94343

Different types of the predicate in the English language

Курсовая

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

To interpret a predicate as a main member of a sentence, its definition, the place in a sentence, to study ways of expression, semantic characteristics and structural classifications of the predicate, to research agreement of a predicate with a subject, to make a practical research of using different types of a predicate in a sentence.

Английский

2015-09-08

187.5 KB

7 чел.

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CONTENTS

[1] CONTENTS

[2] INTRODUCTION

[3] 1 The predicate

[4] 1.1 Definition. Place of the predicate

[5] 1.2 Classification

[6] 1.3 Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject

[7] 2 Practical research

[8] 2.1 The process of the practical research

[8.0.1] 2.2 Results of the practical research

[9] CONCLUSION

[9.0.1] BIBLIOGRAPHY

[9.1] Theoretical resources

[9.2] Practical resources

APPENDIX


INTRODUCTION

Language is realized through speech, i.e. linguistic intercourse between two or more people. It is exercised by means of connected communications, chiefly in the form of sentence. All words in a sentence are grammatically connected. It means that they are modified and joined together to express thoughts and feelings.

The main object of grammar as a science is the grammatical structure of the language, i.e. the system of laws governing the change of grammatical forms of words.

The development of the modern grammatical theory domain in the linguistic science and has a progressive character. Though the English language is more or less the fixed one, but it is developing through the time and is changing very much, especially nowadays.

Linguists throughout the world study the English language from the point of view of theoretical grammar, so it is very important to study this subject. This question is important also because of the expanding English in the whole world.

The most complex and interesting part of grammar is syntax, especially a sentence. It represents the whole communicative unit of the message,  that is such a unit by means of which direct transfer of the information from speaking to listening is carried out during speech dialogue.

The structure of the sentence as complete unit of the message is formed by grammatical association of words, and this association has own sign character.

The sentence as a unit of a language carries out two essential sign functions: subjective, or nominative, and adjusting, or predicative. The predicative function is realized by means of a predicate: one of main parts of speech.  

The theme of this course paper is up-to-date, because a predicate as a member of a sentence is studied by various scientists till now and this researching is in progress. The predicate has not a strict definition and a classification, it is still discussed in various researches.

In the sphere of the sentence many complications arise. There are much theories of the sentence and parts of the sentence  between different linguists, so the aim of the research: to study the use of different types of the predicate in the English language.

The object  - the predicate as a member of the English sentence.

The subject: types of predicates in the English sentence.

Hypothesis:  a predicate plays one of the main roles in a sentence and carries out communicative and constructive function.

Tasks of this course paper are the following:

  •  to interpret  a predicate as a main member of a sentence, its definition, the place in a sentence,
  •  to study ways of expression, semantic characteristics and structural classifications of the predicate,
  •  to research agreement of a predicate with a subject,
  •  to make a practical research of using different types of a predicate in a sentence.

The theoretical value of the research: systematization of sources about predicate in one research.

The practical value of the research: this course paper may be used at the lessons of foreign language by students and can become a base for the degree paper.

Methods of the research: searching of special sources on the theme of the study, researching of theoretical and practical sources of the theme, analysis and synthesis of the literature, overall extraction examples from fiction.

 The course work consists of introduction, two main parts: one theoretical and one practical part, conclusion and bibliography. Theoretical and practical parts include three subdivisions.

1 The predicate

1.1 Definition. Place of the predicate

In the English language there are a lot of definitions of the predicate which are given by many authors. So the predicate denotes the action or property of the thing expressed by the subject. Such definition was given by Ilysh. [14, c. 199]

Ganshina suggested that the predicate is the second principal part of the sentence. It servers to assert something about the subject and has a definite grammatical structure. It is characteristic of the English language that the predicate, even a nominal one, always comprises a verb in the finite form, denoting the categories of person, mood and tense by means of which predication is expressed : the forms of person connect the predicate with the subject; the mood-forms show in what relation to reality the speaker places the action or state expressed by the predicate; the tense-forms refer to it a definite period of time. [8, c. 342]

Korbrina gave the following definition. The predicate is the second principal (main) part of the sentence and its organizing centre, as the object and nearly all adverbial modifires are connected with and dependent on it. [10, c. 176] The predicate may be considered from the semantic or from the structural point of view. But whatever the meaning or the structure may be, the predicate in English always contains a finite verb form, which agrees with the subject in number and person. The only exception to this rule is the simple nominal predicate, which has no verb form at all. According to the meaning of its components, the predicate may denote an action, a state, a quality, or an attitude to some action or state ascribed to the subject. These different meanings find their expression in the structure of the predicate and the lexical meaning of its constituents.

