89593

Deepening of specialization and increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production

Курсовая

Лесное и сельское хозяйство

Specialization creates terms for organization of continuous (current) process of production, application of the most perfect facilities of labor, introduction of mechanization and computer aided, achievement of the complete and effective use of technological equipment, improvement of structure of enterprises...

Английский

2015-05-13

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CONTENT

INTRODUCTION..………………………………………………….……................................3

PART I. Scientific bases of specialization of agricultural production…………………..5

1.1 Essence and objective terms of development of specialization of agricultural enterprise…………………………………………………….............................................…5

1.2. Methodology of determination is specialization of agricultural enterprises and indexes of here economic efficiency….………………………………...……………………………..13

PART II. Modern the state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of his specialization…………………………………………………………..16

2.1. Productive resources of economy and their use……………………………………….16

2.2.A dynamics of development of production of corn is on grain in an economy………..22

2.3Economic efficiency of specialization is on the production of agricultural products………………………………………………………………………………...…..24

PART III. Deepening of specialization and increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production……………………….......………………………………………27

3.1. Concentration of agricultural production and translation of him are on industrial basis………………………………………………………………………………………...27

3.2 Introduction of complex mechanization and progressive technologies of production of agricultural goods…………………………………………………………………………..32

3.3 Development of specialization of agricultural production is on the base of between economic cooperation and agro industrial integration…………………………………..…34

PART VI. Evaluation of the financial situation of the company………………………38

CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………...

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………

EDITIONS…………………………………………………………………………………

INTRODUCTION

The major factors of production are development of marketer lations, increase of scales of production, scientific and technical progress.

The the most important sign of specialization is a production of certain product or part of him specialization is a concentration rural.

Specialization conduces to that a producer, as a rule, produces products not for itself, but for other members of society, often his products are not the article of the personal or productive consumption.

The presence of such exchange as a result of specialization conduces productions to the improvement. Already a long ago it is known that absence of specialization, so-called materialwell-being itself in an economy, generates not efficiency of production. Advantages that is provide by specialization of productions:

  1.  Firstly, she increases the labor productivity considerably. It for it is knitted with that 

Specialization creates terms for organization of continuous (current) process of production, application of the most perfect facilities of labor, introduction  of mechanization and computer aided, achievement of the complete and effective use of technological equipment, improvement of structure of enterprises, increase of co-operation of labor manufacturing.

  1.  Secondly, specialization gives an opportunity better to use a main productive body man based on taking into account of her individual differences and capabilities.
  2.  Thirdly, specialization on implementation of certain work forms qualification of worker. A long ago it is known that in most cases a man cannot identically adroitly execute many types of activity. However, she can attain out standing mastery in some types of works.
  3.  Fourthly, specialization in execution productive functions conduces to the economy of time deprives a production from super flu us charge, especially during the change of one type of activity by other kind.
  4.  Fifthly, specialization gives an opportunity better to use regional features. Yes, a pot gives high harvests in Chernihiv, Zhytomyr, Volyn areas. In addition, on Odessa, through natural terms the far fewer of her grows Kherson. On the south of Ukraine get the high harvests of  wheat, a watermelon grow etalcoolie of rook.. Thus, geographical specialization of production has an important value for providing of the effective use  of such important resource, as agricultural earth.

However, in an eventual result, specialization provides more advantages, than defects, and humanity uses this form of organization of production for the increase of the labor productivity.

Specialization closely constrained with cooperation development of that is based on strengthening and deepening of specialization.

Cooperation is the special form of the protracted rational productive connections between the specialized in dependent enterprises comparatively with other enterprises that does not have such connections.

In accordance with forms specializations in industry exist three forms of cooperation 

  1.  a subject (aggregate) - main enterprise produces eventual products and gets different 

wares from other enterprises;

  1.  detailed - on a main enterprise knots and details come from the row of the specialize

enterprises;

  1.  technological - an enterprise supplies to other enterprises the products of the separate 

stages of productive process.

Thus, specialization stipulates the necessity of commodity exchange between the members of society.

I. Scientific bases of specialization of agricultural production

1.1 Essence and objective terms of development of specialization of agricultural enterprises

Specialization of agricultural production and agrarian market are the processes that a rose up yet in antiquity as a result of division of labor bound and interdependent in a public production. A market stimulates demand and supply not in general, but in relation to concrete products and services. Specialization also determines a production and realization of product sufferer separate kinds. Thus, basic levers and methods of adjusting of both specialization and market relations, gather. Role and value of specialization in the increase of efficiency of production in the conditions of a agrarian trans for matins considerably grows as at the level of zone, region, administrative district, on enterprise that requires further perfection of development of this process in accordance with the action of economic laws and on the basis of the maximal use of naturally biological terms and resource potential.

Presence of the multi channel system of production distribution, passing to the market prices that is formed by correlation of demand and supplies, their instability and systematic during a year vibrations result in the artificial overstating or under stating of part of separate wares in the structure of commodity products that does impossible ability of the last to serve as the index of determination of level of specialization on the costs of realization. In the conditions of passing to the market relations for this purpose it is suggested to use the structure of commodity products in comparable prices.

The agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine is presently characterized to rolling up of specialization and concentration of production, as are salt potential possibilities of deepening of these processes for the acceleration of rates of development of agriculture and increase of his efficiency actually are not used. However exactly they together with technological, organizationally economic, social, ecological and other factors must provide the high competitiveness of products and due place her on the markets of food.

In the process of reformation of agrarian sphere, priority direction sere not certain in relation to maintenance all turned out in the past and adaptation of him to the terms of market economy that resulted in considerable losses and destruction created earlier economic potential. At the sometime, wherein during realization of this work productive and social in restructures, technologies of production and skilled potential, we restored, the market methods of ménage are inculcated, the accrued forming develop successfully, provided them economy growing.

During restructuring of collective a agricultural enterprises in the legal organization structures of different patterns of ownership and manage with a next association them in associations, consortia and business concerns on the basis of cooperation of the landed and property shares there are directions of specialization in them kept, and during the selection of the ground up agrarian forming in independent subjects of manage with division between them earth and property there is a process of despecializations of production.

In the conditions of economy both large-scale and small-scale production can successfully function in an agrarian sphere. Presently the last prevails in a country, as a more than half of gross products of agriculture is produced in the personal peasant and farmer economies. However, not diminishing them to the role, food safety of the state however, the specialized enterprises of all patterns of ownership and ménage will decide with the rational pattern of production and high level of competitiveness.

Small-scale enterprises must be specialized, to unite, to cooperate and integrated both for horizontal sand for vertical lines. Cooperative motion must develop thus, first of all, through creation of attendant and productive cooperative stores forming of that requires development of the scientifically reasonable system of mutual relations of participants of cooperation, including to the management, marketing, mechanism of distribution of incomes. In a prospect priority directions of cooperation of agricultural commodity producers will be: rationalization of organization of production, storage and production distribution; building of lines and workshops of small-yield is from her processing; material and technical supply and technological service; creation of the cooperative forming of higher order -associations, holding, business concerns, consortia and other large whole sale victuallers and wholesale consumer of industrial products, that is produced for the necessities of village, that will function on internal, and external.

At determination straight of specialization of farms it is necessary to take into account not only local naturally-economic terms and their territorial placing but also traditions that was folded here, professional preparation and personal interest of family members in development of that or other industry, labor intensiveness sand production of goods volumes, provision of resources and domestic employment in an economy, possibility of storage and supply of products to the markets of sale. For successful work of this category of enterprises state support is needed from the selection of favorable credits on the security earth and property, realization of projects of development of farming with participation of foreign investors and programs of technical help. It is needed to work out the scientific systems of conduct of agriculture for separate naturally-economic zones with the ground of intensive technologies of growing of agricultural cultures on small areas and maintenance of small groups of animals, application of small technique; to practice providing go farmers material and technical resources on leasing basis; to set the minimum fixed prices on mine-out by them products; to promote the level of, their skilled and in formatively-consultative scientific service.

