94348

ESP: Design

Книга

Косметология, дизайн и стилистика

History of arts Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci The history of arts. Brief overview The painter fashion history part I First steps in fashion World War I and after the War Factors influencing fashion in the 16th century fasion history part II Fashion evolution Charles Frederick Worth industrializes fashion First fashion publications...

Английский

2015-09-08

8.18 MB

35 чел.

МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

КИЇВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

ТЕХНОЛОГІЙ ТА ДИЗАЙНУ

Т.В. Барамикова, Л.П. Ільєнко, К.Б. Кугай, А.В. Спіжова,

Н.В. Зимнікова, А.М. Ткаленко

ESP: Design

КИЇВ КНУТД 2010

Т.В. Барамикова, Л.П. Ільєнко, К.Б. Кугай, А.В. Спіжова, Н.В. Зимнікова, А.М. Ткаленко. «ESP: Design»: Підручник для студентів IІІ-IV курсів всіх спеціальностей факультету Дизайн. – К.: КНУТД, 2010 – 275 с. – Англійською мовою

ЗМІСТ

Передмова ………………………………………………………………......

5

UNIT 1. HISTORY OF ARTS part I

7

Text A.  History of arts ……………………………………………………...

7

Text B. Renaissance …………………………………………………………

11

Text C. Leonardo da Vinci ……………………………………………….....

15

UNIT 2. HISTORY OF ARTS part II

17

Text A. Baroque and Rococo ………………………………………………..

17

Text B. The history of arts. Brief overview …………………………………

22

Text C. The painter ………………………………………………………….

24

UNIT 3. fashion history part I

27

Text A. First steps in fashion ………………………………………………..

27

Text B. World War I and after the War …………………………………….

31

Text C. Factors influencing fashion in the 16th century ……………………..

34

UNIT 4. fasion history part II

35

Text A. Fashion evolution …………………………………………………..

35

Text B. Charles Frederick Worth industrializes fashion …………………….

39

Text C. First fashion publications …………………………………………..

43

UNIT 5. DESIGN ELEMENTS

44

Text A. Design elements …………………………………………………….

44

Text B. Design principles ……………………………………………………

48

Text C. The importance of colour …………………………………………...

51

UNIT 6. costume design

53

Text A. The work of a designer ……………………………………………..

53

Text B. The World Famous Designers ..........................................................

57

Text C. The appearance of a costume designer profession ………………….

60

UNIT 7. THEATRICAL COSTUME

62

Text A. Theatrical costume ………………………………………………….

62

Text B. Dance costume ……………………………………………………..

66

Text C. Musical-dance costumes ……………………………………………

69

UNIT 8. SCENIC DESIGN

70

Text A. Scenic design ……………………………………………………….

70

Text B. Scenic makeup ……………………………………………………..

74

Text C. Makeup Artists ……………………………………………………..

77

UNIT 9. INTERIOR DESIGN

79

Text A. The home of ideas …………………………………………………..

79

Text B. Colour in your home ………………………………………………..

83

Text C. Accessories ………………………………………………………….

86

UNIT 10. TEXTILES IN THE INTERIOR

89

Text A. Creative interiors ……………………………………………………

89

Text B. Textile items ………………………………………………………..

94

Text C. Fabric Care…………………………………………………………..

97

UNIT 11. FLORAL DESIGN ……………………………………………...

99

Text A. Floral art …………………………………………………………….

99

Text B. Flower symbolism …………………………………………………..

104

Text C. Ikebana ……………………………………………………………...

107

UNIT 12. MODERN HAIRDRESSING PROCEDURES

109

Text A. Modern hairdressing procedures ……………………………………

109

Text B. The art of hairdressing ……………………………………………...

113

Text C. History of cosmetics ………………………………………………..

116

Unit 13. Graphic design

117

Text A. The art of graphic design …………………………………………...

117

Text B. Raymond Loewy. The father of industrial design ………………….

121

Text C. Website layout ………………………………………………………

124

UNIT 14. WEB DESIGN

125

Text A. Principles and elements of web design ……………………………..

125

Text B. The importance of colour …………………………………………..

130

Text C. Theory of colours …………………………………………………..

133

UNIT 15. PHOTO & VIDEO DESIGN

135

Text A. Photo design ………………………………………………………..

135

Text B. Video design ………………………………………………………..

140

Text C. Photography types …………………………………………………..

144

UNIT 16. CORPORATE IDENTITY

146

Text A. Corporate identity …………………………………………………..

146

Text B. Paul Rand: A brief biography ………………………………………

149

Text C. Business cards ………………………………………………………

153

APPENDIX 1. TEXTS FOR LISTENING…………………………………..

155

APPENDIX 2. TEXTS FOR ADDITIONAL READING ...………………..

166

ENGLISH-UKRAINIAN DICTIONARY ....................................................

200

УКРАЇНСЬКО-АНГЛІЙСЬКИЙ СЛОВНИК …………………………….

221

GLOSSARY...................................................................................................

237

Список використаної літератури ...............................................................

274

ПЕРЕДМОВА

Підручник «ESP: Design» розрахований на 210 годин аудиторної та самостійної роботи студентів – майбутніх спеціалістів в галузі дизайну, на другому етапі навчання.

Тексти, вправи, додатки та аудіо записи підібрані у відповідності до вимог Болонського процесу. Мовний матеріал відображає новітні тенденції в галузі дизайну.

Даний підручник спрямований на всебічний розвиток майбутніх фахівців, на підвищення їх англомовної професійної компетенції, і якісних характеристик майбутнього спеціаліста.

Композиція підручника це дидактично та методично опрацьований і систематизований навчальний матеріал, що складається з 16 уроків, кожен з яких містить 3 логічно-пов’язаних тексти та завдання, спрямовані на розвиток у студентів усіх необхідних мовних навичок: читання, письма, слухання, говоріння.

Підручник орієнтує студента на активну пізнавальну діяльність, самостійну творчу працю, формування практичних навичок професійного англомовного спілкування. Підручник характеризується об’єктивністю, науковістю, чіткою логічною послідовністю та сучасністю матеріалу.

Автори відібрали найважливіші основні теми, які формують мовну компетенцію, світогляд майбутнього спеціаліста та сприяють його всебічному розвитку.

Для досягнення цієї мети тексти містять інформацію з історії мистецтва та дизайну, біографічні дані про відомих дизайнерів, а також базову інформацію по всім галузям дизайну: дизайн інтер’єру, графічний та веб дизайн, фото та відео дизайн, сценічний дизайн, дизайн текстилю, дизайн одягу, тощо. Студенти також можуть дізнатися про основні принципи та елементи дизайну.

Перший текст уроку (А) спрямований на розвиток навичок вивчаючого читання, збагачення мовного запасу студентів, а також аналізу тексту.

Дотекстові вправи спрямовані на подолання мовних труднощів та розуміння термінів.

Післятекстові вправи спрямовані на свідоме практичне засвоєння мовних елементів та стилістичних особливостей тексту.

Другий текст уроку (В) призначений для аудиторного та самостійного опрацювання, вправи та завдання мають комунікативну спрямованість: розкриття основного змісту тексту, визначення головної ідеї, новизни та значущості інформації у стислому вигляді, побудові плану та відпрацюванням навичок перекладу.

Текст (С) призначений для аудіювання.

Розроблені до нього завдання спрямовані на розвиток навичок розуміння тексту на слух, виділення основної інформації.

Питання та завдання дозволяють забезпечити більш ефективне опрацювання студентом навчального матеріалу у процесі самостійної роботи та сприяють формуванню практичних прийомів та навичок логічного мислення.

Додатки є важливим засобом збагачення змісту підручника. Вони доповнюють основний матеріал та мають безпосереднє відношення до навчального плану: тексти для аудіювання, тексти для самостійного опрацювання.

UNIT 1

HISTORY OF ARTS

Part I

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. to survey дослідити

2. masterpieces – шедеври

3. to survive зберегтися,  вижити

4. to depictзображувати

5. medieval – середньовічний

6. heritageспадщина

7. to retainзберігати

8. workmanshipмайстерність

9. adventпоява

ІІ Read and remember the following phrases:

1. distinguishing features – відмінні риси

2. biblical truths – біблійські істини

3. a vast scope – широкий простір

4. illuminated manuscript – заставочний рукопис

5. stained glass – кольорове скло

6. secular elite – світські еліти

7. in terms of – з точки зору

III Read and translate the following text:

History of Arts

The history of arts is an attempt to survey art through human history, classifying cultures and periods by their distinguishing features.

The history of art is often told as an chronology of masterpieces created in each civilization in the world.

The oldest surviving art forms include small sculptures and paintings on rocks and in caves. Ancient art began when ancient civilizations developed a form of written language. The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the six great ancient civilizations: ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art.

Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans. In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are one of the great achievements of medieval art.

         

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art history. Medieval art was produced in many media, and the works that remain in large numbers include sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, metalwork and mosaics.

Medieval art in Europe grew out of the artistic heritage of the Roman Empire and the iconographic traditions of the early Christian church.

At the start of the medieval period most significant works of art were very rare and costly objects associated with secular elites, monasteries or major churches.

The use of valuable materials is a constant in medieval art; until the of the period. Gold was used for objects for churches and palaces, personal jewellery and the fittings of clothes.

The period of the Middle Ages neither begins nor ends neatly at any particular date, nor at the same time in all regions, and the same is true for the major phases of art within the period.

Byzantine art is the art of the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire. Byzantine art was extremely conservative, for religious and cultural reasons, but retained a continuous tradition of Greek realism.

The Byzantine Empire produced much of the finest art of the Middle Ages in terms of quality of material and workmanship. Byzantine silk, textiles, often woven or embroidered with designs of both animal and human figures were produced in workshops in Constantinople. Some other decorative arts were less developed.

The Medieval era ended with Renaissance followed by the Baroque and Rococo. The 18th and 19th centuries included Neoclassicism, Romantic art, Academic art, and Realism in art. Art historians disagree when Modern art began. It was either in the mid-eighteenth century with the artist Francisco Goya, the mid-nineteenth century with the industrial revolution or the late nineteenth century with the advent of Impressionism. The art movements of the late nineteenth through the early twenty first centuries are too numerous to detail. They can be broadly divided into two categories: Modernism and Contemporary art or Postmodern art.

                            

ІV Answer the questions:

1. What is the history of art?

2. What are the oldest surviving forms of art?

3. When and where did the biblical truths dominate in art?

4. In what media was medieval art produced in?

5. Was the use of valuable materials constant in medieval art?

6. What are characteristic features of Byzantine art?

7. What was Constantinople famous for?

8. What was medieval era followed by?

9. What forms of art are typical for the 18th – 19th centuries?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. The history of art is often told as ... ... created in each civilization in the world.

2. The oldest surviving art forms include ... ... ... .

3. Ancient Roman art depicted ... ... ... .

4. The use of valuable materials is ... ... ... .

5. Byzantine art is the art of the … … … .

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

малюнки на скалах; заставний рукопис; середньовічне мистецтво; оздоблення одягу; зберігати традиції; майстерність; поява (виникнення); кольорове скло; металообробка.

VII Make up the sentences with the words and phrases:

monumental Church mosaics; a unique and characteristic style; rare and costly objects; a particular date; conservative; silk; textiles; decorative art; impressionism; Modern and Contemporary art.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

sculpture; painting; mosaics; jewellery; advent.

IX Translate the sentences into English.

  1.  Кожна з древніх цивілізацій розвинула свій унікальний та характерний стиль мистецтва.
  2.  Візантійська монументальна мозаїка є однією з величезних досягнень середньовічного мистецтва.
  3.  Середньовічне мистецтво Західного світу охоплює широкий простір часу, понад 1000 років історії мистецтва.
  4.  У Європі середньовічне мистецтво виросло із спадщини Римської імперії.
  5.  Період Середньовіччя не має точної дати свого початку.
  6.  Візантійське мистецтво було дуже консервативним з релігійних та культурних причин.
  7.  Ера Середньовіччя закінчилась із виникненням Ренесансу, а потім Барокко та Рококо.
  8.  Академічне мистецтво виникло у 18-19 століттях.
  9.  Мистецтвознавці не однакової думки щодо періоду виникнення Модерну.
  10.  Художні течії (напрямки) кінця 19, 20 та початку 21 століття дуже численні.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

history of art; to survey; cultures; masterpieces; civilization; Egypt; Greece; Rome; India; China; characteristic style of art; biblical truths; mosaics; Medieval art; sculpture; manuscripts; stained glass; valuable materials; Byzantine art; be characterized; silk; textiles; art historians; Impressionism; Modernism; Postmodern art.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

  1.  to span  охоплювати
  2.  to be viewed  розглядатися
  3.  profoundly  серйозно
  4.  to contend  стверджувати
  5.  prominence  вигідне становище
  6.  prevailing  домінуючий
  7.  to unravel  розгадати
  8.  pinnacles  вершини
  9.  to diversify  варіювати, урізноманітнювати
  10.  spirit  дух
  11.  require  потреба

ІІ Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Renaissance

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. This intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and contributions of such Great Men as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.

The Renaissance, being a cultural movement, profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period, literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion.                       

It remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began and when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins.

Some historians have postulated that Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance as a result of luck, i.e. because “Great Men” were born there by chance. Da Vinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo were born in Tuscany.

Other historians have contended that these “Great Men” were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.

One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. It was part of wider trend towards realism in the arts. To that end, painters also developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy.

These changes in the artistic method showed a desire to depict the beauty of nature and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles. Other notable artists include Sando Botticelli, Donatello and Titian, among others.

In the 15th century, the Renaissance spread great with speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe. The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local cultures.

In England the Elizabethan era marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, as well as great artists.

French writers such as Francois Rebelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Italian Renaissance.

It was also during the northern Renaissance that Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan Van Eyck perfected the oil painting technique, which enabled artists to produce strong colours on a hard surface that could survive for centuries.

As a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period, beginning in Italy and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century influence of the Renaissance affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, religion and other aspects of intellectual require.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

  1.  What is the Renaissance?
  2.  What did the Renaissance affect?
  3.  What did some historians postulate?
  4.  What were the other opinions as to the origin of the Renaissance?
  5.  What is one of the distinguishing features of the art cultural movement?
  6.  Who are the most famous representatives of the artistic pinnacles?
  7.  How did the Renaissance spread to Europe?
  8.  What do you know about the English Renaissance?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

J. Heavens, what sparkling eyes that lady on the portrait has! And what a graceful pose!

H. Isn't it lovely! Her face is gentle, she looks as if she was alive.

J. And the texture of her dress! It looks so soft and silky as if you could feel it with your hand.

H. You like realist portraits, don't you?

J.  I like pictures that are true to life, where every leaf and flower is depicted exactly.

H. Like in still life? Look, at this one. Flowers in a vase, watermelons, grapes and cherries. Doesn't it look nice?

J. Wow, it makes me feel really hungry. Do we call this art realism?

H. Well, realism artists' ideal was a truthful depiction of what laid before their eyes and precise drawing of a landscape or a portrait.

O. There is nothing like landscapes to me. I like nature depicted as mysterious and majestic.

H. You seem to like romanticism, don't you?

O. How can you tell a realistic landscape from a romantic one?

H. Romantic artists used exaggerations: the hills and trees are higher, the sea is bluer than in real life. Artists stressed the wild character of the place and the drama of contrasts.

J. Look over there. That calm sea shore will make you feel happy. The rocks and blue water are flooded with sunlight. And the delicate white figure of a lady in the wide-brim hat conveys the spirit of leisure, harmony and optimism.

O. And I see the brushwork here is unlike those we have seen. The trace of the brush is left and the character of the work is rapid and sketch-like.

H. Naturally, another style – another expression. This is piece of impressionism. Impressionists tried to capture one instant in time.

J. The moment, stop! You are a wonder!

H. Right you are. Emphasis was placed on capturing the first impression of the subject, it was painted on the spot, in a state of great emotional excitement at the sight of a wonderful world.

O. What do you know about contemporary art?

H.  There are a great number of styles both of realistic and formalistic trends, and a great deal of masterpieces.

J. We'll see some of them in the Museum of Modern Art, I believe. Let’s go there next week.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX  Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  inventor  винахідник
  2.  archetype  прообраз
  3.  infinite  безмежний
  4.  curiosity  цікавість
  5.  to equal  дорівнювати
  6.  diversely  різноманітно
  7.  renowned  визнаний
  8.  primarily  в першу чергу
  9.  vastly  широко 
  10.  to conceptualise  замислювати 
  11.  solar  сонячний 
  12.  tensile strength      сила натягування

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian scientist, engineer, anatomist, painter, sculptor, botanist, musician and writer.
  2.  He is perhaps the most diversely talented person to have ever lived.
  3.  Leonardo is renowned primarily as a musician.
  4.  As an engineer, Leonardo conceptualised a plane.
  5.  As a scientist, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy and hydrodynamics.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  What is the most famous portrait by Leonardo da Vinci?
  2.  How is Leonardo da Vinci often described?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 1 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1 valuable   a) сучасний

2 contemporary b) поява

3 ancient   c) середньовічний

4 to depict   d) майстерність

5 medieval   e) середньовічний

6 manuscript f) цiнний

7 features   g) зображувати

8 workmanship h) столiття

9 advent   i) древній

10 century  j) рукопис

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:  

1 sculpture        a) outstanding work, achievement or performance

2 mosaic          b) art or process of applying paints to a surface such as canvas, to               make a picture or other artistic composition

3 jewellery     c) art of making three-dimensional or relief forms by chiselling,  carving, modelling

4 painting         d) design or decoration made up of small pieces of coloured glass, stone, etc.