Krylova supposed that the predicate is a word or a group of words that informs us of what is happening to the person, object or phenomenon indicated as the subject in the sentence. [17, c. 417] The predicate differs from all the other parts of the sentence in that it relates the information contained in the sentence to reality, i.e. it is the means of expressing predication and modality for the whole sentence. For that reason there is only one part of speech that can function as predicate - it is the verb in one of its finite forms. A finite verb may be used in this function alone or combined with other parts of speech.

In inflected languages, such as Russian, case inflexions serve to indicate the various syntactical functions of nouns in the sentence, thus the nominative case is the case of the subject, the accusative case is the case of the direct object, etc. The English language has lost almost all case inflexions, and the form of the common case result of the disappearance of case forms. Modern English has developed a rather fixed and rigid word order to indicate the various syntactical functions of words in the sentence. In a declarative sentence the subject precedes the predicate verbs: It was a cold fall. He threw up the windows and leaned out.

This is the most common pattern for the arrangement of the main parts in a declarative sentence: Subject – Predicate. After the predicate there may be replaced an object and an adverbial modifier. This word order is called a direct one.       

Another common pattern of word order is the inverted one (or inversion). We distinguish full inversion (when the predicate precedes the subject, as in Here comes the lady of the house) and partial inversion (when only part of the predicate precedes the subject, as in Happy may you be!). Some grammarians also distinguish double inversion (when parts of the predicate are placed separately before the subject, as in Hanging on the wall was a picture).

Inversion is used as a grammatical means of subordination in some complex sentences joined without connectors: in conditional, concessive clauses, sentences beginning with adverbs denoting place. [11, c. 95]

Were you sure of it, you wouldn't hesitate,

Had she known it before, she wouldn't have made this mistake.

Proud as he was, he had to consent to our proposal.

So, usually the predicate has a certain place in a sentence – after a subject, but in some cases there is an inversion – a predicate is replaced before a subject.

1.2 Classification

From the structural point of view there are two main types of predicate: the simple predicate and the compound predicate, as states N.A. Kobrina. [10, c. 178]

All the other grammarians define the same types of predicates, but they differ  in peculiar types. N.A. Kobrina states 10 types of a predicate: simple verbal, simple nominal, compound verbal (3 types), compound nominal (2 types) and 3 mixed types of a predicate. 

Some other scientists consider less of the types: Ganshina – 7 types, Kaushanskaya – 8 types, etc. We shall consider Kobrina’s theory, because it seems to be more comprehensive. According to her theory compound verbal predicates may be further classified into phrasal, modal and of double orientation. Compound nominal predicates may be classified into compound nominal proper and compound nominal double predicates . (See Appendix)

The simple verbal predicate is expressed by:

1. A verb in a synthetic or analytical form.

John runs  quickly. I was sent in to get my tea.

2. A verbal phrase (a phraseological equivalent of a verb denoting one action):

a) Phrases denoting momentaneous actions: to have a look, to have a smoke, to have a talk, to make u remark, to pay a visit, etc,

Nurse Sharp gave him a look and walked out. The man gave a violent start.

 b) Phrases denoting various kinds of actions: to change one's mind, to get rid (of), to get hold (of), to lose sight (of), to make fun (of), to make up one's mind, etc.

       I have never taken much interest in German songs.

The simple nominal predicate is expressed by a noun, or an adjective, or a verbal. It does not contain a link verb, as it shows the incompatibility of the idea expressed by the subject and that expressed by the predicate; thus in the meaning of the simple nominal predicate there is an implied negation.

He a gentleman! You a bother! Never. Fred, a priest! [18, c. 112]

The compound predicate consists of two parts: the notional and the structural. The structural part comes first and is followed by the notional part. The notional part may be expressed by a noun, an adjective, a stative, an adverb, a verbal, a phrase, a predicative complex, or a clause. The structural part is expressed by a finite verb — a phasal verb, a modal verb, or a link verb. [9, c. 101]

From the point of view of structure the most important part of the predicate is the first one, since it is expressed by a finite verb and carries grammatical information about the person, number, tense, voice, modal and aspective (phasal) meaning of the whole predicate.

The Compound Verbal Predicate may be the compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, the compound verbal modal predicate, the compound verbal predicate of double orientation.

a) the compound verbal phasal(aspective) predicate  denotes the beginning, duration, repetition or cessation of the action expressed by infinitive or a gerund. It consists of a phasal verb and an infinitive or a gerund. It's first component is a phasal verb of:

1.Beginning: to begin, to start, to commence, to set about, to take to, to fall to, to come to.

For example: Andrew and he began to talk about the famous clinic. So I took to going to the farm. He fell to poking the fire with all this might.

2.Duration: to go on, to keep, to proceed,  to continue.

