welcome to Stanleys International Restaurant! It is very special place. Every day Stanley cooks a different kind of food. Work to pairs according to models 1 and 2. Use Stanley’s menu:

Model 1: - What kind of food does Stanley cook on Monday?

 - On Monday he cooks Italian food.

 - Do you go to Stanley’s International Restaurant on Wednesday?

 - Yes, I do.

 - Why?

 - Because I enjoy Chinese food.

  - And do you go there on Sunday?

 - No. I don’t. I don’t like American food.

Model 2: - What kind of food do you like?

 - I like Russian food.

 - When do you go to Stanley’s International restaurant?

 - I don’t go there.

 - Why?

 - Because Stanley doesn’t cook Russian food.

STANLEY’S MENU

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Italian food

Greek food

Chinese food

French food

Japanese food

Mexican food

American food

Exercise 6. Harry Jordan’s wife is upset with her husband. That’s what she say to him:

“Harry! I’m really upset! When we sit in the living room, you always watch TV and never look at me. When we eat breakfast together, you always read the newspaper and never talk to me. When we go to parties, you usually sit with your friends and seldom dance with me. And you are lazy! You never help mi. When our windows are dirty, you never wash them. When our car is broken, you never fix it. And when our cats are hungry, you never feed them. Sometimes I think you don’t love me.”

Now imagine that you are the Jordan family’s neighbour. You tell another neighbour why Harry’s wife is upset with him.

Exercise 7. Answer these questions and then ask another student in your class:

What kind of movies do you like? (comedies, dramas, westerns, war movies, science fiction, cartoons)

Who is your favourite movie actor/actress?

What kind of books do you like? (novels, poetry, short stories, detectives)

Who is your favourite writer?

What kind of TV programs do you like? (comedies, talk-shows, news, sport events, soap operas, musical TV)

What is your favourite food?

What kind of music do you like? (classical music, jazz, rock-n-roll)

Which sports do you like? (football, baseball, golf; hockey, tennis)

THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Exercise 8. Read a sentence about the present and then write a sentence about the past.

Example. John usually gets up at 7.30. Yesterday …… he got up at7.30……………

John usually wakes up early. Yesterday morning …………………............….........

John usually walks to work Yesterday ..........……………………............…............

John is usually late for work. Yesterday .………………..........................…............

John usually has a sandwich for lunch. Yesterday …………..…..............................

John usually goes out in the evening. Yesterday evening ………….........…............

John usually reads newspapers in the evening. Yesterday evening ...………….......

John usually writes letters to his friends. Yesterday ...................…….……………

John usually sleeps well. Last night .......................…………………………..........

Exercise 9. Make up questions. Ask your friend about his holiday.

Examples: where / go?  Where did you go?……………

food/good?  Was the food good?……………

1) how long / stay there? 2) stay in a hotel? 3) go alone? 4) how / travel? 5) the weather / fine? 6) what /do in the evenings? 7) meet any interesting people?

Exercise 10. Put the verbs into the correct form. All the sentences are past.

Example: I... didn’t go …… (not/go) to work yesterday because I … wasn’t … (not/be) very well

  1.  Tom ...……(not/shave) this morning because he ……… (not/have) time.
  2.  We ………(not/eat) anything because we ………(not/be) hungry.
  3.  I .....………(not/rush) because I ……………(not/be) in a hurry.
  4.  She ....…….(not/be) interested in the book because she ........(not/understand) it.
  5.  He ..……....(not/invite) me to the party, so I …………….(not/come).

Exercise 11.  A) Steve Baxter is a journalist He’s a very busy man. Look at Steve’s diary and see what he did last week.

                    B) Ask all types of questions on Steve’s daily activities last week.

Monday 21st

 9.00 - visit the BBC Television Centre

14.00 - opening the art museum

Tuesday 22nd

10.15 - interview Lord Harley

14 15 - press conference at the British Museum

Wednesday 23rd

 9.30 - discuss new project with Mr. Short

15.00 - meet reporters from Canada

Thursday 24th

11.00 - interview Sam Jones

14 00 - press conference at Hilton Hotel

Friday 25th

10.00 - phone Scotland Yard (Chief Inspector Marks)

                    C) Tell your classmates about your activities last week.

THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences with I’ll + a suitable verb. Choose the verbs from the list below:

Have, turn, go, phone, get. do.

Example: I’m too tired to walk home. I think....... I’ll get ........a taxi.

1) I feel a bit hungry. I think ....………...... something to eat. 2) It’s too late to telephone Tom now. I think ………….… him in the morning. 3) ‘It’s a bit cold in this room.’ – ‘Is it? .......………….. on the heating then.’ 4) ‘We haven’t got any cigarettes.’ – ‘Oh, haven’t we ? ………………. and get some. 5) ‘Did you write that letter to Jack?’ – Oh, I forgot. Thanks for reminding me ....………. it this evening. 6) ‘Would you like tea or coffee?’ – ‘………....... coffee, please.’

Exercise 13. Use  I think I’ll... or  I think I won’t....

Examples: It’s cold. You decide to close the window. – I think I’ll close the window.

It’s raining You decide not to go out - I think I won’t go out.

You feel tired. You decide to go to bed – I………………………………………..

A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. - Thank you but I.……………………....

You arranged to play tennis. Now you decide that you don’t want to play………….

You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don’t want to go………

Now talk to your partner. He/she suggest that you do something, and you either accept it, or not, as in the following example:

A: There’s a good program in the concert hall. Let’s go there!

B: I think I won’t go. I have a lot to get prepared to the tomorrow test.

Exercise 14. Answer the questions using the words in brackets.

Example: When do you think he’ll arrive? (expect / tonight) - I expect he’ll arrive tonight.

What do you think she’ll say? (probably/nothing) She ......…………………...

Where do you think she’ll go? (expect / London) I ..............…………………

When do you think she’ll leave? (think / tomorrow) I ……………..................

How do you think she’ll go there? (expect / by train) I ……………….............

When do you think she’ll be back? (think /quite soon) I ………………….......

Do you think you’ll miss her? (I’m sure /very much) Yes, ……………….......

Exercise 15. All the sentences in this exercise are about the future. Put the verbs into the correct form: will / won’t or the present simple.

Example: When I ...see ...(see) Tom tomorrow, I… ’ll tell ….(tell) him about it.

1) Before you .......(leave), don’t forget to shut the windows. 2) I ……… (phone) you as soon as I ……….. (arrive) in London. 3) Please don’t touch anything before the police ........... (come). 4) When you ……… (see) Brian again, you ....... (not / recognize) him. 5) We …………. (not / start) dinner until Jack .....….(arrive) 6) If I ……….. (need) any help, I ……………. (ask) you. 7) …………. (you / be) ........ lonely without me while I …………….. (be) away. 8) Everyone …………. (be) very surprised if he .......... (pass) the exam.

UNIT 2

THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

Exercise 1. Put the verb into the correct form.

Example:  Please don’t make so much noise. I ...... am studying....... (study).

Let's go out now. It .......isn’t raining .......(not/rain) any more.

Listen to those people. What language ....are they speaking…(they/speak)?

l) Please be quiet! I ………….…..(try) to concentrate. 2) Look! It ……………(snow). 3) Why …………..(you / look) at me like that? 4) You ……….....(make) a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter? 5) Excuse me, I .……….......(look) for a phone box. Is there one near here? 6) Listen! Can you hear those people next door? They ……..(shout) at each other again. 7) Why …...…......(you / wear) your coat today? It’s very warm. 8) I ………..(not / work) this week. I’m on holiday. 9) I want to lose weight. I .......….........(not / eat) anything today. 10) (in the cinema) It’s a good film, isn’t it? ...................(you / enjoy) it?

Exercise 2. Answer the questions using the words given in brackets:

Model:       - What are the girls doing? (to have lunch)

They are having lunch.

1) What’s the cook doing? (to fry some potatoes). 2) What are the girls doing now? (to discuss the menu) 3) What’s the woman doing? (to eat Aunt Mary’s apple pie) 4) What are those people doing? (to have coffee) 5) What’s the cook doing now? (to finish his work).

Exercise 3. Complete these sentences using one of these verbs:

get become change rise improve fall increase

You don’t have to use all the verbs and you can use some of them more than once.

Example: The population of the world ………… is increasing ……… very fast.

1) The number of people of the world without jobs ................ at the moment. 2) He is still ill but he ........……… better slowly. 3) These days food …....…... more and more expensive. 4) The world ………............ Things never stay the same. 5) The cost of living …………….. Every year things are dearer. 6) When George arrived to Spain his Spanish wasn’t very good but now it …………….. 7) The economic situation is already very bad and it...................worse.

Exercise 4. Answer as in the model:

Model:  - Are the girls going to have breakfast? (lunch)

- No, they are going to have lunch.

1) Are the girls going to have meat soup? (mushroom soup). 2) Is Jane going to have fish? (a hamburger). 3) Are they going to have fruit salad? (vegetable salad). 4) Is the woman going to have Aunt Ann’s apple pie? (Aunt Mary’s apple pie). 5) Are the girls going to have spaghetti with their fish? (fried potatoes)

Exercise 5. Ask questions making use of the given words:

Model:         - Jane’s talking to the waiter. (Who)

- Who is Jane talking to?

- The girls are waiting for the order. (What)

- What are the girls waiting for?

1) Nancy’s looking at the people in the bar. (Who). 2 The cook’s frying potatoes for them. (Who). 3) Jane’s reading the menu for Nancy. (Who). 4) She’s pointing at something. (What). 5) The girls are laughing at something. (What). 6) The waiter’s listening to the girls. (Who). 7) They are asking the waiter for some juice (What).

Exercise 6. Put the verb into the correct form, present progressive or present simple.

I ……… (not/belong) to a political party.

Hurry! The bus …………. (come). I ………………. (not/want) lo miss it.

The River Nile .............. (flow) into the Mediterranean.

The river .... ……….. (flow) very fast today - much faster than usual.

…………….. (it/ever/snow) in India?

You can borrow my umbrella. I………......... (not need) it at the moment.

George says he’s 80 years old but I ………....... (not/believe) him.

We usually …. (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we …... (not/grow) any.

Ron is in London at the moment. He ……… (stay) at the Hilton Hotel.

He usually ……..... (stay) at the Hilton Hotel when he’s in London.

Exercise 7. Imagine what your friend (brother, sister, mother, father) is doing at the moment and tell your classmates.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Exercise 8. A group of people were staying in a hotel. One evening the fire alarm rang. Use the words in brackets to make sentences saying what each person was doing at the time.

Example: (Don / have / a bath)......... Don was having a bath………

(Ann / write / a letter in her room) Ann …………………………………….

(George / get / ready to go out) George ……………………………………

(Carol and Dennis / have / dinner) Carol and Dennis ………………………

(Tom / make / a phone call) Tom ……………………………………….......

(Jane and Hilary / watch TV) Jane and Hilary .....…………………………..

(His friends / play cards) His friends ...................…………………………..

(Mrs. White / listen / to the play / on the radio) Mrs. White .……………….

(My wife and I / talk / to you / the other day) My wife and I ……………...

Exercise 9. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verbs into the correct form, past simple or past continuous.

Example: (I / fall / asleep when I / watch / television) - I fell asleep when I was watching television.

(The phone / ring / when I have /a shower) The phone ……………………………

(It / begin / to rain when I / walk / home) ................…………………………….....

(We / see / an accident when we /wait / for the bus) ...………….............................

(Mary / wear / her new dress when I / meet her) ...................…………………..

(The sick child / sleep when the doctor / come) .........................…………………...

(I / come / into the room when Jill / play / the piano).......……………….................

(It / rain when we / go out)............................................…………………………….

(John / get off / the train while it / go) ………………………………..…………...

(He / have twenty-five accidents while he / learn / to drive)……………………….

(The little boy / fish when he / fall / into the river)…………………………............

Exercise 10. Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

Example: While Jane …. was cooking … (cook) dinner, the phone … rang … (ring).

1) Sam .……… (fall) off the ladder while he ………… (paint) the ceiling. 2) Last night I …………. (read) in bed when suddenly I (hear) a scream. 3) …………... (you/watch) television when I phoned you? 4) Ann ........…... (wait) for me when I ……....... (arrive). 5) I ............... (not/drive) very fast when the accident ........ (happen). 6) I …….. (break) a plate last night. I .………. (do) the washing-up when it ........….. (slip) out of my hand. 7) Tom .………… (take) a photograph of me while I ................(not/look) 8) We ......... (not/go) out because it ..……………(rain). 9) What ........... (you/do) at this time yesterday? 10) I ……………. (see) Carol at the party. She …………… (wear) a really beautiful dress.

Exercise 11. Ask questions to the statements made by a fellow student:

Model:         - I called Mary last night. (what; to do)

- What was Mary doing when you phoned her?

1) I heard their voices in the office. (what; to speak about). 2) I met John in the street at three o’clock. (where; to go). 3) I saw Helen when I looked out of the window. (why; to stand there). 4) At seven I came to the Browns’. (what; to do). 5) After dinner I turned on the radio (what; they; to broadcast). 6) I saw them In the department store (what; to buy).

Exercise 12. Say a) what the member of your family were doing when you came home yesterday; b) what your group-mates were doing when you came to the University this morning.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Exercise 13. Make up your own conclusions using the Future Continuous Tense.

Example:  I’m going to watch television from 9 until 10 o’clock this evening.

So at 9 30 I ………. will be watching television..................... .

1. Tomorrow afternoon I’m going to play tennis from 3 o’clock until 4.30.

   So at 4 o’clock tomorrow I ……………………………………...............

2. Jim is going to study from 7 o’clock until 10 o’clock this evening.

   So at 8.30 this evening he .............…………………................................