Directions of specialization of agricultural enterprises of the investigated zone will be determined by efficiency of the use of earth, productive potential, labor resources and volume of income got on this basis, but substantial changes must test zonal, district, inter governmental and economic specializations through creation of the strictly specialized districts and natural habitats of production of food grain, sugar beets, backache products, beef, pork and milk. Thus the cattle breeding it is expedient to combine with sugar beet, and pig breeding and poultry farming with a grain-growing production. It is important, that deepening of specialization and cooperation provided the rational natural use and guard of environment.

Taking into account, that Podillya belongs to the least muddy districts, it is expedient to deepen his specialization on a production ecologically of clean products. In the marked region it follows to erect application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides to the minimum. The fertility-improving of soil share can be attained on the basis of increase of the use of organic, bacterial and mitotic fertilizers, expansion of areas of leguminous plants and long-term herbages.

In a certain period it is expedient to develop the economies specialized on the production of milk with a population 800-1200 cows, meat of cattle with the concentration of animals on before growing and fattening 2,7-3 thousand chairmen and pork 3-8 thousand chair men and with specific gravity in commodity products on the comparable costs of milk according to 45-60 percents, beef - 55-70 and pork are 50-60 percents. In relation to grain crops, then most distribution agricultural enterprises that provide gross collection them with in the limits of 5-10 thousand tons and sugar beets -from 7 to 15 thousand tons must get. Thus part of grain in general commodity mass must present from 30 to 60, and sugar raw material – from45 to 60 percent.

On the basis of ground of possible production of agricultural goods volumes on the nearest and remote prospects, populations counted on a minimum and complete necessity in food stuffs, directions of specialization of agricultural enterprises of forest-steppe zone are worked out. In particular, there is a decline in the structure of commodity products of specific gravity of plant-grower industries and increase of stock-raising. Thus part of grain-crops will diminish in her, and milk and beef - will grow. Thus, it is possible to forecast, that in a prospect to the extent of increase of population of cows and sapling/pl of cattle and increase of their productivity the cattle breeding will take the leading place in general commodity mass, and direction of their specialization is transformed from grain the cattle breeding and sugar beets in a beet grain-growing-grower.

Among major factors that determine further development and deepening of specialization of agrarian production, there is a human capital. For this reason the decision of socio-economic problems of rural development, creation of necessary living and cultural conditions of life to the workers of village, realization of the program of revival of rural territories, increase of professional and qualifying levels of labor potential of agrarian sphere must be come a near-term task.

Deepening of specialization and concentrations of agricultural production needs taking into account of the state and prospects of development of international division of labor, aspiration of foreign economic activity of our country on including of her in to the world and European agrarian organizations, studies and inputs of experience of countries of Central and East Europe in relation to realization of agrarian reform with bringing in of foreign investors.

It is necessary to renew the study of problem of specialization and concentration of agricultural production in research establishments and higher educational establishments of Ukraine and work out corresponding recommendations in relation to wide introduction of the marked processes in the accrued economic structures, orienting them on the strictly specialized organization of production.

An agro industrial production it is impossible to show out of the crisis state with out clearly certain directions and stages of his development. Therefore at state level it is needed to work out and carryout implementation of the National program of his revival and related to him other industries of national economy, that must define the integral system of the measures, sent to stabilizing of agrarian sphere, proceeding in the production volumes attained in 80th and only after it, are strategic tasks of remote prospect.

The economic form of division of labor is specialization. Division of labor, that comes true between enterprises and industries, sometimes it is very difficult to take into account. There are unforeseen disproportions between the links of the specialized production. In one enterprises and regions there are surpluses of the specialized products that creates the problem of their realization, and the sharp lack of stuff details and knots is tested in other that restrains development of production.

Specialization of agricultural production is organically connected with his placing. They are the forms of public division of labor and are in permanent inter communication. Placing characterizes the quantitative side of public division of labor and specifies, what types of products, in what size and on what areas produced on that or other territory(in area of, district).

Specialization removes the quality side of public division of labor and specifies, the production of which one types of products prevails on this territory. It is an effective for more organization of agriculture that gives an opportunity to concentrate the production of certain types of products of step separate territories and enterprises and to get, due to it, the best results of economic activity.

Among determinations of specialization and her forms most successful from our point of views such: specialization is prevailing development of one or a few industries in the production of commodity goods in separate enterprises, districts, areas, regions. Specialization is a process appropriate, much plan that depending on natural, economic and organizational factors developed in different directions, as a result there were her different forms that represent that or other feature of her use.

Economic efficiency of the specialized enterprises is condition by that she assists application of new technique, front-rank technological processes, most perfect methods of organization of production, the best use of equipment, forming of the state of highly skilled workers.

Economic efficiency of specialization of production can be defined by comparison of indexes of labor intensiveness and prime price of the wares made on the specialized and un specialized enterprises.

In connection with it determination of optimal size of enterprise as bases becomes substantial problem forest abolishment of level of his specialization.

Thus, specialization is the form of public division of labor. Moreover, specialization is an effective form of organization of agriculture that gives an opportunity to concentrate the production of certain types of products on separate territories and enterprises.

Specialization of agriculture is a difficult process that develops in various forms. Depending on an object to specialization, distinguish such her three forms:

  1.  Territorial specialization – prevailing production of those or other types of agricultural produce is on certain territory.
  2.  Specializations of agrarian enterprises are a prevailing production in them of corresponding type of products, for that are the most favorable naturally economic terms.
  3.  Inwardly economic specialization is further development of specialization of enterprise by the separation of productions and separate types of products or him the technological stages on separate inwardly economic subdivisions - brigades, farms, detachments, links, cooperative stores.

On technological principle, the productions of goods distinguish branch and in warily branch specialization.

  1.  Branch specialization is such specialization at that certain industry functions in an enterprise on principle of there served cycle of production.

Inwardly branch specialization means separated of production within the limits of the same industry.

All forms of specialization closely constrained inter an dare in permanent development. Further development of specialization of agricultural production, translation of him on industrial basis is one of major ways of acceleration of rates of his intensification. To it the  achievements of pig breeding economies, poultry factories, economies testify from fattening of cattle et al, productive activity of that is sent to repressing development of main industry.

The result of deepening of specialization is development of different forms of cooperation and integration. In practice of agricultural production in a modern period, it is possible to distinguish three types of integration: horizontal, vertical and mixed. 

Horizontal integration is characterize by combining effort of agricultural enterprises for the joint production of certain goods or implementation of works of one having a special purpose setting (travelling building, land-reclamation of earth and other)

Vertical integration consists in combining effort of economies and enterprises of different industries for realization to circulation of commodity products, which unites her production, purveyance, transporting, industrial processing and realization. 

The mixed integration appears in the association of enterprises of different industries, between that there is not technical and technological connection from a production and realization of products(production of building materials in agricultural enterprises, creation of auxiliary enterprises from the production of agricultural goods in composition industrial enterprises or associations).

Horizontal integration comes true within the limits of industry of agriculture and that is why branch character has inwardly; the vertical and mixed decide the question of inter-branch character. The example of horizontal integration is creation between economic enterprises and associations (from the production of goods of stock-raising, plant-grower and other); vertical is organization of the different agro industrial forming (agro industrial combines, agrarian firms, agro industrial associations and others like that).