For example: He talked kept running on the possibility of a storm. As we continued to laugh his surprise gave way to annoyance.

3.Repetition: would, used (denoting a repeated action in the past)

For example: Alfredo used to talk to me about it. During her small leisure hours she would sit by the window or walk in the fields.

4.Cessation: to stop, to finish, to cease, to give up, to leave off.

For example: The band had ceased playing. Give up smoking.

b) the compound verbal modal predicate shows where the action expressed by an infinitive is looked upon as possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, planned, certain, permissible, etc. In most cases it denotes the attitude to the action of the person or non-person expressed by the subject. It consists of a modal part and an infinitive (or sometimes gerund).[3, c. 103]

The modal part may be expressed by:

1.A modal verb. For example: He can't say  a word, he can't even apologize. I had to bite my lip to prevent myself from laughing.

2.A modal expression: to be able to, to be allowed, to be willing, to be anxious, to be capable, to be going. For example: You are going to attend the college at Harvard they tell me. Are you able to walk  another two miles?

3. An attitudinal verb such as to like, to hate, to attempt, to expect, to hope, to intend, to mean, to plan, to try, to have a mind, to wish, to want followed by an infinitive denote the attitude of the person expressed by the subject to the action denoted by the infinitive.

The predicate of this type may be called a compound verbal attitudinal predicate.

Eg. He hoped to see them the next day.

      I mean to find out the truth.

c) the compound verbal predicate of double orientation consists of two parts. The first part is a finite verb which denotes the attitude of the speaker to the content of the sentence.

Eg. The Gadfly seemed to have taken a dislike to her (it seemed to people that  

      Gadfly had taken a dislike to her).

The second part denotes the action which is (was/will be) performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject. E.g.: The plane is reported to have been lost (they reported that the plane had been lost).

The Compound Nominal Predicate consists of a link verb and a predicative (nominal part).The link verb is a structural element of the predicate, as it joins the subject and the predicative. It expresses the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect and mood.

Among the class of link verbs we may distinguish those which have lost their lexical meaning: to be, to get; those which have partly lost their lexical meaning: to remain, to become, to grow, to turn, to look, etc.; those which have fully preserved their lexical meaning but still serve as link verbs: to elect, to call, to leave, etc.

Eg.: He is just being the kind of man I want.

      The room looked snug and cheerful.

The predicative is the notional part of the compound nominal predicate. It characterizes the subject and shows:

1.The properties of the subject(the state or quality or quantity of the subject).

For example: The girl looked tired but pretty. He was forty and in his prime. 

2.What subject is or  what class of person or things it belongs to.

The predicative can be expressed by:

a noun in the common or in the genitive case: The face was Victoria’s.

an adjective or an adjective phrase: Ellen’s eyes were angry.

a pronoun. It was he.    

a numeral. He was sixty last year.

an infinitive (or an infinitive phrase or construction). His first thought was to run away.

a gerund (or a gerundial phrase or construction). My hobby is dancing.

a participle or a participial phrase. The subject seemed strangely chosen.

a prepositional phrase. She is on our side.

The compound nominal double predicate combines, as its name suggests, the features of two different types of predicate. It has the features of the simple verbal predicate and those of the compound nominal predicate. It consists of two parts, both of which are notional. The first one is verbal and is expressed by a notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject.[10, c. 187] The second part of the compound nominal double predicate is expressed by a noun or an adjective which denotes the properties of the subject in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper does.

The moon was shining cold and bright.

In Modern English there is a growing tendency to use this type of predicate, the verbs occurring in it are not limited by any particular lexical class.

My daughter sat silent.

He died a hero.

Mixed types of predicate.

Besides the compound nominal predicate, the compound verbal modal predicate and the compound verbal aspect predicate, there is a type of predicate in which we have elements of two types of predicates. Such predicates contain three components.

1. The compound modal nominal predicate.

The nephew was to be the means of introduction. (Du Maurer) He greatly longed to be the next heir himself. (De la Roche) Don't think I mean to be unkind. (Du Maurier)

2. The compound aspect nominal predicate.

The grey house had ceased to be a house for family life. (Buck) It was like coming ashore after a channel crossing. 1 began to feel rather hungry. (Du Maurier)

I was glad that the doctor had been Chinese, and not American. I continued to be glad for that. (Buck)

3. The compound modal aspect predicate.

And all the while he felt the presence of Pat and had to keep on resisting the impulse to turn round. (Lindsay)

Something happened nearly a year ago that altered my whole life. I had to begin living all over again. (Du Maurier)

The classification of a predicate can be expressed at the scheme  (see Appendix A, fig.1)

So, we can conclude that the theory of predicates’ classification is rather complex, discussable and not ended yet. The English language is developing, so there could be appeared new types of predicates.