3. We are going to clean the flat tomorrow. It will take from 9 unlit 11 o’clock.

   So at 10 o’clock tomorrow morning .……………....................................

4. You are going to write letters to your friends from 6 until 8 tonight.

   So at 7 o’clock tonight ..............………………..........................................

5. Tomorrow morning Jack is going to repair his car from 8 until 12 o’clock.

   So at 11 o’clock he’ll be repairing his car.

Exercise 14. Answer using the Future Continuous Tense:

Model:         - What will you be doing at this time tomorrow (to fly to New York)

- I’ll be flying to New York at this time.

1) Who will you be talking to at 3 o’clock? (the director). 2) What’ll the husband be doing while his wife’s making the cake? (to watch TV). 3) What work will they be doing the whole day tomorrow? (to paper the walls). 4) Will he be translating an article or reading a book from 3 to 5? (to translate an article). 5) Where will you be living at this time next year? (in Chicago). 6) What time will he be passing our house? (at 11 o’clock)

Exercise 15. Put the verbs into the correct form: future simple or future continuous.

1) Sit down and fasten your seat belt. We .…… (take off) in a few minutes. 2) When ................. (you/go) to the bank to draw some money? 3) Do you think .......... (still/work) here in five years’ time? 4) The President ............ (meet) the Prime Minister before flying back home. 5) We .………...... (drive) to London next Monday morning. 6) This time next year I ..………... (write) my memoirs. 7) I don’t think I .............. (see) him tonight. 8) In five years’ time a permanent space station ……….. (circle) the moon. 9) They ............(sail) from Dover, not Folkestone. 10) So you’re stopping off in Dubai on your way to Beijing. How long ................ (you/stay) there? 11) We ........... (spend) the winter in Australia.

Exercise 16. Share your plans with your classmates and ash them in return:

- What will you be doing tomorrow at 6 o’clock (all morning, next Sunday, at 10 o’clock on Wednesday, from 7 to 9 tonight)?

UNIT 3

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Exercise 1. You are writing a letter to a friend and giving news about people you both know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verb into the correct form.

Example: Phill / find a new job. ........... Phill has found a new job..................

Dear Chris, lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

Charles / go / Brazil ………………………………………..............................

Jack and Jill / decide / to gel married ..........………………………..................

Suzanne / have / a baby ……………………………………….........................

Monica / give up / smoking …………………………………………………..

George / pass / his driving-test …………………………………......................

Exercise 2. Complete the situation. Use the verbs given.

Example: Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. (lose) …. He has lost it. .......

  1.  Ann’s hair was dirty. Now it is clean. (wash) She ...………………………………
  2.  Bob was 80 kilograms. Now he weighs 70. (lose weight) He ..........………............
  3.  Yesterday Bill was playing football. Now he can’t walk and his leg is in plaster. (break) He…………………………..........................................................................
  4.  Mr. Brown knows much. (read a lot) He .................………………………………
  5.  The girl is crying. (fall down) She ..…………………………………………….....
  6.  Kate is very happy. (do well in all her exams) She …………………......................
  7.  I don’t remember where Steve lives. (forget one’s address) I .........………….........

Exercise 3. Ask your classmate about things he has done in his life. Use the words in brackets to make your questions.

Example: (you ever / be / to Italy?) ………Have you ever been to Italy?……………

(You ever / be / to South America?) ...............................……………………..........

(You / read / any English books?) ………………………........................................

(You /live / in this town all your life?) ........……………………………………….

(How many times / you / be in love?) ...…………………………………………...

(You ever / speak / to a famous person?) ……………………………………….....

Exercise 4. Give negative answers to your classmate’s questions. Put verbs in the  Present Perfect Tense:

Model:         - Are the girls still having their lunch?

- No, they aren’t. They’ve already had it.

1) Are they still studying the menu? 2) Are they still eating the mushroom soup? 3) Is the waiter still taking their order? 4) Is the cook still frying French fries? 5) Are the girls still having tea? 6) Is the woman still eating her apple pie?

Exercise 5. Answer the questions making use of the given words:

Model:         - Have you ever been to Paris? (London)

- No. I’ve never been there. But I’ve been to London.

- Has he ever studied German? (French)

- No, he has never studied German. But he’s studied French.

I) Have you ever attended lectures by Professor Hopkins? (Professor Littlejohn) 2) Has she ever visited Rome? (Madrid) 3) Have you ever seen this picture? (its reproduction) 4) Have you ever received a letter from her? (a postcard) 5) Has your friend ever travelled abroad? (in this country) 6) Have you ever driven a big car? (a bicycle).

Exercise 6. Answer as in the model:

Model:         - When are you going to discuss this book?

- We’ve just discussed it.

1) When are you going to have a meeting?  2) When are you going to call your uncle? 3) When are you going to hand in your essays? 4) When are you going to tell him about it? 5) When are you going to water the flowers?

Exercise 7. Respond as in the model:

Model:         - Have you paid for your lunch yet?

- Not yet. I’m going to pay now.

l) Has he gone to his club yet? 2) Has she washed up the dishes yet? 3) Have they played tennis yet? 4) Have they swum in the pool yet? 5) Has John brought the picture yet? 6) Have they had dinner yet?

Exercise 8. Put the verb into the correct form: present perfect or past simple.

I) My bicycle isn’t here any more. Somebody ... (take) it. 2) I ... (not / eat) anything yesterday because I ... (not / feel) hungry. 3) I just ... (return) from Yalta. - You … (go) there alone? - Together with my son. - How long you … (stay) there? - Three weeks. 4) Your hair looks different. You (have) a haircut? - Yes. - You ... (cut) it yourself? -No, Ann ... (cut) it for me. 5) Look! Somebody ... (spill) milk on the carpet. Well, it … (not/be) me. 6) You ... (see) the film on television last night? 7) … (you / see) your friend this week?

Exercise 9. Make your own conversation Exercise according to the model:

A. What are you going to do tonight?

B. I’m not sure. I really want to see a good movie. I haven’t seen a good movie in a long time.

A. What movie are you going to see?

B. I don’t know. Have you seen any good movie recently?

A. Yes, I have. I saw a very good movie just last week.

B. Really? What movie did you see?

A. I saw «Gone with the Wind

B. Did you like it?

C. I loved it! I think it’s one of the best movies I’ve ever seen.

Use other verbs, objects, titles and places instead of the underlined, such as to see - a play, to read - a book, to eat at - a restaurant, to go to - a discotheque, etc.

Exercise 10. Develop the following situations.

Situation 1. Divide into two teams. Each team is organizing a party. The guests are coming very soon. Get together and find out whether everything is ready like this: «Have you bought the fruit?» «Have you brought records?» Then tell the rest of the class who has done what and whether everything is ready like this: «Mary has bought the fruit», etc. The team that organizes the best party wins.

Situation 2. Work in pairs. You invite your friend to some place, but he/she has already been there, or done smth., or seen. For example:

- Let’s go to the cinema, there is a good film on.

- No, thank you, I have already seen that film.

- Really? When did you see it?

- I saw it yesterday.

Use the following suggestions for your own dialogs: to eat at a restaurant, to get a haircut, to take children to the zoo, to give blood, to go to a concert, to swim in the health club, to wash the car, to bake cookies, to buy bananas, to spend a lot of money in the supermarket? To go to the theatre, to go to the John’s party.

Think of your own suggestions and use them in your dialogs.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

Exercise 11. Make short conversations according to the following model:

- Did you get to the plane on time?

- No, I didn’t. By the time I got to the plane it had already taken off.

Use the following instead of the underlined words:

Concert - to begin, post office - to close, train - to leave, lecture - to end, movie- to start, meeting - to finish, bank - to close, boa - to sail away, parade - toy by.

Exercise 12. Make conversations according to the following sample talk:

- Have you heard about Harry!

- No, I haven’t. What happened?

- He broke his leg last week.

- That’s terrible! How did he do that?

- He was playing football and he had never played football before.

- Poor Harry! I hope he feels better soon.

Use the following names and actions: Tom (to twist his arm, to fly a kite), Doris (to break her finger, to play tennis), Vincent (to burn himself, to bake bread), Peggy (lo get hurl in an accident, to ride his bicycle), Edward (to get a black eye, to box), Stella (lo lose her voice, to sing a song), a dog (to break its front teeth, to bite a bone).

Practice more conversations with names and actions invented on your own.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Exercise 13. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) In a fortnight’s time we … (pass) our exams. 2) I … (finish) this book by tomorrow evening. 3) By the end of next year I … (be) here twenty-five years. 4) By next winter they … (build) four houses in that field. 5) By the end of the university course I … (attend) 1,200  lectures.  6) By the end of the term I … (read) all the books on the list.  7) He … (finish) the building of the house before summer. 8) After this performance I … (see) ‘Hamlet’ twenty-two times. 9) I hope you … (not) forget all about the Future Perfect Tense by the next lesson.

Exercise 14. Supply the future perfect or the future continuous.

1) They …… (complete) the new bridge by the end of the year. 2) When I get home my dog …… (sit) at the door waiting for me. 3) She …… (leave) for work before the children get home from school. 4) They …… (finish) work on the great dam by the end of this decade. 5) I’ll still be here next summer but Tom …… (leave). 6) When Alex arrives, Jim …… (go) to bed. 7) Before the end of his holiday he …… (spend) all his money. 8) I …… (wait) for you when you come out.

UNIT 4

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINLOUS TENSE

Exercise 1. Read the situation and make up a sentence with the present perfect continuous.

Example: Tom is out of breath. (he/run) …… He has been running.

1) Ann is very tired (she / work / hard) …………all day long. 2) The castle is very old. (it / stand / on that hill / for 900 years) ………… 3) Janet is hot and tired. (she / play / tennis) ………… for two hours. 4) Mike has just come from the beach. He is very red (he / lie/ in the sun) …… all morning. 5) You see a little boy. His eyes are red and watery. (he / cry) …… .

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions yourself, then ask your classmates:

1) How ling have you been studying English? 2) How long have you been living here? 3) How long have you been studying at the University? 4) How long have you been reading the book?

Exercise 3. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous.

1) Look! Somebody … (break) the window. 2) I wonder if John (forget) my number. I … (expect) him to call for the past two hours. 3) You look very upset What … (happen)? 4) You … (not / finish) that book yet? You … (read) it since Monday. 5) The meat must be nearly ready. I … (cook) it for nearly an hour. 6) What you ... (do) for the last two hours? - I ... (sit) here working at this problem.

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Exercise 4. Make up sentences using the verbs in brackets:

1) When I came to see Ann she (to learn the new words) for two hours. 2) When I went out it (to rain) for several hours. 3) When he entered the hall his boss (lo make a report) for hair an hour already. 4) She (to study English) for three months when we met at the Foreign Language Centre).

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Exercise 5. Supply the Future Perfect Continuous tense.

1) By the end of this week I ... (wait) seventeen weeks for my phone to be repaired. 2) Do you realize that on August 15, we … (live) in this house for fifty years? 3) We ... (fly) non-stop for fourteen hours before we get to Calcutta. 4) By this lime next week I ... (work) on this book for a year. 5) By Monday I ... (stay) here for two weeks. 6) By breakfast time he ... (sleep) for ten hours.

UNIT 5

REVISION OF TENSES

Exercise 1. Choose the right tenses.

The Little Girl and the Wolf.

One afternoon a big wolf … (to wait) in a dark forest for a little girl to come along carrying a basket of food to her grandmother. He (to wait) for an hour and a half and was about to loose his patience. Finally a little girl did come along and she … (to carry) a basket of food. ‘(to carry) that basket to your grandmother?’ asked the wolf. The little girl said yes, she was. So the wolf … (ask) her where her mother (to live) and the little girl … (to tell) him and he ... (disappear) into the wood.

When the little girl ... (to open) the door of her grandmother’s house she … (to understand) that something (to happen). There (to be) somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown on. She … (to approach) no nearer than twenty-five feet from the bed when she ... (to see) that it was not her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a nightcap a wolf (not to look) in the least like anybody’s grandmother. So the little girl ... (to lake) an automatic pistol out of her basket and … (to shoot) the wolf dead.

Moral: It is not so easy to fool little girls nowadays as it used to be.

Exercise 2. Translate into English:

1) Мы всегда обсуждаем наши проблемы с родителями. 2) Мы только что продали последний экземпляр этой книги. 3) Как называется журнал, который вы читаете? 4) Завтра в 10 часов утра мы будем  писать сочинение. 5) Пока мама разливала чай, я просматривал утренние газеты. 6) Когда мы приедем домой, они еще будут готовить обед. 7) Вы бывали в США? 8) Я никогда прежде не видела этого фильма. 9) Эти люди смотрят на нас. Вы их знаете? 10) Когда я добрался до станции, уже темнело. 11) Я сообщу вам о результате. когда закончу работу. 12) Я не видел вас целую вечность. Что вы делали последнее время? 13) Я пытаюсь объяснить тебе наш план целый час, а ты меня не слушаешь. 14) Его брат преподает в школе с 1965 года. 15) Он проработал на этом заводе около пяти лет, когда началась война. 16) Он закончил читать доклад, когда я вошел в зал.

UNIT 6

MODAL VERBS

Exercise 1. Complete the sentence using can or be able to.

George has travelled a lot. He …… speak four languages.

I haven’t …… sleep very well recently.

I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never .….. understand him.

I used to …… stand on my head but I can’t do it now.

Ask Ann about your problem. She should …… help you.

You …... see the sea from our bedroom.

You haven’t …… speak English well yet.

Tom .….. drive but he hasn’t got a car.

Spring is coming: you .….. see snowdrops in all the gardens.

I …… smell something burning. What do you think it is?

We need some more oil. - O.K. I …… let you have some this week.