Naturalandclimatic,economic,biologicalfactorsinfluenceonplacingandspecializationofagriculturalproduction. One of major there is a natural and climatic factor. The types of soils, temperature condition, amount of precipitations, more substantial in all influence on placing of agricultural cultures and specialization of production.

Before deepening of specialization of enterprises, a competition induces between agricultural commodity producers that considerably increases in the conditions of the market saturated by food. In the end, every enterprise is concentrated on the production of those types of products that are competitive and provide him economic existence as a legal entity.

The important factor of placing and specialization is a presence of markets of agricultural production distribution. It is advantageous to increase the production of those types of products; there is permanent demand on that, enterprises. Moreover, vice versa, frequent problems with the sale of certain types of products result in abandonment of enterprises from their production.

Provision of labor resources, their qualification quite often influences as a restrictive factor for development of certain industries of agricultural production, and first those that are labor intensive at the present level of mechanization of productive processes. In the conditions of Ukraine a vegetable-growing, watermelon, flax cultivation, gardening, production of sugar beets, belong to such industries.

Specialization of agricultural enterprises is determined taking into account the scientifically reasonable placing of agriculture on territory of country. At establishment to specialization of economies, consider first by implementation of contractual obligations on the sale of agricultural foods. On specialization of production, the complex of economic and natural factors influences in agricultural enterprises. Among them one of basic there are demand and standard of prices on an agricultural produce, that can considerably stimulate the production of those or other types of products or restrain expansion of certain industries.

Development and placing of industry belong to the economic factors to specialization. From one side, the increase of cities, development of industrial centers, require the increase of production of agricultural goods, and from the second – scientific and technical progress strengthens the material and technical base of agricultural production.

It is therefore necessary to provide the high rates of development of industry, especially industries, which supply to agriculture a technique, electric power, chemistry, assist further intensification of production in agricultural enterprises and others like that. The increase of producing of tractors, combines, cars, different agricultural machines assists the increase of level fund of equipped of economies.

The important factor of perfection of specialization of agricultural production is development of his mechanization and electrification that assists creation of highly mechanized and electrified enterprises, farms and complexes.

The economic factor of specialization of agriculture is also his chemistry. Fertilizer of soils and use of facilities of defense of plants - the constituents of the scientifically reasonable system of agriculture, deepening of specialization of agricultural production and increase of his efficiency are important.

For specialization of agricultural production a large value is had transport, transport terms. Without a transport, it is impossible to decide the question of placing of products, change in specialization, delivery of products from other districts and other. If production of certain type of products cost together with charges on delivery in this district higher from charges on the production of her in other district, then better not to leave her, but produce in place.

The important factor of specialization of agricultural production is material well-being of him by labor resources. It touches those types of products, the production of that yetis mechanized not enough, but the expenses of direct labor on unit of products are large.

An important role development of specialization is play by natural factors, in particular, quality of soils, amount of precipitations, temperature condition and others like that. In practice of agricultural production there are difficult cooperation and inter conditionality of economic and natural factors that affect his specialization. Through large territory of Ukraine, variety of economic and ground-climatic terms the differentiated going is needed near specialization of production in separate zones, districts and agricultural enterprises.

1.2Methodology of determination is specialization of agricultural enterprises and indexes of her economic efficiency

Specialization of production in agricultural enterprises is characterize by many indexes basic from that is a structure of commodity products. Therefore, the value of certain industry of agricultural enterprise is determine by part of her commodity products in the general amount of commodity products of economy.

The additional indexes of specialization of production are: structure of gross products; a structure of expenses of labor is in industries; a structure of capital, capital investments goods is for the row of years; structure of sowing areas; structure of population of animals and other.

Basic index inwardly economic specialization of agricultural enterprises is a structure of gross products.

To the economies that is specialized on the production of goods of one industry, it follows to take those in that this industry gives over to the 50 percent commodity products. From here an economy can be a cattle breeder, pig breeding, grain-growing. If industry gives two kinds to the products, then specialization of economy is determined after the prevailing type of products(for example, milk meat cattle breeding, meat wool sheep breeding). If two industries of economy give 2/3 and more commodity products(one a chop the mare not less than as 25 and not more than 50 percent then such economies attribute to specialized on two industries. Specialization they are determined after industry the products of that prevail(for example, sugar beet milk, cattle breeding flax cultivation direction of economy).

To those, that is specialized on three industries, take economies that get from these industries 75 percent more commodity products commodity products, thus each of these industries must produce not less than 24 percent no more to the 33,3 percent commodity products. Other enterprises are attribute to those, where certain specialization was yet fold.

The level of specialization of economy is determined after part by the costs of commodity products of main industries in a total worth him commodity products. Deeply specialized enterprises that produce one type of commodity products (poultry factories, economies from fattening to the sapling/plc. of cattle, pigs, vegetable factories and others like that) mainly have a high level of specialization. Thus, part of commodity products of mainindustrypresentseconomiesoverthe50percentgeneralcosts of commodity products. Than less of main and additional industries, that comparatively higher is a level of specialization of enterprise.

The level of specialization is determined after a coefficient that is expected after a formula :

Кс =100 / (∑Ут(2і-1)),

where Кс- coefficient of specialization; Ут - part of commodity products of separate industries; i- is a sequence number of part of commodity products at a certain row. Value of Кс to 0,20 testifies to the low level of specialization of economy; 0,21-0,40 - middle; 0,41-0,60 - high; 0,61 and anymore - for deep specialization of economy.

Distinguish two basic progress of specialization trends. The first is characterize by that an economy is specialized on the production of a few types of commodity products: one- two in a plant-grower and one-two in a stock raising at simultaneous development of a few additional and subsidiary industries. This tendency presently is basic. The second tendency becomes known in that an enterprise is specialized on the production of one type of products: beef, pork, meat of bird, eggs, vegetables, fruit and others like that. Many economies carry out a production on industrial basis, for them both organization of production with a complete cycle and wide development of between economic connections and cooperation is characteristic. Especially considerable development was purchase by cooperation in creation of large enterprises from a production of meat.

For many agricultural enterprises the peculiar combined production, ides with a few industries at their certain combination. It is thus necessary correctly to combine main, additional and subsidiary industries. Rational combination of industries in agricultural enterprises is determined by such principles: the greatest efficiency of production; most complete and correct use of ground-climatic and economic terms of economy; reduction to seasonality of the use of labor force, her more complete and even use for a year; utilization of wastes and side products of one industries other; acceleration of money in an economy and other. For the deeper ground of rational combination of industries in an economy, all wider apply economies mathematical methods with the use of modern electro-calculable machines.

Perfection of specialization of agricultural enterprises, her deepening - one of ways of achievement of higher economic results economies: increase of production of good sand increase of efficiency of her production volume. At the decision of questions of rational specialization of production specializations, that represent efficiency of the use of earth, labor force, productive funds, and current outlays, use a criterion and system of indexes of efficiency in agricultural enterprises.

For the deeper economic evaluation of specialization that was fold, and perspective specialization of agricultural enterprises, use such system of indexes: increase of gross products, gross receipt and net profit calculating on unit of the landed area(agricultural lands, plough-land), expenses of labor, productive funds, capital investments, current outlays.

Comparative efficiency of a variants of specialization  that is developed on a prospect, determine after a formula:

Е = П / (3т+КеКв)

where Е - is efficiency of variant of specialization; П - is an increase of gross products; Зт – is an increase of current outlays; Ке - is a normative coefficient of efficiency; Кв-  is an increase of sum of capital investments.