1.3 Agreement of the Predicate with the Subject

Scientists state that a predicate and a subject have reciprocal relations at a syntactic level, i.e. have syntactic mutual relations. They refer the composition and the submission to traditional syntactic links on the one hand and on the other hand - predicative connections and also objective, attributive, adverbial ones. We shall consider predicative connections which are characteristic for relations between a subject and a predicate. Predicative relations are observed between words of a class of a name of a noun and the personal and non-finite forms of a verb. For example: I understand, she protested. Considered types of relations arise depending on what morphological classes of words are combined with each other, forming syntactic groups. In the given examples of a noun in a combination with a verb form predicative relations.

Syntactic relations are carried out with the help of the several receptions named in the theory an adjunction, the coordination, management. Let's consider reception of the coordination which characterizes attitudes{relations} of a subject and a predicate.

In the English language the predicate agrees with the subject in person and number. Agreement implies that the use of one form necessitates the use of the other, for example: a singular subject requires a predicate in the singular, a plural subject requires a predicate in the plural. [15, c. 197]

The house was alive with soft, quick steps and running voices. (Mansfield)

This evening there was no bright sunset; west and east were one cloud .., (Ch. Bronte)

But in Modern English there is often a conflict between form and meaning; in these cases the predicate does not agree with the subject.

The Durham family were at breakfast, father, mother and seven children. (O'Conor)

"Great Expectations" was written by Dickens in 1860.

He further intimated that the United States was so interested in its own internal affairs that it would not be drawn into the question, (Graves)

The following rules of agreement of the predicate with the subject should be observed:

1. The predicate is used in the plural when there are two or more homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunction and or asyndetically.

Her father and mother... were obviously haunted and harassed. (Galsworthy)

[10, c. 185]

2. When the predicate-verb precedes a number of subjects it is often in the singular, especially if the sentence begins with here or there.

And here was a man, was experience and culture. (Galsworthy)

If the subjects are of different number the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first.

        There was much traffic at night and many mules on the roads with boxes of  

         ammunition on each of their pack saddles. (Hemingway)

3. When two homogeneous subjects in the singular are connected by the conjunctions not only... but (also), neither... nor, either or, or, nor, the predicate is usually in the singular.

     There was neither heroic swift defeat nor heroic swift victory. (Wells)

4. When two subjects in the singular are connected by the conjunction as well as the predicate is in the singular.

Activity as well as cell structure is an essential condition of life. (Young)

If the subjects are of different person or number, the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first.

        The Volga as well as its affluents is  very picturesque.

5. If a subject expressed by a noun is modified by two or more attributes connected by and, the predicate is in the singular when one person, thing, or idea is meant.

The complete and beautiful quiet was almost the quiet from beyond the grave. (Stone)

If two or more persons, things, or ideas are meant the predicate is in the plural.

Classical and light music have both their admirers.

6. If the subject is expressed by a defining, indefinite, or negative pronoun (each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, somebody, someone, something, nobody, no one, nothing, neither, etc.), the predicate is in the singular. [9, c. 241]

        In turn each of these four brothers was very different from the other, yet          they, too, were alike. (Galsworthy)

7. If the subject is expressed by an interrogative pronoun (who, what) the predicate is usually in the singular.

"Who is to apply to her for permission?" I asked. (Colllns)

8. If the subject is expressed by a relative pronoun (who, which, that) the predicate agrees with its antecedent.

        Mrs. Gowan, who was engaged in needlework, put her work aside in a  

        covered basket, and rose a little hurriedly. (Dickens)

9. If the subject is expressed by the emphatic it the predicate is in the singular no matter what follows.

Foreigners say that it is only English girls who can thus be trusted to travel  alone... (Ch. Bronte)                      

10. If the subject is expressed by a noun in the plural which is the title of a book, or the name of a newspaper or magazine, the predicate is usually in the singular.

       "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club" was written when Dickens  was twenty-four.

     11. If the subject is expressed by a noun in the plural denoting time, measure, or distance, the predicate is in the singular when the noun represents the amount or mass as a whole

Four hundred miles was a huge distance when a man was no longer young and had no means. (Malfz)

12. If the subject is expressed by a collective noun denoting a group or collection of similar individuals taken as a whole (mankind, humanity, etc.) the predicate-verb is in the singular.

He consoled himself with the idea that perhaps humanity was better than he thought. (Dreiser)

With collective nouns (family, committee, crew, army, board, chorus, government, party, team, company, band, etc.) as subject the predicate is either in the singular or in the plural; this depends on what is uppermost in the mind, the idea of oneness or plurality. This agreement is called notional. [2, c. 187]

... the band was beginning to play a selection from the music of Grieg. (Hichens)

 When we came to the house we found that the band had arrived and were standing about in the hall. (Du Manner)

We can conclude that the theory of the agreement of the subject and the predicate is more fixed than a theory of the parts of the sentences proper. The subject and the predicate submit to precise directions of certain rules of coordination.