We can use ...... if we are deciding now what to do in the future.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with could or was / were able to.

When Tom was 16, he .….. run 100 metres in 11 seconds.

The fire spread through the building quickly but everyone ...... escape.

My grandfather …… speak five languages.

He …... play tennis very well when he was younger.

They didn’t want to come with us at first but in the end we ...… persuade them.

The boy fell into the river but fortunately we …… rescue him.

It was difficult but they ..…. find our house.

…… you read when you were four?

He ...... already walk when he was ten months old.

He ...... repair the car but it took him a long time.

Through my study window I …… see mountains.

I ……speak French really well when I lived in Paris.

Exercise 3. Comment on the meaning of could.

  1.  Could you call me tonight?
  2.  We could hear nothing but the wind and the noise of the roaring sea.
  3.  She couldn’t have misunderstood you.
  4.  He couldn’t understand the story, as he didn’t know many of the new words.
  5.  I think you can try to make him change his behaviour.
  6.  Could you switch on the light, please? It has become dark in the room.
  7.  He could read and write at the age of five.
  8.  Could this story be true?
  9.  Could you start cooking supper now, please?
  10.   Could I speak to Jane, if she is there?
  11.   He opened his eyes, but to his horror be could see nothing.
  12.   Could I have a look at your newspaper?

Exercise 4. Replace can (could) by its substitute be able to in the correct tense, adding the words in brackets.

  1.  I can give you a book for a couple of days (after I have read it myself).
  2.  I couldn’t understand the rule (before the teacher explained it to me).
  3.  You can earn your living (when you learn some trade).
  4.  She told me she could swim (since she was a child).
  5.  I think I can speak English quite well (in a few months).
  6.  He can play the piano (for many years).
  7.  My mother could make her own clothes (when she was a girl of fifteen).
  8.  She can’t speak French well (not yet).
  9.  I don’t believe computers can think better than we do (in a few years).
  10.   We can travel a lot (one day).

Exercise 5. Change the following sentences into polite requests, using can or could. Comment on the difference.

Switch on the light!

Take my bicycle to the repair-shop!

Tell me the right time!

Pass me the salt!

Book two seats for the Saturday concert!

Fetch me a piece of chalk!

Show us the way to the nearest post-office!

Do some shopping for me!

Tell me when it’s time to go!

Help me for a few minutes!

Exercise 6. To ask for permission to do something you can say:

Can I have...? / Could I have... ? / May I have... ?

Match the questions on the left with the replies to them on the right.

1. May I borrow the car tonight?

Sure, I’d like one too.

2. Can I play your guitar?

Yes, I like Beethoven too.

3. Could I have a lift to the station?

All right. Be careful.

4. May I have another drink, please?

I’m afraid not. It’s got only 5 strings.

5. Can I put this record on?

O.K. Get in. I’m going that way.

6. Could I use the washing machine?

Sure. Scotch, isn’t it?

7. Can I make a cup of tea?

I suppose so, but I’m a bit cold.

8. Can I borrow your umbrella?

Sorry, I’m afraid not. It’s broken.

9. Could I use the phone, please?

I suppose so, but it isn’t raining.

10. May I open the window, please?

Of course, if it isn’t an international call.

Exercise 7. Change each of the following sentences so as to introduce the word may.

Example:  It is possible that he will return later.

He may return later.

It is possible that Jane will be at the meeting tonight.

Perhaps Helen will call you later.

It is possible that Alice is ill.

Possibly the weather will gel warmer tomorrow.

It is possible that she will feel better tomorrow.

Perhaps it will not rain this afternoon.

Perhaps they will enjoy the TV show tonight

Perhaps our hockey team will lose.

It is possible that he will change his mind.

Perhaps this person is an artist.

Exercise 8. Rewrite the following sentences using can, could, may, might.

  1.  It is possible that he is Italian.
  2.  Do you know how to play the piano?
  3.  You are not allowed to speak during the exam.
  4.  It is not possible that they are still on holiday.
  5.  You are not allowed to smoke on the plane.
  6.  It is possible that it will be a nice day tomorrow.
  7.  He didn’t know how to spell ‘conscious’.
  8.  Am I allowed to leave the room?
  9.  I know that isn’t Janet - she is in America.
  10.   Perhaps the game won’t finish before ten.

Exercise 9. Complete the sentences choosing the right word in brackets.

  1.  You (must, have to) come and have a game of tennis with my son. You will be impressed.
  2.  The buses were full and we (must, had to) take a taxi.
  3.  I understand. You (mustn’t, don’t have to) translate.
  4.  You (must, have to) look both ways before crossing the road.
  5.  We’ll book a room for you. You (mustn’t, don’t have to) look for a hotel.
  6.  We’re going by an early flight, so I (must, have to) get up not later than six o’clock tomorrow morning.
  7.  You (mustn’t, don’t have to) drive so fast, there’s a speed limit here.
  8.  You (mustn’t, don’t have to) drive so fast, we’ve still got a lot of time.
  9.  There has been no rain for a week but the forecast says the weather is going to be changeable, so I (must, have to) carry my umbrella all the time.
  10.   ‘I’m sorry I (must, have to) put off our appointment again. I’ve still got a temperature.’ ‘That’s all right. You (must, have to) stay at home till you fell well enough to go out. Get well!’

Exercise 10. Complete these sentences with needn’t, using the following verbs:

come  get  tough  ring  think

worry  write  phone take  try

You ....…..... - my haircut’s not as funny as all that.

You .......….. up yet, because there’s no school today.

He .......….. everything down. Just the name and phone number will do.

She .......….. and see me if she doesn’t want to; I don’t mind.

You ......…... about me. I’m fine.

You ............ I care about you, because I don’t.

Tell him he .......….. the bell; he can just walk straight in.

I’d like to see her today, but it ............ very long.

Just come when you like, any time. You ............ first.

You ........…. to explain. I’m not interested.

Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t or needn’t.

  1.  ‘Do you want me to wait for you?’ ‘No, it’s okay. You …… wait.’
  2.  Tom gave me a letter to post. I …… forget to post it.
  3.  You ..…. come if you don’t want to but I hope you will.
  4.  ‘What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?’ ‘Well, it …… be big – that’s not important. But it ...… have a nice garden – that’s essential.
  5.  We have enough food at home so we …… go shopping today.
  6.  This book is very valuable. You .… look after it very carefully and you ..... lose it.
  7.  You ...… send a telex. I’ll call them.
  8.  We’ve still got a lot of time. We …... hurry.
  9.  At the zoo: Visitors …... feed the animals.
  10.   Passengers …… lean out of the windows.
  11.   I’m tired. I ..…. go to bed early.
  12.   You ......... disturb your sister while she’s is working.

Exercise 12. Read about the situation and write sentences with ought to / ought not to. Some of the sentences are past, and some are present.

Example: Andrew is very upset. You shouted angrily at him.

You ought not to have shouted angrily at him.

Beatrice is in hospital. Her son hasn’t been to see her. He .......…..

I live in York. You went there last week but you didn’t visit me. You .………..

The kids used Chris’s new CD player without his permission. They ....……..

The apple trees have lots of ripe fruit on them but no one can be bothered to pick it so it will be wasted. Someone ...…….

Darren is five. He’s playing with a box of matches. He …………

You’ve bought a new microwave oven. You thought the manufacturers provided it with an instruction leaflet, but you can’t find it. There ………….

We called at our friend’s house but she was out. We hadn’t phoned her before we left home. We …….........

Exercise 13.

A. Put the words in the following sentences in the correct order.

l) have how we to do many write compositions?

2) with you help needn’t the shopping.

3) needn’t you gone much to so have trouble.

4) to just I’ve got pass.

5) to you often have do weekend study at the?

6) are how words write we to many supposed?

7) mustn’t ink use you.

8) draft to we need do write a?

9) fill do have to up I?

10) you what it supposed do think is be to?

B. Now match each of the sentences above to an appropriate response below. Write the number of the sentence in the gap.

a. Between 120 and 180.

b. I know, but I’d like to.

c. What am I supposed to write with then?

d. Don’t worry. I’m sure you will.

e. The letter from Part 1 and another question from Part 2.

f. Yes, I’m afraid I do

g. It was a pleasure.

h. No, we have enough petrol.

i. No, but you should always plan your work before you start to write.

j. I have no idea. Maybe the sun.

Exercise 14. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the meaning of be + infinitive.

1.What am I to do?

2. Ann was to arrive on Saturday.

3. What were we to prepare for today?

4. What is to be done?

5. They reached the hotel where they were to put up for a few days.

6. He is a strange person, but that does not mean that he is to be laughed at.

7. Everybody is to judge for himself.

8. What we are to talk about next, I cant imagine.

9. If we are to guide our guests about the town we must hurry.

10. I’m sorry, I was to have called you but I forgot.

11. We are to get a wage rise.

12. You are not to make hour-long phone calls.

Exercise 15. Fill in the blanks with be to or have to (in it’s correct form).

Hurry up! The bus ...... arrive at two o’clock. If you are late, you ....... walk home.

We …... take exams in four subjects in spring.

After his father’s death Robert ….... support his family.

It was a sunny place where they …..... live.

The train .…... have arrived by 7 o’clock. But it hasn’t come yet.

The book.…... be published at the end of the last year.

If you want to pass the exams successfully you .….. work hard.

When you have a computer, you won’t …..... waste so much time.

I felt nervous because I ......... leave home for the first time.

A soldier .......... obey orders.

I think we ........... pay in advance.

You ........... go through Carlisle on the way to Glasgow.

Exercise 16. Translate into English using be to or have to.

  1.  Вчера он позвонил мне, и мы должны были встретиться у театра в 6.30 вечера.
  2.  Мы должны были отложить собрание, т.к. докладчик заболел.
  3.  Вам пришлось остаться в городе прошлым летом?
  4.  Президент должен завтра сделать заявление.
  5.  Эти документы должны быть подписаны директором.
  6.  Вы очень хорошо говорите по-английски. Вам приходилось много работать над языком в институте?
  7.  Мне пришлось посоветовать ему пойти к врачу. Я не мог помочь ему.
  8.  Экспедиция должна отправиться через неделю.
  9.  Это прямая линия, вам не надо пересаживаться.
  10.   Товар должен быть упакован в крепкие ящики.
  11.   Нам пришлось изменить свои планы на лето.
  12.   Премьер-министр должен посетить Шотландию в сентябре.

Exercise 17. Read and translate.

  1.  I think you should see a lawyer.
  2.  You should consult a doctor.
  3.  He should be very careful with this equipment.
  4.  You ought to visit them more often.
  5.  You shouldn’t agree!
  6.  You shouldn’t have agreed!
  7.  She should have been an actress.
  8.  You ought to have told me all about it an hour ago.
  9.  You ought to have compared your chances before taking a decision.
  10.  I think you should have a preliminary exchange of opinions.
  11.  Visitors are reminded that they should keep their bags with them.
  12.  I think men should wear jackets and ties in restaurants.

Exercise 18. Say what should have been done.

Model:  Jane was ill, but didn’t stay at home.

Jane should have stayed at home.

  1.  He didn’t leave a message.
  2.  We didn’t congratulate him.
  3.  The company didn’t finance the construction.
  4.  We didn’t see the cathedral.
  5.  They didn’t replace the defective part in the machine.
  6.  They didn’t introduce the changes gradually.
  7.  They didn’t improve the design.
  8.  The tickets haven’t been exchanged.
  9.  The seats haven’t been booked.
  10.   He wasn’t nice to her.
  11.   She didn’t put garlic in the soup.
  12.   He didn’t take a map.

Exercise 19. Translate into English.

Вам надо бы проконсультироваться с кем-нибудь еще.

Вам надо бы поискать другую работу.

Вам не следует так поздно ложиться спать.

Нам не надо бы тратить так много времени попусту.

Вам не следует бросать спорт.

Вам надо бы подать заявление до 30 июня.

Вам давно надо было со мной поговорить.

Нам надо было ему позвонить и поздравить его.

Ему не надо было колебаться.

Билеты надо было заказать заблаговременно.

Ничего не надо было менять.

Вам не надо было приглашать его.

Exercise 20.Choose the best form.

  1.  We ....... win, but I don’t think there’s much chance. (may, might)
  2.  That ....... be her daughter – they’re nearly the same age. (can’t, mustn’t)
  3.  You absolutely ..... go and see Liz. (should, must)
  4.  I think you .......... try to relax more. (should, must)
  5.  You ............ pass a special exam to be a teacher. (must, have to)
  6.  In this country boys ......... do military service. (must not, don’t have to)
  7.  When I was 18 we ...... two years in the army (had to do, must have done)
  8.  She ..... very quietly – I didn’t hear her go. (had to leave, must have left)
  9.  You ....... get in without a ticket – not a chance. (may not. can’t)
  10.   At what age .......... you get a driving license? (can, may)

UNIT 7

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

Subject, predicative, object and attributive clauses.

We often joint sentences by putting who or which (relative pronouns) in place of he, she, it or they. We use who for people and which for things.

I’ve got a friend. He collects stamps. – I’ve got a friend who collects stamps.

There’s a problem. It worries me.  – There’s the problem which worries me.

Exercise 1. Join the sentences with who or which.

Beginnings

Ends

Do you know a shop?

He lives next door.

I know somebody.

He stole my car.

I want some plates.

She deals with exports.

I was at school with the man.

It isn’t working.

I’d like to speak to the person.

It needs to be eaten.

She’s got friendly with a boy.

It sells good coffee.

The police haven’t found the man.

They last for years.

There’s some cheese in the fridge.

She could mend that chair.

We’ve got some light bulbs.

They can go in the microwave.

This is the switch.

He is driving that taxi.

We often use that instead of which and instead of who in an informal style.