5 masterpiece   e) objects that are worn for personal adornment such as bracelets,    rings, necklaces, etc.

UNIT 2

HISTORY OF ARTS

Part II

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

  1.  to impose  накладати
  2.  to execute  виконувати
  3.  to view  дивитися, поглядати
  4.  to embody  втілювати
  5.  to intersect  перетинати
  6.  to supersede  замінювати, заміщати
  7.  to merge  змінюватися, зливатися
  8.  silverwork  [’sɪlvər   wɜ:rk]  вироби із срібла
  9.  refinement  витонченість, удосконалення
  10.  pre-eminence  перевага

II Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  defining statement – вирішальний фактор
  2.  extra-sculptural elements – додаткові скульптурні елементи
  3.  concealed lighting – приховане освітлення
  4.  excessive ornamentation – надмірний орнамент
  5.  complexity of lines – складність ліній
  6.  engraved publications – фоліанти

III Read and translate the following text:

Baroque and Rococo

Baroque is an artistic style of unity imposed upon rich heavy detail.

A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris.

In Baroque sculpture was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms. These sculptures often had multiple ideal viewing angels. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example concealed lighting, or water fountains.

Baroque architecture was taken up with enthusiasm in central Germany (Ludwigsburg Palace and Zwinger Dresden), Austria and Russia (Peterhof). In England the culmination of Baroque architecture was embodied in works by Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanburgh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Many examples of Baroque architecture and town planning are found in other European towns, and in Latin America. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took ones from Baroque garden plans.

In modern usage, the term “Baroque” may still be used, usually describing works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line.

Baroque was superseded in many centres by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts.

The 1730 represented the height of Rococo development in France. The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture.

The Rococo style spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in the Catholic parts of Germany, Bohemia, and Austria, where it was merged with the lively German Baroque traditions. In Great Britain Rococo was always thought of as the “French taste”. It was never widely adopted as an architectural style, although its influence was strongly felt in such areas as silverwork, porcelain, and silk. Thomas Chippendale transformed British furniture design through his adaptation and refinement of the style.

It is not surprising, that French Rococo art was at home indoors. Metalwork, porcelain figures, frills and especially furniture rose to new pre-eminence as the French upper class thought to outfit their homes in the new fashionable style.

Rococo style took pleasure in asymmetry, a taste that was new to European style.

During the Rococo period, furniture was lightened, physically and visually. The idea of furniture had evolved to a symbol of status and took on a role in comfort and versatility. Furniture could be easily moved around for gatherings.

In general, Rococo is an entirely interior style because the wealthy and aristocratic moved back to Paris from Versailles.

Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. The painters used delicate colours and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was also popular among Rococo painters.

Sculpture was another area where the Rococo was widely adopted. Etienne-Maurice Falconet is widely considered as one of the best representatives of French Rococo. This style was best expressed through delicate porcelain sculpture. Falconet himself was a director of a famous porcelain factory.

ІV Answer the questions:

  1.  What kind of style is Baroque?
  2.  Whose works signify the Baroque style in painting?
  3.  Where was Baroque architecture taken up with enthusiasm?
  4.  Where can examples of Baroque architecture be found?
  5.  What does the term “Baroque” mean in modern usage?
  6.  What style was Baroque superseded by?
  7.  Who promoted the Rococo style spreading?
  8.  Where was this style popular?
  9.  How was Rococo embodied in furniture?
  10.  Why is Rococo considered to be an entirely interior style?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. In Baroque sculpture was ... .

2. In modern usage, the term “Baroque” ... .

3. The Rococo style spread ... .

4. It was never widely adopted as ... .

5. It is not surprising ... .

6. Though Rococo originated in ... .

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

художній стиль, картини, скульптури, фонтани, планування міст, витвори мистецтва, ремесло, надмірний орнамент, інтер’єр, вплив, пристосування, удосконалення.

VII Make up the sentences with the words and phrases:

a defining statement, to be provided by, dynamic movement, concealed lighting, culmination of Baroque architecture, to be embodied, town planning, in modern usage, to be superseded, spread, German Baroque traditions.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

works of art, craft, silverwork, indoors, furniture.

IX Translate the sentences into English.

  1.  Як художній стиль Бароко характеризується розкішними, важкими деталями.
  2.  У Німеччині стиль Бароко був сприйнятий з ентузіазмом.
  3.  Англійський архітектор Сер Крістофер Урен був прихильником цього стилю.
  4.  Стиль Рококо виник у Франції наприкінці 1720-х років.
  5.  Стиль Рококо широко застосовувався в інтер’єрі, живописі та скульптурі.
  6.  Древні фоліанти та французькі художники сприяли розповсюдженню стилю Рококо.
  7.  Французька знать оздоблювала своє житло у новому модному стилі.
  8.  Меблі у стилі Рококо були комфортні, різноманітні та легко переміщалися при потребі зібрання.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

Baroque and Rococo styles; to be characterised by; rich heavy details; to be used in; painting, sculpture, architecture; in modern usage; works of art; craft; excessive ornamentation; complexity of lines; spread; France; Germany; Austria; French Rococo; interior; furniture; etc.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

  1.  visual arts        візуальне мистецтво
  2.  surviving  відродження
  3.  to be devoid of  бути позбавленим
  4.  aesthetic experience         естетичний досвід
  5.  trepidation  страх
  6.  to wane  занепадати
  7.  to assume  приймати, набувати
  8.  coherent  пов’язаний
  9.  rejection  відмова
  10.  quest  пошук

ІІ Read the text and define the main idea of it:

The History of Arts. Brief Overview

In the visual arts the European movement called "neoclassicism" began after 1765, as a reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles.

Contrasting with the Baroque and the Rococo, Neoclassical paintings are devoid of pastel colours and haziness; instead, they have sharp colours.

Romanticism as an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement originated in 18th century Western Europe, around 1790, during the Industrial Revolution. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic, social, and political norms of this period and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature in art and literature. It stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror.

As the Romantic movement waned, the focus shifted away from idealism to a more realistic rendering of nature, social relationships, and the characteristics of the individual, society, and the nation at large. This new realism assumed various forms in the different countries where it took root.

Realism had a profound influence on the literature and figurative arts of Europe. The most systematic and coherent form evolved in France during the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. It reached its peak during the Second Empire (1852-70) and began to wane in the 1870s.

The beginnings of modern painting started in 19th-century France. The paintings of Gustave Courbet, Edouard Manet, and the Impressionists represent a deepening rejection of the prevailing academic tradition and a quest for a more naturalistic representation of the visual world. From about the 1890s on, different movements and styles arose, such as Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Constructivism, Surrealism, Social Realism, Pop art,  Minimal art, and Neo-Expressionism, etc. Despite the enormous variety seen in these movements, most of them are characteristically modern in expressing a spiritual response to the changed conditions of life in the 20th century.

An important trend throughout the 20th century has been the abstract art – i.e., art in which little or no attempt is made to reproduce the appearances or forms of objects. The development of photography and of allied photomechanical techniques of reproduction has had an important influence on the development of modern art, because these mechanical techniques freed manually executed drawing and painting of their crucial role as the only means of accurately depicting the visible world.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions :

  1.  When and where did Neoclassicism begin?
  2.  What are Neoclassical paintings devoid of ... ?
  3.  What is Romanticism?
  4.  What is Realism featured by?
  5.  Where did modern painting start in?
  6.  What do the paintings of Gustave Courbet, Edouard Manet and the Impressionists represent?
  7.  What styles arose then?
  8.  What do they express?                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
  9.  What influenced the development of modern art?

VII Practice reading the dialogue with your partner:

- What do you think I ought to see first in Lviv?

- The sculptures of Greco-Roman art. They are exhibited in the Lviv Picture Gallery.

- I’d like to see these sculptures. In fact, the Greek torso is provided with the Roman head. Several emperors were known to have done that, installing their portrait heads on the bodies of the Greek or Roman gods.

- But, do you know that pieces of ancient Greek or Roman sculptures were discovered on the façade of the palace that used to belong to Count Lianskoronsky? These sculptures combine the Greek-made torsos and Roman-made heads, and dated from the second century BC- second century AD. They were incorporated into the façade of this palace and now they are exhibited in the Lviv Picture Gallery.

VIII Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  exceptional  винятковий
  2.  thoroughly  ґрунтовно, досконало
  3.  spoilt  зіпсований, розпещений
  4.  features  риси (обличчя)
  5.  pigeon  голуб
  6.  to complete  завершувати
  7.  amazingly  дивовижно
  8.  lifelike  як живий
  9.  to disappoint  розчаровувати
  10.  triangle  трикутник
  11.  square  квадрат
  12.  amateur  аматор

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent in a very young age.
  2.  His father was an amateur artist.
  3.  Pablo often watched his father paint but he was never allowed to help.
  4.  Few people realized that he was a genius.
  5.  He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public.
  6.  He created over 6000 paintings, drawings and sculptures.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  When did Pablo Picasso learn to draw?
  2.  How many drawings, paintings and sculptures did he create?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 1 to be checked up.

II Match the words and word-combinations:

1  refinement    a)  перевага

2  pre-eminence    b)  вирішальний фактор

3  visual arts    c)  естетичний досвід

4  features     d)  візуальне мистецтво

5  defining statement   e)  риси (обличчя)

6  amateur     f)  винятковий

7  surviving     g)  витонченість, удосконалення

8  aesthetic experience   h)  аматор

9 exceptional    I)  відродження

10 visual arts    j)  візуальне мистецтво

III Match the definitions:

1  Neoclassicism    a) a style of architecture and decorative art that

 flourished throughout Europe from the late 16th

  to the early 18th century characterized by

 extensive ornamentation works of art

2 Baroque b) late 18th and early 19th century style in architecture, decorative art and fine art based on the imitation of surviving classical models

 and types

3 Modernism c)a style of painting that was popular in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in which feelings,

 imaginations, and wild natural beauty were considered more important than anything else

4 Romanticism d) artistic and literary movement originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century which sought to express emotions rather than to represent external reality. It is characterized by the use of symbolism, exaggeration and distortion

5 Expressionism e) a style of art that was popular especially from the 1940s to the 1960s, which uses simple shapes and modern artificial materials

UNIT 3

fashion history

part I

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. to reveal  показувати

2. crusade  хрестовий похід

3. emergence  поява

4. cutting  розкрій

5. sewing  пошиття

6. ever-changing        що постійно змінюється

7. availability  наявність

8. to emphasize  надавати особливого значення

9. trendsetter  законодавець моди

10. pursuit намагання

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. professional tailor – професійний кравець

2. matter of necessity – необхідність

3. to drive to extremes – вдаватися до крайнощів

4. fairly dramatically – досить кардинально

5. exquisite design – вишуканий дизайн

III Read and translate the following text:

First Steps in Fashion

The history of fashion reveals not only the importance of changes in appearance but also its historical interpretation.

The turning point in medieval fashion came in the eleventh century. Emerging monarchies in France, England and Spain created courts with real wealth to spend on fashionable clothes. These monarchies sent knights and soldiers on religious crusades to the Middle East and the returning crusaders brought with them ideas and clothes from the developed societies of the Byzantine Empire. These influences brought a revolution in fashion.

The real innovation in medieval fashion was that men’s and women’s clothing began to develop in completely different directions. One of the primary causes of this fashion revolution was the emergence of the professional tailor. Tailors across Europe developed new methods of cutting and sewing.

The Middle Ages was perhaps the last period in European history when clothing was a simple matter of necessity rather than extravagant, ever-changing fashion.

    

The fifteenth century saw transformations in the nature of costume and culture that are key to our understanding of Western fashion. Until the fifteenth century the clothing customs of most cultures had been determined by tradition, the availability of certain kinds of fabric and the skill of the tailor. During the fifteenth century, however, the nature of European costume began to emphasize fashion.

The sixteenth century was one of the most splendid periods in all of costume history. Some of the larger cultural trends of the time included the rise and spread of books, the expansion of trade and exploration.  The increase in power and wealth of national monarchies in France, England and Spain caused the emergence of trendsetters.

Perhaps the greatest fashion trendsetter of the century was Elizabeth I of England who ruled from 1558 to 1603. This powerful female ruler drove fashion to extremes in her pursuit of richness and ornament.

The clothing worn by Europeans during the seventeenth century was influenced by fashion trends as never before. During the course of the century garments went from restrictive to comfortable and back to restrictive again, and excessive ornament was both stripped away and added back to clothing for both men and women. While the wealthy continued to determine the styles the rise of the middle classes also began to have a significant influence on fashion.

By the 1620s styles began to change fairly dramatically. While the garments worn remained the same the overall trend through the mid-century was toward softness and comfort. People continued to value rich materials and exquisite design, and didn’t add ornament for ornament’s sake.

These changes in fashion reflected the rising influence of France with its free sense of style.

IV Answer the questions:

1. Why do we need to study fashion history?

2. What is medieval fashion characterized by?

3. What transformations did the fifteenth century see?

4. Who is the most famous trendsetter of the sixteenth century?

5. What are the main features of that period?

6. How did the fashion change in the seventeenth century?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … was the period when clothes were a matter of necessity.

2. Some cultural trends of the sixteenth century included … .

3. Elizabeth I was one of the greatest trendsetters of the sixteenth century, she … fashion … .

4. In … the middle class began to have a great impact on fashion.

5. In the seventeenth century garments’ overall trend was toward … .

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

зовнішність, визначати, тканина, поширення, напрямок (у моді), впливати, предмети одягу, зручний, надмірний.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

professional tailor, trendsetter, exquisite design, medieval fashion, revolution in fashion, innovation.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

trendsetter, ever-changing, to emphasize, exquisite, availability, tailor, cutting.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Революція моди стала однією з головних підстав появи професійного кравця.

2. Поступово люди почали надавати особливого значення моді.

3. Нові тенденції в моді дуже впливали на одяг європейців у 17 столітті.

4. Європейські кравці постійно винаходили нові методи пошиття одягу.

5. Шістнадцяте століття відзначилося поширенням книжок, торгівлі, а також збільшенням могутності монархії.

6. У сімнадцятому столітті стиль одягу став зручнішим.

7. Візантійська імперія мала великий вплив на моду Європи.

8. Шістнадцяте століття було одним з найблискучіших періодів в історії моди.

 

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

influence, importance, medieval fashion, monarchy, the Byzantine Empire, fashion revolution, tailor, to develop, transformations, Western fashion, trendsetter, comfortable, to determine.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. to divert  відвертати (увагу, тощо)

2. mourning  траур

3. shawl  шаль

4. trimming  оздоблення

5. lapel  лацкан (піджака, тощо)

6. calf-length  (довжиною) до литки

7. buckle  пряжка

8. appeal  привабливість

9. petticoat  нижня спідниця

10. reminiscent  що нагадує

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

World War I and after the War

The war diverted most women's thoughts from fashion, dressing them into working clothes, uniforms. Fashion magazines carried designs for appropriate widow's clothes: always high at the neck, black and loose, with full skirts and veiled hats. The longer the war went on, the more clothing rules were relaxed. Only a few women wore black for a whole year or limited their jewelry to black jet.

Dress code at the theater became much more independent. Elegant evening dresses were still allowed but were no longer recommended”.

While men were at the front, women did many of their jobs. They went into farming and building, worked in factories, became drivers and conductresses on buses and trains, and even ran many businesses. They also went into military service, some being sent to the front, and not only as nurses. Women gradually became accustomed to wearing uniform.  

The military style was soon reflected in fashion. Before the war coats had normally been shorter than skirts. Now they resembled uniforms and covered everything. Shawl collars with fur trimming were replaced by strict lapels. Clothes simply became more functional. The narrow straight skirt was replaced by a calf-length pleated skirt. Hats became smaller and were worn with no decoration. Jewelry was more or less taboo.

In Britain a “dress for all occasions” was launched. This could be worn indoors and outdoors, from morning till evening. Loosely cut and made of cheap, washable material, it was fastened with buckles and had no hooks and eyes. Clothes did become simpler because working women found that uniforms and working clothes were practical and had a certain appeal: they made women look competent and serious.

Fashionable clothes were still created and sold, but it did not seem right to appear in them on the street. A skirt and pullover were more appropriate. There was a certain nostalgia for wide skirts, which reminded wearers of the “good old days”.

In 1915 there was a short period of frivolity, when the so-called war crinoline was introduced. This was a mid-calf skirt made of abundant material and worn over several petticoats, reminiscent of the 19th-century crinoline.

Many couture houses including Poiret and Vionnet were closed during the war. Chanel, on the other hand, introduced her jersey suits which suited the times perfectly.

Many women did not want to give up the freedoms which the war had forced on them. Morals had changed, and so had clothes: both had become looser. The shorter dress that now revealed the ankles was more popular than pants which reminded wearers of hard work. Women wanted to enjoy themselves. They wanted to dance and they could move best in the simplest dress, cut straight from top to bottom like a tube. This design also had the advantage of being something that every woman could copy and run up on her sewing machine at home.

The fashion industry needed new ideas and new customers.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. How did the war influence fashion?

2. What was the dress code at the theatre?

3. What were women doing during that time?

4. Military style was reflected in fashion, wasn’t it?

5. How did “dress for all occasions” look like?

6. What was the so-called war crinoline like?

7. Many new fashion houses appeared during the war, didn’t they?

8. What was more popular: dress or pants?

9. What was necessary for fashion industry?

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

1)

A. You work for AdCam, a famous advertising agency based in the U.K. Could you give me ideas for the following advertising campaigns?

B. Firstly, I’d like to speak about a chain of fashion boutiques. The boutiques are located in the central part of the city, they specialize in designer clothes.

A. Will they offer a wide range of Ukrainian brands?

B. Sure, our goal is to improve sales and attract new customers. But the main point I’ll be talking about is a new chain of clothes shops for people with low income. The shops are located in residential areas.