2 Practical research

2.1 The process of the practical research

We have made a practical research of predicate as a main part of a sentence and studied its different types according to structural classification. We have taken novels of English writers: S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, A.Cronin “The Citadel”, J.Galsworlhy “The Forsyte Saga”, J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, G.Greene “The Heart of the Matter”, D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, J.Aldridge “The Sea Eagle” and have found sentences with different types of a predicate. We have studied and analyzed them, defined their types, tense, mood, number, aspect, person. Then we have made a quantitative analysis of types of a predicate.

     1.”We shall be very pleased.” (J.Galsworlhy “The Forsyte Saga”, p.176).

shall be pleased – compound nominal predicate, consists of two parts: verbal and nominal.  Verbal part is: shall be, nominal part is: pleased. Verbal part consists of an auxiliary verb shall and a link verb to be. The link verb is a structural element of the predicate, as it joins the subject and the predicative. It expresses the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect and mood.

Predicate is in the Future Indefinite Tense, Passive voice, Indicative mood, the first person, plural number.

2.They would never have found her there. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.68).

would have found – simple verbal predicate in the Present Perfect tense, in analytical form, that is consists of the auxiliary verbs would have and notional verb. The predicate is in the present Perfect, Subjunctive Mood, Active voice, the third person, plural number.

3.Within ten minutes he had been awakened by his servant. (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.54  ).  

had been awakened - - compound nominal predicate, consists of two parts: verbal and nominal.  Verbal part is: had been, nominal part is: awakened. Verbal part consists of a link verb to be. The link verb is a structural element of the predicate, as it joins the subject and the predicative. It expresses the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect and mood.

Predicate is in the Past Perfect tense, Passive Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, plural number.

4.She was moaning and crying. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.95).

was moaning and crying – simple verbal predicate in the analytical form. It consists of the auxiliary verbs to be in the second form and notional verbs to moan and to cry. The predicate is in the Past Continuous Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

5.The doctor was feeling wan and nervous. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.53).

was feeling wan and nervous – compound nominal double predicate, consists of two parts: both of which are notional. The first one is verbal was feeling and is expressed by a link verb to be. The second part of the compound nominal double predicate is expressed by an adjective which denotes the properties of the subject in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper does: wan and nervous. The predicate is in the Past Continuous Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

6.”By this time tomorrow she’ll be gone.” (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p. 64).

will be gone – simple verbal predicate in the Future Indefinite Tense, Passive Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

7.The gramophone which had been silent for so long was playing ... (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.87).

had been silent, was playing – the first predicate is compound nominal one, the first part is expressed by the link verb to be, predicative is expressed by an adjective silent. Predicate is in the Past Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, plural number.

The second predicate is a simple verbal predicate in the Past Continuous, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

8. “It wouldn’t have been very nice for the Davidsons to have to mix with all that rough lot in the smoking-room.” (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.48).

wouldn’t have been nice – compound nominal predicate, consists of two parts: verbal and nominal.  Verbal part is: wouldn’t have been, nominal part is: nice. Verbal part consists of an auxiliary verb would in the negative form and a link verb to be. Predicate is in the Future-in-the-Past Perfect Tense, Active voice, Subjunctive mood, the third person, singular number.

9.They would never have found her there. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.69).

would never have found – simple verbal predicate in the analytical form.  Predicate is in the Future-in-the-Past Perfect Tense, Active voice, Subjunctive mood, the third person, plural number.

10. Everything seemed new and clear ...; tobacco had never smelt so nice. (J.Galsworlhy “The Forsyte Saga”, p.94).

seemed new and clear – the predicate is compound nominal double one, the first part is expressed by the notional verb to seem, predicative is expressed by two  adjectives:  new and clear. Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

had never smelt so nice – the predicate is compound nominal, the first part is expressed by the notional verb to smell, predicative is expressed by the adjective  nice. Predicate is in the Past Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

11.He had been polite enough to the Macphails during the journey. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.48).

had been polite – the predicate is compound nominal one, the first part is expressed by the link verb to be, predicative is expressed by an adjective polite. Predicate is in the Past Perfect Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

12.The sick man had been brought ashore ... (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.50).

had been brought ashore – simple verbal predicate in the Past Perfect Passive, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number. It is expressed by a phrasal verb to bring ashore.