There’s a problem that you don’t understand.

I know some people that could help you.

Exercise 2. Rewrite four or more of the sentences from Exercise 1 using that.

In place of him, her, it and them (objects) we can use who(m), which or that.

Who is very informal as an object; whom is more formal.

Where’s that nurse? I saw her last time.  – Where’s that nurse who(m)/that I saw last time?

These are problems. You don’t have them. – These are problems which/that you don’t have.

But we use which to refer to the whole clause. Compare:

The dentist pulled out the teeth which/that were causing trouble.

(‘Which/that’ just refers to ‘the teeth’.)

The dentist had to pull out two of my teeth, which was a real pity.

(‘Which refers to the whole clause before: ‘The dentist ... teeth’.)

Note that what cannot be used in this way.

He got the job, which surprised us all.

Exercise 3. Do you know the English words for nationalities and languages? Complete the sentences; use a dictionary to help you.

The people who live in .............. speak Greek.

The language that people speak in Hungary is called .................

The language ............ people speak in China is called .........…...

The people who live in ........... speak Italian.

The ............ live in ..........   ............ Turkish.

The language ................. Algeria is called Arabic.

The people .................... Holland ..........  .................

The language ............  .............  ............ Irish.

The people ........... Portugal ...........   ...........

........... ............ Japan  …..........   ............... .

Exercise 4. Put in which or what.

She cycles to work everyday ........ keeps her healthy.

I very much liked ......... you said at the meeting.

They gave me ......... I asked for.

The lights suddenly went out ............ frightened Granny terribly.

This is ............ I need.

Everybody arrived late ........... didn’t surprise me in the least.

The door was locked .............. which was a nuisance.

He wouldn’t tell me ............ I wanted to know.

She let me borrow one of her dresses ..........was very kind of her.

We’re going to repair the roof ............ will cost a fortune.

We normally use that, not which after all, everything, nothing, the only ... and superlatives.

We do not use what in these cases.

I’ve told you all that I know.

The only thing that matters to me is your happiness.

Exercise 4. Join the beginnings and ends.

Beginnings

Ends

All the poetry

That happened

At school I learnt nothing

That he wrote was destroyed in fire

I’ve told you everything

That she said made any difference

Nothing

That was ever made

It’s the best western film

That I could get

The most useful thing

That was useful to me

This is the only hire car

That you can do is leave now

You can have everything

That you want

After words for time and place we can use when and where as relatives.

I’ll never forget the day when I first met you. (= ...the day on which...)

Do you know a shop where I can find sandals? (= ...a shop at which...)

We can leave out object pronouns who(m), which and that.

Where’s that nurse I saw last time?  These are problems you don’t have.

Exercise 5. In which three sentences do you feel the relative pronoun can be left out?

The job that he got wasn’t very interesting.

A woman who(m) my sister knows has just bought the house next door.

The doctor who treated me didn’t know what he was doing.

I’m sorry for people who haven’t got a sense of humour.

Have you got anything that will clean this carpet?

Have you got a typewriter that I can use?

Exercise 6. Is the relative pronoun the subject or object in these clauses?

That’s the woman who lives next door.

Our doctor is a person whom I really respect.

He had a simple idea which changed the world. I’ve lost that nice ring which Bill gave me.

I’ve lost that nice ring which Bill gave me.

It’s a book that everybody talks about and nobody reads.

Once there were three rabbits that lived near a river.

That’s the man who I wanted to see.

An orphan is a child who hasn’t got any parents.

He keeps telling you things which you already know.

They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

Exercise 7. Make each pair of sentences into one sentence without using who(m)/which/that.

You asked me to get you a paper. Here’s the paper. (Here’s ...)

You recommended a film. We went to see the film, but we didn’t think much of it. (We went …)

My sister bought a new car last month. The car has broken down four times already. (The car …)

You didn’t recognise an actor on television last night. The actor was Kiefer Sutherland. (The actor …)

Jane had some friends at school. Only a very few of the friends went on to university. (Only …)

My father had an operation for his heart problem. The operation was only a partial success. (The operation ...)

Mark wrote an essay while we were on holiday. The essay has won a prize in the school competition. (The essay …)

My daughter brings friends home. Some of the friends look as though they never wash. (Some of …)

We can use what to mean ‘the thing(s) that’.

What is like a noun + relative pronoun together.

What she sad made me angry.  I gave him what he needed.

We don’t use what after all, everybody or nothing.

Everything that I have is yours.

Exercise 8. Join the beginnings and ends using ’what’.

Example:          What I need is a drink.

                         I’ll pay for what I broke.

Beginnings

Ends

I’ll pay for

Happened to poor Harry?

I need

I broke.

Did you read about

I don’t eat.

He just teaches you

I expected.

I want to know

I meant.

The dog can have

Is a drink.

The holiday wasn’t at all

Made me happy.

They hadn’t got

She asked for.

You misunderstood – that isn’t

Is where’s my car gone?

You said

You already know.

We can joint sentences by putting whose in place of his, her or its.

I saw a girl. Her beauty took my breath away. – I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away.

Exercise 9. Make sentences with whose.

A good builder is one whose houses don’t fall dawn.

A good parent is one whose ....……………………..

A good gardener ..........…………………………….

A good doctor ..........................…………….............

A good writer ........................................…………....

A good teacher ....……………..................................

A good cook ............................…………..................

A good businessman .....………...............................

We sometimes leave out who/which/that + is/are/was/were.

Do you know that man standing new the door? (= ... who is standing ...)

Exercise 10. Change the sentences as shown in the examples.

Paper that is made from rice is sometimes used for stationary.

Paper made from rice is sometimes used for stationary.

Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police.

The nurse who is looking after my aunt is very kind to her.

Ham which is made in the traditional way costs more but tastes better.

James thought that the man who was with his girlfriend was her brother.

Who’s that good-looking man who is talking to Alison?

Women tourists who are wearing trousers are not allowed in the temple.

Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often develop psychological problems.

The man who was bitten by my neighbour’s dog was her husband’s boss.

When relative pronouns are left out this can make reading difficult.

The woman Barbara was out shopping with that Tuesday afternoon was her stepmother. (=The woman that Barbara was out shopping with ...)

Exercise 11. Make these sentences easier to read by adding who(m)/which/that.

The earrings he gave her for Christmas must have cost at least $500.

The fax he got that morning was addressed to someone else.

The sofa we bought last year is falling to pieces already.

The people he had hoped to introduce Lee to were not here.

The flat the terrorists hid the guns in was owned by an MP.

The song she could not remember the name of was Rambling Boy.

Exercise 12. Here are the ends of some sentences. Find the beginnings in the box.

… Spain taught me things about myself I had never suspected.

… my wedding was bought in a little shop in Bath.

... my parent’s home was the nicest place I’ve ever lived in.

... the airport in Memphis was going to Italy to collect a tiger for a zoo. 

... my little cousin Pam had crazy plans for an expedition to the North Pole.

A very ordinary-looking woman I got talking to at

A man I met by chance on a business trip to

Some Polish people I was introduced to by

The dress my sister wore to

The little flat that I rented just after I left

Exercise 13. Put the quotation together.

“I’ll discuss it with you,” she said in a voice

Borrow your watch and tell you what time it is, the walk off with your watch

A politician is a statesman

Can be taught

Any man who hates dogs and babies

Can’t be all bad

Anyone who has been to an English public school

That could have been used to defrost her refrigerator

Consultants are people who

What he never had

No man can lose

Will feel comparatively at home in prison

Nothing that is worth knowing

Who approaches every question with an open mouth

Exercise 14. Translate into Russian and point out subject, predicative, object and attribute clauses.

1) Whether she was right is not clear yet. 2) That was where Mrs. Gibson’s body lay. 3) And this is what he remembered. 4) I’d like to know which of the two sisters you like more. 5) Who did it is still unknown. 6) She has an opportunity which is offered to only a few of us. 7) Which of them did it was a secret. 8) What we have to decide now is whether we trust her or not. 9) What awakened him was the engine coughing. 10) She belonged to the world about which he knew nothing at all. 11) He has all qualities which his rival lacks. 12) Whether I was her rival in sport or in studies seemed equally bad in her eyes. 13) What he did Bertha didn’t know. 14) Which side wins does not concern us here. 15) Now the question is whether we shall keep her or not. 16) What we want is rest. 17) I’m not sure what she will say. 18) Why he said so is strange. 19) How they did it is not important now. 20) That she was wrong is quite evident. 21) A dog that barks never bites. 22) What has been done can’t be undone.

Exercise 15. Translate into English the following sentences.

1) Кто написал это письмо, сказать трудно. 2) Трудность заключается в том, что я не знаю его адреса. 3) Неизвестно, что было в письме. 4) Машина, которая стоит напротив нашего дома, принадлежит моему другу. 5) Мой друг, машина которого сейчас стоит против нашего дома, опытный водитель. 6) Еще неизвестно, послал ли он это письмо. 7) Беда в том, что он уехал из города. 8) Он знает, что она приедет. 9) Что мы должны сейчас решить – это куда мы поедем летом. 10) Вопрос в том, оставил ли он свой адрес. 11) Неважно, где они встретились. 12) Кто из них приехал раньше, мне неизвестно. 13) Машина, которую он купил несколько лет назад, еще в очень хорошем состоянии. 14) Что он послал это письмо – очень странно. 15) Вот как мы должны действовать.

UNIT 8

CONJUNCTIONS

Exercise 1. Put the beginnings and ends together.

Beginnings

Ends

Although he was very bad- tempered

After you a have meal.

Always brush your teeth

And I’ll hit you.

Always wash your hands

Before you have a meal.

As Liz told you

But everybody liked him.

Because I knew her family

He had lots of friends.

Talk to me like that again

I did what I could for her.

Don’t do that again

Her mother left for Berlin last Friday.

He had a terrible temper

Or I’ll hit you.

Liz explained to you

So I tried to help her.

I was sorry for her

That her mother went home last week.

If you do that again

Unless you stop that.

There’ll be trouble

I you’ll be sorry.

Do you know how to use these conjunctions: so that (purpose or result), while, as long as/provided (contrast), until, as if/though?

Let’s start now, so that we’re sure to have enough time.

The summers here are wet, while the winters are very dry.

You can go out as long as (provided) you tell us where you’re going.

I’ll look after the kids until you get back.

I feel as if (as though) I’m getting a cold.

In a formal style whereas can be used in the same way as while.

Sound travels at 330 metres per second, whereas light travels at 300.000 kilometres per second.

Exercise 2. Put in suitable conjunctions.

You can have my bike ........ you bring it back tomorrow.

I’m staying here ......... I get my money back.

It was very dark in the passage ......... I couldn’t see where I was going.

Joe was short and dark ......... his sister was the exact opposite.

You look ......... you’ve seen a ghost.

He won’t get any money .......... He finishes the work properly.

It looks …....... it’s going to rain.

You can cancel the ticket .......... you tell the airline 48 hours in advance.

I’m going to the bank now ............ I’ll have enough money for shopping.

........... I think his novels are good, his poetry isn’t up to much.

Exercise 3. Join the beginnings and ends with so that or as long as.

Beginnings

Ends

He went to Switzerland

he could learn French.

I don’t mind you singing

it doesn’t rain.

We moved the piano

that’s OK with you.

We took some blankets

there would be room for the Christmas tree.

We’ll come back this afternoon

We would be warm enough.

We’ll play tennis

you do it quietly.

Exercise 4. Rewrite these sentences, beginning While...

It was sunny, but there was a cold wind.

    While it was sunny there was a cold wind.

She’s very clever, but she’s got no common sense at all.

I know how you feel, but I think you’re making a mistake.

The job is well paid, but it’s deadly boring.

I’m interested in economics, but I wouldn’t want to work in a bank.

The hotel was nice, but it was a long way from the beach.

Compare because and because of, and (al)though and in spite of.

She lost her job because she was ill.

She lost her job because of her illness.

Although/Though it was raining we went out for a walk.

In spite of the rain we went out for a walk.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences with although or in spite of.

........... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.

........... all my careful plans, a lot of things went wrong.

............ I had planned everything carefully, a lot of things went wrong.

I love music ............ I can’t play a musical instrument.

............ being very tired, we carried on walking.

The heating was full on, but ............ this house was still cold.

Keith decided to give up his job ......... I advised him not to.

.......... she smokes 40 cigarettes a day, she is quite fit.

We can say in spite of but despite without of.

In spite of poor health, my father was always cheerful.

Despite my qualifications, I didn’t get the job.

We can also use despite the fact that or in spite of the fact that.

He insisted on playing, despite the fact that he had a bad cold.

They ignored, this order, in spite of the fact that they would probably get into trouble.

Exercise 6. The sentences below all have in spite of or despite. Use one of the noun groups given to complete them.

the unpopularity of his decision

the difference in their ages

the high cost of living

his recent illness

all his precautions

the heavy traffic

her fear

his injury

the rain

The air was fresh and clean in spite of …………………

He looked very well in spite of …………………............

Despite ........……....... she did her best to smile bravely.

He refused to change his mind despite ...........…….........

Despite ...........….….......... they were very close friends.

I didn’t earn much in Japan in spite of …….....................

In spite of ……....................... his money was still stolen.

He continued the race despite .......………........................

We still had our picnic in spite of ……….........................

The expressions both ... and; neither ... nor can join nouns, verbs or other kinds of expressions.

She plays both tennis and badminton. He both things and dances.

That’s neither interesting nor true.  Neither Sue nor Ann was there.

Exercise 7. Join the sentences with both... and or neither... nor.

He repairs cars. He repairs motorbikes. (He repairs both ... )

He doesn’t speak English. He doesn’t speak French.

I don’t like her. I don’t dislike her.