The basic tasks of perfection of inwardly economic specialization are: maximal increase of production of goods in every subdivision, effective use of productive funds and labor resources, increase of indexes of efficiency of production. At planning of in warmly economic specialization, it follows to take into account technological copulas between sub divisions, to envisage rational combination of industries. Every productive subdivision (area, workshop, brigade, and farm) must have certain specialization taking into account the complex of terms of work of subdivisions of economy.

II. Modern the state and economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of his specialization
2.1 Productive resources of economy and their use

Agriculture of Ukraine as well as other industries of production, found oneself-hard up. An exit from him is possible after the decision of many problems of structurally productive character in an economy. In connection with it on the first plan the necessity of realization of analysis of factors of the economy growing, exposure of untapped backlogs of increase of efficiency of productive resources is pulled out.

A question of study of the effective use of productive resources always was actual. But the last years he does not get the proper value. To that end it is important correctly and in number to measure every type of resources and objectively to estimate him.

The high performance and rational use of productive resources is taken to the decision of important task as increase of the productivity of animals. In the cattle breeding the presence of feed base, level of feeding and maintenance of animals, main tenancy of fruit, influence on the productivity.

The increase of efficiency of agricultural production largely depends and from the improvement of the use of material resources, increase fund of return.

Private agricultural LTD. "AroKim" is located in the village of Mala Divutsya, Prilutskogo of district, Chernihiv area. An area is located in north part of country in the Polesya and forest-steppe zones. Black earth, and grey and light grey soils, prevail in the groundcover. The climate of region is mildly continental. Ordinary temperature of air 7,2 °C. Middle temperature of the coldest month of January - 7 °C. The middle temperature of July presents 19 °C. Maximal 30 °C, minimum - 20 °C. Period withatemperature10 °C presents 145 - 170 days. Precipitations a 599 mm in a year.

No less important for development of economy are such indexes, as a presence of resources and remoteness from the points of realization of certain types of products. In addition, the economic terms of production are characterize by sizes and organizational structure, specialization and branch structure, intensity of production.

By a summarizing economic category, that characterizes efficiency of economy, activity on the whole and separate industries there is profitability of enterprise or production. Her level is determined by the percentage ratio of income to the complete realized unit cost. With the increase of income and decline of prime price, profitability of production rises. And vice versa, exceeding of charges on the production of goods of cattle breeder above the sum of money profit yield from her realization, the profitableness of production means.

A norm of income is a percentage ratio of income to the lump sum of cost of present the fixed and circulating assets productions (including her remuneration of labor) that participate in the production of goods. The norm of income testifies to efficiency of the use of productive funds and together with him specifies on possibility of increase of their sum due to piling up from incomes.

Economic efficiency of the cattle breeding determines the calculation of level of a fund is a return of all productive funds (or only basic) busy in his industries also. He is measured by the cost of gross products that is on 1грн. basic, and also capital and circulating assets.

In agriculture earth is a main mean of production, without that the process of production of goods of plant-grower and stock-raising is impossible. Earth at the same time is an object and means of labor, and thus and by the main mean of production.

In a next table will conduct the analysis of the landed resources of LTD. "AgroKim".

Table 2.1

Calculate the structure of agricultural land of LTD. "AgroKim"

Land

Basic year

Actual year.

Actual уear to % of basic

ha

%

ha

%

Total

643

100,00

14721

100,00

22 to times

Arable land

 643

100,00 

 14721

100,00 

22 to times

Analyzing the indexes of this table see that for investigated period the area of agricultural lands of LTD. "АГРОКІМ" increased. Yes, in basic year agricultural lands counted 643 hectare, and in actual year - 14721 hectare, id est the area of agricultural lands increased in 22 to times. In the structure of agricultural lands all place is occupied by plough-land that increased accordingly in 22 to times. It testifies to high thrown open of earth in an economy and them the intensive use.

Also an important question is determination of composition of labor resources and structure of their use of LTD. "AgroKim".

Table 2.2

Labor resources of LTD. "AgroKim" and their use.

Indicator

2012 year

2013 year

2014 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Average number of employess, people

10

202

302

30 to times.

Including: plant

10

202

302

30 to times.

Livestock

-

-

-

X

It is exhaus an agricultural production total, thous. of man-hours

16,2

363,6

557,40

34 to times

Including: plant

16,2

363,6

557,40

34 to times

It is exhaus 1 worker for a year, of man-hours.

1,62

1,80

1,85

1,14 to times

Including: plant

1,62

1,80

1,85

1,14 to times

Coefficient of the use human resources, total

0,9

1,0

0,95

Х

Including: plant

0,9

1,0

0,95

Х

Doing the analysis of data of table see a 2.2 LTD. "AgroKim" and efficiency of their use increase of average annual quantity of workers : in comparison of actual year to 2012 year to it grew in 30 to times. The amount of man-hours exhaust increased in an agricultural production on 17,89%.

The fixed assets are materially-material values that operate in an unchanging natural form during great while and lose the cost for to parts. Among them distinguish the fixed productive assets - capital goods that during great while participate in the process of production keep a naturally-material form and carry the cost parts on the prepared product.

Indexes characterize the level of equipped of economy the fixed assets  :

- A capital is material well-being is a cost of basic capital of the agricultural setting that is on 100 hectare agricultural lands;

- A capital is armed labors are a cost of basic capital of the agricultural setting calculating on one average annual worker.

Economic efficiency of the use of the fixed assets is characterized by indexes :

- A capital is a returnis a cost of gross products calculating on a 1 UAN. of the fixed assets of the agricultural setting;

- A capital is a capacity is an index, reverse a capital is a return;

- A norm of income is a percentage ratio of income to the sum of the fixed assets of the agricultural setting and floating capital.

Therefore will consider the provision of enterprise productive capital in a table 2.3:

Table 2.3

Dynamics of basic capital provision of enterprise and his use of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

2012 year

2013 year

2014 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Average cost of capital assets, thous. UAN

682,85

32309,6

65831

96 to times

per 1 hа of agricultural land

1,06

2,34

4,47

4 to times

per 1 hа of average worker

67,29

159,95

217,98

3 to times

Capital is a return, UAN

1,02

2,6

1,5

1,5 to times

Capital is a capacity products, UAN

0,98

0,38

0,67

68,37

Norm of income,%

X

7

X

X

Conducting the analysis of the fixed productive assets in LTD. "AgroKim" and efficiency of their use (table.2.3), see that the cost of basic capital grew in 96 to times, and also a capital is a return in comparison in the percent of actual year to basic year to grew in 1,5 to times. A capital is a capacity products of LTD. "AgroKim" grew on 68,37%. The norm of income presents: in 2013 year - 7%, and in  basic and actual year we can not define as we look after un profitableness of enterprise.

After a world tendency all enterprises have certain specialization, id est repressing development of production of one or a few types of products for that in this place is relatively the best naturally economic terms.

Will investigate the structure of money receivables from realization of products in LTD. "AgroKim" :

Table 2.4

A structure of money receivables is from realization of products in LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Actual уear to % of basic

thos. UAN

%

thos.

UAN

%

Grain

2563,1

99,85

125273,6

88,33

49 to times

Wheat

-

-

5014,7

3,54

X

Rye

491,9

19,16

-

-

X

Buckwheat

30,0

1,17

-

-

X

A corn is on grain

1936,6

75,45

120258,9

84,79

62 to times

Oat

99,0

3,86

-

-

X

Other grain

5,6

0,22

-

-

X

Sunflower

-

-

24,0

0,02

X

Soy

-

-

3959,0

2,79

X

Other products of plant

3,8

0,15

11,8

0,01

45 to times

Total on a plant-grower

2566,9

100,0

129268,4

91,14

50 to times

Total

2566,9

100,00

141829,9

100,00

55 to times

In the structure of money receivables from realization of commodity products in LTD. "AgroKim" in basic year a considerable place occupies growing of corn on grain 75,45%. Analysing actual year, we see that the bulk of money receivables we get from realization of corn on grain also 84,79%.