13. He looked pale and tired. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.65).

 looked pale and tired – compound  nominal predicate proper, the predicate is compound nominal double one, the first part is expressed by the notional verb to look, predicative is expressed by two adjectives:  pale and tired. Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

14. That peaceful sky hung arched over a desperate death-struggle of the nations. ( J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.79  ).

hung arched – compound  nominal predicate proper, the first verbal part is expressed by the notional verb to hang, predicative is expressed by the Participle II arched over. Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

15. Davidson looked scared, and his yellow drawn face... went paler. (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.43 ).

 looked scared, went paler – two compound  nominal predicates proper, the first verbal parts are expressed by notional verbs to look, to go, predicatives are expressed by the participle II scared and an adjective in the comparative form paler. Predicate are in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

16. This excess of caution … seemed positively lunatic to troops coming straight from the front line ... (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.59 ).

seemed lunatic – compound  nominal predicate proper, the first verbal part is expressed by the notional verb to seem, predicative is expressed by the adjective:  lunatic. Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

17. The blanched skin was slowly turning pink. (A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.65)  

was turning pink.- compound  nominal predicate proper, the first verbal part is expressed by the notional verb to turn, predicative is expressed by the adjective:  pink. Predicate is in the Past Continuous tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

18. My hand was hot, damp. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.49).

was hot, damp – Compound  nominal double predicate, consists of two parts: both of which are notional. The first one is verbal was and is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part – a nominal one – is expressed by adjectives hot and dump which denotes the properties of the subject. The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

19. He’s a sticky sort of chap. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.39).

Is a sort – compound nominal proper, the first part – verbal – is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part – nominal – is expressed by the noun a sort.

The predicate is in the Present Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

20. The air was full of thunder. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.36).

was full of thunder – compound nominal predicate proper, the first part – verbal – is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part – nominal – is expressed by the adjective phrase full of thunder.

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

21. “I was asleep at first, and then I didn’t want to be disturbed. But I am disturbed, so come in.” (G.Greene “The Heart of the Matter”, p.78).

was asleep – simple verbal predicate, expressed by a verbal phrase (a phraseological equivalent of a verb denoting one action) – to be asleep (to dream, to sleep).

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the first person, singular number.

didn’t want – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb in the analytical form.

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the first person, singular number.

am disturbed – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb in the analytical form.

The predicate is in the Present Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Passive voice, the first person, singular number

22. Phuong had probably only shown the letter as a kind of boast — it wasn’t a sign of mistrust. (G.Greene “The Heart of the Matter”, p.58).

had shown – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to show, in the Past Perfect Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the first person, singular number.

wasn’t a sign – Compound  nominal  predicate proper, the first (verbal) part is expressed by the link verb to be, the second – nominal  - part is expressed by the noun a sign.

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

23. “She’s no a child. She’s tougher than you’ll ever be”. (G.Greene “The Heart of the Matter”, p.36).

is no a child – compound  nominal  predicate proper, the first (verbal) part is expressed by the link verb to be, the second – nominal  - part is expressed by the noun a child.

The predicate is in the Present Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

is tougher – compound  nominal  predicate proper, the first (verbal) part is expressed by the link verb to be, the second – nominal  - part is expressed by the adjective in the comparative form tougher.

The predicate is in the Present Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

will be – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to be, the predicate is in the Future Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

24. “Don’t be an old stay-at-home ...” (A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.49).

be a stay-at-home – compound  nominal  predicate proper, the first (verbal) part is expressed by the link verb to be, the second – nominal  - part is expressed by the noun phrase stay-at-home.

The predicate is in the Present Indefinite Tense, Imperative mood, Active voice.

25. All morning he was in a mood of high satisfaction. (A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.20).

was in a mood of high satisfaction – compound nominal predicate proper, the first part – verbal – is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part – nominal – is expressed by the noun phrase in a mood of high satisfaction.

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, singular number.

26. They were wider apart than before. ( A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.47).

were apart – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to be apart, in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Active voice, the third person, plural number.

27. It was all gone; and he was forty-three. (J.Aldridge “The Sea eagle”, p.53).

was gone – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to go in the Past Indefinite tense, Indicative mood, Passive voice, the third person, singular number.

was forty-three – compound  nominal predicate proper, the first verbal part is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part of the predicate – the nominal part – is expressed by the numeral  forty-three. Predicate is in the Past Continuous tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, singular number.

28. No questions were asked about his absence. (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.91 ).

were asked – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to ask in the analytical form.

The predicate is in the Past Indefinite Tense, Indicative mood, Passive voice, the third person, plural number

29. On steam tables the day’s dinner menu dishes were being portioned and served for delivery to dining-rooms. ( A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.101).

were being portioned and served -  compound nominal double predicate. Consists of two parts: the first part – verbal – is expressed by the link verb to be, the second part of the predicate – the nominal part – is expressed by two participles II: portioned and served. Predicate is in the Past Continuous tense, Passive Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, plural number.