I admire him. I distrust him.

Paul is on holiday. Sally is on holiday.

The secretary did not have the file. The accountant did not have the file.

The play was funny. The play was shocking.

He collects paintings. He collects jewellery.

You’re not right. You’re not wrong.

She didn’t look at me. She didn’t say anything.

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1) We decided to cross the mountains so that we could reach the airfield in the daytime. 2) Put on your warm coat lest you should catch cold 3) She wept bitterly as she told her story. 4. Since it was Sunday she stayed in bed. 5) He was giving up his job in order to stay at home. 6) She treats him as though he was her own son. 7) He looked as if he hadn’t slept very much. 8) As they live near us we can see them quite often. 9) The expedition may be dangerous nevertheless I’ll take pan in it 10) We agreed to break till tomorrow for it was already late. 11) Now that there was really a fair chance of success, it must not be missed. 12) I feel stronger than I did.

UNIT 9

THE PASSIVE VOICE

Exercise 1. Identify the passive forms in the following sentences.

Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.

I’m not often invited to parties.

During the night we were all woken up by a loud explosion.

Look at those old houses. They are being knocked dawn.

The room was being cleaned when I arrived.

Have you ever been bitten by a dog?

I’m not going to the party. I haven’t been invited.

Jim didn’t know about the change of plans. He hadn’t been told.

The new hotel will be opened next year.

George might be sent to America by his company in August.

Go away! I want to be left alone.

Exercise 2. Translate the text. Find and explain the Passive Voice forms.

Many great cities of the world were built hundreds of years ago. During their long history some of them were destroyed several times for one reason or another, and then rebuilt. London, for instance, was burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666. When Napoleon’s army entered Moscow in 1812, the city was nearly empty and in flames. Most of the houses were soon destroyed by the fire, and many were badly damaged. A lot of beautiful cities were left in ruins after the World Wars. Serious damage is done to cities and villages by floods, hurricanes and earthquakes and still more by wars and industrial pollution.

Exercise 3. Find the corresponding idea in the right-hand column.

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

They often translate English texts.

The windows were washed yesterday.

They are doing their homework.

It has already been done.

They washed the windows yesterday.

The lest had been finished when the teacher came.

They were doing it from 5 till 7 o’clock yesterday.

The apple pie will have been baked by 2 o’clock in the afternoon.

They have already done it.

English texts are often translated.

They will repair the TV set tomorrow.

The homework is being done now.

They will have baked the apple pie by 2 o’clock in the afternoon.

It was being done from 5 till 7 o’clock yesterday.

They had finished the test when the teacher came.

The TV set will be repaired tomorrow.

Exercise 4. Make the sentences passive. Use by... only if it is necessary to say who does / did the action. The first sentence is done for you as an example:

1) Shakespeare wrote "Hamlet". - "Hamlet" was written by Shakespeare.

2) They have arrested her for shoplifting. 3) They are repairing your car now. 4) People in Chile speak Spanish. 5) My mother made this ring. 6) Electricity drives this car. 7) Somebody will tell you where to go. 8) A drunken motorist knocked her down. 9) Liverpool beat Manchester 3-0 yesterday. 10) The Chinese invented paper. 11) They don’t sell stamps in bookshops. 12) The directors are still considering your application. 13) People are using computers in all kinds of work.

Exercise 5. Write passive sentences.

1) Chinese (to speak) in Singapore. 2) The Tower of London (to build) around the 2nd century 3) The new hospital (to open) next year. 4) She (to interview) now. 5) I realized I (to follow). 6) You (to invite) to Andy’s party? 7) He found that all his money (to steal). 8) These computers (to make) in Korea. 9) Passengers (to ask) not to speak to the driver. 10) Sorry about the noise - the road (to mend). 11) The village church (to born down) last year. 12) A Roman pavement (just find) under Oxford Street.

Exercise 6 Ask as in the model:

- The article isn’t translated.

- Why isn’t it translated?

- The book won’t be published.

- Why won’t it be published?

1) Those questions weren’t asked. 2) The news hasn’t been announced. 3) The things aren’t packed. 4) He won’t be sent there. 5) The document hasn’t been signed. 6) The radio hasn’t been repaired. 7) Her name wasn’t mentioned.

Exercise 7. Now the class is divided into two groups: police detectives and the crime witnesses. The detectives begin to interrogate the witnesses about the crime committed asking questions and using the passive forms. The witnesses answer using the passive forms as well.

Example: Where was the body found? — It was found in the library.

1) Who was the body found by? 2) Was the window broken? 3) Was anything stolen? 4) Was anybody noticed entering the library? 5) What was the victim killed with? 6) Had the body been moved before the police came? 7) Was the library’s door locked? 8) Was the dead man’s will changed?

Exercise 8. Match the parts.

Petrol prices ...    a... were killed in the rally

This jacket ...     b... have been increased

Five people ...    c... has been disconnected

The telephone ...    d… is not permitted anywhere on this station

The old town theatre ...    e... was made in Hong Kong

It appears the telephone bill ...  f... was told to stay inside their homes

Before the storm everyone ...   g... bad not been paid

Smoking ...     h... is currently being rebuilt

Exercise 9. Transform the sentences to the passive:

They owe a lot of money to the bank.

You can buy videos like this one anywhere.

Someone has to write the history of the European Community one day.

Someone may have already written the history of the European Community.

When we arrived home, we found that someone had broken one of our windows.

They have sold their car to pay their debts.

The manager always welcomes new employees.

They are building a new supermarket near the church.

They fought the battle in i623.

Someone was cleaning the windows while I was there.

Someone has moved my desk!

They are taking the refugees to a camp outside the village.

Someone has singed all the documents before I arrived.

They were questioning us and searching our vehicle at the same time.

They will post our letters when the ship arrives at the next port of call.

They are opening the case again because they’re not satisfied with the verdict.

Have you changed anything?

How soon will they repeat that TV program?

Have you prepared all the documents?

Have the tested all the machines?

What are they building over their?

Exercise 10. Ask questions to the underlined words.

This monument was put up three hundred years ago.

Only one of his books has been translated into Russian.

The meeting was put off, because the day wasn’t convenient for most of the people.

Some pop singers were being interviewed when I switched on the telly.

These contests are held every four year.

Your order will be fulfilled in five days’ time.

Exercise 11. Match the questions with the answers.

Does anyone ever open this window?

Yes, they have already been invited.

Does anyone ever take him to school?

Yes, they will be told about it soon.

Did anyone ever repair that car?

Yes, it is opened regularly.

Does anyone ever air this room?

Yes, it has already been repaired.

Does anyone ever correct these copybooks?

Yes, it will be swept soon.

Does anyone ever invite him to a party?

Yes, they will be sharpened soon.

Does anyone ever meet them at the station?

Yes, he is taken to school regularly.

Did anyone ever sharpen this knife?

Yes, they were watched regularly.

Did anyone ever sharpen these knives?

Yes, it has already been sharpened.

Did anyone ever watch them?

Yes, it was repaired regularly.

Has anyone opened the window yet?

Yes, it has already been opened.

Has anyone corrected these copybooks yet?

Yes, he will be served soon.

Will anyone sweep the floor?

Yes, he is invited regularly.

Will anyone tell them about it?

Yes, they will be found soon.

Has anyone invited them yet?

Yes, they are met at the station regularly.

Will anyone serve him?

Yes, they were sharpened regularly.

Has anyone repaired this car yet?

Yes, they have already been corrected.

Will anyone find them?

Yes, they are corrected regularly.

Has anyone sharpened this knife yet?

Yes, it was sharpened regularly.

Will anyone sharpen these knives?

Yes, it is aired regularly.

Exercise 12. Put in the words in the correct form of the passive.

Don’t enter the room. A student … (to examine) there.

The event … (to report) by the newspapers before they arrived home.

After the accident he … (to take) immediately home.

The letter … (to type) by the typist when I came in.

I am sure that his work … (to complete) by the end of the month.

Some new magazines … just (to bring). Would you like to look them through?

The exercises usually … (to correct) by the teacher at home.

I can’t show you my written work as it … (not/to return) by my teacher.

Many new houses … (to build) in our town lately.

We think that the ship … (to charter) next week.

They will pay the money as soon as the goods … (to deliver).

The goods … (not/to examine) yet at the custom-house.

The question which … (to discuss) now at the conference is very important.

This bridge … (to build) in 1945.

The contract … (to type) before the director comes to the office.

The documents … (not/to sign) by the manager. They … (to check) now.

She … (to frighten) by a long noise in the street.

Exercise 13. Supply suitable active and passive forms in theses sentences using the verbs in brackets. Some variations in tenses may be possible.

It isn’t clear how far the ozone layer (damage) by aerosol sprays. It may be possible to tell whether the hole over the Atlantic (widen) after the area (investigate) by high-flying planes.

These days, even the most remote places on earth (visit) by tourists. Package tours (can/arrange) for almost anywhere, from the Himalayas to the Amazonian Jungle.

Notices such as (English/Speak) and (Shoes/Repair) are common.

We constantly (remind) of the way the world (become) smaller when events taking place in different parts of the globe (flash) on our television screens.

If you (involve) in a car accident and someone (hurt), you (have to) report the matter to the police. If only the vehicles (damage), drivers should exchange names and addresses.

Exercise 14. Imagine you are in a busy hotel at midday. Make sentences to say what is being done, using words from the two boxes according to the following example:

Beds are being done.

beds   bills   coffee   drinks   food   luggage   money   new   guests

reservations   rooms   tables

bring   down   change   clean   lay   make   order   pay   prepare

serve   take   welcome

Exercise 15. Imagine that, rich and famous, you return to your old home town after fifty years. A lot of things are different. Make sentences, using words from the boxes according to the following example:

The Cafe Royal has been turned into a casino.

Cafe Royal    houseboats    new car park    new schools    opera house

old fire station    ring road    station streets    town center

statue of you Super Cinema    your house

build    modernize    put up in park    rebuild    widen

turn into

a casino/floating restaurants/museum/supermarket/theatre/pedestrian area

Exercise 16. Use ‘It + passive’ (it is believed, it is reported, it is known, it is expected, it is considered, it is alleged) to change these sentences:

Model: It is thought that the Queen of Holland is a vegetarian.

Many people are homeless after the floods.

The Prime Minister is in favour of the new law.

The government will lose the election.

The prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.

The thieves got in through the kitchen window.

He drove through the town at 90 miles an hour.

Two people were seriously injured in the accident.

Three men were arrested after the explosion.

Use ‘It + passive’ in your own sentences.

Exercise 17. Complete these sentences using one of the following verbs: ‘to arrest, to wake, to knock, to check, to translate, to find, to drive, to make, to spend, to carry’.

A decision will not … until the next meeting.

That building is dangerous. It ought to … down before it falls down.

When you go through Customs, you luggage may … by a customs officer.

I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to … up at 6.30.

Her new book will probably … into a number of foreign languages.

If you kicked a policeman, you’d ...

Police are looking for the missing boy. He can’t ... anywhere.

Do you think that less money should … on arms?

The injured man couldn’t walk and had to ...

I don’t mind driving but I prefer to … by other people.

Exercise 18. Put the verbs into a suitable tense in the passive.

Mary has just arrived home from work. Neil is already there.

Mary: Hi! I’m back. Sorry, I’m late.

Neil: What kept you?

Mary: I had to use the ring road and I … (stick) in a traffic jam for forty minutes.

Neil: Why didn’t you use the usual route?

Mary: Because the road … (close) until work on the access road to the new hospital ... (complete).

Neil: When is it due to … (finish)?

Mary: Well, the access road … (open) by the Mayor next week, according to the newspaper, and the Health Minister … (invite) to open the hospital on the same day, but they don’t know yet whether she’s definitely coming.

Neil: A lot of money … (waste) if she doesn’t come.

Mary: Why’s that?

Neil: Haven’t you seen all those rose bushes that … (plant) round the hospital?

Mary: So? They’ll be lovely for the patients.

Neil: But the patients won’t be able to see them, because they are round the entrance, and the wards look out in the other direction. A lot of people protested about it, but all their complaints … (ignore) until it was too late.

Mary: If they had money to spare, it … (spend) on facilities for patients, not on making the front look pretty for the Minister.

Neil: Absolutely. It’s typical of this local council. They … (elect) to save money, but they do just the opposite.

Mary: Perhaps they … (throw) out at the next election.

Neil: I hope so. Now, are you ready for supper?

Exercise 19. Make up little dialogs following the sample dialog in the box. The first phrase for student A and the action verb are given out under the box.

1)

A: This is a really good photograph of you.

B: I think so, too.

A: Who took it?

B: I’m not sure. I think it was taken by my Uncle George.

1). This is a very cute photograph of your children. (take) 2) This is an excellent magazine article. (write) 3) This is a beautiful sonata. (compose) 4) This is really an exciting movie. (direct) 5) This is a very funny portrait of you. (paint) 6) This is a very useful machine. (invent) 7) This is an impressive bridge. (build) 8) This is a magnificent building. (design) 9) This is a very talented elephant. (train)

Make up your own similar dialogs as many as you can.

2. Make up your dialogs using the dialogs in the box as an example and the actions listed under the sample dialog box.

A: Do you want me to feed Rover?

B: No. Don’t worry about it. He’s already been fed.

A: Do you want me to ring the church bells?

B: No. Don’t worry about it. They’ve already been rung.

Actions: to make the bed, to send the packages, to do the dishes, to sweep the floor, to bake bread, to hide the Christmas presents under the fur-tree, to write down Mary’s telephone number, to take the garbage out, to wake the children up, to call the neighbours, to sing a song, to repair the car.

Practice more with your own actions!