A. And what do you know about a new packaging material?

B. The material is eco-friendly. It is a bit more expensive than polyethylene.

A. What is it made of?

B. It is made of a mixture of cotton, acrylic and polyester.

A. Fine, thank you very much for your attention and your time.

B. Please, don’t worry! Everything will be all right.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key-words and expressions from the unit.

 

TEXT C

I Mind the following words:

1. city-state  місто-держава

2. craftsman  майстер

3. to enrich  збагачувати

4. luxurious  розкішний

5. merchant  купець

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. Linen production in England was very important and allowed for creation of rich fabrics.

2. Powerful European kingdoms had a great impact on fashion.

3. Tailors of that time were not so skilled as they are now.

4. The monarchs were the only persons who could afford rich fabrics.

5. One of the ways displaying the power of kings and queens was clothing.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. What role did the textile industry play in the sphere of fashion?

2. How did monarchs treat fashion?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 2 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

  1.  розкішний     a tailor
  2.  пряжка     b shawl
  3.  кравець     c trendsetter
  4.  хрестовий похід   d sewing
  5.  шаль     e increase
  6.  законодавець моди   f significant
  7.  пошиття     g trade
  8.  збільшувати    h luxurious
  9.  значний     i buckle
  10.   торгівля    j crusade

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

  1.  clothes      a. a sewing line joining two pieces of a material
  2.  substitute b. a material made of wool, cotton, etc. used for making garments
  3.  creative      c. things to wear on the body  
  4.  seam     d. producing original ideas
  5.  cloth     e. use something instead of another thing

UNIT 4

fasion history   

part II

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. dressmaker  швачка

2. to reflect  відображати

3. to simplify  спрощувати

4. introduction  впровадження

5. silhouette  силует

6. impact  вплив

7. pattern  викрійка, лекало

8. to allow for  брати до уваги

9. mass-produced          серійного (масового) виробництва

10. ready-to-wear  готовий (одяг)

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. to such an extent that – до такої міри, що

2. power loom (weaving machine)ткацький верстат

3. for the centuries to come – на віки

4. to experience liberty – відчувати свободу

5. at the dawn – на початку

III Read and translate the following text:

Fashion Evolution

Men and women wore very different clothes at the beginning of the eighteenth century than they did at the end. The skill of dressmakers had developed to such an extent that it caused more attention was paid to details and ornaments. Despite the growing skills of tailors dress became simpler. Great changes reflected the political and cultural life during the century including the American and French Revolutions. Throughout Europe and the newly created United States of America people’s attitude about dress changed. No longer the monarchs were the only trendsetters of fashion. Later toward the end of the century clothing styles began to simplify.

During the nineteenth century dress changed a lot. The change was influenced by the introduction of machines to the construction of clothing. Sewing machines, power looms or weaving machines and other inventions increased the productivity of clothing manufacture. While the styles for men at the end of the century laid the foundation that would influence men’s clothing for the centuries to come, the styles for women did not. Women’s fashion began to be influenced by fashion designers, the first being Charles Frederick Worth. And in the coming century women would experience much more liberty and a variety of new styles would emerge to reflect this.

The period of World War I was one of great transitions in the world of fashion. Not only styles for women were changed in their basic silhouette but the very system through which new styles were introduced and popularized also changed. Paris was the center of the world fashion but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines. Social changes especially the increasing liberation of women and the coming of war also had a great impact on fashion.

At the dawn of the twentieth century Paris was the center of the fashion world. Clothing designers from Paris introduced clothing at seasonal shows and sold clothes to the wealthiest people in Europe and the United States. Increasingly, however, these fashions began to reach more and more people. Publishers began to sell pattern books of fashionable clothes that allowed people to make the clothes at home if they were good sewers. Soon department stores which were becoming popular throughout the West also began to sew and sell dresses modelled on the latest Paris fashions.

The introduction of the sewing machine combined with the factory system allowed for the mass production of clothing. Men’s clothing was the first to be mass-produced in a variety of different sizes. This form of clothing was called ready-to-wear. By the first years of the twentieth century ready-to-wear clothing was available to women too.

IV Answer the questions:

1. What changes did dress undergo in the eighteenth century?

2. What did these changes reflect?

3. What inventions in fashion were presented in the nineteenth century?

4. Who was the first fashion designer?

5. How can you characterize the twentieth century in point of fashion?

6. What role in fashion did Paris play at the dawn of the twentieth century?

7. How did publishers influence the spreading of new fashion trends?

8. When did ready-to-wear clothing become available?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. At the beginning of the eighteenth century monarchs were not the only … .

2. Despite the growing skills of dressmakers clothing began … .

3. Such inventions as … , … allowed for the mass production of clothing in the nineteenth century.

4. In the twentieth century publishers began to sell … allowing people to make the clothes at home.

5. In … century ready-to-wear clothing become available to women.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

зміна, уміння, вплив, давати можливість, доступний, виробництво, відображати, з’являтися, винахід, різноманітність.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

ready-to-wear clothing, pattern, dressmaker, weaving machine, clothing manufacture, pattern book, fashion show.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

pattern, ready-to-wear, silhouette, dressmaker, to simplify, sewer, invention.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Незважаючи на майстерність кравців, наприкінці вісімнадцятого століття дизайн одягу спрощувався.

2. У двадцятому столітті Париж став центром світової моди. Тут проводились сезонні покази мод.

3. З появою швейної машини почалося виробництво готового одягу.

4. На початку двадцятого століття люди могли шити одяг дома за допомогою збірника  викрійок.

5. Такі винаходи дев’ятнадцятого століття як ткацький станок та швейна машина спростили виробництво одягу.

6. Соціальні зміни та наближення війни мали великий вплив на моду.

7. Нові винаходи допомагали прикрашати жіночій одяг.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

dressmaker, to simplify, fashion designer, invention, to emerge, pattern book, ready-to-wear clothing, mass production, social changes, introduction, seasonal shows, to reflect.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. gambling  азартна гра

2. ambassador  посол

3. empress  імператриця

4. luxurious  розкішний

5. to trim  прикрашати

6. fringe  бахрома

7. braid  тасьма

8. tassel  китиця

9. pleat  складка

10. bulk  велика кількість

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Charles Frederick Worth Industrializes Fashion

Though born and raised in England, Charles Frederick Worth became the first world famous French fashion designer. He was also the first to create and employ the principles of design and fashion that would be called haute couture” or “high fashion”. Worth not only designed clothes for much of European nobility and many American millionaires, he also introduced many modern changes in the ways clothing was designed, made and sold.

Worth was born in 1825 in Lincolnshire, in the east of England. His father was a lawyer who had lost most of his money gambling, so young Charles was forced to go out to work when he was only eleven. He worked for many years at a department store, then at the company that sold fabrics. Through his sales experience he learned about what women wanted and needed in clothing and fashion. He wished to become a dress designer, so at the age of twenty he began to work at the fabric enterprise in Paris, where he could study design. There the introduced his first new idea of offering dress design to customers at the fabric company. For the first time ladies could get the whole dress, design and fabric at the same location.

Before Worth began his design career, dresses had been made by dressmakers and designs had been created by the customer and the dressmaker, who got ideas from looking at pictures of popular dresses. Worth was one of the first designers to come up with his own ideas, based on his knowledge of women's needs. Soon he started his own company. The wife of the Austrian ambassador bought a dress from Worth that attracted the notice of the Empress of France. Worth became the court designer and was soon making dresses for the royalty of Russia, Italy, Spain and Austria. Famous and wealthy Americans such as the Vanderbilts and the Astors also came to the House of Worth for special gowns, making Worth the first celebrity fashion designer.

Worth used beautiful and luxurious fabrics for his dresses and he trimmed them with rich decoration such as fringe, lace, braid and tassels made of pearls. His many important contributions to design included an ankle-length walking skirt, shockingly short for its time, and the princess gown, a waistless dress that hung straight in the front while draping in full pleats in the back.

However more significant Worth's contributions were to fashion as an industry. He was the first designer who used living women as models, and the first who held fashion shows for revealing his new designs to customers. He also began to make high fashion more widely available by selling his designs not only to individual customers but also to other dressmakers, clothing manufacturers and to the newly invented department stores. Another introduction Worth made was the practice of mass-producing parts of a piece of clothing, then putting them together in different ways. For example, a certain type of sleeve could be produced in a bulk quantity and then used on several different types of dresses to produce a different look each time.

Worth's ideas came at the time when clothing factories and department stores were new developments, and they created a new concept in fashion called “ready-to-wear” clothing. For the first time people could simply go to a store and buy fashionable clothes. Charles Worth died in 1895, but his sons continued to operate his successful fashion house for many years.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. Was Charles Frederick Worth the first to employ the principles of design?

2. Who were the clients of Worth?

3. What was Worth’s childhood like?

4. What idea did he introduce in Paris?

5. How were dresses made before Worth’s career?

6. How did he become the court designer?

7. What fabrics did Frederick Worth use for his dresses?

8. What were his contributions to design?

9. How did Worth make high fashion more available?

VII Practise reading dialogues with your partner.

1)

A. I’d like to have a look at some fashionable coat.

B. We’ve got a big range of coats, fur-coats, and rain-coats.

A. Are they in light colours?

B. Most of the articles are in natural colours. The price has been recently reduced because we have a seasonal sale now. You see, it’s a wool it’s made of.

A. I like it. May I try it on?

B. Of course, you may. What’s your size?

A. It’s 46. Is my size available at your shop?

B. Yes, it’s available. Please, try it on.

A. And how much does it cost?

B. It costs 1000 gr.

A. What would you advice me to do?

B. Of course, to buy!

2) 

A. Well, anyone can be well dressed.

B. Do you mean dressing well is easy?

A. I mean it is quite possible. You should simply spend time and money wisely.

A. Dressing well is certainly an art.

B. Sure, it is. The art of dressing well requires experience and style.

A. And one of the main guidelines is to feel comfortable, isn’t it?

B. Certainly, it is. Comfort is the first priority factor in dressing.

A. So, dressing well is not such an easy thing as it may seem and it may be the subject of research.

B. How could you manage it, I wonder?

A. We met most of the best dressed people and they told us how they managed to do it.

B. Oh, it is very interesting.

TEXT C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. fashion trend            модна тенденція

2. nobleman  дворянин

3. doll  лялька

4. fashion plate     сторінка мод

5. Parisian printer – паризький друкар

6. engraving  гравюра

 

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. Fashion trends were set up by the middle class.

2. Tailors went round the country with life-sized dolls to spread new trends.

3. The first fashion magazines appeared in London.

4. Fashion plates are illustrations of the latest clothing.

5. Nowadays fashion magazines are not so popular as they were in the seventeenth century.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How did fashion trends spread around the country in the seventeenth century?

2. What are fashion plates?

REVIEW ASSINGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 3 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

  1.  trim     a складка
  2.  ready-to-wear    b модний
  3.  pattern    c мереживо
  4.  to simplify   d бахрома
  5.  sewing machine   e спрощувати
  6.  fashionable    f лекало, викрійка
  7.  fringe     g готовий
  8.  pleat    h покупець
  9.  customer    i швейна машина
  10.   lace     j прикрашати

ІІІ Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

  1.  outfit     a. a fine or special sort of clothes
  2.  attire     b. an outer garment worn by a woman
  3.  garment     c. a clothing needed for a particular purpose
  4.  apparel     d. a formal dress, clothing
  5.  dress    e. an article of clothing

UNIT 5

DESIGN ELEMENTS

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. to constitute  складати

2. digital  цифровий

3. width  ширина

4. thickness  товщина

5. wavy  хвилястий

6. wheel  колесо

7. surface  поверхня

8. to describe  описувати

9. to measure  вимірювати

10. value  тон, насиченість

ІІ Read and remember the following phrases:

1. visual design – візуальний дизайн

2. piece of art – витвір мистецтва

3. type of space – види простору

4. to draw attention – звертати увагу

5. continuous movement – безперервний рух

6. complementary colours – кольори, що поєднуються

ІІІ Read and translate the following text:

Design Elements

Design elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design. The elements form the vocabulary of the design, while the principles constitute the broader structural aspects of its composition.

The elements of design play an important role in the creation and success of a piece of art, whether it’s for outdoor, indoor, digital or print medium. These elements are: space, line, colour, shape, texture, form, value.

Space may have two dimensions or in other words flat (length and width), such as a floor. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the open space around the subject matter.

Shape is an area enclosed by lines. Shapes are two-dimensional or in other words flat.

Shapes in house decor and interior design can be used to add interest, style, theme to a design like a door. Shape in interior design depends on the function of the object like a kitchen cabinet door. Natural shapes forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior design. In a landscape, natural shapes, such as trees contrast with geometric such as houses.

Line is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Line is the basic element of art that refers to the continuous movement of a point along a surface, such as a pencil or brush. Every line has length, thickness, and direction. There are curve, horizontal, vertical, diagonal, zig-zag, wavy, parallel, dash, and dotted lines.

Colour is the most expressive element of art and is seen by the way light reflects off a surface. Colour can be mixed from red, yellow, and blue, can be combined to make new colours, can be mixed for intensity and value, can express moods and feelings, can be warm or cool, can give the illusion of distance.

Colour, and particularly contrasting colour is also used to draw attention to a particular part of the image.

There are primary colours, secondary colours, and tertiary colours.

Primary colours consist of red, blue, and yellow. Secondary – of orange, purple, and green. Secondary colour is made by mixing two primary colours on either sides of the colour wheel. Tertiary colours consist of red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. Tertiary colours are made by mixing a primary and secondary colour. Complimentary colours are colours that are opposite to each other on the colour wheel. They are used to create contrast.

Warm colours are a group of colours that remind us of warm places and things. Such are red, yellow, and orange. For example fire, sun and fireworks. Cool colours are group of colours that remind us of cool places and things such as purple, green and blue: ice, cool sky blue, and the sea.

Texture can be real or simulated, can form a surface, can be natural or man-made, can be affected by lighting conditions.

Form is any three dimensional object. Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height) side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). There are two types of forms, geometric and natural. Form may be created by combining of two or more shapes.

Value is an element of art that refers to the relationship between light and dark on a surface or object. It gives objects depth and perception. Value is also referred to as tone.

These elements are used to create the principles of design.

ІV Answer the questions:

1. What elements of design do you know?

2. Why is colour the most expressive element of graphic design?

3. What is the role of shape?

4. What can line create?

5. What do we use to draw attention to a particular part of the image?

6. What are primary colours?

7. What colours are called secondary colours?

8. How do you create contrast?

9. What gives the objects depth and perception?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Natural ... forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior design.

2. There are curve, horizontal, vertical, ... , ... , ... , ... , ... , and dotted lines.

3. There are primary colours, ... colours, and ... colours.

4. Form is any three ... object.

5. ... is also referred to as tone.

VI Find English equivalents to the words:

описувати, довжина, форма, поверхня, створювати, змішувати, відображати, теплий, прохолодний, відстань.

VII Make up the sentences with the terms:

element of design, space, shape, line, colour, value, texture.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

line, texture, form, shape, colour, contrast.

IX Translate the sentences into English.

1. Елементи та принципи дизайну використовуються для створення витворів мистецтва.

2. Кожний малюнок містить в собі майже усі елементи дизайну.

3. Існують криві, горизонтальні, вертикальні, діагональні, хвилясті, паралельні та інші лінії.

4. Колір може бути застосований до будь-якого іншого елементу.

5. Теплі кольори нагадують нам про літо, відпочинок та сонце.

6. Єдність – це візуальне поєднання різних елементів малюнка.

7. Горизонтальні лінії дають відчуття спокою та стабільності.

8. Лінії ділять простір, направляють око та створюють форми.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

elements of design, creating a work of art, line, shape, texture, colour, space, form.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. placement  розташування

2. trait  риса

3. brain  мозок

4. to involve  залучати

5. plant  рослина

6. to achieve  досягати

7. similar  подібний

8. furniture  меблі

9. wallpaper  шпалери

10. to incorporate  включати в себе

ІІ Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Design Principles

The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. Principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.

Awareness of the elements and principles in design is the first step in creating successful visual compositions.

These principles are used in all visual design fields, including graphic design, industrial design, architecture and fine art.

Balance is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, and colour. Objects, values, colours, textures, shapes, forms, can be used in creating a balance in a composition. Balance is the weighted relationship between the visual elements.

Harmony – brings together a composition with similar units, it is the unity of all visual elements. Harmony in design is similarity of the components.

Harmony is achieved through the sensitive balance of variety and unity. Harmony is when some or many of the components such as furniture, drapes in a room share a common trait or two. A common trait could be: colour, shape, texture, material, theme, size, or functionality. For example a drapery could share the same colour that is on a pillow or wallpaper. The human brain usually likes design harmony.

Proportion is the ratio of one part of the composition to another. Proportion involves the relationship of size between the objects.

Proportion also depends on functionality of object. For the best proportion between a room and furniture, the sizes of furniture depends on the size of the room.

In interior design, proportions like the floor to ceiling may be used to obtain good visual appeal, functionality in home design.  

Repetition is the use of an element or elements more than one time in a single composition. Any element that occurs is generally echoed, often with some variation to keep interest.

For example, placing four plant pots in a row and evenly spaced apart on a floor produces an organized look.

Unity is the organization of elements and principles into a whole. It is achieved by the use of balance, repetition and harmony. Two objects like living room and dining room can be unified by giving similar features like a hardwood floor design.

Unity helps the objects like furniture look like these belongs together.

The principles of design are as varied as attitudes regarding modern design. They differ both between the schools of thought that influence design, and between individual designers. Successful design incorporates the use of the principles and elements to serve the designer’s purpose and visual goals. There are no rules for their use.  