It is thus possible to say, that LTD. "AgroKim" is specialized on grown corn on grain.

Will define the results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim" in a next table:

Table 2.5

Results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

2012year

2013 year

2014  year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Cost of gross products, thous.UAN

693,95

84198,60

99926,80

143 to times

per 1 hа of agricultural land

1,08

6,09

6,79

6 to times

per 1 hа of average worker

69,40

416,82

330,88

4,8 to times

per 1 UAN of production cost

0,32

1,01

0,85

2,7 to times

Gross products, thous.UAN

-1260,5

-5460

45762,6

Х

per 1 hа of agricultural land

-1,96

-0,39

3,11

Х

per 1 hа of average worker

-126,05

-27,03

151,53

Х

Profitability, %

-32,93

-9,65

47,64

Х

Estimating the results of economic activity of LTD. "AgroKim" defined the cost of gross products and her rates of development. In 2014 year to 2012 year to relatively grew in 143 to times. Gross revenue: it is observed only in actual year is a 45762,6 thousand UAN, and in 2012 year and 2013 year he is absent.

2.2. A dynamics of development of production of corn is on grain in an economy.

Estimating general activity of enterprise, it is impossible to skip the indexes of economic efficiency of production of agricultural enterprise.

The increase of economic efficiency of agrarian enterprises envisages the increase of production and upgrading of agricultural produce at simultaneous reduction of expenses to labor and money on unit of products. The decision of this problem is indissolubly related to further all-round intensification of agricultural production, in the process of that the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures and productivity of cattle and bird is provided. In modern terms an agricultural production must develop mainly on the basis of intensification that is basic direction of increase of him economic efficiency.

The ways of increase of efficiency of agricultural production envisage the complex of such basic measures : improvement of the use of earth and increase of her fertility; introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing; increase of level of provision of economies productive funds and improvement of their use; introduction of intensive and resource of keeping technologies and industrial methods of production; upgrading and maintenance of mine-out products; deepening of specialization and strengthening of concentration of production is on the basis of between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration; deployment of progressive forms of organization of production and remuneration of labor.

In next tables will analyses the dynamics of production of corn on grain and economic efficiency of production of corn on grain.

Table 2.6

A dynamics of production of corn is on grain of LTD "AgroKim"

Indicator

Year

2014уear to % of 2012 year

2012

2013

2014

Area sown,hа

181

7259

13117

72 to times

Yield, c/ha:

14,70

57,59

65,32

4 to times

Gross harvest corn is on a grain, centners

2660

418051

856840

322 to times

Sold corn is on a grain, centners

22707

77455

531051

23 to times

The level of commodity production, %

853,65

18,53

61,98

Х

Analyzing the indexes of dynamics of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim" during 2012 – 2014 years there is a considerable increase of area of sowing in 72 to times. Productivity from 1 hectare, it is compared 2014 year to 2012 year to grew in 4 to times. The analysis of gross harvest of corn on grain showed an increase in 322 to times in comparing to 2012 year. Sold of corn on grain on years presents: 2012 year are 22707centners, 2013 year are 77455centners, 2014 year - 531051centners and it in 23 to times more than per 2012 year.

2.3 Economic efficiency of specialization is on the production of agricultural products

Table 2.7

Influence of factors on the changes of gross collection of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Deviation  (+) , ( - )

Area sown,hа

181

13117

12936

Yield, c/ha:

14,70

65,32

50,62

Gross harvest corn is on a grain, centners

2660

856840

854180

Gross harvest corn is on a grain at the area of actual and yield of base year, centners

192819,9

X

Changes in the gross harvest corn is on the grain initiated by:-  area sown

190159,9

X

                                -  yield

664020,1

X

A problem of increase of efficiency of agroindustrial production is a determinative of economic and social development of society. Efficiency of production as economic category represents the action of objective economic laws that appears in effectiveness of production. She is a that form in that realized, aim of public production. Economic efficiency shows an eventual useful effect from application of capital and direct-labor goods, and also, combined their investments. In this connection it is necessary to distinguish such concepts, as an effect and economic efficiency. An effect is a result of those or other measures carried out in an agricultural production.

Economic efficiency of production is determined by attitude of the got results toward the charges of capital and direct-labor goods. Efficiency of production is a summarizing economic category quality description of that is represented in high effectiveness of the use of living and labor in capital goods.

Economic efficiency of stock-raising means the receipt of maximal amount of products from one head of cattle at the least production inputs of labor and money unit of products. Efficiency of stock-raising includes correlation of results and charges of production not only, reflected also in her, quality of products and his ability to satisfy those or other consumer need. Thus upgrading of agricultural produce requires the additional expenses of living and labor.

In agriculture the increase of economic efficiency matters very much not only in the decision of food problem but also in the increase of welfare of all population. The special value acquires the increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production in the conditions of market relations and competition, when a that commodity producer that has more subzero prime price and high quality of products wins.

Will conduct the analysis of economic efficiency of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim", in particular will define the prime price of corn on grain.

Table 2.8

Identify factors on influence on the formation of the cost of 1 centner corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

Basic year

Actual year

Deviation  (+), (-)

Expenditures on 1 ha of planted area, UAN

895,19

851,29

-43,9

Yield, centners per ha.

14,70

65,32

50,62

Self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain grain, UAN

135,16

147,32

12,16

Self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain at a expenditures of actual and productivity of base year, UAN

57,19

Changes self cost of 1 centner of corn on grain grain, UAN initiated by

           -    production cost

-77,25

-    yield

89,41

The analysis of table showed that productive charges on 1 hectare in basic year is 895,19 UAN were made sowing, and in actual year is 851,29 UAN, that on 43,9 UAN less than in basic year. Productivity from 1 hectare increased on a 50,62 UAN metric center in actual year comparatively with basic year. Also the prime price of a 1centner of corn diminished on grain on 12,16 UAN, these tables showed that the prime price of a 1centner of corn on grain at the charges of actualyear is presented 57,19 UAN. Also 1centner of corn analyzed the changes of prime price on grain due to the charges of production and she presents - 77,25 UAN, and due to the productivity - the change of prime price presents 89,41 UAN. It is possible to say that the productivity grew due to the improvement of production, in particular increase of volumes of productive charges on 1 hectare.

Table 2.9

Determine the structure of production cost and the size of expenditure on 1 centner of corn on grain of LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicator

Base year

Actual year

грн

%

грн.