Exercise 20. Complete the text with expressions from the box and answer the questions after it. Translate the text.

was told     had never been taught     was given (twice)     was offered

was shown     wasn’t being paid

I’ll never forget my first day at that office. I _____ to arrive at 8.30, but when I got there the whole place seemed to be empty. I didn’t know what to do, because I ____ no information about the building or where I was going to work, so I just waited around until some of the secretaries began to turn up. Finally I ____ a dirty office on the fifth floor, where I ____ a desk in a corner. Nothing happened for an hour, then I _____ some letters to type on a computer by one of the senior secretaries. This wasn’t very successful, because I _____ how to use a computer. By lunchtime things hadn’t got any better, and I decided that. I _____ enough to put up with this nonsense, so I walked out and didn’t go back.

1) When was the man told to be at work? 2) What did he do when he arrived and why? 3) What was his workplace like? 4) Why wasn’t he satisfied with his workplace? 5) What task was he given? 6) Why wasn’t it a success? 7) Why did he think he wasn’t being paid enough? 8) What did he decide to do? 9) Was he right?

Exercise 21. Complete this conversation with verbs in a suitable tense, active or passive.

Cindy: Why wasn’t Clare at the training session?

Petra: Haven’t you heard? She ..................... far stealing.

Cindy: No! Really?

Petra: Yes. She ....................................... taking money from someone’s bag in the changing room.

Cindy: Who by?

Petra: The sports club manager. She .................................... the changing room when she .................................. Clare with Karen’s bag.

Cindy: Oh dear. That’s terrible.

Petra: Clare said she ........................... to fetch the money by Karen but when Karen …………………….. about it, she said she .................................. (not) what Clare was talking about.

Cindy: But how stupid of Karen to leave money in the changing room!

Petra: Yes. She .................................. that by the manager too.

Cindy: She .................……...... (not) it again, anyhow.

Petra: No, I guess not. What do you think Clare ............................... now?

Cindy: I don’t know. This is the second club she ................................ to leave, isn’t it?

Petra: Yes. It’s hard to know what can .......................... for someone like Clare.

Exercise 22. What is done and by whom? Here’s a list of institutions. List all things that are normally done at these locations.

Example: A hotel (credit cards - to accept) - Credit cards are accepted.

1) a school (bad pupils - to dismiss, different subjects - to study, to teach, English - to speak)

2) a sports centre (sportsmen - to train, results - to display on electronic board; to achieve)

3) a theatre (a play - to perform, to stage; actors and actresses - to dress; tickets - to sell out)

4) a street (sidewalks - to wipe, to wash; traffic - to regulate by a road policeman; pavement - to mend by workers)

5) a hotel (beds - to make; luggage - to fetch to suites; breakfast - to bring; visitors - to check in and check out by the hotel administration; to wake up in time by personnel)

Exercise 23. Small group work. List as many activities as you can in five minutes that are being done within a kilometre radius of the classroom. Which group has the most ideas?

Example: Cars are being driven.

Exercise 24. Election campaign. You are preparing part of the candidate’s campaign for election to a post in the local (national) government. What sort of things should your candidate promise in order to gain votes: what should he or she undertake?

For example: A new school will be built.

Work in small groups and work out a program of what will be done, each group for a different candidate, and write it out. Then one member of your group as ‘the candidate’ should present the program. You can help them while they are doing that! Finally, one of the candidates will be elected in a democratic election!

Exercise 25. Write down five things that are normally done by men, five things that are normally done by women, and five that are normally done equally by both. Share your ideas: do you agree with each other? Discuss whether these things can/might/should be done by a member of the opposite sex - and what will happen if they are.

Exercise 26. Check yourself:

The matter .....…….......... (deal with) as soon as possible.

This place ....................... (visit) by tourists in the 19th century.

Where is Mike? - He …………....... (to interview) now.

He has written three books, but only one of them .................. (publish) so far.

The lights ...................... (not/turn off) yet.

Suddenly I heard footsteps behind me. We ..................... (follow).

The meeting had to .....……........... (postpone) because of illness.

Jack informed me that a new job .......................... (offer) to him two days ago.

Animal Farm ......…............. (write) by George Orwell.

I’m afraid you can’t use my car. It .......…………....... (repair) now.

It ........................ (expect) that the strike will begin tomorrow.

My grandfather is a very smart person. He ............…….. (never/cheat) so far by anyone.

Exercise 27. Translate into English:

Подписано ли это письмо?

Это письмо только что подписано директором.

Это здание было только что построено, когда мы приехали в Киев.

Когда пришел директор, все было готово: документы были проверены, и письма были напечатаны.

Когда вы позвонили, работа была только закончена.

Я уверен, что товары уже будут доставлены в порт, когда мы получим их телеграмму.

Первая часть этой книги печатается в Москве, вторая часть будет печататься в Петербурге.

Когда был построен этот вокзал?

В нашем городе сейчас строится новый театр.

Его скоро пошлют в Саратов.

Эти книги продаются во всех книжных магазинах.

Мне еще ничего не говорили об этом.

Им обещали информацию по этому вопросу.

Мне предложили билет на концерт, но я отказался.

Над ним смеялись, когда он сказал это.

На них смотрели с большим интересом, когда они появились в зале.

За ними уже послали?

На эту статью часто ссылаются.

Об этой книге очень много говорят.

На него можно положиться.

Я уверен, его будут слушать с большим вниманием.

Когда лодка пропала из вида, мы пошли домой.

UNIT 10

THE INFINITIVE

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian:

To see is to believe.

To live means to struggle

To understand is to forgive.

To choose time is to save time.

To be or not to be, that is the question.

How to prove it to him is a problem.

He wants to accept your offer.

He is happy to have been accepted to the University.

That was a nice seaside place to spend the holidays.

She was the last to speak at the meeting.

To master this specialty one must work hard.

This is the problem to be solved as soon as possible.

I am sorry to have interrupted you.

I’ve got enough money to buy tins book.

I’ve got a call to make.

I don’t know whether to answer him or not.

Exercise 2. Transform the sentences using the Passive Infinitive.

Pattern:  I am glad to meet you.

I am glad to be met by you.

  1.  Robert is glad to offer this job.
    1.  He doesn’t like to ask questions.
    2.  She wants to tell the story.
    3.  I do not want to ask about it.
    4.  Walter was glad to invite Ann.
    5.  I do not like to interrupt you.
    6.  She hopes to provide you with everything necessary for the work.
    7.  He is happy to paint you.
    8.  I like to invite my friends to the theatre.
    9.  The child likes to read the fairy-tales.

Exercise 3. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb.

Pattern:  Don’t forget ………… the letter I gave you.

Don’t forget to post the letter I gave you.

For ideas: to call; to buy; to go; to find, to get; to operate; to be; to say; to drive

There was a lot of traffic but we managed to……….. to the airport in time.

Jane has decided not to ………….. a car.

We’ve got a new computer in our office. I haven’t learnt ………… it yet.

I wonder where Sue is. She promised not ………… late.

We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared ………… anything.

It was a nice day, so we decided ………… for a walk.

They don’t have much money. They can’t afford …………… this book.

I’m still looking for a job but I ……….. something soon.

Our neighbour threatened …………… the police if we didn’t stop the noise.

Exercise 4. Put the right form of infinitive (with or without to).

  1.  I’ve never been to Italy but I’d like ………. there. (go)
    1.  I’m in a difficult position. What do you advise me ……………? (do)
    2.  She said the letter was personal and wouldn’t let me …………. it. (read)
    3.  The customs officer made Sally ……….. her case. (open)
    4.  We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed … (go)
    5.  Hot weather makes me …………. tired. (feel)
    6.  Where would you recommend me ……….. for my holidays? (go)
    7.  The film was very sad. It made me ……….. (cry)
    8.  Carol’s parents always encouraged her …………. hard at school. (study)
    9.  Let me ………… your bag for you. (carry)
    10.  Her parents wouldn’t let her ………… out alone. (go)

Exercise 5. Complete each sentence using what /how/ whether + one of these verbs: do, get, go, ride, say, use.

Do you know ……. to John’s house?

Can you show me ………. this washing machine?

Would you know ………… if there was a fire in the building?

You’ll never forget ………… a bicycle once you have learned.

I was really astonished. I didn’t know ……..

I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know …….. or not.

Exercise 6. How would you feel about doing these jobs? In your sentences use one of these expressions: I’d like; I’d love; I’d hate.

Pattern: (a teacher) I’d like to be a teacher.

a dentist

a lawyer

a geologist

a hairdresser

a surgeon

an actor

an airline pilot

an engineer

an economist

a tourist guide

fire-fighter

a priest

Exercise 7. Use a sentence from column A and a sentence from column B to make a new sentence.

Pattern:  A friend of mine phoned me.

He invited me to a party.

A friend of mine phoned me to invite me to a party.

A

B

I shouted.

I want to keep warm.

I had to go to the bank.

I wanted to report that my car had been stolen.

I’ saving money.

I want to go to Canada.

I went to hospital.

I needed to get some money.

I’m wearing two pullovers.

I had to have an operation.

I phoned the police station.

I wanted to warn people of the danger.

Exercise 8. Translate into Russian. Point out the Complex Object.

I want my son to be a doctor.

I don’t want you to take so much trouble.

I’d like you to practice your English every day.

We are friends and I naturally want him to be perfectly frank with me.

I didn’t expect the discussion to be so tiresome.

Everybody expected the talks to be a success.

They wish him to be happy.

We are waiting for the guests to arrive.

Tom expected the problem to be solved soon.

We would like them to enjoy their stay in our city.

Exercise 9. Combine the sentences using the Complex Object

Pattern:  He entered the room. I saw it.

I saw him enter the room.

  1.  He saw Sue. She crossed the street.
    1.  I will let you. You will use my car.
    2.  I haven’t heard him. He called my name.
    3.  We didn’t notice them. They passed by.
    4.  He saw a man. The man pulled the door open.
    5.  He is the brightest student. I know it.
    6.  Somebody touched me on the shoulder. I felt it.
    7.  Nick called me. I heard it.
    8.  I noticed it. She quietly left the room.
    9.  She is a nice girl. I know it.
    10.  Our group is friendly. I think so.

Exercise 10. Complete these sentences.

1. I want you to ...

2. I know him to ...

3. I made her ...

4. Let him ...

5. We saw them ..

6. Nick felt somebody...

7. They heard her ..

8. My parents would like me to...

9. We didn't expect them to ...

10. My sister asked me to ...

Exercise 11. Change the following sentences using ‘to be likely’; ‘to be unlikely’. Translate them into Russian.

Pattern:  He may (not) come soon.

He is likely (unlikely) to come soon.

We may have a good time at the party tonight.

He may not follow my recommendation.

You can miss the beginning of the performance if you don’t hurry.

The company may be doing a new play in autumn.

He may not be invited to the official opening of the Olympic Games.

He may be doing history at University next year.

You may not remember his name.

Exercise 12. Say the person (or thing) proved to be (turned out to be) the following:

Pattern:  The new secretary (to be helpful).

The new secretary proved to be helpful.

  1.  The interview with the new people (to be successful).
    1.  The briefing (to be useful).
    2.  The charges at the hotel (to be reasonable).
    3.  The conversation (to be rather unpleasant).
    4.  The student’s knowledge of history (to be above the average).
    5.  After all she (to be right).
    6.  He (to be a good doctor).

Exercise 13. Read and translate the following sentences and analyze the use of (he Complex Object and the Complex Subject.

We expect everybody to do his duty.

Everybody is expected to do his duty.

Nobody expected him to resign.

We consider him to be an outstanding politician.

I consider him to be the best composer living.

How kind of you to let me come.

Nothing seems to have changed.

They noticed Sue leave the house.

He is expected to manage his business well.

I was made to do it.

I want the host to introduce me to Mr. Brown.

The weather is likely to change today.

I want you to take care of the tickets.

This monument is considered to have been erected as early as the 15th century.

This church appears to be made of wood.

He is sure to have been influenced by Tom.

Exercise 14. Transform these sentences using For-Phrase Infinitive according to the model: She can’t come →  It is impossible for her to come.

The meeting needn’t start before eight. (There’s no need for the...)

The postman ought to come. (It’s time for...)

He’s not usually late. (It’s unusual for...)

I want the children to go to a good school. (I’m anxious for...)

John shouldn’t go to Australia. (It’s a bad idea...)

Sue shouldn’t change her job just now. (It would be a mistake...)

Can Paul come to the meeting? (Is it possible...)

The car really should have regular services. (It’s important...)

He normally stays up late on Saturdays. (It’s normal...)

I’d be happy if you took a holiday. (I’d be happy for…)

Exercise 15. Translate into English.

Жить – значит бороться.

Такой длинный текст трудно выучить.

Будет очень трудно доказать это кому-либо.

Мне нужно позвонить.

Ему есть, чем гордиться.

Нам нужно обсудить много вопросов.

У вас много дел?

Первое, что нужно сделать, это обсудить план.

Мы ожидали, что он выполнит свой долг.

Все считают его выдающимся политическим деятелем.

Я считаю, что это лучший композитор из ныне здравствующих.

Кто разрешил изменить заглавие статьи?

Его считают хорошим адвокатом.

UNIT 11

THE GERUND

Exercise 1. Find the gerunds in the following sentences and translate them into Russia.

Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.

Give up eating a lot of candy.

I like getting presents.

Would you mind waiting in the hall?

Excuse me for interrupting you.

I’m looking forward to seeing you.

It’s worth going there.

I can’t help telling you the story.

This film is worth seeing.

Driving a car is one of my hobbies.

Travelling abroad can be exciting enough, but just now it is more exciting being here.

This is the right way of doing it.

I’m fond of playing chess.

I was tired of waiting.

She stopped answering my letters and I wondered what the matter might be.

Can you recall having mentioned the fact to anybody?