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.         

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions:

1. What are the principles of design?

2. What is the first step in creating successful visual compositions?

3. Where do we use these principles?

4. How can be balance determined?

5. How can one achieve harmony?

6. Why is proportion important?

7. What is repetition?

8. How is unity achieved?

VII Practice reading the dialogue with your partner:

  •  What are you busy with?
    •  I’m reading the text about elements and principles of design.
    •  Are this knowledge important for solving design problems?
    •  Yes, of course. This knowledge and the ability to apply it are assentional for foundamental designing.
    •  Does the organization of these elements and principles help to ensure the quality of design that satisfies the needs and desires of a client?
    •  Yes. All of these, including colour and light help the designer to create our visually pleasing environment. The creator of a well-planed and well-executed design is able to analyze the use of space, line, shape and mass, texture, light, colour, and pattern.

VIII Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  to mention згадувати
  2.  to recall  пригадувати
  3.  chance шанс, можливість
  4.  to catch упіймати 
  5.  a sign  знак 
  6.  warning  застереження, попередження
  7.  mourning  жалоба  
  8.  a shade відтінок 
  9.  to cheer  радувати 
  10.  to pull from         видаляти 

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Even when you recall clothes you wore years ago, colour often comes to mind.
  2.  Colour does not have cultural value.
  3.  Stop lights, fire engines, and fire call boxes are often bright yellow.
  4.  Black is the colour of innocence.
  5.  Bright colours are thought to make people feel happy or talkative.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1.  What is the first mentioned thing while describing another person?

2.  Why is colour so important?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 4 to be checked up.

II Match the words and word-combinations:

1  a chance     a)  відтінок  

2  magnificent    b)  безсумнівна віра

3  unquestioning faith   c)  лінійна перспектива

4  satisfying effect    d)  шанс, можливість

5  a shade     e)  якість поверхні

6  juxtaposition    f)  створення витвору мистецтва

7  tranquillity    g)  спокій

8  surface quality    h)  задовільний ефект

9  linear perspective   i)  блискучий

10 creating a work of art   j)  розташування

III Match the definitions:

1  industrial design   a. someone who designs clothing

2  sewing machine       b. conforming to fashion; in vogue

3  fashionable  c. leading establishments or designers for the creation of exclusive fashions

4 fashion designer  d. art or practice of designing any object for manufacture

5 haute couture  e. machine for sewing, often having additional attachments for special stitching

UNIT 6

costume design

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. accessories  аксесуари

2. to revamp  перероблювати

3. personality  індивідуальна особливість

4. set  група акторів

5. to ensure  гарантувати
6.
to integrate  складати єдине ціле

7. conformity  відповідність, схожість

8. to distinguish  розрізняти між

9. character  дійова особа (п’єси)

10. jewellery  коштовності, ювелірні вироби

11. props  реквізит

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. to make statement – справити враження

2. creative collaboration – творча співпраця

3. lighting designer – художник освітлення

4. in one's own right – по праву

5. rough sketch – ескіз

6. set designer – художник-декоратор

7. potential costume challenges – можливі проблеми з костюмом

III Read and translate the following text:

The Work of a Designer

Costume designers create the look of each character by designing clothes and accessories the actors will wear in performance. Depending on their style and complexity, costumes may be made, bought, revamped out of existing stock or rented. Their designs need to reflect faithfully the personalities of the characters in the script. The shapes, colours and textures that a costume designer chooses make an immediate and powerful visual statement to the audience. Creative collaboration among the costume designer, the director, the set and lighting designers ensures that the costumes are smoothly integrated into the production as a whole.

Stage costumes can provide audiences with information about a character's occupation, social status, gender, age, sense of style and tendencies towards conformity or individualism. As well costumes can:

-  reinforce the mood and style of the production

-  distinguish between major and minor characters

-  suggest relationships between characters

-  change an actor's appearance

-  suggest changes in character development and age

-  be objects of beauty in their own right.

Costume designs also need to include any accessories such as canes, hats, gloves, shoes, jewellery or masks. These costume props add a great deal of visual interest to the overall costume design. They are often the items that truly distinguish one character from another.

Costume designers begin their work by reading the script to be produced. If the production is set in a specific historical era the fashions of this period will need to be researched. To stimulate the flow of ideas at the first meeting with the director and the design team (set, costume, lighting and sound designers) the costume designer may present a few rough costume sketches. This is also an appropriate time to check with the director on the exact number of characters requiring costumes. It is the costume designer's responsibility to draw up the costume plot. The costume plot is a list or chart that shows which characters appear in each scene, what they are wearing and their overall movement throughout the play. This helps to track the specific costume needs of every character. It can also identify any potential costume challenges, such as very quick changes between scenes. When the director and production team have approved the costume designer's preliminary sketches she or he can draw up the final costume designs. The final designs are done in full colour. They show the style, silhouette, textures, accessories and unique features of each costume. Once the show opens the designer's work is essentially complete. Now it's normally for the job of a wardrobe assistant to be sure that every aspect of the production runs just as the designer intended.

IV Answer the questions:

1. What is the essence of costume designer’s work?

2. What is the main task of a stage costume?

3. What can we get to know from the costume?

4. How do costume props help the overall design?

5. How does costume designer’s work start?

6. What is a costume plot?

7. How do final designs look?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … such as hats, masks, gloves, etc. are very important for costume design.

2. Before starting his work a designer should know the number of … .

3. … shows the overall movement throughout the play.

4. When the show opens the work of … starts.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

вистава, попередній, проблема, брати напрокат, забезпечувати, зовнішній вигляд, загальний, сценарій, придатний, інвентар.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

costume designer, costume props, rough sketch, costume plot, lighting designer, visual statement, accessories.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

jewellery, sketch, accessories, to revamp, visual, to distinguish, fashion.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Художник по костюмам працює разом з художником-декоратором, художником освітлення, групою акторів та режисером.

2. Аксесуари допомагають створити завершений образ акторів.

3. Художник по костюмам повинен передбачити всі можливі проблеми з костюмом.

4. З костюму ми можемо дізнатися про вік, соціальний статус, професію та смак героя.

5. Робота художника по костюмам починається з вивчення сценарію.

6. Після того як режисер схвалить попередні ескізи костюмів, художник по костюмам може створювати остаточний дизайн.

7. Остаточний дизайн відображає стиль, силует, аксесуари та особливості кожного костюму.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

costume designer, rough sketch, accessories, creative collaboration, to provide, final design, costume challenges, performance, character, to integrate, to reflect, costume props, costume plot.

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. brand-new  абсолютно новий

2. niche  ніша

3. chainmail – кольчуга

4. rivet  зáклепка

5. pliers  щипці

6. audacity  сміливість

7. to expel  виключати (з якої-небудь організації)

8. “Chambre Syndicale” – франц. профспілка підприємців

9. freelance  позаштатний

10. coup  вдалий хід

11. to succumb  піддаватися

12. mauve  рожево-бузковий

II Read the text and define the main ideaof it:

The World Famous Designers

Paco Rabanne.Don’t seduce, shock!” was the motto of fashion designer Paco Rabanne. He radically broke with the past which Dior had so successfully revived. For Rabanne the future meant brand-new materials.

He found his niche when he began designing plastic jewelry. His next step led to independence: in February 1966 Rabanne showed 12 “unwearable dresses” made of plastic disks and in September he presented his first garments made of aluminum with leather and ostrich feather trimming.

In the 1960s his futuristic metal dresses became to show business celebrities what white satin dresses had been to the Hollywood sirens of the 1930s.

Every modern girl wore Paco Rabanne’s chainmail, which was stitched not with thread and needle but with hooks, rivets and pliers.

Paco Rabanne has never gave up his experiments with unusual materials.

Pierre Cardin. Following Dior’s triumphant success with the “New Look” which overnight reestablished Paris as the fashion capital of the world, the city was gripped by gold fever. In 1951 Pierre Cardin showed his first collection. Since he had little starting capital, the collection was restricted to 50 coats and suits. His designs were an overwhelming success precisely because Cardin had avoided any imitation of the two most influential fashion geniuses of the period, Dior and Balenciaga.

Cardin, a marketing genius, is known as the fashion designer with the greatest number of licenses worldwide. Yet he is also one of the most innovative couturiers. In1958 he designed the first unisex collection, which united men and women in a joint lifestyle statement.

He had the audacity to be the first couturier to produce a ready-made collection. As a result he was expelled by the strict “Chambre Syndicale”. But even the latter soon had to accept that nothing would stop the American ready-to-wear concept from invading the motherland of fashion. It was swiftly named prêt-à-porter, thus allowing couturiers to choose whether they wished to use this avenue to make moneyand allowing Cardin to return.

Karl Lagerfeld. The conclusions which Karl Lagerfeld drew in the 1960s from the signs of the times were quite different from those drawn by Courrèges, Cardin and others. While Lagerfeld's contemporaries saw the future in the space-age look, he put his money on the replacement of couture by ready-to-wear. And, instead of devoting himself to his own couture house, he worked as a freelance designer.

He first found fame at “Chloé” where he started to work in 1963, remaining there for 20 years.

In 1965 he began to design fur collections for the Fendi sisters in Rome and today he іs responsible for all their collections. However his greatest coup has been the revitalization оf the legendary Chanel style.

Emanuel Ungaro. Emanuel Ungaro began his career as an independent couturier. His early collections featured severe combinations of blazer and shorts.

He soon developed his own style which was based on a bold mix of colours and patterns. Flowers on checks or stripes with large polka dots in bright colours are typical of Ungaro, who never succumbed to the pessimistic tendencies which took hold of some other designers.

Ungaro does not sketch his designs but works directly with the fabric on the body of a model – for up to 12 hours a day, always with the inspiration of classical music.

The Italian Ferragamo group took over the running of his business in 1996, while keeping Ungaro as the undisputed creative head of the organization. In 1999 he showed a modernized version of hippie fashion: long, frilly, floral skirts with cropped tops in matte mauve and beaded, chiffon pants worn with feather-light jackets or fur-trimmed stoles.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions:

1. What materials does Paco Rabanne use in his work?

2. What is the most famous Rabanne’s garment?

3. When did Pierre Cardin show his first collection?

4. What did his collection consist of?

5. Who designed the first unisex collection?

6. What does prêt-à-porter mean?

7. Did Karl Lagerfeld work as an independent designer?

8. Who was a revitalizer of Chanel style?

9. What are the features of Emanuel Ungaro style?

10. How does Ungaro create his designs?

VII Study Figure1:

Figure1. Executive separates.

VIII Answer the questions:

1. What do you think of clothes like these?

2. Would you like to have them in your wardrobe?

3. If so, where would you wear them?

4. In what colour combinations would you like to have the separates? Explain why?

5. Do you like to wear separates? Why?

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT C

I Mind the following words:

1. piecemeal  частково

2. director  режисер

3. actor-manager     актор-антрепренер

4. to unionize  об’єднатися у профспілку

5. touring  гастролі

6. cohesive  цільний

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. The profession of a costume designer emerged in the Middle Ages.

2. Before the twentieth century actors travelled with their own costumes.

3. The first union members were costume designers.

4. In 1836 costume designers were recognized as a separate specialty.

5. Film designers appeared just for making films more cohesive.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How did the speciality of a costume designer appear?

2. What were the reasons for film designers to emerge?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 5 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1 to achieve    a) включати в себе

2 digital    b) відтінок

3 value    c) форма

4 space    d) цифровий

5 shape    e) простір

6 placement    f) вимірювати

7 to incorporate   g) досягати

8 shade    h) тон, насиченість

9 texture    i) форма

10 to measure   j) розташування

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 complementary colours a) planning and realization of the layout, furnishing

    and decoration of an architectural interior

2 visual design   b) a medium that spreads printed matter

3 primary colours   c) colours that are directly opposite each other on

    the colour wheel

4 print medium d) colours from which it is possible to mix all the other colours of the spectrum

5 interior design e) design forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature

UNIT 7

THEATRICAL COSTUME

Text A

I Listen and learn the following words:

  1.  foundations   основи
  2.  revelry  веселощі  
  3.  conventions    стилі
  4.  high-soled shoes     взуття на високій підошві
  5.  ecclesiastical  церковний
  6.  scenery  декорації
  7.  contemporary  сучасний, повсякденний
  8.  breastplate  нагрудний знак
  9.  draperies  драпіроване вбрання
  10.  character персонаж

II Read and learn the following phrases:

  1.  character recognition – впізнавання персонажу
  2.  mystery plays – вистава з містичним змістом
  3.  historical accuracy – історична точність
  4.  to reflect on the stage відображати на сцені
  5.  authentic costume – аутентичний костюм 

III Read and translate the following text:

Theatrical Costume

Western theater tradition has its foundations in the Greek celebrations honouring Dionysus, the god of wine and revelry. The traditional costume for Greek tragedy consisted of a long tunic, a stylized mask for character recognition, and a pair of high-soled shoes. All of these garments were exclusively for theatrical use. One cannot act the hero in everyday wear. Short tunics, much like those worn by ordinary citizens, were thought appropriate to comedy.

The costume conventions established by the Greeks essentially remained the same until the fall of the Roman Empire, when Western theatre disappeared for eight hundred years.

From the fifth century mystery plays, which depicted the lives of the saints, were increasingly performed both inside the church and on church grounds. Then they moved to the market squares. Costumes worn in the early religious dramas were ecclesiastical garments.

It was during the Renaissance that scenery and costume came to be even more important than the text. Costumes depicted gods, animals, and mythological creatures, as well as emotions.

Costumes for Shakespeare's plays were a mixture of various periods. Most parts were performed in contemporary dress either owned by the actor or provided by the theater. A helmet or breastplate indicated a soldier. Fairies and nymphs might wear classical draperies.

The same principles were applied to costume in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries. Most actors and especially actresses dressed as fashionably as possible. A turban indicated an Eastern character. A helmet signified a soldier. Performers provided their own wardrobe with the exception of special items provided by the theater.

The period between the 1770s and the 1870s saw a drive toward historical accuracy in costume design. Travelling became relatively easier, written reports and exhibitions increased people's knowledge of other cultures. They wanted what they saw and read about to be reflected on the stage.

Theaters used every available resource to create authentic costumes for actors. This new realistic style greatly influenced Paris and Moscow theaters.

Nowadays, theatrical costumes are designed to support the script. If realism or historicism is central to the text, the costumes will accurately reflect the clothing appropriate to the period or to the environment. Costumes for the theater have special requirements in fit, colour and effect. Garments must allow the performer's body to move easily and be well made. For example, costumes of professional actors and dancers often receive hard wear. Constant use or vigorous movement for dancers, circus clowns, and acrobats can put a strain on garments, thus requiring sturdy fabrics and specific construction. When many viewers see costumes from afar, colours or other aspects of design may be exaggerated for effect. Some colours, therefore, may be more bold or brilliant than choices for everyday dress. Such choices depend on the interpretation of the costume designer in planning the outfit for each performer's individual role and for the interaction among the performers.

           

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What was the traditional costume for Greek tragedy?
  2.  When did the costume and scenery come to be even more important than the text?
  3.  What did costumes depict during the Renaissance?
  4.  Could you describe the costumes for Shakespeare’s plays?
  5.  When did realistic style become popular?
  6.  What did actors and actresses wear in the 17th and 18th centuries?
  7.  Are modern theatrical costumes designed to support the script?
  8.  What are special requirements for theatrical costumes?
  9.  How should colours be used in costumes for actors and dancers?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text.

  1.  Dionysus is the god of … .
  2.  The costume conventions established by Greeks remained the same until … .
  3.  Plays, which depicted the lives of the saints, were performed inside … … .
  4.  A helmet or breastplate indicated … .
  5.  They wanted what they saw and read about to be reflected on … .

VI Find the English equivalent to the words:

святкування; п’єса; модний; історична творчість; стилізована маска; відображати на сцені; підходящий, відповідний.

VII Make up sentences with the words:

tragedy, mask, garments, costume, to perform, theater, stage, to create

VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

comedy, tragedy, theatrical costume, culture, actor

IX Translate the sentences into English:  

  1.  Традиційний костюм для грецької трагедії складався з туніки та    стилізованої маски.
    1.  В середні віки в п’єсах зображувалось життя святих.
    2.  В період Ренесансу костюми були важливішi ніж текст.
    3.  В ХІХ столітті історична точність була важливою для театрального   костюму.
    4.  В наш час костюми точно відображають історичний період та середовище.
    5.  Іноді колір театрального костюму повинен бути більш яскравим, ніж колір повсякденного одягу.
    6.  Шекспірівські п’єси грали в повсякденному одязі.
    7.  В 18 столітті актори використовували одяг зі свого гардеробу, окрім деяких  речей, якими забезпечував театр.
    8.  Театральний костюм повинен дозволяти актору вільно рухатись.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

Greek tragedy, theatrical costume, everyday dress, costumes provided by the theater, to reflect on the stage, special requirements, specific construction, viewers, to plan the outfit, bold colours.

Text B

I Read and remember:

1. elaborate  вишуканий

2. laced corset       зашнурований корсет

3. beads  намистинки

4. chemise  жіноча сорочка

5. slashed sleeves      рукава з прорізом

6. petticoat  нижня спідниця

7. farthingales  круги, які тримають спідницю

8. relevant   відповідний

9. rehearsal leotards – тренувальне трико

10. tutu   пачка балерини

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Dance Costume

The relationship between dance and dance costumes is complex and does not simply reflect dance practice in a specific period, but also social behaviour and cultural values. Dance costumes can be divided into the following categories: historical, folk or traditional, ballroom, modern and musical dance costumes. Influence has spread from fashion to dance and back again.