%

Laborcostthous. UAN

17,3

1,07

5296,4

4,74

Social deductionsthous. UAN

6,4

0,39

1947,9

1,74

Directmaterialcostthous. UAN

1595,2

98,45

84860,8

76,0

Including :

seed and planting material thous. UAN

148,2

9,29

25616,8

30,19

Fertilizers thous. UAN

-

-

18520,3

21,82

fuelthous. UAN

-

-

12651,1

14,91

Payment for services and work thous. UAN

1443,0

90,46

7623,9

8,98

Other material cost thous. UAN

4

0,25

20448,7

24,1

Depreciation of capital assets thous. UAN

0,6

0,04

3051,1

2,73

Overall expenditures thous. UAN

0,8

0,05

16507,0

14,78

Production cost- total thous. UAN

1620,3

100,00

111663,2

100,00

Analysing a production cost and the size of the articles of LTD. "AgroKim", evidently, that in basic year a most percent of charges is on direct material charges. In particular 90.46% on payment of services and works; a next place in the system of indexes is occupied: seed and planting material - 9,29% and 0,25% are other material charges. The least percent is on depreciation of inconvertible assets - 0,04%. On the whole a productive prime price in basic year presented a 1620,3 thousand UAN... The analysis of data of actual year shows that seed and seed and planting material in the structure of the articles of LTD. "AgroKim" fold are 30,19%, charges on the remuneration of labor - 4,74%%. The least percent occupies a contribution on social measures - 1,74%, and depreciation of capital assets that present 2,73%. General productive prime price –1centner corn on grain of thousand UAN in actual year for LTD. "AgroKim" presents a 111663,2 thousand UAN, that on a 110042,9 thousand UAN more than in basic year.

In a next table we will analyses data on a prime price and profitability of production of corn on grain on LTD. "AgroKim" .

Table 2.10

A prime price and profitability of production of corn are on grain on LTD. "AgroKim"

Indicators

2011 year

2012 year

2013 year

2014 уear to % of 2012 year

Total cost of 1 centner of corn of grain UAN

135,16

182,54

147,32

1,09 to times

Price of 1 centner of corn of grain UAN

85,29

101,63

226,45

2,66 to times

Profit per 1 centner of corn of grain UAN

-49,87

-80,91

-79,13

Х

The rate of return, %

-36,90

-44,32

53,71

Х

Conducting settling and analyzing results, see that the complete prime price of a 1 center of corn on grain in 2014 comparatively with 2012 year increased in 1,09 to times. The cost of realization of a 1center of corn on grain increased in 2,66to times.

III. Deepening of specialization and increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production

3.1. Concentration of agricultural production and translation of him are on industrial basis

The concentration of production means his socialization through the jumbo zing of enterprises, concentration of processes of production, labor force, capital and producing of products goods on all more large enterprises.

In economic practice distinguish three basic types of concentration :

- aggregate is an increase of single power or productivity of technological options, aggregates, equipment;

- technological is enlargement of productive units (workshops, departments, productions) of enterprise;

- plant (factory) is a process of increase of size of independent enterprises (plants, factories, combines, production and other amalgamations), that comes true on principle of aggregate and technological concentration of production.

It is led to distinguish absolute and relative even concentrations of production. The first is characterized by the middle size of enterprises that or that industry of national economy, second - by part of large enterprises on a certain index.

For determination of relative level of concentration of production all enterprises group after their sizes. Sign of grouping can be a quantity of personnel, cost of capital assets, volume of products. It is however necessary to realize that the quantity of personnel (especially on condition of highly-mechanized and automated production) is not able to give reliable description of level of concentration, but the cost of capital assets only mediated characterizes the size of enterprise. Otherwise speaking, only volume of clean products most exactly and full represents the level of concentration of production.

In monofood industries enterprises it is expedient to determine size on the volume of products in natural expression, and in industries with a homogeneous equipment, but by the wide assortment of products, - after the amount of the set equipment (for example, in textile industry - after the amount of looms or spindles). In seasonal industries (for example, to saccharine industry) the size of enterprises is calculated on the index of the average daily processing of raw material.

The increase of level of concentration of production must provide the increase of him internal efficiency. With the jumboizing of enterprises all technician economic their indexes get better, as a rule,: specific capital investments diminish, a fund is a return and labour productivity grow, material resources are the best used, an unit cost goes down, profitability grows.

It is predetermined by that the cost of the concentrated capital goods grows slower than economic effect is from their general use.

However the level of concentration has a top economic limit exceeding of that does impossible the further increase of efficiency of production.

The increase of economic efficiency of agriculture envisages the increase of production and upgrading of agricultural produce at simultaneous reduction of expenses to labour and material facilities on unit of products. The decision of this problem is indissolubly related to further all-round intensification of agricultural production, in the process of that the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures and productivity of cattle and bird is provided. In modern terms agriculture develops mainly on the basis of intensification that is the basic source of increase of him economic efficiency.

Ways the increases of efficiency of agricultural production, that provide the further increase of production of goods and reduction of charges volumes on her unit, envisage the complex of such basic measures : improvement of the use of earth, increase of her fertility; introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing; deepening of specialization and concentrations of production is on the basis of between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration; rational use of productive funds and labour resources; introduction of intensive and resource of keeping technologies and industrial methods of production; upgrading and maintenance of mine-out products; deployment of progressive forms of organization of production and remuneration of labour is on the basis of collective, domestic and leasing contract and lease as a progressive form of ménage; development of agricultural production on the basis of various patterns of ownership and types of menage and creation for them of equal economic terms necessary for independent and initiative work.

In next tables will analyses the determine the level of intensity, results and cost-effectiveness of intensification of corn on a grain.

Table 3.1

Determine the level of intensity, results and cost-effectiveness of intensification of corn on a grain.

Indicator

Year

2014уear to % of 2012 year

2012

2013

2014

Production cost for 1 ha of sowing UAN

8951,93

8102,20

8512,86

95,10

Yield of 1ha, center

14,70

65,32

50,62

3,44 to times

Total cost of 1 centner of corn on a  grain UAN

135,16

182,54

147,32

1,09 to times

Price of 1 centner of corn on a grain UAN

85,29

101,63

226,45

2,66 to times

Earnings per 1 centner of corn on a grain UAN

-49,87

-80,91

79,13

X

The rate of return, %

-36,90

-44,32

53,71

Х

Additional payback of expenses, UAN

X

1185,04

310,74

X

In the complex of measures of increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production major is an improvement of the use of earth on the basis of increase of her fertility and increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures. These tasks successfully decide by growing of agricultural cultures on technology of programmable harvests with the use of achievements of science, front-rank practice and providing of high quality of labour. In the front-rank economies of Ukraine get grains of winter wheat for 55-60 c/ha, corn - 70-80, and on irrigable lands- 100-120, sugar beets - 550-600, green mass of corn - 400-450, hay of long-term herbares are 50-60 c/ha.

At the same time applying in industry of cultures and sorts of intensive type can have negative consequences. Development of intensification of agriculture without the observance of corresponding terms results in worsening of structure of soil, increase of rates of degradation of earth and intensifying of ecological situation. Front-rank experience of home agriculture, and world practice, testify that scientific and technical progress has in the order effective facilities of defence of soils from destruction and increase of their fertility. One of directions of increase of economic efficiency of agriculture is introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing in all industries of plant-grower and stock-raising and translation of them on industrial basis. The decision of this problem assists first of all the increase of the labour productivity in an agricultural production that is a basic quality factor him economic and social development.

By material basis of increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production, in particular the increase of the labour productivity, there is introduction of achievements of scientific and technical progress, that includes perfection, rational combination and co-operation of all elements of labour - instruments and articles of labour and labour force. With the increase of technical armed and level of mechanization of productive processes, with the improvement of organization of production of expense of direct-labour on unit of the landed area and head of cattle grow short. Increase of the labour productivity, and thus, and on 70-75 % predetermined efficiency of production by the achievements of technical progress, part of organizational factors presents a 25-30 %, increase of economic efficiency of agricultural production it takes place in the conditions of deepening of specialization and strengthening of concentration of production on the basis of between economic cooperation and agroindustrial integration.In the specialized enterprises and the level of profitability of agricultural production, that provides translation of economies on complete self-finance, depends on their specialization and concrete terms of manage.