On being told the news she gave a gasp of surprise.

She denied having been at the station that evening.

Exercise 2. Use the gerund of the verb in brackets.

They denied ………… the money. (steal)

I don’t enjoy ……………. very much. (drive)

Has it stopped …………. yet? (rain)

Why do you keep ………… me questions? (ask)

Please stop ………… me questions. (ask)

One of the boys admitted …………… the window. (break)

Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. She didn’t answer the phone, she just carried on ………….. (eat)

Are you fond of ………… ? (play tennis)

The baby began ………….. in the middle of the night. (cry)

Why do you avoid ………….. me? (see)

We insist on ………….. him there at once. (send)

You never mentioned …………… to them on the subject. (speak)

I don’t remember ever ………….. you. (see)

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences using the construction need + gerund of the following verbs: think about; clean; cut; empty; redecorate; lighten; change.

Her jacket is dirty. It __

The grass is very long. It __

The room isnt very nice. It __

The screws are loose. They __

The bin is fall. It __

It’s a difficult problem. It __

The radio isn’t working. The batteries __

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences using by + gerund. Use one of the following verbs: drive too fast; harrow too much money; break a window; put some posters up on the walls; stand on a chair; turn a key; not eat property; read more.

She made herself ill __

The burglars got into the house __

You can improve your English __

I was able to reach the top shelf__

You start the engine of a car __

Kevin got himself into financial difficulty __

You can put people’s lives in danger __

We made the room look nicer __

Exercise 5. Make sentences with worth + ing or not worth + ing. Choose one of these verbs: consider; keep; read; repair; see; visit; go to bed; take a taxi

It was so late when we got home, it was __

I live only a short walk from here, so it’s __

The film isn’t very good. It is __

It would cost too much to repair this watch. It is __

If you have time, you should go to the museum, it is __

It’s quite an interesting article in the paper today. It is __

It’s an interesting suggestion. It is __

We can throw these old clothes away. They are __

Exercise 6. Complete each sentence using gerund.

  1.  Our neighbours apologized for ___ so much noise.
    1.  I feel lazy. I don’t feel like __ any work.
    2.  I wanted to go out alone but Joe insisted on __ with me.
    3.  I’m fed up with my job. I’m thinking of__ something else.
    4.  We have decided against __ a new car because we can’t really afford it.
    5.  The weather was extremely bad and this prevented us from __ out.
    6.  I hope you write to me soon. I’m looking forward to __ from you.
    7.  The man who has been arrested is suspected of____ a false passport.
    8.  I think you should apologize to Sue for ___ so rude to her.
    9.   I’m sorry I can’t come to your party but thank you very much for __ me.

Exercise 7. Complete the sentences using a preposition + gerund of the following verbs: cause; pay; escape; pass the exam; interrupt; tell; live; play; solve; spend; walk; help.

It took us a long time but we succeeded __ this problem.

I’ve always dreamed __ in a small house by the sea.

The driver of another car accused me ___ the accident.

There was a fence around the lawn to stop people __ on the grass.

Forgive me __ you but may I ask you something?

Where are you thinking __ your holiday this year?

The guards were not able to prevent the prisoner ___

I wanted to cook the meal by myself but Dave insisted __ me.

I’m sorry we’ve had to cancel our game of tennis tomorrow. I was really looking forward ___

They insisted __ for the meal.

I congratulated Ann __ the exam.

They accused me __ lies.

Exercise 8. Change the subordinate clauses by the gerundial constructions.

I remember that I have seen him before.

I am thankful that I have been stopped in time.

I don’t remember that I have ever come across his name before.

Do you object if I smoke here?

There is no hope that you will receive a letter from him soon.

You can improve your knowledge of English if you read more.

Will you excuse me if I ask you again?

Exercise 9. Complete the following by translating what is given in brackets, using the gerund. Insert prepositions where necessary.

I can’t recall ... (чтобы меня с ним знакомили)

I even don’t remember ... (что видел его)

We counted ... (что застанем его на месте)

He couldn’t get used ... (что его называли стариком)

She was quite unconscious ... (что пришла в неудачный момент)

Excuse me ... (что вошел, не постучав)

I’m really ashamed ... (что так давно не писал Вам)

She denied ... (что обещала позвонить мне)

We hope he will succeed ... (найти свое место в жизни)

Why do you avoid ... (называть вещи своими именами)

He is upset ... (что ему приходится начинать все снова)

Exercise 10. Transform these sentences according to the model:

I disapproved of him smoking in the house → I disapproved of his smoking in the house.

We knew that the children had hidden the chocolate under their beds.

We objected to the company building a petrol station on our road.

I know that you have mastered French.

John said he was sorry that he had been rude to Sally (John regretted...)

The police received information about the robbery of this man. (The police were informed.)

Mark apologized that he had been late.

The judge neglected the fact that the offender was 80 years old.

My mother didn’t like John’s intention to invite his girlfriend to her house (My mother was against John’s girlfriend’s …)

Parents were shocked when they knew that Peter had been dismissed from the university.

At the interrogation the suspect admitted that he had been in town around midnight.

Exercise 11. Make up sentences of your own, using the following word combinations-as adverbial modifiers.

without knowing it;

after getting rid of the unexpected visitor,

by promising that he would keep it secret;

on hearing the news,

in talking of the past events;

before coming to any conclusion;

on being reminded of the incident;

without being invited,

in spite of being busy,

by bursting into tears,

without asking for permission.

Exercise 12. Translate into English.

  1.  Я настаиваю на том, чтобы меня выслушали.
    1.  Я помню, что видел этого актера в какой-то другой пьесе.
    2.  Не стоит упоминать об этом.
    3.  Странно, почему она избегает говорить на эту тему.
    4.  Терпеть не могу, когда со мной разговаривают таким тоном.
    5.  Он боялся, что его неправильно поймут.
    6.  Он признался, что неверно информировал нас.
    7.  Часы нуждаются в чистке и смазке.
    8.  Она боялась испортить свое первое впечатление, посмотрев фильм снова.
    9.   Меня упрекнули в том, что я опоздал и заставил всех ждать.

UNIT 12

THE PARTICIPLE

Exercise 1. State the form and the function of Present Participle. Translate into Russian.

Having made seven hundred miles he was now travelling toward the border of the United States.

There was a tiny smile playing about the comers of his mouth.

He had a beautiful old house in Queen Anne Street and being a man of taste he had furnished it admirably.

She covered her face with her hand as if swooning.

Judging him by his figure and his movements, he was still young.

Turning in anger, she gave John a shove, spilling his tea.

To Maggie, the new protective gentleness other son was sweet, and also very frightening.

Being very tired with his walk he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles.

There were four girls sitting on the wooden benches of the agency’s front room.

Michael went in carrying his suitcase.

I am going to Rome having friends there.

Exercise 2. Insert the appropriate form of Present Participle.

  1.  The street was full of people …… and …… home. (to laugh, to go)
    1.  The girl smiled …… her teeth. (to show)
    2.  … them, he raised his coffee cup. (to watch)
    3.  He went upstairs again …… past the door, and …… fats room, switched on the light. (to tiptoe, to enter)
    4.  … my back on him I started down the steps. (to turn)
    5.  There was only one candle …… on the rough board table. (to bum)
    6.  The young man had done preparatory work at the College for a year but not …… to the college proper had returned home.
    7.  Frank …… the step on the gravel, turned sharply round. (to hear)
    8.  The campaign progressed uneventfully from day to day no longer …… in news broadcast. (to mention)
    9.   …… that no one else was coming, Mr. Lincoln rose. (to see)

Exercise 3. Join a sentence from column A with one from column B to make one sentence.

Pattern:  John hurt his arm. He was playing tennis.

John hurt his arm playing tennis.

A

B

Carol was in the bar.

She finds it difficult to get around.

Emma was sitting in an armchair.

She said she would be back in an hour.

Sue got home late.

She looked at the sights and took photographs.

Ann went out.

She was reading a book.

A man ran out of the house.

She was having a drink.

Linda was in London for two years.

He was shouting.

Mary walked round the town.

She worked as a tourist guide.

He opened the door.

He took the key out of his pocket.

I felt tired.

She was feeling very tired.

She doesn’t have a car.

I went to bed early.

Exercise 4. Make one sentence of two using participles.

He hasn’t got much money. He is unemployed.

I didn’t want to go to the cinema. I had already seen it twice.

Jim cut himself. He was shaving.

John was playing tennis. He hurt his arm.

I was watching TV. I felt asleep.

The man slipped. He was getting off a bus.

I was walking home in the rain. I got wet.

Margaret was driving to work yesterday She had an accident.

Two foremen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire.

She finished her work. Then she went home.

They continued their Journey. They had had their dinner.

We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.

Exercise 5. Make sentences beginning with -ing or Not -ing. Sometimes yon have to begin with Having + Past Participle.

Lucy had done all her shopping. She went for a cup of coffee.

I felt tired. So I went to bed early.

I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat.

She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.

I didn’t know his address. So I wasn’t able to contact him.

Sally has travelled a lot. So she knew a lot about other countries.

The man wasn’t able to understand English. So he didn’t know what I wanted.

We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn’t afford to stay in a hotel.

Exercise 6. Translate into English suing Participle where possible.

Получив телеграмму, моя сестра немедленно выехала в Москву.

Войдя в класс, преподаватель спросил дежурного, кто отсутствует.

Мать улыбалась, глядя на детей, играющих в саду.

Взяв ручку и бумагу, мальчик стал писать письмо отцу, уехавшему на Дальний Восток.

Услышав голос друга, я вышел из комнаты, чтобы встретить его.

Увидев незнакомого человека, я извинился и вернулся в свою комнату.

Будьте осторожны, переходя улицу.

Прожив много лет в Англии, он хорошо говорит по-английски.

Читая эту книгу, я встретил несколько интересных выражений.

Прочитав эту книгу, мальчик вернул ее в библиотеку.

Студенты, читающие английские книги в оригинале, легко овладевают языком.

Проведя лето в деревне, больной совершенно поправился.

Exercise 7. State the functions of Past Participle. Translate into Russian.

Stirred by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel.

All the country near him was broken and wooded.

For a moment he stood as if turned to stone.

He spoke when spoken to, politely and without much relevance.

Miss Brown, though not personally well known in the city, had been spoken well of by all men.

He went through a dark hall, guarded by a steward.

He looked at her for a moment as though amazed at her friendliness.

Fancy a married woman doomed to live on from day to day without a single quarrel with her husband.

He bowed low when presented to her.

He took a folded strip of paper from his vest and gave it to the reporter.

Exercise 8. Change the structure of the sentences according to the pattern.

Pattern:  The story which was told by the teacher was long.

The story told by the teacher was long.

The books which are borrowed from the library may be kept for ten days.

The letters which are sent today from here to London will arrive there in five days.

The reports which were made at the conference were rather interesting.

Cities and towns which were destroyed during the war were built anew.

Here is the dictionary which was left by somebody in the room.

Exercise 9. Analyze the following sentences paying attention to the participle construction.

  1.  I saw Ann waiting for the bus.
    1.  I saw him walking along the street.
    2.  I’ve never seen her dancing.
    3.  Listen to the birds singing.
    4.  I found Sue in my room reading my letters.
    5.  They observed us making tests.
    6.  We saw Clare having a meal in a cafe.
    7.  We heard Bill playing the guitar.
    8.  We saw Linda jogging.
    9.   I want to have my hair cut.
    10.   I had my dress cleaned there last month.
    11.   I’d like to have these jeans shortened, they are a bit too long.
    12.   He had the roof repaired.
    13.   I want to have the walls papered.
    14.   She got her photos taken.
    15.  I want to have this problem solved by the computer.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences with the absolute Participle Constructions.

I couldn’t give you a call with my telephone being out of order.

It being warm, the children went for a walk.

The concert was followed by a dance, many people staying for it.

My wife having left for several days, I had to run the house.

There being no more problems to be discussed at the meeting, the chairman declared it closed.

The performance being over, everybody went home.

It being early, there were few people in the street.

The tourists were walking along the streets with the guide explaining the history of the town.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences into English.

Мне только что отремонтировали машину.

Ей сшили платье.

Он сделал ремонт квартиры (работали мастера).

Я почистил костюм (отдавал его в чистку).

Я видел, как фотографировали этот памятник.

Мы слышали, как взорвали плотину.

Дети наблюдали за тем, как тушили пожар.

Прохожие наблюдали, как сносят дом.

Вы слышали, как повторили вопрос?

Я видел, как сажали это дерево.

UNIT 13

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Exercise 1. Open the brackets correctly:

If you (say) that again, I (scream).

I (be) surprised if she (manage) to sell that car.

If the boys (come) to supper, I (cook) chicken breasts.

I (need) some money if we (go) out tonight.

I (miss) you if we (move) to Chicago.

Ann (be) sorry if Helen (not come).

If you (get) lonely, I hope you (phone) me - any time.

If you (look) in the top drawer, you (find) your passport.

It (be) great if Norman (get) the job.

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions according to the following model:

A. What are you going to do this weekend?

B. We aren’t sure.

    If the weather is fine, we’ll probably go to the beach.

   If the weather is bad, we’ll probably stay home.

1. - How is Tom going to get to work tomorrow?

   - He isn’t sure. If it rains, ……………., if it’s sunny …………. (by bus, by bicycle).

2. - Where are you going to have lunch today?

   - I’m not sure. If I’m in a hurry, …………., if I have some time, ………….. (at the office, in a cafe).

3. - What are Mr. and Mrs. Green going to do tonight?

   - They aren’t sure. If they’re tired, …………., if they have some energy, …………      (stay al home, go to a discotheque).

4. - What’s Jane going to do tomorrow?