From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, festivities at European courts required highly elaborate dance costumes.

The style of court dance costumes tended to be similar to everyday dress of the period, for example, laced corsets, puffed and slashed sleeves, farthingales with skirts and applied decoration. In the early twenty-first century, the reproduction of historical dance costumes was evident in the activities of historical dance organizations, such as the Institute for Historical Dance Practice in Belgium.

From the fifteenth century onward, folk dance developed in Europe. The field of European folk-dance costumes is very complex, as each of the country's regions has its own dances, dress, and customs. Eastern European folk dances, such as czardas, mazurka, and polka, soon spread to England and France. Folk-dance costumes reflected the East European look in the use of bright colours on dark backgrounds. Costumes were often highly decorated with beads, metal, and silk threads. The basic women's dress was a short, light-coloured chemise and a petticoat, over which several layers of fabric were worn.

From the early nineteenth century, ballroom dances were taken up by a broad public, and special evening dresses were designed to fit these occasions. The waltz, fox-trot, polka, mazurka, and Viennese waltz required an elegant style. By the twentieth century, dance costumes for the tango, swing, charleston, rumba, bolero, cha-cha-cha, mambo, and samba were more revealing.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Isadora Duncan's natural movements on stage characterized a new era for dance. Free-flowing costumes and loose hair permitted a great freedom of dance movement. After World War I, avant-garde choreographers reformed and liberalized traditional dance and its costumes. Moving away from traditional ballet techniques, modern dance gave rise to a new era of costuming. Costumes and makeup took on a unisex look as choreographers felt it less relevant to differentiate female and male dancers. In 1934, neoclassical dance choreographer George Balanchine was the first to dress ballet dancers in rehearsal clothes for public performances. The costumes were almost always black and white.

Martha Graham replaced the traditional ballet tunics of male dancers and the folk dress and tutus of female dancers with straight, often dark and long shirts or rehearsal leotards.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What are the main categories of dance costumes?

2. Why is the field of folk-dance costume very complex?

3. How were European folk-dance costumes decorated?

4. What kind of ballroom dances required an elegant style of dress?

5. How did choreographers change traditional dance and costumes after World War I?

6. What did George Balanchine do in 1934?

7. What is the role of costume in dance?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

  1.  What are the main steps of theatrical costume creation?
  2.  First of all, read the play for which you are designing costumes. Make special notes of the time period of the play as well as any occupation of characters that may require a specific type of costume.
  3.  Then goes the process of sketching the costumes, doesn’t it?
  4.  You are right. You will need to create one sketch per costume. There may be multiple sketches for a single character if a costume change is required.
  5.  Once the sketches are complete, you will need to find fabric samples for each costume piece, don’t you?
  6.  Certainly. For example, for a sketch of a man's work costume, you will need a swatch for the shirt, tie, and trousers. Attach these swatches to the actual sketch you created. Then lay the sketches side by side and view the overall colouring effect.
  7.  By the way, what is the role of colour in theatrical costumes?
  8.  It is generally advisable to keep a single character within the same colour scheme throughout the play. It makes the character more easily recognizable to the audience.
  9.  Don't you think all the costumes will look identical?
  10.  No. Clothes are as diverse in the theatrical world as they are in real life.  

 

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  to conquer завоювати  
  2.  to emerge виникати
  3.  vendor  торговець
  4.  dance tights       лосини
  5.  wristlets  браслет
  6.  headband  пов’язка на голову
  7.  vice verse           навпаки

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. In the 18th century stage costumes were based on everyday-dress design.

2. Costumes for musical “My Fair Lady” didn’t surprise the audience.

3. Aerobic and dance outfits became popular on stage, but not in everyday life.

4. A musical-comedy genre emerged in London from the 1880s.

5. Dance tights, leggings, headbands spread from stage to fashion and vice versa.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  Where did ballad operas and comic operas emerge in the 18th century?
    1.  What kind of outfits became popular in 1975?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 6 to be checked up.

II Match the words (word combinations):

1 set designer              a) реквізит

2 lighting designer   b) зовнішній вигляд

3 props                           c) творча співпраця

4 creative collaboration     d) готовий одяг

5 character                           e) проблемa, складність

6 appearance                    f) художник освітлення    

7 ready-to-wear                  g) художник-декоратор

8 create                           h) дійова особа (п’єси)

9 challenge                        i) відображати

10 reflect                              j) ствоpювати

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 director          a) style in clothes, cosmetics, behaviour, etc., especially the latest or most admired style

2 costume     b) rough or unfinished drawing or painting

3 fashion             c) person responsible for the artistic and technical aspects of making a film or television programme

4 performance      d) set of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion

5 sketch             e) presentation, especially a theatrical one, before an audience

UNIT 8

SCENIC DESIGN

Text A

I Listen and learn the following words:

  1.  set  декорація 
  2.  rendering  виконання, інтерпретація
  3.  propmaster – реквізитор 
  4.  drafting  креслення 
  5.  in regard        по відношенню до
  6.  foreman  майстер цеху
  7.  plaster  штукатур 
  8.  welder  зварювальник 

II Read and learn the following phrases:

  1.  set designer – дизайнер декорацій, декоратор
  2.  set construction – конструювання декорацій
  3.  scale models – масштабні моделі
  4.  scale construction drawings – масштабні ескізи
  5.  stage picture – постановча картина
  6.  visually appealing – візуально привабливий
  7.  production manager – режиссер- постановник
  8.  scene shop – сценічна майстерня

III  Read and translate the following text:

Scenic Design

Scenic design (also known as stage design, set design or production design) is the creation of theatrical scenery. Scenic designers have traditionally come from a variety of artistic backgrounds, but nowadays, generally speaking, they are professionals, often with degrees in theatre arts.

The ‘stage picture’ is the ‘look’ or physical appearance of the stage for a play, whether in rehearsal or performance. It reflects the way that the stage is composed artistically in regard to actors, shapes and colours. The stage picture should express good principles of design and use of space. It should be visually appealing for the audience or should express the show's concept. The stage picture is also crucial for the creation of atmosphere for the audience.

The scenic designer is responsible for collaborating with the theatre director and other members of the production design team to create an environment for the production and then communicating the details of this environment to the technical director (production manager), charge scenic artist and propmaster. Scenic designers are responsible for creating scale models of the scenery, renderings, paint elevations and scale construction drawings as part of their communication with other production staff.

In Europe and Australia scenic designers take a more holistic approach to theatrical design and will often be responsible not only for scenic design but costume, lighting and sound, and are referred to as theatre designers or scenographers, or production designers.

Like their American colleagues, European theatre designers and scenographers are generally trained with Bachelor of Arts degrees in theatre design, scenography or performance design.

Set construction is a process by which a set designer works in collaboration with the director of the production to create the set for a theatrical, film or television production. The set designer produces a scale model, scale drawings, paint elevations and research about props, textures, and so on. Models and paint elevations are generally hand-produced, though in recent years, many designers and most commercial theatres have begun producing scale drawings on computer drafting programs.

                                        

The technical director or production manager is the person responsible for evaluating the finished designs and considering budget and time limitations. He or she looks through the scenery, reworks it for building, budgets time, crew and materials. Technical directors often have assistant technical directors who help them in their work.

Day-to-day matters such as absences, breaks, tool repair are the concern of scene shop workers. The staff of a scene shop is usually referred to as scenic carpenters. Scenic painting is a separate aspect of scenic construction, although the scenic painter usually answers to the technical director.

There is also usually another person often referred to as Jack of all trades. He or she doesn't specialize in a particular aspect of construction, but is skilled to some degree in most.

IV Answer the questions:

1. What is scenic design?

2. What is a ‘stage picture’?

3. What should a ‘stage picture’ express?

4. What is a scenic designer responsible for?

5. What are technical director’s duties?

6. How do designers use a computer?

7. What is a technical director responsible for?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  Scenic designers are specialists often with degrees in….
  2.  The stage picture should express good principles of…..
  3.  The scenic designer is responsible for …. with the theatre director and other members of the production design team.
  4.  In Europe scenic designers are often responsible not only for scenic design but ….
  5.  The technical director is responsible for ….

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

декорації, декоратор, макети, візуально привабливий, постановча картина, ескіз, фон, режиссер-постановник

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

stage design, professionals, principles of design, technical director, drawings,

hand-produced, show’s concept

VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

stage picture, scenic designer, scale models, props

IX Translate the sentences into English:

  1.  Дизайнери декорацій часто мають театральну освіту.
  2.  Постановча картина повинна бути візуально привабливою.
  3.  Інколи декоратори відповідальні не лише за дизайн сцени, а й за костюми, освітлення та звук.
  4.  Постановча картина виражає  ідею шоу та створює необхідну атмосферу.
  5.  Дизайнери європейських театрів звичайно мають ступінь бакалавра мистецтв.
  6.  Декоратор повинен співпрацювати з режисером, щоб створити декорації  для театральних вистав або фільмів.
  7.  Режиссер-постановник проектує декорації, підбирає матеріали та команду.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

scenic designer, props, scale models, stage, principles of design, visually appealing, technical director, scene shop, responsible for

                    

Text B

I Read and remember:

  1.  to rely on     покладатися, довіряти
  2.  heighten  підсилювати
  3.  to delineate  окреслювати
  4.  to convey  передавати, виражати
  5.  excessive  надмірний
  6.  exaggerated  перебільшений
  7.  runway  подіум  

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Scenic Makeup

Some ancient theatrical traditions have relied on masks for the creation of visual characters; others have relied on makeup for the same purpose.

Ancient Greek theatre was masked, but later European theatre usually used stage makeup to create characters, heighten facial features, and compensate the effects of stage lighting absence. Until the twentieth century, performers were expected to do their own makeup, as they were expected to supply their own stage costumes. The professional theatrical makeup artist is a modern phenomenon, as is the theatrical costume designer.

Theatrical makeup is inseparable from the act of performance itself. The aim of theatrical makeup is to delineate and enhance the role of a character and to give performers an additional tool for conveying the characters being performed. Stage makeup is often used to create visual stereotypes that will be readily understood by the audience. Stage makeup is usually much more colourful and graphic than ordinary cosmetic makeup. When viewed closely, it can seem excessive and exaggerated, but it works when the performer is on stage being seen at a distance by the audience. Theatrical makeup itself is also heavier, denser, and more strongly coloured than ordinary cosmetics.

For many performers, the act of putting on makeup is an important part of the ritual of preparing for a performance; it allows the performer to move psychologically into the role of the character as the makeup is being applied.

Makeup artists are employed today in a variety of roles, and they often specialize in, for example, theatrical makeup, cinema makeup, fashion photography and runway makeup, or special effects. They typically require years of training and practice to perfect their skills. Social effects makeup is particularly prominent in the world of film, but has also played an important role in the success of many popular Broadway productions.

By the early twenty-first century makeup in different theatrical and fashion genres began to cross previously rigid barriers. The world of film, especially in special effects, has had a profound impact on the development of new techniques of stage makeup, and today theatrical makeup shows up regularly on fashion catwalks as well. Recent fashion shows by Dior and Givenchy, for example, have been notable for their strong sense of theatre. Fashion makeup artists have begun to borrow liberally techniques from traditional stage makeup to create striking new designs. Meanwhile, theatrical makeup is enriched by new developments in film, fashion, photography and other media.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

  1.  Was an Ancient Geek theatre masked?
    1.  Why did European theatre usually use stage make up?
    2.  What is the aim of theatrical makeup?
    3.  What is the difference between stage makeup and ordinary cosmetic makeup?
    4.  Why is makeup very important for many performers?
    5.  How do modern designers use stage makeup?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

- Good evening. Ann!

- Good evening. Mary! This is a small world! How are you?

- Fine, thanks. How are you?

- Life is going its usual way. Thanks.

- Pleased to hear it. Where do you have a seat?

- In the stalls, row C. And where is your seat?

- In the box, close to the stage.

- So you don't have to use opera glasses.

- That's right. What do you think of the play?

- The action develops slowly. Some scenes are dull. The cast is not very good. Do you share my opinion?

- Frankly speaking I do. That happens to be a rather poor performance. Have you been to this theatre before?

- Haven't had a chance, you know. I am here for the first time. I like the hall. It is beautifully decorated. The chairs are comfortable and the chandelier is wonderful. To put it in a nutshell everything here is magnificent but the performance.

- I advise you to see "Othello" by Shakespeare at this theatre. You will be impressed.

- I have been dreaming of seeing any play by Shakespeare. I'll do my best to see "Othello".

- I want to inform you that the best actors are engaged in the performance. The leading man is the famous actor. His name is well-known both in this country and abroad.

- I hope I'll enjoy the performance. The lights are going down.

- We must hurry to the hall. In a minute the curtain will be up.

- See you later.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX  Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT С

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  fashion  show        показ мод
  2.  photographic shoots        фотозйомки
  3.  rely on       покладатися на
  4.  retractable lipstick         помада, що викручується

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  The first retractable lipstick was designed in 1950.
  2.  In the 19th century, theatrical performers did their own makeup.
  3.  During the 20th century the role of the makeup artists remained an anonymous one.
  4.  Makeup artists don’t have specialized skills to create style and image.
  5.  The professional makeup artist is a modern phenomenon.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. What fields do makeup artists work in?

2. Did the concept of ‘makeup artist’ exist until the 20th century?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 7 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1 scenery            a) вишуканий

2 draperies   b) виконувати 

3 character                  c) декорації

4 accuracy     d) драпіроване вбрання

5 breastplate                    e) персонаж

6 exaggerate           f) точність

7 perform                 g) одяг

8 garments            h)перебільшувати  

9 elaborate              i) репетиція

10 rehearsal            j) нагрудний знак 

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 comedy                   a) costume which helps actors to portray characters of the theatrical performance

2 script         b) person who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc

3 theatrical costume   c) a written copy for the use of performers in films and plays

4 culture        d) humour or comic style

5 actor       e) customs, achievements of a particular civilization or group

UNIT 9

INTERIOR DESIGN

 TEXT A

I  Listen and remember the following words:

  1.  thoughtful продуманий, обміркований
  2.  refinement  удосконалення     
  3.  please  робити приємність, радувати 
  4.  rhythm  ритм
  5.  scale масштаб, розмір

II Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  eclectic approach – еклектичний підхід
  2.  preliminary sketch – попередній ескіз
  3.  frank simplicity – щира, відверта простота
  4.  introductory step попередній крок

III Read and translate the following text:

The Home of Ideas  

Interior design is a practice concerned with anything that is founded inside of a space – walls, windows, doors, textures, light, furnishings and furniture. All of these elements are used by interior designers to develop the most functional space for a building's users.

People need space and equipment to make home life convenient and equally important. They need opportunity to express their own preferences and ideals of beauty.

The main principle of design of a modern house is the absence of any concrete style, a mixture of styles, an eclectic approach.

An interior designer is a person who designs interiors around contemporary family needs. “The Home of Ideas” meets our needs directly and takes advantage of technological progress.  There is common practice of beginning home interior design or furniture selection by choosing a “style” on the basis of appearance alone.

Thoughtful planning leads to success. The needs of persons are carefully considered as the first step in planning of attractive environment for living. They need space for a great number of activities and a place to eat and sleep. Designers prepare many preliminary sketches or diagrams to illustrate the vision of interior space. Last come the refinement of the best sketches. Many designers use computer-aided design (CAD) tools to create and better visualize the final product. The occupants’ activities and needs are analyzed, and then the space is zoned and furnished so that the several activities have logical, well-equipped centers. These centers are sensibly located.

In every room, the interior architecture is a determining factor. The furniture group becomes a visual and a focal point for the whole room. The living room is probably the most important “public” and the best decorated place in our home.

Whether the room is large or small, furniture should reflect the same feeling. The furniture in the living room is related to its background and to the space it occupies. This is a result of planning interior space for furniture, then selecting appropriate pieces and placing them well. A great variety of accessories can be chosen to create decorative elements, to suit your taste and to please the people who to come to your place.  

The bedroom is the most important private place in the home. That is why you should design and decorate your bedroom with only your taste to guide you. Each object expresses a purpose and material. There is a basic unifying idea of frank simplicity expressed in the uncomplicated shapes and many plain surfaces.  

The elements of design (space, line, shape, texture, light, colour and pattern) and the principles of design (scale and proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and harmony) form the foundation for all design. The organization of these elements and principles including colour and light helps to ensure a quality design. These elements help the designer to create an interior that is physically and psychologically comfortable and attractive.

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What elements are used by interior designers to develop the most functional space?
  2.  What do people need in apartments?
  3.  What is the main principle of design of a modern house?
  4.  Why is the Home of Ideas called modern?
  5.  What were the first steps in planning the Home of Ideas?
  6.  What does the organization of furniture groups demonstrate?
  7.  Does the furniture group become a visual, focal point for the whole room and why?
  8.  Does the organization of design elements and design principles help to ensure a quality design?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  The elements of design are used by interior designers to develop the ... for a building's users.
  2.  People need space and equipment … convenient and important.
  3.  The occupants’ activities and needs are analyzed, and then the … so that the several activities have logical, well-equipped centers.
  4.  The … becomes a visual, focal point for the whole room.
  5.  A great variety of accessories can be chosen to create … of the living room.
  6.  Each object expresses … .