The concentration of production renders substantial influence on his efficiency. With her increase more important economic indicators of economic activity of enterprises grow due to the positive action of factor of scales of production. An economy is arrived at, in particular, on permanent charges (permanent charges, say, on a grain-growing combine for the areas of sowing of grain-growing 300 hectare will be twice less on the hectare of collective area, than for the areas of their sowing 150 hectare), specific capital investments diminish, higher maneuverability of material resources is arrived at efficiency of their use grows due to it, the labour productivity and profitability of production rise.

However the increase of level of concentration of production renders positive influence on an economy only to the certain limit, a transition for that results in the decline of efficiency. The process of management of operations becomes in superfluously large enterprises complicated, transport charges grow, control gets worse after quality of implementation of works and observance of technology. The counteractive factor of excessive concentration are ecological requirements. Especially it touches large stock-raising complexes that render negative influence on an environment. Therefore important is a problem of achievement of optimal level of concentration of production, the decision of that in an eventual account is taken to determination of rational sizes of agrarian enterprises of different specialization taking into account their legal status and home zonal features.

Thus, the considered concentration of production on the essence is a resource concentration, as mainly taken to concentrating of resources on the same enterprises. Except a resource, for a market economy there is a characteristic and economic concentration.

3.2 Introduction of complex mechanization and progressive technologies of production of agricultural goods

Development of agriculture in future will take place on the basis of successive intensification. In this connection the main condition of development of productive forces of agrarian sector of economy is the wide applying in industry of achievements of scientific and technical progress.

In separate periods of development of agriculture priority were different directions of intensive development of production. It is perfection of agricultural technique, land-reclamation of earth, increase of application of mineral and organic fertilizers, expansion of high quality sowing of cultures, improvement of pedigree composition of productive cattle and bird. Today the separate from these factors do not have such value, as before, other became basis of intensification of agricultural production.

On the modern stage basic directions of intensification of agriculture are such: complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing, chimes of plant-grower and stock-raising, development of agricultural land-reclamations, organizationally-economic measures (specialization and concentration of production, introduction of progressive forms of organization and remuneration of labour), deployment of achievements of science and front-rank experience.

Introduction of complex mechanization and computer-aided manufacturing envisage creation of the high-performance and perfect systems of machines taking into account the features of industries of agriculture. The special value is acquired by upgrading and reliability of agricultural technique that is basis of high efficiency of her use.

In the process of intensification of agriculture the use of the most modern systems of machines and equipment, capable considerably to promote the labour productivity and efficiency of production, is envisaged. In the agricultural enterprises of country on handworks in a plant-grower and stock-raising busy sufficiently many workers of these industries. Therefore creation of the system of machines and completion of complex mechanization in plant-grower and stock-raising industries is basis of intensification of agriculture.

The process of intensification of agricultural production envisages not only the satiation of him a modern technique but also increase of efficiency of her use. Yes, on effective work of machine tractor park the level of the labour and strengthening of economy of agricultural enterprises productivity depends largely. In the conditions when the amount of the energy saturated tractors grows in economies, it is necessary to have a complete set of towed machines and instruments. The question of increase of efficiency of the use of agricultural machines and equipment is inseparable from social factors, first of all problems of considerable increase of terms of labour of mechanization experts.

Intensification of agricultural production is determined by the level of production it is determined by the level of mastering of progressive technology and organization of production on the base of complex mechanization of processes of labour, by an amount and quality of brought in soil of fertilizers, by the closeness of population of animals, id est by charges on unit of the landed area.She is basis of further increase of efficiency of agricultural production, as as a result of introduction of progressive technology and perfection of organization of labour after comparatively less resources it is possible to get the greater amount of products with less charges on her unit .

Essence of intensive technologies consists in that the production of goods comes true on the basis of the newest achievements of scientific and technical progress at conditioning for agricultural cultures in accordance with the phases of their height on the basis of complex of factors in an optimal proportion during all vegetation period with the aim of providing of level of programmable harvest. It means:

  1.  placing of cultures in a crop rotation then scientifically reasonable predecessors;
  2.  a sieving-out of proof is against a drought and consist, illnesses and wreckers of the high-yield districted sorts at high quality of sowing material;
  3.  it is application of the integrated systems of fight against illnesses, wreckers and weeds;
  4.  it is realization of production in accordance with the scientific system of organization of labour;
  5.  it is implementation of all productive processes in accordance with agro technical and organizationally-economic measures with bringing in of highly skilled shots.

Reduction to power-hungriness of production of agricultural goods can be provided with the increase of the productivity of agricultural cultures, reduction to the amount of technological operations and declines of their power-hungriness.

3.3 Development of specialization of agricultural production is on the base of between economic co-operation and agro industrial integration.

The commercial code of Ukraine is envisage functioning of different legal forms of economic associations of enterprises : associations of corporations, consortia, business concerns and other

The contractual association, created on the basis of combination of productive, scientific and commercial interests of enterprises that united, confesses a corporation, with delegation by them separate plenary powers of the centralized adjusting of activity each of participants to the organs of management of corporation.

By organizational forms between economic co-operation and agroindustrial integration can be:

1. Between economic enterprises (organizations) - created by agricultural enterprises and organizations by the voluntarily association of part of the material and technical, labour and financial resources.

2. Agricultural enterprises, that execute productive functions between economic enterprises (organizations) - economy from growing of bulls and calves, fattening of cattle, production of seed, forage and other agricultural produce.

3. Agroindustrial enterprises (agricultural enterprises) that have in the composition industrial productions from processing of agricultural produce.

4. Production amalgamations in agriculture are agricultural, between economic enterprises and organizations, motor transport enterprises and other.

5. Production agroindustrial amalgamations, agroindustrial combines, агро firms - agricultural, between economic enterprises (organizations), enterprises from processing and storage of agricultural produce, organizations of trade, a motor transport and other state and co-operative enterprises and organizations.

6. Scientific and production associations in agriculture are research, designer, project-designer and technological organizations, plants, experience productive and other organizations.

7. The productive (scientific and production) systems are research establishments, agricultural enterprises, associations, organizations, leaseholders, that carry out a production, processing, storage of certain types of products and other types of activity.

The systematic increase of integration processes becomes a key factor for avoidance of further slump of agricultural production. But it is possible to see in the conditions of economy, that those forms of menage, that was folded today in an agrarian sector, in majority it it is conflicted with to maintenance of integration and co-operation. Other approach is thus needed at determination of directions of development of integration. The today's mechanism of functioning of agrarian sector causes the necessity of development of such integrated forming that will be able finally to attain not only getting up in the production of food, to provide equality of financial and material streams but also will work out social problems on a village.

With the origin of new various forms menages deepened contradiction between agricultural, reprocessors and attendant sphere, that, in turn, caused the row of difficulties into that сільгоспвиробники ran during realization of the economic interests.As a result, complete disbalance in the system of conduct of agriculture.

In addition, it takes place so, that integration processes that today have quite another forms already obviously pass ahead forming of the system of adequate management in an agrarian sector and carry unexpected, instinctive character. But here exactly they are the process of adaptation of the agrarian forming to the market economy and most effective means for them to stabilize the position due to advantages, that arise up during integration not only in a production, processing and realization of products, but also in the field of financially economic.

About development of agroindustrial integration and it is possible to judge in relation to налагодженості of integration connections, analysing the state of production of food stuffs. For 15 last the there is a slump in the production of most basic types of food stuffs both on Ukraine on the whole and in the Chernihiv area. An exception is folded oil is vegetable and fat cheeses.The production of oil increased in Ukraine more than in 4 times. It is known that the basic producers of oil are the large integrated companies. It is expedient to mark, that most advantages in this industry have the apeak integrated structures - holding, operating напідставі of the special legislative acts with the agricultural enterprises, elevators and trade houses. It be possible to say, that in this industry attained balanced of interests of agricultural producers, reprocessors, internal market and exporters, but it is not necessary to forget that the question is about a culture that on a draught 10 remains найрентабільнішою. Thus a production of goods volume grows not due to the increase of the productivity, but due to the permanent increase of areas of sowing, that characteristically for the companies of holding type.