   - She isn’t sure. If she still has a cold, …………., if she feels better, ………….  (stay in bed, go to college).

5. - What is Henry going to have for dessert this evening?

   - He isn’t sure. If he decides to stay on his diet, …………., if he decides to forget about his diet, …………… (yogurt, ice cream).

Ask your partner as many questions as possible according to this model conversation.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions according to the model:

A. Do you think it’ll be a hot spring?

B. I hope not.

If it’s a hot spring, our classroom will be very warm.

And if our classroom is very warm, it’ll be impossible to study English!

A. You’re right I hope it isn’t a hot spring.

1. - Do you think the train will be very crowded?

   - I hope not. If …………, we’ll have to stand.

     And if …………, we’ll be exhausted by the time we get to work!

   - You are right. I hope ……………

2. - Do you think the boss will retire this year?

   - I hope not. If ……………, his son will take his place. And if ………., everybody will quit!

   - You are right. I hope ………………!

3. - Do you think inflation will get worse this year?

   - I hope not. If ……………, I’ll have to take a second job.

   - And if …………….., my family will be very upset.

   - You are right. I hope …………….

Express your hope that the following things will not happen, and say what will be if they happen. Use the above dialogs as a model:

It will be very cold tonight.

It’ll rain tomorrow.

The bus will be late today.

The landlord will raise the rent for the apartment.

The TV set will be at the repair shop for a long time.

John will skip his class in physics.

The car won’t start in the morning.

We will fail at the examination.

The President will retire from his office.

The personnel will be fired.

Exercise 4. Mrs. Pratt is packing to go on holiday in Austria. She takes a lot of useful things along with her, just in case. Make sentences according to the model:

She takes a German phrase book in case the hotel staff doesn’t speak English.

SHE’S PACKING

A pack of cards, a racket, a thick sweater, a swimsuit, aspirins, binoculars, her address books, some books, walking boots…

IN CASE

She decides to send postcards, she has tine to read, she meets people to play fridge, she wants to go walking, the hotel has a heated pool, the sun gives her a headache, the weather is cold, there is a tennis court, she wants to go bird-watching,..

Think of some other things she may take along with her for the journey – just in case…

Exercise 5. Here is a nice story. Insert the missing verbs in the required form and tell this story to your group-mates. You might as well tell your own story with the same idea.

HIGH HOPES

One day a young country girl was going to town with a bucket of milk on her head. She said to herself:

“When I (come) to the market, I’ll sell the milk at a high price and buy twenty eggs with the money. Out of these eggs I’ll get twenty chickens. As soon as the chickens (be) large enough, I’ll sell them and buy a new dress for myself. It’ll be a yellow dress to match my hair. On May Day, if the weather (be) fine, if it (not rain) I’ll put on my yellow dress and go to the town. Everybody will look at me and say: “What a beautiful girl!” But I’ll pass by without looking at them. I’ll only shake my head like that.” Without noticing it she shook her head and down came the milk, the eggs, the chickens and the yellow dress.

Exercise 6. Join the beginnings and ends, putting in if:

Beginnings

Ends

Anybody asks you what you’re doing,

How can you make decisions

I buy three kilos,

I don’t get up till nine,

I can’t fix the video,

I’ll go with you

The shops are easy to get to

We don’t have to go out

You are ready before eight,

You have to practice

I’ll take it back to the shop.

You’re not feeling up to it.

Say you’re with me.

That’ll do for a few weeks.

I never get anything done.

We can catch the early train.

You want to learn a musical instrument.

You don’t know what’s going on?

You like.

You park near the station.

Exercise 7. Complete these sentences any way you like:

I’ll be surprised if .........

I’ll be very happy if .........

I’ll be sorry if .........

I’ll be very upset .........

Exercise 8. Practice these dialogs according to the model ones:

A. Why don’t our grandchildren visit us more often?

B. They don’t have enough time. If they had more time, they would visit us more often.

A. Why isn’t Melvin a good salesman?

B. He isn’t aggressive enough. If he were more aggressive, he would be a good salesman.

- Why doesn’t Sally get good grades? - She doesn’t study enough. If ……

- Why isn’t Mark a good driver? - He isn’t careful enough. If ……

- Why don’t I feel energetic? - You don’t sleep enough. If ……

- Why doesn’t Alex enjoy playing baseball? - He isn’t athletic enough. If ……

- Why doesn’t Pete have friends at college? - He isn’t outgoing enough. If ……

- Why doesn’t Sam have a yearly checkup? - He isn’t concerned enough about his health. It ……

- Why aren’t you satisfied about your Jobs? - We don’t get paid enough. If ……

- Why don’t I enjoy life? - You aren’t relaxed enough. If ……

- Why aren’t most people in good physical condition? - They don’t exercise enough. If ……

- Why don’t our congressmen do something about pollution? - They aren’t concerned enough about the environment. If ……

Exercise 9. Are you prepared for emergencies? Answer these questions and ask other students in your class.

What would you do if you saw someone choking on a piece of food?

What would you do if you saw someone having a heart attack?

What would you do if you were at the beach and saw someone drowning?

What would you do if someone in your family were missing?

What would you do if somebody came up to you in the street and tried to rob you?

What would you do if a fire broke out in your house or apartment?

What would you do if you were lying in bed and you heard someone trying to break into your house?

What would you do if you were bitten by a dog?

Think of some other emergencies and ask other students if they are prepared.

Exercise 10. Put in the correct verb forms:

If I (know) you were coming, I (invite) some friends in.

He (go) to university if his father (not be) ill.

If you (say) you weren’t hungry, I (not cook) such a big meal.

The team (win) if Jones (play) better.

If Bell (not invent) the telephone, somebody else (do) it.

If you (not spend) so much time making up, we (not be) late.

If they (not cut) off the electricity, I (finish) my work.

The burglars (not get) in if you (remember) to lock the door.

If he (not be) a film star, he (not become) President.

If Cleopatra’s nose (be) shorter, the hole history of the world (be) different.

Exercise 11. Read and practice this dialog:

I NEED SOME ADVICE

A:

Would you mind if I asked you for some advice?

B:

Of course I wouldn’t. mind.

A:

I’m thinking of buying a used car from Ralf Jones, but I’m not sure that’s a

good idea. What do you think?

B:

Do you want my honest opinion?

A:

Yes, of course.

B:

Well … to tell you the truth, I wouldn’t buy a used car from Ralf if I were you. If you bought a used car from Ralf, you’d probably regret it.

A:

I guess you’re right. Thanks for the advice.

Practice this model dialog using the following substitutions and think of some more advice:

ask the boss for a raise this week → get fired; grow a moustache → look very funny; work overtime this weekend → be exhausted by Monday morning; ………

Exercise 12. Practice these chain ideas with “if” to show how things could have been different. Example:

If he hadn’t worked so hard, he wouldn’t have passed his exams. If he hadn’t passed his exams, he wouldn’t have gone to university. If he hadn’t have gone to university...

1. He worked hard → passed exams → went to the university → studied languages → learnt Chinese → went to China → went climbing in Tibet → tried to climb Everest → disappeared in a snowstorm.

2. He bought a bicycle → went for a ride in the country → fell off → woke up in the hospital → met a beautiful nurse → wrote a best-selling novel about her → got rich → married a beautiful nurse and had three beautiful children → lived happily ever after → …

3. Mary’s mother went out that evening → Mary cooked for herself → got interested in cocking opened a very successful restaurant → had Prime Minister as customer → Prime Minister ordered lobsters → Lobsters poisoned the Prime Minister → The Prime Minister died → Mary went to prison for life…

Make your own if-chains as many as you can.

Exercise 13. Put in the correct verb forms.

If Jane (to help), me I (to be) in great trouble.

If he (to run) a bit taster, he (to win).

If I (to be) tired, I (may realize) what was happening.

If my mother (to be alive), she (to be) eighty next year.

Nothing (to happen), if you (to follow) the instructions.

I (not to cancel) the appointment, if I (not to fall) ill.

We (to contact) them long ago if someone (to tell) us that it was necessary.

If I (to be) you, I (not to believe) it.

I (to arrange) everything myself, if you (to ask) me in good time.

Exercise 14. Bernie and Martin share a room at college. Read what they say about each other and imagine you are Bernie. Express your wish about Martin’s behavior to be improved. Then imagine you are Martin. Wish to improve Bernie’s behavior.

Martin: “It’s dreadful having to share a room with Bernie. He’s so untidy! His books are all over the place, he never washes his coffee cup, he leaves dirty clothes around the room – it’s such a mess I can’t work. And he comes in late in the evening when I’m trying to sleep and lies in bed watching television. I can’t stand it!” (Martin says: “I wish Bernie wouldn’t leave his books all over the place.”...)

Bernie: “The trouble with Martin is that he never relaxes. He’s always working and he’s always bad-tempered. He doesn’t tell me what’s wrong, he just sulks. And he interferes with my possessions. He moves my books around so I can’t find them.” (Bernie says: “I wish Martin would relax sometimes.”...)

Exercise 15. You admit that you are not that perfect, as you would like to be. Express you wish to become an ideal person according to the following model:

I’m heavy. I wish 1 were thin.

I smoke. I don’t speak Chinese fluently. I don’t have a car. I’m bad at sport. I don’t like dancing. I’m not concerned enough about my parents. I don’t work hard. I’m lazy. I sleep days and nights. I eat junk food very much and ignore doctors. I’m selfish.

Exercise 16. Put the beginnings and ends together using I wish + Past Perfect.

Example: I wish I’d been nicer to my sister when we were kids.

BEGINNINGS

ENDINGS

(choose)

(do) more travelling

(go) to

(go) to bed earlier

(not get married)

(not tell) him

(save) money

(study)

(take better care of)

a better school

a different career

harder at university

last night

my teeth

when I had a chance

when I was eighteen

when I was earning a good salary

the truth

Exercise 17. Discuss the following with your group-mates:

What would you do if you were invited to make a round-the world trip in a boat as a member of an international team? In what capacity would you like to join the team if you went on a trip?

What would you do if you were invited to play a part in a movie? Why the decision? What part do you think you could play best? Why?

What would you do if you were left behind when travelling by train?

If you could be another person, who would you be and why?

If you could talk to a person from the past, who would it be and why?

If you had to give away a million dollars, without spending a cent yourself who would you give it to and why?

If you could live anywhere in the world where would you choose to live and why?

Exercise 18. Translate the following into English:

Если бы мы заказали билеты заранее, мы бы не стояли сейчас за ними в очереди.

Если бы он вел машину осторожнее, несчастного случая не произошло бы.

Если бы сейчас не шел дождь, мы бы пошли прогуляться в парк.

Если бы не ваша помощь, я бы не смог справиться с этим заданием.

Если бы ты солгал мне сейчас, я бы больше никогда тебе не поверил.

Он, конечно, перевел бы эту статью, если бы не был так занят.

На вашем месте я бы давно сказал ему правду.

Если бы Майкл на прошлой неделе не объявил о своем решении уехать, он бы сейчас остался с нами.

Если бы не тот случай, мы бы так и не узнали, что он за человек.

Жаль, что ты не проявил уважения к старику.

Ничто бы не выдало его, если бы не его русский акцент.

Хотелось бы мне, чтобы вы не были таким рассеянным и не задавали один и тот же вопрос несколько раз.

Жаль, что вы мне не верите.

Как бы мне хотелось побывать в США.

Было так жарко, что я пожалел, что не остался в тени.

В случае, если он придет, скажите ему, что я обедаю в кафе за углом.

Если бы книга не была такой дорогой, я бы не отказалась от мысли купить ее.

Если бы вы предъявили билет, этого недоразумения не произошло бы.

Если бы вы уделяли больше внимания своему ребенку, он бы учился лучше.

Как жаль, что я не участвовал в этой экскурсии, говорят, она была интересной.

Если вы устали, отдохните.

Мы согласны сделать некоторые изменения в проекте, если вы находите это необходимым.

Обсуждение не займет много времени, если все будут говорить по существу.

Если она согласится выйти за меня замуж, я буду так счастлив.

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА

  1.  Бонк Н.А. Английский для международного сотрудничества. - СП «ПРИН-ДИ», Москва, 1992 г.
    1.  Филюшкина Л.Т., Фролова М.П. Сборник упражнений к учебнику английского языка авторов Бонк Н.А., Котий Н.А., Лукьяновой Л.Г. - Москва, «Международные отношения», 1997 г.
    2.  Bliss B., Molinsky S.J. Side by side. English Trough Guided Conversation. - Prentice Hall Regents. - Englewood Cliffs, NJ. - 1982.
    3.  Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press. - 1995-99.
    4.  Murphy R., Hashemi L. English Grammar in Use - Supplementary Exercises. -Cambridge University Press. -1995-99.
    5.  Hewings M. Advanced Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press. - 1999.
    6.  Swan M., Walter C. How English Works. - A Grammar Practice Book. - Oxford University Press. - 1997.

Анна Мееровна Митина

Нонна Васильевна Багметова

Анатолий Анатольевич Курылев

Ольга Вячеславовна Леднева

Елена Васильевна Новоженина

Андрей Владимирович Олянич

CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF GRAMMAR

Учебное пособие

no грамматике английского языка

для основного и дополнительного образования

Часть вторая

Редактор Е.М.Богомазова

Темплан 2000г., Поз. № 25.

Лицензия ЛР № 020251 от 16. 04. 96г.

Подписано в печать 16.03.00. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага газетная.

Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 3,49. Уч.-изд. л. 3,55.

Тираж 500 экз. Заказ 215.

Волгоградский государственный технический университет

400131, Волгоград, просп. В.И.Ленина, 28

РПК «Политехник»

Волгоградского государственного технического университета

400131 Волгоград, ул. Советская, 35


 

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