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:                              

удосконалення, радувати, зручний, важливий, стиль, перевага, ескіз, розміщати,  гармонія, прикрашати, сучасні потреби

VII Make up the sentences with the terms:

interior designer, attention, common practice, furniture groups, occupants’ activities,  well-equipped centers, shape, eclectic approach, focal point, decorated place,  introductory step

VIII Give definitions to the words:

concern, interior architecture, functional space, refinement, rhythm, preferences, preliminary sketches, furnishing, reflect, elements, principles

IX Translate into English:

  1.  Людям потрібен простір та обладнання, щоб зробити домашнє життя зручним.
  2.  Головний принцип дизайну сучасного житла – вiдсутнiсть прив’язки до конкретного стилю – еклектика.
  3.  На першому кроці планування привабливого помешкання дизайнерами дбайливо враховуються потреби людей.
  4.  Багато дизайнерів використовують комп’ютер у своїй роботі.
  5.  Меблі – це домінуючий фактор у кожній кімнаті.
  6.  Організація елементів та принципів дизайну допомагає забезпечити якість дизайну.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

interior design, concern, functional space, furniture, activities, convenient, concrete style, eclectic approach, family needs, technological progress, thoughtful planning, attractive environment, basic principles, well-equipped centers, furniture group, monotony, design elements and principles

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. subtle  незначний   

2. elicit  викликати

3. cheerfulness – бадьорість

4. tint  барви, відтінок

5. wind down  розслабитися, заспокоїтися

6. restful  заспокійливий

7. pattern  зразки

8. scheme  гама

9. lighting fixtures        арматура освітлення

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Colour in Your Home

Without light, there is no colour, so it’s not surprising that even subtle changes in lighting influence the way colours appear.  

The colours you select for your home must look right to your eye. The time of the day and quality of light will change the way colour feels. The interaction between light and colour creates great opportunities for designers.

Researchers have learned that certain colours tend to elicit certain emotions. The psychology of colour and how colour affects human behaviour is a serious course of study at universities.

Red, for instance, associated with heat and fire, energizes and stimulates, it might be a good choice for an exercise room, but not for the bedroom of a hyperactive child. This colour is known to stimulate the appetite so it’s an excellent colour for dining rooms.  

Yellow is associated with sunshine and cheerfulness, it feels bright rather than stimulating and has been noted to increase creativity in people. Yellow is a versatile decorating colour because in its pale tints it becomes almost neutral in effect. Red, orange, and yellow and their variations on the colour wheel are considered warm hues. Green is calming and relaxing like the greenery of a garden. Colouring a room in tints and shades of green can help you wind down, and, when warmed with a little red or orange, give you a fresh outlook. Blue also has a restful effect, like water, can suggest coolness, calm and can help a south-facing room feel cooler, or a bedroom more conducive to sleeping. Green, blue and violet are considered cool hues.

Colour is a wonderful tool in an interior design. It can camouflage bad architectural details; it can emphasize the beauty of good architectural detail. Colour can make a room appear smaller or larger. You can use a colour intelligently, to make a room both comfortable and beautiful.  

Colour, texture, and pattern contribute to the home liability because they were purposefully planned. Cheerful, light-reflecting colours are predominant. White on the ceiling increases the sense of spaciousness and reflects light down. Paintings, sculpture, books and magazines, accessories, lighting fixtures bring additional contrast. This room is comfortable and attractive.

The great challenge to any designer is to achieve beautiful and livable schemes that meet the client’s needs.  

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. Does the interaction between light and colour create great opportunities for designers?

2. Do certain colours tend to elicit certain emotions?

3. What is the connection between colour, emotion and your physical well-being?

4. What hues are considered warm and cool?

5. Why colour is a wonderful tool in interior design?

6. What is your favourite colour?

7. What are the advantages of colour used intelligently?

8. What colours are predominant?

9. What colour increases the sense of spaciousness?

10.What elements are used by interior designers to bring additional contrast in the room?  

VII  Practice reading the dialogues with your partner:

1)

-Hey, honey, look – there’s a big furniture sale on at Eaton’s. I want to change an interior  design style.

- New interior  design? Furniture sale? What do we need with more furniture?

-Not more, new. We agreed to replace some of this old stuff if I got my bonus.

-Do you want to replace these beautiful antiques?

-They’re not antiques – they’re junk. Look, this sofa sags in the middle, there are cat scratches on the drapes, and this armchair – well, even reupholstering won’t help it.

- Okay, okay. You’ve convinced me. This place could do with some fixing up. Let’s see than ad. Hmmm, 50% off, eh? We can even pay in monthly payments.

-But you always hate charging things. And we have some money saved up for rainy day, you know. I can at least start shopping around.

- We can both do the shopping – it won’t be easy finding a replacement for my favourite old easy chair.

bonus – премія;

junk (cheap second-hand goods) – старі речі; 

sag – прогинатися;

reupholstering – перебивання;

fixing up – полагодити;

for a rainy day(idiomatic) – на випадок крайньої потреби;

easy chair( armchair) – крісло (з підлокітником);

2)

Reed: Now, the downstairs rooms. Am I to design a living-room and a separate dining-room, or a room that can be used for general purposes?

Wells: That’s question for Anne, I think.

Anne: Jack and I would like a fairly large living-room, I think. We don’t need a separate dining-room.

Jack: We thought we’d like to have a fairly large kitchen with a dining recess. Lots of people eat in the kitchen.

Ann: Modern kitchens are quite pleasant rooms, aren’t they?

Wells: An excellent idea.

Reed: May I make a suggestion? Why not a dining recess in the living-room?

You can have a good kitchen – plenty of space for working in, and space for a table you could have breakfast at if you wanted. You’d have quite a large living-room. Now, look at this sketch. Here’s your living-room. One end of it can be used quite easily for meals. Between the two parts of the room you can have a built-in piece of furniture. It wouldn’t be high – not up to the ceiling. On one side there’d be cupboards, drawers and shelves. And on the other side would be a bookcase. You could have a built-in writing-desk, too, if you liked.

Anne: Oh, that’s a marvelous idea. Don’t you think so, Jack?

recess – ніша, заглиблення;

drawer – шухляда 

VIII Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT С

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. enhance  збільшувати, посилити

2. complement  доповнювати, укомплектовувати

3. derive  походити

4. handicraft  ручна робота

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Accessories and art placed on or around furniture can destroy and complement the furniture selection.
  2.  Furniture and accessories don’t work together in defining the style.   
  3.  Interiors are enriched by the addition of both functional and decorative accessories.   
  4.  Accessories should include items of personal value of the client or company.
  5.  Decorative accessories provide no other value than the pleasure derived from looking at them.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1.  How do furniture and accessories work together?

2.  Can accessories be a powerful tool in establishing the design theme and why?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 8 to be checked up.

II Match the words and word-combinations:

1. to convey     a. зроблено

2. hand-produced    b. передавати, виражати

3. fashion show    c. фон

4. ground plan     d. технічний директор (менеджер)

5. technical director   e. показ мод

6. set      f. новий проект

7. props     g. форма

8. scenic elevation    h. художнє оформлення сцени

9. shape     i. реквізити

10. redraft     j. декорація

III Match the definitions:

1 costume design   a. creation of theatrical as well as film or television scenery 

2 performance b. costume which helps actors to portray characters’ age, gender role, profession, social class, personality and even information about the historical period, geographic location and time of day as well as the season or weather of the theatrical performance 

3 scenic design   c. ‘look’ or physical appearance of the stage for a play whether in rehearsal or performance. It reflects the way that the stage is composed artistically in regard to props, actors, shapes and colours 

4 stage picture d. design of the appearance of characters in a theatre or cinema performance. This usually involves designing or choosing clothing, footwear, hats and head dresses for the actors to wear, but it may also include designing masks, makeup or other unusual forms

5 theatrical costume e. 1) act of performing or the state of being performed; 2) act or style of performing a work or role before an audience; 3) presentation, especially a theatrical one, before an audience

UNIT 10

TEXTILES IN THE INTERIOR

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

  1.  cushion  подушка
  2.  furnishing  обстановка
  3.  settee  диван
  4.  bolster  валик (диванний)
  5.  gingham  тканина (картата чи у смужку)
  6.  lampshade – абажур
  7.  embossing  гофрирування
  8.  parchment  пергаментний папір
  9.  frilly  з оборками

II Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  a great pile – велика кількість
  2.  settee bed – канапе
  3.  sheer curtains – легкі штори
  4.  roller blinds – ролети
  5.  sill-length curtains – штори до підвіконня
  6.  night-time setting – сумерки
  7.  bold colour – яскравий колір

III Read and translate the following text:

Creative Interiors

Every apartment can be harmonized by using various furnishings to create the desired look.

Cushions were perhaps the earliest form of “furniture” used by man and initially would probably have been made from straw or dried leaves covered with a skin or fur. Since then, cushions in all shapes and sizes have adorned chairs, settees beds and they are still used on the floor to sit on.

Cushions serve both a practical and a decorative purpose in a room as they can soften the angular lines of modern furniture, add colour and excitement to a neutral scheme or give an impression of ease and luxury. Even if a bed or sofa does not actually need cushions, a great pile of them is somewhat comforting and satisfying.

There are enormous varieties of cushion shapes: square, rectangular, round, heart-shaped, kite-shaped and bolster-shaped – and they can be made from almost every fabric imaginable. Floor cushions really need heavy-duty fabrics but the other shapes can be made with cotton, lace, satin, velvet, tapestry, gingham, patchwork; it all depends where the cushions are to be used and whether they are going to be purely decorative or receive a lot wear.

Basic curtains can be trimmed in various ways to produce different styles – smart and sophisticated, frilly and feminine, grand and theatrical. Provided it drapes or folds well, almost any material can be used for curtains. A fabric must complement the colour scheme of the room, but such things as the fabric weight and whether it is resistant to fading should also be considered. To prevent fabric fading the curtains can be lined, or sheer curtains or roller blinds can be used to act as a sunscreen and bear the brunt of strong sunlight. Fabric weight is important too – a thick fabric used for sill-length curtains could look bulky and stiff, whereas used for floor-length curtains it would hang better and add importance to the window.

Lampshades are essential functional items and they are very important in a furnishing scheme as they are also decorative and the light they dispense could make a vital difference to a night-time setting. The style of a lamp should therefore blend with the other furnishings, so the choice of lamp base and the colour and texture of the lampshades are all important.

Parchment and silk have been used for many years for lampshades and they still look right in traditional settings.

A tablecloth is a piece of cloth used to cover a table. This piece of home furnishings is creatively designed and adorned with laces, embroidery, embossing etc.

Tablecloths are produced in various ways, designs, and patterns. The demand for tablecloths is on the rise, as it is widely used for both functional and decorative purpose. Tablecloths are also used for protecting the table from scratches and stains. Damask and lace constructions are the most used for tablecloths.

Stylishly created tablecloths can go well with any kind of interiors and are available in modern and traditional designs. Bold colours, patterns are used for formal and casual setups.

A variety of man-made and natural materials are used for manufacturing high quality and durable tablecloths. Some of the widely used fabrics are: cotton, silk, linen, rayon, polyester.

Floor coverings have been made from various textile fibres for thousands of years. Throughout civilization, carpets and rugs have formed a part of different cultures, countries and civilizations. Priceless carpets and rugs made over hundreds of years ago in the East are exhibited in museums today.

Rugs and carpets serve as a colourful foundation for all the decorative plan and colour scheme for various rooms, schools, office buildings, hospitals, hotels etc.

The terms 'rug' and 'carpet' are often used synonymously, but the form or the size in which these coverings are manufactured differs. Rugs may vary in shape and size. Rugs and carpets are manufactured according to certain size standards.

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What makes any apartment harmonized?
  2.  What purposes do cushions serve in a room?
  3.  What are the reasons for choosing fabrics for cushions?
  4.  What should be done to prevent curtain fabric fading?
  5.  Why are lampshades very important in a furnishing scheme?
  6.  What materials are used for lampshades?
  7.  What is the primary function of a tablecloth?
  8.  What can you say about the floor coverings?
  9.  What serves as a foundation for the decorative plan and colour scheme for various rooms?
  10.  Is there any difference between the terms ‘rug’ and ‘carpet’?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. There are enormous varieties of cushion shapes … .

2. Basic curtains can be trimmed in various ways to produce different styles … .

3. Lampshades are essential functional items and … .

4. A tablecloth is … .

5. Floor coverings have been made from … .

VI Find the English equivalent to the words:

подушки, покриття для підлоги, ліжко, диван, штори на підкладці, абажур, з оборками, легкі штори, ролети, канапе

VII Make up sentences with the words:

apartment, various furnishings, cushions, decorative purpose, modern furniture, basic curtains, the style of a lamp, tablecloth, floor covering, rugs and carpets

VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

cushion, floor cushion, lampshade, furnishing, tablecloth, floor covering, rug, carpet

IX Translate the sentences into English:  

1. Щоб надати кімнаті бажаного вигляду можна використати різні предмети меблів.

2. Подушки в інтер’єрі можна застосувати за практичним або декоративним призначенням.

3. За формою подушки можуть бути квадратними, круглими, у формі серця, тощо.

4. Майже кожну тканину можна використовувати для штор, якщо вона добре драпірується, або спадає фалдами.

5. Скатертини оздоблюються мереживом, вишивкою, гофрируванням.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

apartment, to be harmonized, furnishings, cushions, modern furniture, a bed or sofa, floor coverings, basic curtains, a fabric, lampshades, a table cloth, damask, lace, colours, natural materials, durable, rugs and carpets

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

  1.  bed sheet         простирадло
  2.  pillow case      наволочка
  3.  sheet  простирадло
  4.  crib  дитяче ліжко
  5.  twin  двосторонній
  6.  dull/double / подвійний
  7.  king or queen (size)      дуже великого розміру
  8.  flocking  набитий очісом
  9.  resilient  пружний
  10.  spongy  губчатий, м’який
  11.  quilt  картата ковдра, плед
  12.  duvet  пуховий (матрац або ковдра)

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Textile Items

Bed sheets and pillows cases are important home furnishings items used for domestic and industrial usage. A sheet is a large rectangular piece of cotton or linen or a blend of other yarns and used for covering bed. Pillow cases are also made in different sizes for covering pillows and cushions.

Sheets are widely used as a home furnishing and generally manufactured in two types: flat sheets and fitted sheets. A "fitted" sheet is made and sewn to match the shape of the mattress. Both sheets are made to fit five typical size mattresses: crib, twin, dull/double, queen and king. The style and patterns may vary. These sheet may be woven or knitted from a variety of materials.

A mix of man made and natural materials are used either wholly or blended with other materials for creating durable and long lasting sheets. Some of the popularly used materials are: cotton, linen, silk, acetate, nylon.

A blanket is a rectangular piece of home furnishing that can be divided into quilts, duvets and comforters. Traditionally blankets were made of wool, but nowadays artificial or man-made fibers are used for manufacturing different types of blankets.

Blankets are made from various materials and in different constructions and compositions for providing degrees of warmth, durability and softness. Blankets are usually woven, sometimes knitted or stitch knitted. They can also be needles or made my flocking fibers onto a polyurethane foam base.

A variety of man made and natural fibers are used for manufacturing blankets. These fibers are either used wholly or blended for making high quality blankets. Some of the extensively used materials are: cotton, wool, nylon, acrylic, polyester.

Three types of blankets are made that generally differ in certain characteristics including appearance, texture, warmth, durability, and care. They can generally be categorized into: conventional blankets, polyurethane blankets, thermal blankets.

A conventional blanket is a type of blanket that is usually woven with soft-twist yarns in the filling and higher twist yarns in the warp. The fabric is heavily napped for producing a thick, close and fuzzy surface.

Conventional blankets may be made from: wool, acrylic, polyester, nylon, (blended).

Most conventional blankets are made of pure or blended wool, and are the heaviest. These blankets are however, not the warmest. Acrylic blankets are light in weight and also quite warmer than the woolen ones. Acrylic and polyester blankets are fairly durable. This type of blanket is generally the most durable and long lasting.

Polyurethane blankets are composed of polyurethane foam base covered with fiber flocking, usually nylon and held in position with the help of an acrylic adhesive. The blanket is quite soft, resilient and spongy.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V  Render the text in brief in a written form

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

  1.  What are important home furnishings items used for domestic and industrial usage?
  2.  What is a sheet?
  3.  What is a fitted sheet?
  4.  What are typical mattresses sizes?
  5.  What materials are used for sheets manufacture?
  6.  What are the materials extensively used for making blankets?
  7.  What is a conventional blanket?
  8.  What are the warmest blankets?
  9.  What are the most durable and long lasting blankets?
  10.  What can you say about floor coverings?

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

A. Delighted to meet you. What do you do?

B. I specialize in interior design.

A. Or really? That must be very difficult. All those unhappy customers and so on …

B. You see, I like meeting new people, communicating to them, solving their problems. I work for a firm of designers.

A. Where are you based?

B. Our head office is in London. We’ve got 5 branch offices in the U.K.

A. How long have you been working for your company?

B. Well, let me see … I’ve worked for them for three years. Before that I used to work for another company. I really enjoy what I am doing now.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key-words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT C

I    Mind the following words and word-combinations

  1.  care  догляд
  2.  legible  чіткий
  3.  to be fixed  бути прикріпленим
  4.  to glue  приклеювати
  5.  consumer споживач
  6.  implied rule    «неписане» правило
  7.  concern  піклування
  8.  care tips     інформація по догляду
  9.  washing  прання
  10.  dry cleaning     суха чистка, хімчистка

ІІ    Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  The care of fabrics used for home furnishing has always been a concern for manufacturers.
  2.  Manufacturers do not assist the process by providing adequate labelling with proper care instructions.
  3.  Consumers are instructed to use appropriate cleaning method – washing or dry cleaning.
  4.  The labels may be sewed, glued to the fabric.
  5.  The care instructions may be woven, printed or inscribed in an appropriate manner.