30. I shouldn’t have allowed that to happen, believe me, my dear Eliot, if I had been there. (J.Galsworlhy “The Forsyte Saga”, p.87).

shouldn’t have allowed -  compound verbal modal predicate. Consists of two parts: the first part is expressed by the modal verb should, the second part of the predicate is expressed by the finite verb to allow.

Predicate is in the Future-in-the-Past Prefect, Active Voice, Subjunctive mood, the first person, singular number.

had been – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to be.  Predicate is in the Past Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

31. Your mother must have gone through a good deal of suffering. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.65).

must have gone – compound verbal modal predicate, consists of two parts: a modal part must and an infinitive have gone.

Predicate is in the Present Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

32. They may have telephone communication. (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”, p.71 ).

may have   - compound verbal modal predicate, consists of two parts: a modal part may and an infinitive to have.

Predicate is in the Present Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

 

33. Who could have done such a thing? (A.Cronin “The Citadel”, p.39).

could have done – compound verbal modal, consists of two parts: a modal part could and an infinitive to have done

Predicate is in the Present Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

34. Jack ought to have stayed for tea with them. (G.Greene “The Heart of the Matter”, p.64)

ought to have stayed – compound verbal modal modal predicate, consists of two parts: a modal part ought and an infinitive to have stayed.

Predicate is in the Present Perfect tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

 

35. The man grinned from ear to ear and began to play a lively tune. (J.Aldridge “The Sea eagle”, p.48).

 grinned  - simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to grin, it is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

began to play – compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, denotes the beginning of the action expressed by infinitive to play. It consists of a phasal verb  began and an infinitive to play.

Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

 

36.I kept walking, busy with my thoughts. (J.Galsworlhy “The Forsyte Saga”, p.136).

kept walking – compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, denotes the duration of the action expressed by the gerund walking. It consists of a phasal verb  kept and the gerund walking.

Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

37. Aloysius Royce continued to work quietly as the other two talked. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.50).

continued to work – compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, denotes the duration of the action expressed by infinitive walking. It consists of a phasal verb  continued and the infinitive to work.

Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood

    talked – simple verbal predicate, expressed by the finite verb to talk, it is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

38. They ceased to speak eyeing the newcomer suspiciously. (D.Du Maurier “Rebecka”, p.57).

ceased to speak – compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, denotes the duration of the action expressed by infinitive speak. It consists of a phasal verb ceased and the infinitive to speak.

Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood

39. The tanks began moving towards the bridge. (J.Aldington “Death of the Hero”,  p.40).

began moving – compound verbal phasal (aspective) predicate, denotes the beginning of the action expressed by the gerund moving. It consists of a phasal verb began and the gerund moving.

Predicate is in the Past Indefinite tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood.

40. They were trying to calm her. (S.W.Maugham “The Moon and the Sixpence”, p.97).

 were trying to calm – compound verbal modal predicate shows where the action expressed by an infinitive is looked upon as desirable. It denotes the attitude to the action of the person expressed by the subject. It consists of a modal part – were trying and an infinitive to calm.

The modal part may be expressed by an attitudinal verb to try followed by an infinitive to calm. The predicate of this type may be called a compound verbal attitudinal predicate. Predicate is in the Past Continuous tense, Active Voice, Indicative mood, the third person, plural number.

2.2 Results of the practical research

So, we have researched 40 extracts from the English fiction of the famous writers and found 51 examples of a predicate.

We can state that there are very different types of the predicate in the fiction: simple, compound, verbal, nominal and double.

We have found:

compound nominal proper predicates – 19,

simple verbal – 17,

compound verbal phasal – 6,

compound verbal modal – 5,

compound nominal double – 4.

The most frequent are compound nominal predicates and simple verbal predicates which are used in different tenses and voices.

Among compound predicates the most frequent are compound nominal predicates, their link verb is expressed by a finite verb and the predicative is expressed by an adjective or a noun.

       We can show data in tables and diagrams. (see Appendix B, table 1, Appendix C, diagram1 and 2).

CONCLUSION

The predicate is studied in the part of grammar – syntax which treats of the rules according to which words are connected in the sentence, and also of the various types of sentences and their members. The basis of a sentence is the predicative connection of words, uniting the subject and the predicate. The reciprocal nature of this connection consists in the fact that the subject dominates the predicate determining the person of predication, while the predicate dominates the subject, determining the event of predication.

All scientists state that there are two main members of the sentence: the subject and the predicate which fulfill the constructive and communicative function in the sentence. The predicate is the second principal member of a sentence and is studied by different linguists till nowadays. Scientists have determined that the predicate serves to assert something about the subject and has a definite grammatical structure.