Integration processes embrace the different forming on different levels. All they can be distributed on those that have a direct and indirect relation to integration.To those that have a direct relation, id est directly participate in integration processes, belong: economies of population; farms; enterprises of processing and food industry; to trading in an agricultural produce; agrochemical service; machine-technological stations. Here it follows to take and businessmen - individuals that take part in any technological process of production. Enterprises, that execute attendant functions and auxiliary, and also organs of management АPK, have an indirect relation - economic and state.

Cooperation, as an inalienable constituent of integration processes in a present economy, is sufficiently simple, but by the unclaimed form of productive connections. Agricultural cooperative stores, unfortunately, as yet did not get the proper confession.

Certainly, reasons for insufficient розвинення of agricultural co-operation quite a bit. But the most important, however - nevertheless, it is possible to count absence of clear state strategy of her development. Absence of the real sponsorship of the state in the conditions of imperfect legislation was done co-operation cleanly by the formal phenomenon.

In my opinion, it is now needed to pay attention to the most numerous categories of сільгосподарських producers and exactly through between economic co-operation. The question is about farms and economies of population. Them effective development is in forming of cooperative stores from realization of products, on providing of cattle forage, productive to technical service.

Irreplaceable for steady development agrarian to the sector of area formations will become on co-operative principles from the production of seed of vegetables,, forage grain-crops; on growing of high-performance tribal sapling/pl of cattle and pigs; to marketing and агросервісному maintenance of сільгоспвиробників of any pattern of ownership of and menage.

Thus, further development of integration processes in an agrarian sector must show up as different unifying forms. Regardless of organizationally - legal form of menage such formations will be able to organize the rational use of resources, will provide a production ecologically of clean foodstuffs, and, that it is no less important, will improve quality of life on a village.

CONCLUSION

At implementation of term paper economic description of specialization of economy, production of corn on grain in an economy, considered dynamics of development of corn, was analysed on grain, economic efficiency of production of corn is analysed on grain and ways of her improvement. Coming from calculations it is possible to do next conclusions. The area of agricultural lands of LTD. "АгроКім" increased for period of 2012-2014років. Yes, in 2012 agricultural lands 643га was counted, and in 2014р. - 14721га, id est area of agricultural lands of growing to 22 times. In the structure of agricultural lands all place is occupied by plough-land that increased accordingly in 22 times. It testifies to high thrown open of earth in an economy and them the intensive use.

Estimating the capital productive assets of LTD. "АgroKim" it is needed to mark that in 2012 they presented a 7042  thousand hrn. and in 2014 - comparing the 16998,5 thousand hrn. of capital is a return 2014 with 2012 diminished in 1,47 times, and capital is a capacity products  increased on 68,37%, that is the negative phenomenon for an enterprise. For determination of economic efficiency of the use of capital and circulating assets of agricultural production calculate the norm of profit. From a table evidently, that in LTD. "АgroKim" the norm of profit is present only in 2013. The important condition of efficiency of the use of the fixed assets is an improvement of his structure.

Society is highly provided with labor resources, although for analyzable period the increase of quantity of workers took place in 30 times. On this criterion of estimation an economy behaves to middle, in obedience to part of the seventh article 63 of the Commercial code of Ukraine. The cost of gross products for analyzable period increased in 143 times. The cost of gross products calculating on one average annual worker increased in 4,8 times.

Productivity from 1 hectare increased in 4,44 times. Gross collection of corn on grain has a tendency to the increase - in 322 times. Thus realization of her increased in 23 times.

It is needed to point forces an economy at gradual perfection of structure of sowing areas taking into account regional features and realization of events in relation to the increase of resource potential of grain-growing production is provides the substantial increase of the productivity of grain-crops and increase of volumes for addition to grain-growing balance of country. In development of production of corn on grain, the most essential factors is a level of provision of sowing fertilizers by high-performance of high quality seed, and also economic feasibilities of realization in the optimal terms of all technological operations from their growing and collection.

Expecting a prime price  1 c of corn on grain and factors of her forming evidently, that the prime price of corn on grain during an analyzable period increased on a 12,16 hrn.  On it such factors influenced: at the increase of charges on 1 hectare to sowing on a 43,9 hrn. prime price 1 c of corn on grain increased on a 12,16 hrn.; due to reduction to the productivity on 89,41ц/and, prime price 1 ц of corn on grain increased on 57,91.

Most specific gravity in the structure of productive prime price of 2014 is presented by direct material charges part of that - 76%, on the second place there are other direct charges that present 14,78%, on the third are direct charges on payment labors that present 4,74  %.

Analyzing indexes prime price and profitability of production of corn can say on grain, that prime price 1 ц of corn on grain increased in 1,09 times. The cost of realization 1 ц increased in 2,66 times. In this connection, a profit is present in 2014 - 79,13.The level of profitability equals 53,71.

Analyzing the dynamics of level of intensity, result and economic efficiency  of intensification of production of corn on grain, it is possible to draw conclusion, that intensification of production of corn on grain is conducted ineffective, as, additionally realizable charges were not (- 6,05) recompensed.

Increase of efficiency of production of corn on grain in, first of all, depends on his productivity equalization of the use of earth, that influences on a prime price, labor intensiveness and profitability of production of corn on grain.  

 In LTD. "АgroКim" growing of corn on grain comes true on technology, that envisages the use of high-performance hybrids and sorts of wheat and modern systems-machines, that provide implementation of technological operations in accordance with agro technical requirements.

REFERENCES

1. On Property Law of Ukraine // Ukraine new legislation. Issue 2 - K., 1992

2. The lease Law of Ukraine // Voice Ukraine.- 1998-October 23

3. Ambrosov VY market seed crops, though. Economy AIC, 2013 №10

4. Andreychuk VG economy of agricultural enterprises: Textbook.- 2nd ed., Ext. and pererobl.- K .: KNEU, 2004.-624 p.

5. Bardadim MV Prospects for the grain industry in Ukraine, though. Economy AIC, 2013 №4

6. Knut A. Planning and organization of agricultural enterprises: Pidruchnyk.-K .: Agricultural Education, 2003. 350 pp.

7. Boiko V. The problem of determining the mechanism of state support to producers of agricultural products, though. Economy AIC, 2013 №7

8. V. Boyko Grain farming: challenges and directions of development. - K .: IAE, 1998. - 210 p.

9. Voloshchuk K. B. Investment priorities of modern agricultural enterprises, though. Economy AIC, 2013 №8

10. Hrycyuk M. Spatio-temporal dependence of profitability of grain production grain yield, same .. Economy AIC, 2013 №10

11. Zribnyak LY organization and planning of production on farms: Textbook. - K .: Vintage, 1999.-352 p.

12. G. Kaletnik State financial support to agricultural producers, though. . Economy AIC, 2013 №8

13. Kalina AV Labor Economics: Training. Guide. - K .: AIDP, 2004. - 272 p.

14. Matsybora VI Agriculture Economics: Textbook. - K .: KNEU, 2000.-372 p.

15. Matsybora VI, Zbarskyy VK, Matsybora TV M 47 Enterprise Economics: Training. Posibnyk.- K .: Caravel, 2012. - 312 p.


 

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