III  Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  What does the permanent care labeling require?
  2.  What is the purpose of a label?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 9 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

  1.  ковдра     a pillow
  2.  меблі    b roller blinds
  3.  килим    c settee
  4.  простирадло   d man-made
  5.  подушка    e settee bed
  6.  ролети    f blanket
  7.  диван    g furniture
  8.  штори    h sheet
  9.  канапе    i carpet
  10.   штучний   j curtains

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

  1.  label  a. to combine different things in a way that produces an effective result
    1.  care b. a piece of material that is attached to something that gives information about it
      1.  blend     c. the way someone or something looks to other people  
        1.  appearance d. a warm thick cover for a bed, made by sewing two layers of cloth together
        2.  quilt e. to be concerned about what happens to someone, because you like or love them

UNIT 11

FLORAL DESIGN

TEXT A

I    Read and remember the words and their translation:

  1.  foliage  листяний орнамент
    1.  herbs  трави, рослини
    2.  abundant  рясний, багатий, щедрий, повний, надмірний
    3.  сenterpiece    тут центральна зала
    4.  mound  насип, горб
    5.  motto  девіз, гасло
    6.  bespoken  замовлений
    7.  wreath  вінок, гірлянда
    8.  corsage  букетик на корсажі жіночої сукні
    9.  horticulture  садівництво
    10.  carnation  гвоздика
    11.  orchid  орхідея

II   Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  floral arrangement – квіткове аранжування, оформлення квітів
  2.  creative flair талант, схильність, здатність, нюх, чуття
  3.  floral tribute дар, підношення, винагорода
  4.  boutonniere / buttonhole квітка в петлиці; бутоньєрка
  5.  well-rounded foundation – всебічно освічений
  6.  interior landscapingландшафтна архітектура
  7.  occasion можливість, випадок, шанс
  8.  ornamental grasses декоративні рослини

III Read and translate the following text:

Floral Art

Floral design is the art of using plant materials and flowers to create a pleasing and balanced composition. Evidence of refined floristry is found as far back as the culture of Ancient Egypt. Floristry, flower arranging, floral arrangement, floral design or floral arts are all the names denoting the art of creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls and baskets, or making bouquets and compositions from cut flowers, foliage, herbs, ornamental grasses and other botanical materials. Floristry refers to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement and selling. However, the floral industry is the basic drive behind floristry.

Basic varieties of flowers sold in florist shops include abundant varieties of roses, tulips, irises, orchids and lilies. Fashion sometimes plays a role in floristry; what is considered the flower that everyone needs to have today can change very quickly.

Floral business is seasonal and is heavily influenced by the following holidays and events: Christmas, Valentine's Day, Victory Day, Mothers' Day, Easter, weddings and funerals. These occasions make up the largest part of the business, with the sale of house plants and home decor being a smaller, but more constant, part. Flowers for personal enjoyment as well as those selected to celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, thank-you's are also a significant portion of a florist's business. The floral business has been impacted significantly by the corporate and social event world as flowers play a large part in the decor of special events and meetings. Centerpieces, entryways, reception tables, bridal bouquets and stage sets are only a few examples of how flowers are used in business and social event arenas.

There are many styles of floristry.  Many nations have their own style of floral arranging. Ikebana is an oriental style of floral design that features simplicity and purity of lines and colours. In contrast, European style emphasizes colour and variety in mass gatherings of multiple flowers. These designs are often done as low mounds, or taller vase arrangements that are all-sided (360°). Many florists that follow this design style usually do not use carnations. High Style is a form of design originating from the United States. These designs often include a 'less is more' motto. Flowers that are popular among High Style florists include many rare tropical flowers and also more popular flowers such as carnations.

The craft of floristry involves various skills. These include selecting flowers that will look good together (based on principles of design or general instinct), knowing how to cut, treat, and arrange flowers and other stock plants so they will remain fresh as long as possible, and selling them, which involves knowledge of customer requirements and expectations. Floristry requires a certain creative flair and imagination combined with the knowledge of how to apply scientific and business practices. Knowing how to create original and bespoken floral arrangements, floral tributes, wreaths, bouquets, corsages, boutonnieres/'buttonholes', artificial arrangements and other more complicated arrangements is also important. Wreaths for example can be made of many different types of flowers and plants, and often include ribbon and artificial product.

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What are the names used to denote the floral art?
  2.  What is floral design?
  3.  What flowers are mainly sold in florist shops?
  4.  What is floral business influenced by? How does the corporate and social event world impact the floral business?
  5.  Does floral business depend on fashion? In what way?
  6.  What styles of floristry do you know? What is the difference between oriental and western styles of floral design?
  7.  What skills are needed for the craft of floristry?
  8.  What influences the choice of flowers that will look good together?
  9.  What kinds of floral arrangements exist?
  10.  What floral arrangement includes ribbon?

V   Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  Flowers play a large part in the ….. of special interior premises.
  2.  ….. is characterized by rare tropical flowers and carnations.
  3.  ….. often includes ribbon and artificial product.
  4.  Floristry requires a certain ….. and imagination.
  5.  ….. flowers are also a significant portion of a florist's business.
  6.  Designs of ….. style often include a 'less is more' motto.
  7.  Flower compositions are made of cut flowers, ….., herbs or ….. grasses.
  8.  Floristry refers to the cultivation, ….. and selling flowers.
  9.  Flowers can be arranged in ….., bowls and ……
  10.  ... is characterized by the variety of colours and flowers.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

штучні квіти, садівництво, забезпечувати якісне навчання, відповідати вимогам, очікування споживачів, розрізняти рослини, розширювати навички, листяний орнамент, створення букетів, декоративні рослини, квіти на знак подяки, букет нареченої.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

balanced composition, creating flower arrangements, cultivation, colour, shape, design and display, qualitative education, floral tributes, corsages, wreaths, treat, principles of design, European style, anniversaries, stage sets.

VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:

horticulture, interior landscaping, wreath, bouquet, corsage, principles of design, High Style, European style, oriental style, floral design.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

  1.  Квітковий дизайн – це мистецтво створювати красиві та збалансовані композиції з квітів.
  2.  Квіткові композиції можуть складатися з живих квітів, трав, листяних орнаментів або штучних матеріалів.
  3.  Найпоширенішими квітами, які продаються у квіткових крамницях, є троянди, тюльпани, гвоздики, ромашки, іриси, гербери, нарциси та ін..
  4.  Мода впливає на квітковий бізнес так само, як і на інші сфери нашого життя.
  5.  Квітковий дизайн в східному стилі вирізняється простотою і чистотою ліній і кольору.
  6.  Мистецтво квіткового дизайну потребує різних навичок, всебічних глибоких знань та творчого відчуття.
  7.  Знання, необхідні для кар’єри у квітковому бізнесі, включають вміння створювати оригінальні квіткові композиції, що базуються на знаннях основних принципів дизайну: балансу, гармонії, кольорів, ліній, форм та культурних відмінностей і потреб.
  8.  Одним із видів оформлення квітів є вінок, до складу якого окрім різних квітів і рослин можуть входити стрічки та інші штучні елементи.

X  Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

floral design, balanced composition, flower arranging, making bouquets and compositions, cut flowers, foliage, herbs, ornamental grasses, abundant varieties, holidays and events, styles of floristry, floristry craft skills, principles of design, original and bespoken floral arrangements, qualitative education and training, opportunity to study.

TEXT B

I    Read and learn:

  1.  poppy  мак 
    1.  indecent  безтактовний, вульгарний, непривабливий
    2.  divergent той, що відхиляється у різні боки, що розходиться
    3.  ivy  плющ
    4.  fidelity  вірність
    5.  pansies братки
    6.  haughtiness  високомірря, надмінність, гордовитість
    7.  chastity  цнотливість, невинність
    8.  virtue  доброчесність, гідність
    9.  devotion  відданість, сильна прихильність

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Flower Symbolism

Flowers have various different meanings in different cultures. The holidays and events for which flowers are used vary. Poppies are used to remember fallen soldiers only in Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries. The cultural meaning of colours also strongly affects the choice and use of flowers. People often prefer flowers that are associated with their ethnic group or country, and various colours may have special meanings of luck or death or love or other basic human traits. A flower such as a red rose might to some mean love, but to others it might be considered indecent or simply puzzling. The vastly divergent views on the white colour can lead to major flower issues. White is viewed as standing for death in many Asian cultures but is considered a symbol of purity and innocence in many European and American cultures. Such differences can lead to difficult issues when a bouquet of white lilies, for example, is delivered.

Purple lilac symbolizes "first emotions of love" in the language of flowers.

The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, was a Victorian-era means of communication in which various flowers and floral arrangements were used to send coded messages, allowing individuals to express feelings which otherwise could not be spoken. This language was most commonly communicated through Tussie-Mussies, an art which has a following today. King Charles II brought the art to Sweden from Persia in the 17th century, but it originated in two places: first the antiquated floral symbology which had filtered down from antiquity and secondly from the Turkish Salem, or language of objects, developed to communicate any message without the need to write. The Japanese flower language is called Hanakotoba. 

The nuances of the language are now mostly forgotten, but red roses still imply passionate, romantic love; pink roses stand for a lesser affection; white roses suggest virtue and chastity; and yellow roses still stand for friendship or devotion.

Also commonly known meanings are sunflowers, which can indicate either haughtiness or respect – they were the favourite flowers of St. Julie Billiart for this reason. Gerbera (Daisy) means innocence or purity. The iris, being named for the messenger of the gods in Greek mythology, still represents a message being sent. A pansy signifies thought, a daffodil regard, and a string of ivy fidelity.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

  1.  Why do flowers have various different meanings in different cultures?
  2.  What flowers are used to remember fallen soldiers in Ukraine?
  3.  What usually determines the choice of flowers?
  4.  What special meanings of colours can you remember?
  5.  Do meanings of colours coincide when being used in different areas of design? Explain your answer.
  6.  What flowers are presented for various occasions? Give examples.
  7.  How can flowers be used in interior design?
  8.  What can flowers communicate?
  9.  What specific meaning of flowers do you know?
  10.  What differences in colour choice exist in different cultures?

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner:

  •  What are you thinking about, Jill? I tried to address you several times, but in vain…
  •  Oh, sorry, I’ve been thinking about the gift for my friend’s birthday and I can’t imagine what to present…
  •  Then it’s better to present flowers, they have always been the most romantic gift of nature and mankind. Besides, you can express your attitude to your friend by means of flowers.
  •  Is it really possible?
  •  Surely, it is. Most people do not consider flower meaning before gifting flowers. But it is impossible for any person to be completely unaware of flower meanings.
  •  Exactly! Red rose is known to stand for romantic love, isn’t it? But other flowers perhaps also have their meanings…
  •  They do. Aster, for example, symbolizes patience, elegance and daintiness. Carnation means pride and beauty. A red carnation symbolizes love, pride and admiration; a pink carnation symbolizes the love of a woman or a mother; a purple carnation symbolizes capriciousness; a yellow carnation symbolizes disdain, rejection or disappointment; while a white carnation symbolizes innocence and pure love. A striped carnation conveys refusal.
  •  How interesting! For me, carnations have always been associated with funerals…
  •  Now you see you were mistaken.
  •  If flowers have so different meanings, there must be some division into flowers for men and for women.
  •  Though not often associated with men's gifts, flowers are growing in popularity as birthday, anniversary or congratulatory gifts for men. But to be sure which types are appropriate or male savvy, it’s better to check out their meanings.
  •  I would choose gladiolus as a male flower. It is so manful!
  •  You have perfect flower flair.  Gladiolus symbolizes strength of character, faithfulness and honour. The Gladiolus flower signifies remembrance. It is sometimes called the sword lily and would be a great option as a gift for a man.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.  

TEXT C

I    Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  bloom  цвітіння, квітка
    1.  twig  гілочка, лозина, гілка, вітка
    2.  scalene  нерівносторонній 
    3.  to delineate  схематично змальовувати (те, що має бути створене), робити нарис; накидати, обкреслювати
    4.  spirit  дух, духовний початок, душа
    5.  overtone  натяк, нотка, підтекст
    6.  priest  священник, жрець, служитель культу
    7.  nobility  дворянство, родова знать
    8.  prescribed  встановлений, прийнятий, укорінений
    9.  upright  вертикальний, прямий, прямовисний
    10.  stem  ствол, стебло

II   Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Ikebana is the Chinese art of flower arrangement.
  2.  The structure of Ikebana is based on a scalene triangle delineated by three main points.
  3.  Ikebana is the art form dependent on its religious origins.
  4.  Twigs usually symbolize heaven, earth, and sun in some schools.
  5.  In Ikebana arrangements all three elements must be different.

III   Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  What flower arrangement is typical for western cultures?
    1.  What is the main rule of creating Ikebana?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 10 to be checked up.

II Match the words and word combinations:

1 dry cleaning     a) ролети

2 consumer      b) абажур

3 sheet      c) диванна подушка

4 quilt      d) хімчистка

5 duvet       e) споживач

6 roller blinds      f) простирадло

7 lampshade      g) диванний валик

8 bolster      h) плед

9 cushion      i) ковдра      

10 blanket      j) пуховий матрац, ковдра

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 settee  a) a case or bag stuffed with some soft and elastic material, and used to sit or recline upon; a soft pillow or pad

2 quilt    b) baby bed with high sides made of slats

3 cushion  c) floor covering consisting of a piece of thick heavy fabric (usually with nap or pile)

4 crib  d) a small sofa made to accommodate several persons at once

5 carpet  e) bedding made of two layers of cloth filled with stuffing and stitched together

UNIT 12

MODERN HAIRDRESSING PROCEDURES

TEXT A

I    Listen and remember the following words:

  1.  to suggest  радити, пропонувати
  2.  circularity  округлість
  3.  sleek  гладенький, сяючий
  4.  bang  чуб
  5.  temple  висок
  6.  jaw  нижня щелепа
  7.  chin  підборіддя
  8.  rinse  нестійка фарба
  9.  streaks  окремі пасма
  10.  tint  фарба, тон

II   Read and learn the following phrases:

  1.  easy-to-manage style – зручний для укладки
  2.  to round off – розширяти
  3.  hair style – зачіска
  4.  hair colouring – фарбування волосся  
  5.  hair shaft – корінь волосся
  6.  to achieve a natural effect – досягати природного ефекту (вигляду)
  7.  comb out – причісуватися
  8.  to add bulk – додати об’єму
  9.  rattail comb – гребінець з тонкою ручкою

III  Read and translate the following text:

Modern Hairdressing Procedures

The most important qualities for hair are that it should be healthy, shining, and in a flattering, easy-to-manage style. Many fashion magazines suggest hair styles according to the shape of the face in order to make the face resemble as closely as possible the perfect oval. The circularity of a round face may be minimized by a sleek, controlled style with side bangs. A square face needs a style that cuts across the square corners at the temples and is full around the jaw. The best style for a long face also rounds off the corners at the temples and is short. For a triangular face, a narrow chin should be filled out with chin-length hair, while a wide chin may be minimized with wide bangs. In finding the right hairstyle, however, a woman should also consider the proportions of her whole figure, the texture of her hair, her skill in handling it, and the character of her life.

Once a hair style is chosen, it must be maintained by regular washing, setting, and, usually, cutting. Some women care for their hair principally at home, going to the hairdresser only infrequently for a cut or a shampoo and before a special occasion. Many women go to the hairdresser once a week, while still others may see him every day for a combing.

Clean, healthy hair is the basis of any hair style. In addition to brushing, dry hair requires shampooing once a week, oily hair perhaps every day. Shampoos are soapy or synthetic detergents in liquid, gel, lotion, or cream form and may have special uses.

Because hair colouring is constantly being improved and tested scientifically, more women than ever before can colour their hair safely and?achieve a natural effect.

There are three types of?hair colouring available. Temporary rinses,?highlights and blend in discoloured streaks. Semipermanent rinses, which also coat the hair shaft but last through four to eight shampoos, make?hair slightly darker?and can effectively cover gray hair. Permanent tints penetrate the hair shaft and permanently change the pigment inside.

Some women, especially those with straight or fine hair, may want a permanent wave, which gives the hair adaptability to a set. The hair is wrapped around plastic rods and treated with a permanent wave solution.

As a result, the structure of the hair is actually changed so that after the set that?must follow each shampoo, the hair falls easily back into line. Permanent waves may be in several strengths: super waves for hard-to-curl hair, regular waves for more casual styles or relatively curly hair, and body waves to give hair a soft, curving line. There are also permanent?waves for gray hair and children's hair.

The final step in creating a hair style is to comb out the hair. Once the set hair is dry, the rollers or pins are removed, and the hair is brushed to distribute the curl evenly and to achieve a smooth line. If hair lacks desired height or fullness, it may be "teased" (back combed) to add bulk under the top hair, which is then smoothed down to follow the contour of the head. Then the hair is lifted slightly by the handle of a rattail comb, and hair spray is lightly applied?to help hold the hair style in place.

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What are the most important qualities for hair?
  2.  What hairstyles do fashion magazines suggest?
  3.  What is the best style for a long face?
  4.  How must your hairstyle be maintained?
  5.  How often do women go to the hairdresser?
  6.  What is a result of a permanent waving?
  7.  Why do women use combing out?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  A …… needs a style that cuts across the square corners at the temples and is full around the jaw.
  2.  Clean healthy … is the basis of any hair style.
  3.  More women can colour their hair safely and?achieve a …..
  4.  … are synthetic or soapy detergents in liquid, gel and lotion form.
  5.  The hair is wrapped around plas?ic … and treated with a permanent wave … .
  6.  Semipermanent rinses make hair slightly darker and can effectively cover … .
  7.  The final step in creating a hair style is to … the hair.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

рідина, тимчасовий, постійний, розчісувати, перукар, фарбування, підборіддя, кучерявий, об'єм, лак для волосся

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

hair colouring, natural effect, permanent waving, length, cutting, gray hair, bang

VIII Give definitions to the words and phrases:

easy-to-manage style, hairdresser, hair colouring, permanent waving, to create, hair spray, shampoo

IX Translate the sentences into English:

  1.  Коли ви обрали свій стиль зачіски, його необхідно підтримувати регулярним миттям, укладками та стрижкою.
  2.  Сухе волосся миють раз на тиждень, жирне волосся – кожного дня.
  3.  Існує три види фарбування волосся.
  4.  Деякі жінки, у яких пряме волосся, хочуть зробити постійну завивку.
  5.  Кожен мріє про здорове, сяюче, зручне для укладки волосся.
  6.  Широке підборіддя може бути  візуально зменшене за допомогою широкого чуба.  