Our practical research has shown that accordingly from the structural point of view there are two main types of a predicate: simple and compound. We have found almost all types of a predicate which may be subdivided into simple verbal, simple nominal, compound verbal, compound nominal. Compound verbal predicate may be of two types: compound verbal modal and aspective compound verbal predicate. The nominal predicate can be modal and aspective nominal predicate. Sometimes there is also a double predicate in the sentence.

We have found mostly compound nominal proper predicates and simple verbal predicates, the rarest predicate is compound nominal double one.

Thus, we can state that students must pay attention to study more precisely compound nominal proper predicates and simple verbal predicates, because these types of the predicate are widely used in the English language.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Theoretical resources

  1.  Close R.A. A Reference Grammar for Students of English. – М.: Просвещение, 1979. – 352 с.
  2.  Leech G., Svartvick J. A Communicative  Grammar of English. – М.: Просвещение, 1983. – 304 с.
  3.  Барабаш Т.А. Грамматика английского языка. – М.: ЮНВЕС,2002.–256 с.
  4.  Блох М.Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. М.: Высш. школа, 2001. – 383 с.
  5.  Блох М.Я. Практикум по английскому языку: Грамматика. Сборник упражнений. – М.: Аст, Астрель, 2000. – 240 с.
  6.  Вейхман Г.А. Новое в грамматике современного английского языка. – М.: Астрель, 2002. – 544 с.
  7.  Винокурова Л.П. Грамматика английского языка. – М.: Просвещение, 1980. – 344 с.
  8.  Ганшина М.А., Василевская Н.М. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: Высшая школа, 1964. – 548 с.
  9.  Грамматика английского языка \ В.Л. Каушанская и др. – Л: Просвещение, 1967. – 320 с.
  10.  Грамматика английского языка. Морфология. Синтаксис. \ Н.А. Кобрина и др.- СПб: Союз, 2001. – 496 с.
  11.  Грузинская И.А. Просто о главном. Грамматика английского языка. – М.: ЮНВЕС, 2000. – 361 с.
  12.  Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почепцов Г.Г. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка М.: Высшая школа, 1981. – 285 с.
  13.  Ильиш Б.А. Строй современного английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1971. – 366 с.
  14.  Иофик Л.Л., Чахоян Л.П. Хрестоматия по теоретической грамматике английского языка. – Л: Просвещение, 1972. – 224 с.
  15.  Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: ЮНВЕС, 1997. – 718 с.
  16.  Крылова И.П., Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка. – М.: Книжный Дом «Университет», 2000. – 448 с.
  17.  Теоретическая грамматика английского языка \ Отв. Ред. В.В. Бурлакова. – Л.: Изд-во ЛГУ, 1983. – 252 с.    
  18.  Хаймович Б.С., Роговская Б.И. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: Высшая школа, 1967. – 298 с.  
  19.  Худяков А.А. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2005. – 256 с.
  20.  Эпштейн Г.А., Казанская Н.М. Глагол: учебно-справочное пособие, СПб.: КАРО, 2001. – 544 с.  

Practical resources

  1.  Aldington J. Death of the Hero. – M.: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1987. – 442 p.
  2.  Aldridge J. The Sea Eagle. – Kiev: Dnipro Publishers, 1981. – 279 p.
  3.  Cronin A. The Citadel. – M.: Higher School, 1986. – 514 p.
  4.  Du Maurier D. Rebecka – M.: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1991. – 287 p.
  5.  Galsworlhy J. The Forsyte Saga. – M.: Progres, 1974. – 256 p.
  6.  Greene G. The Heart of the Matter. – New York: Penguin Books, 1978. – 272 p.
  7.  Maugham W.S. The Moon and the Sixpence. – London: William Heinemann, 1971. – 318 p.

APPENDIX А

Figure 1

Structural Types of Predicate

                                       Predicate

 

      Simple                                                  Compound

Verbal                 Nominal          Verbal                                        Nominal  

                Phasal               Modal       Of double        Proper                   Double

                                                          orientation

Examples:

Simple verbal:  John runs  quickly

Simple  nominal: He a gentleman!

Compound verbal phasal: He talked kept running

Compound verbal modal: He couldn’t say a word

Compound verbal  of double   orientation: The plane is reported to have been lost

Compound nominal proper: My hobby is dancing

Compound nominal double: The moon was shining cold and bright.

APPENDIX B

Table 1

Results of the research

Type of a predicate

Quantity

compound nominal predicates

simple verbal

compound verbal phasal

compound verbal modal

compound nominal double

19

17

6

5

4

Total

51

APPENDIX C

Diagram 1

Types of a predicate in absolute quantity

Diagram 2

The same in ratio:


 

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