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

hair style, cutting hair, hairdresser, washing, colouring, permanent waving, combing out, to create.

 

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

  1.  hairdressing  перукарська справа
  2.  to arrange the hair      вкладати волосся
  3.  to fasten   закріпляти
  4.  the lowly  бідні люди
  5.  renunciation  відмова, відречення
  6.  maiden  незаміжня жінка
  7.  matron  одружена жінка
  8.  wig  перука

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

                                                 

The Art of Hairdressing

Hairdressing is the art of arranging the hair or otherwise modifying its natural state. Hairdressing has been an important part of the dress of both men and women since antiquity and, like dress, serves a number of functions.

Almost all societies have found it necessary to cut or arrange the hair.?They arranged their hair to fulfill man's basic desire for personal adornment. One extremely important function of hair styling, especially in traditional preindustrial societies, is to indicate status. Primitive men, for example, fastened bones, feathers, and other objects in their hair to impress the lowly and frighten the enemy with their rank and prowess. Noble rank among the ancient Gauls was indicated by long hair, which Caesar made them cut off as a sign of submission when he conquered them. The religious significance of hair is seen in the shaved heads of Christian and Buddhist monks, indicating renunciation of the world, and in the single long lock on the shaved heads of Muslim men, by which, they believed, Allah would pull them up to heaven.

                           ?

Hair arrangement could also proclaim age and marital status. Boys in ancient Greece cut their hair, and Hindu boys shaved their heads when they reached adolescence. In medieval Europe maidens wore uncovered flowing hair, while matrons bound theirs under veils. As a sign of mourning the ancient Egyptians, whose heads were usually shaven, grew long hair, and long haired Hindu widows cut off their hair.

From the late Middle Ages, hair styles in the West have been greatly influenced by changing fashion. In the 17th century, for example, courtiers followed the lead of the balding Louis XIV, who wore a wig. In the 20th century women of?all classes eagerly followed the example of film stars.

                  

Until the 20th century, fashionable hair styles generally were limited to the upper classes, and the dictates of fashion were relatively rigid. Today, with the general increase in wealth, the improvement in mass communication, and the trend toward informality and individualism, women and men in all classes can choose the style and colour of their own hair or of a wig that best suit their needs and tastes.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. When did people start to arrange the hair?

2. How did primitive men indicate status?

3. Why did Caesar make Gauls to cut off their long hair?

4. How could hair arrangement proclaim marital status?

5. What can you tell about the 20th century hair styles?

6. How do different religions influence the hair style?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner.

A: I’m going to spend tomorrow morning at the hairdresser’s.

B: Is it necessary to go there tomorrow?

A: I need a new perm, so I shall be there for several hours. I always go to the same place, so they know just how I like them to do my hair.

B: I suppose everybody has to go to the hairdressers at some time or other. I ought to go this week too, but I’ve no spare time. I really must make an appointment for the next week.

A: Do you need a new perm or colouring?

B: Oh, no, my hair needs cutting and I’ll have it shampooed at the same time.

A: How easy it is for men! They can have their hair cut at any time without having to make appointment beforehand and they don’t have to spend a whole afternoon sitting at the hairdresser’s having a perm.

B: No, but they have to shave every day. Even if they have a beard, it has to be trimmed.  

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT C

I     Mind the following words:

  1.  mercury  ртуть
  2.  lead  свинець
  3.  advent  прихід, прибуття, поява
  4.  adhesive  клей
  5.  blemish  дефект, недолiк
  6.  deformity  деформацiя
  7.  blindness  слiпота
  8.  expenditures  витрати

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false.

  1.  The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage was found in Ancient Greece.
  2.  In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages.
  3.  Queen Victoria declared makeup acceptable only for use by upper classes.
  4.  Cosmetics led to negative effects: deformities, blindness and even death.
  5.  The worldwide annual expenditures for cosmetics are estimated at 18 billion dollars.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. What did Queen Victoria declare?

2. Why were cosmetics dangerous in some historical periods?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 11 to be checked up.

II Match the words(word combinations):

 ? foliage              a) гвоздика

 2 abundant        b) вірність

3 carnation      c) листяний орнамент

4 creative flair    d) декоративні рослини

 5 ornamental grasses   e) рясний, щедрий 

6 orchid                 f ) вірність

 7 cultivation      g) талант, схильність

8 fidelity            h) вирощування

9 twig                      i) орхідея

10 artificial        j) гілочка, лозина

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:?

1 ikebana              a) put into a proper, systematic or decorative order

2 floral design      b) bunch of flowers, especially professionally arranged  

3 interior landscaping    e) Japanese decorative art of flower arrangement

4 arrange             c)  of creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls and baskets or making  and compositions from different  materials?

5 bouquet           d)  and  modification and planting of grounds, especially at or around a building site

Unit 1?

Graphic design

Text a

I  Listen and remember the following words:?

???to?embrace? включати

2. imagery ?збірн. óбрази

3. imaging  створення зображення; запис зображення на електронні носії

4. essence  суть

5. to constitute  складати; встановлювати

6. re-evaluation  повторне оцінювання

7. grid  масштабна сітка

8. to incorporate in  додавати

9. benefit  користь

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. page layout – оформлення сторінки

2. clients edit – редагування замовника

3. to be with in the scope of smth – бути в рамках чогось

4. blurring distinction – незначна різниця

5. advertising art – мистецтво реклами

III Read and translate the following text:

The Art of Graphic Design

Graphic design is a form of communication using text and/or images to present information. The art of   embraces a range of mental skills and crafts including ,  and . Graphic design is applied in  and . Like many forms of communication graphic design often refers to both the process (designing) by which the communication is created and the products (designs) such as creative solutions,  and . The designs are applied to static  as well as  not always in the completed form. In  client’s edits, technical preparation and mass production are usually required but as a rule not considered to be within the scope of graphic design.

Although the term 'graphic designer' was first coined in the 20th century, the story of graphic design spans the history of marks of humankind from the magic caves of  to the dazzling neons of . In both this lengthy history and in the relatively recent explosion of imaging in the 20th and 21st centuries there is sometimes a blurring distinction and over-lapping of  art, graphic design and . After all they share the same elements, theories, principles, practices and  and sometimes the same client. In  art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design ‘the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience. Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty...’

Design elements are the basic tools in every design discipline. The elements including , , , ,  and  compose the basic vocabulary of visual design. Design principles such as , ,  and  constitute the broader structural aspects of the composition.

According to the classic theory of design or graphic design the visual excitement of a design work is a result of how the  of the design elements creates mood, style, message and a look.

There are research and planning that are needed for most design work:

the design process which encompasses the step-by-step and often complex path that a designer takes toward a design solution through research, exploration, re-evaluation and revision of a design problem. This process starts with the client and ends with the finished design product.

use of a grid to help improve or speed up the layout of images and text. Like the steel internal frame of building the grid helps the designer to place information on paper or screen in a way that improves the design visually and its usability.

impact and use of technology for design solutions. Graphic designers are usually first to adopt and incorporate new technology in solutions or concepts when possible. This experimentation is not always to the benefit of the design or the user.

IV Answer the questions:

1. How does graphic design present information?

2. What crafts does graphic design embrace?

3. What does graphic design refer to?

4. What do you know about the history of graphic design?

5. What is the essence of graphic design?

6. There are some elements of design. What are they?

7. Do you know the principles of design? Name them.

8. What are the steps of a graphic designer’s work?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Their designs have much in common, there is … between them.

2. … is the sale of goods and services.

3. A graphic designer should keep up to the times and use … .

4. … as form, texture, line, value, shape and colour compose the basic vocabulary of ….

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

застосовувати, потребувати, охоплювати, поступовий, блискучий, експонат, виразність, складати, вивчення, покращувати.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

image development, mass production, page layout, advertising art, visual design, design solutions, fine art.

VIII Give definitions to the words:

multimedia, imaging, advertising, layout, visual, typography, grid.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Графічний дизайнер повинен володіти багатьма навичками, серед яких – оформлення сторінки.

2. Термін “графічний дизайнер” з’явився у 20 столітті.

3. Такі елементи як колір, форма, зовнішній вигляд, величина, лінія (контур), текстура мають велике значення для графічного дизайну.

4. Ми часто плутаємо поняття реклами, графічного дизайну та образотворчого мистецтва тому, що іноді між ними майже нема різниці.

5. Процес дизайну починається з замовника, а закінчується завершеною продукцією.

6. Більша частина роботи дизайнера потребує дослідницької роботи та планування.

7. Кожен професіонал знає такі принципи дизайну як ритм, баланс, виразність та єдність.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

graphic design, to embrace, principles, elements, design theory, imagery, page layout, essence, advertising art, to incorporate, grid, visual design.

Text B

I  Read and remember:

1. spontaneous  спонтанний

2. to claim  заявляти

3. innate  природній

4. most advanced yet acceptable      найсучасніший, проте прийнятний

5. associate  партнер

6. in terms of  з точки зору

7. to take into account  брати до уваги

8. to be in tune with  відповідати чомусь

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Raymond Loewy. The Father of Industrial Design

‘It all must start with an inspired, spontaneous idea’.

‘The main goal is not to complicate the already difficult life of the consumer’.

‘Between two products equal in price, function and quality, the one with the most attractive exterior will win’.

‘I can claim to have made the daily life of the 20th century more beautiful’.

Raymond Loewy (1893-1986), a brilliant designer and, without doubt, the most versatile representative of this discipline, became a design legend in his own lifetime. He was the most influential protagonist of industrial design that North America has ever known and has had a significant impact on the tastes and lifestyles of several generations. Loewy’s design philosophy still has an influence on the industrial design world today.

After a brief but promising career as a fashion illustrator Raymond Loewy dedicated his talent to the field of industrial design. Loewy's creative genius was innate and his effect on the industry was immediate. He literally revolutionized the industry working as a consultant for more than 200 companies and creating product designs for everything from cigarette packs and refrigerators to cars and spacecrafts. Loewy lived by his own famous MAYA principle – Most Advanced Yet Acceptable.

A popular lecturer as well, Loewy spoke at institutions such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Columbia University and others. He founded three design companies: Raymond Loewy and Associates, New York; Raymond Loewy International, London; and Company of Industrial Design, Paris.

Loewy was the first person to understand design as a marketing factor: ‘if you have two products which do not differ in terms of price, function and quality, it is the product’s attractive external appearance which wins the race’. Raymond Loewy used these pragmatic words to outline his perception of design and this was certainly the secret of his success.

Many of the products that Loewy designed are still familiar to us today. These include the ‘Studebaker’, a symbol of American cars and the ‘Frigidaire’, the legendary refrigerator. Loewy created the trademarks of the 20th century’s technical progress. For example, the Shell logo, the Coca Cola bottle, the Exxon and BP symbols all carry his signature. Raymond Loewy also designed the packet of the famous American cigarette brand, ‘Lucky Strike’ and this is the one that is still used today. ?

                           

For Loewy it was not design alone that was definitive. He believed that the job of a designer was more complex than that. He investigated the market as well as inquiring into the wishes and needs of the customer. In addition to design he gave equal rights to the requirements for user friendliness, ease of use, production costs and retail price.

Loewy’s principle of creating beauty through function and simplicity is still in tune with the requirements of industrial production today. His work still influences designer and consumer decisions.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions:

1. What is Loewy’s impact on industrial design?

2. How do you understand his principle – ‘Most Advanced Yet Acceptable’?

3. How did Raymond Loewy realize design?

4. What are the most famous products Raymond Loewy designed?

5. What is a secret of his success? Give your reasons.

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner:

Jack: Hi, Max! How are you?

Max: So-so.

Jack: What’s wrong?

Max: I haven’t passed my exam in graphic design.

Jack: I see. What were your questions?

Max: The first question was about principles of design.

Jack: Oh, I know that! There are , ,  and . Am I right?

Max: I’m not sure because I haven’t answered this question.

Jack: And what about the second one?

Max: It was about Raymond Loewy.

Jack: What is he? I’ve never heard about him.

Max: Shame on you! He is a design legend and is still very famous. Loewy is considered to be the father of industrial design. He created the Shell logo, the Coca Cola bottle, the Exxon and BP symbols. His designs were not just beautiful but functional and simple.

Jack: Really? You know if I were a teacher I would give you a good mark.

Max: Thanks, Jack. But unfortunately you are not my teacher.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.

TEXT C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. distinguishing feature       характерна риса

2. specifics  особливості

3. to perceive  помічати; відчувати

4. to distinguish   розрізняти

5. meanwhile     між іншим

6. to rescale змінювати масштаб

II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. Navigation system is the only feature that unites different layouts.

2. One part of human brains is humanitarian, the other one – technical.

3. It doesn’t matter where to place objects on a website.

4. Most buttons on a website are located at the upper left part.

5. The website window can be rescaled.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How does website layout differ from other layouts?

2. What is the visual concept?

?

?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of ?nit 12 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1 rinse    a) перука

2 tint     b) стригти

3 hairstyle    c) фарбування

4 to comb out   d) об’єм

5 hairdressing   e) нестійка фарба

6 wig     f) перукарська справа

7 colouring    g) фарба, тон

8 bulk     h) зачіска

9 waving    i) причісуватися

10 to cut    j) завивка

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 permanent wave a) person whose occupation is to cut or style  in order to change or maintain a person’s image

2 easy-to-manage   b) process or art of dyeing or tinting one’s hair

3 hair colouring c) not difficult, not requiring great effort

4 adornment d) hairstyle produced by treatment with heat, chemicals which give long-lasting waves

5 hairdresser e) the action of decorating yourself with something colourful and interesting

UNIT 14

WEB DESIGN

TEXT A

I    Read and remember the words and their translation:

  1.    авторська розробка
  2.  to retain  зберігати 
  3.  attractiveness  привабливість
  4.  observational  спостережливий
  5.  quantitative  кількісний
  6.  rendering  передача даних
  7.  augmented  збільшений, перевантажений
  8.  continuity  безперервність
  9.  inward  всередину
  10.  promotion просування

II   Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  web applications – застосування веб, мережеві підведення
  2.  search engine optimization – оптимізація пошуку
  3.  navigation tools – навігаційні інструменти
  4.  directional aspect – аспект спрямування
  5.  typographyтипографіка, графічне оформлення друкованого тексту

III Read and translate the following text:

Principles and Elements of Web Design

Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for development and styling of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities.

The main task of web design is perhaps the creation of a website or a web page.

The process of designing , ,  or  for the Web is very complicated one and may utilize multiple disciplines, such as , , , , , , , , , ,  and .

Websites vary greatly in content, style, focus and a number of other aspects. A successful website, evidently, is the one that is capable of attracting quality visitors and retain them. The core of this attractiveness is its content. However, only content is not enough – just as a good product needs good packaging a successful site needs elegant presentation and promotion.

When creating a website or web page, the 5 golden principles of design: balance, rhythm, proportion, dominance, and unity should always be kept in mind.

The primary tool for web design is the creative mind. Critical, observational, quantitative and analytic thinking is required for designing page layout and . The eye and the hand are often augmented with the use of external  or  tools. The selection of the appropriate one to the communication problem at hand is also a key skill in web design work, and a defining factor of the rendering .

A 's work could be viewed by thousands of people every day. Web designers create the pages, layout, and graphics for web pages, and play a key role in the development of a website. Web designers have the task of creating the look and feel of a website by choosing the style, and by designing attractive graphics, images, and other visual elements, and adapting them for the website’s pages. The graphics and lay-out of the site contribute to that first impression and overall image. Web designers also design and develop the navigation tools of a site. Web designers may make decisions regarding what content is included on a web page, where things are placed, and how the aesthetic and continuity is maintained from one screen to the next. Site quality content must be balanced with good graphics at all times. Any graphic image which has a directional aspect should be placed to point towards the most important section of the page. If you have a picture of a bird on the top left corner of your page, make sure it is facing inward and that its beak is leading the eye to the centre of the page, not away from it. The same applies to all graphics. Faces should 'look' to the centre of the page. Cars should be 'parked' facing towards the centre of the page. Roads, neck ties etc. should all be placed to lead the eye across from left to right, or down from top to bottom.?

Any web design must be stylish, using original illustrations, not downloaded ones. The overall effect should be that of exclusivity.

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What is web design?
  2.  What disciplines are incorporated in web design?
  3.  How can a successful website be characterised?
  4.  What 5 golden principles of design should always be kept in mind, when creating a website or a web page?
  5.  What professional and personal qualities are needed for a web designer?
  6.  What does the work of a web designer include?
  7.  What contributes greatly to the first impression and overall image of a website?
  8.  How should content and graphics be related?
  9.  What rule should be followed, when arranging the graphics on the page?
  10.  What skills are necessary for web designers and developers?

V   Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  Web design is intended for development and … of objects of the Internet's information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and … qualities.
  2.  The process of designing , , … or  for the Web is very complicated.
  3.  A successful website, evidently, is the one that is capable of attracting quality visitors and … them.
  4.  The core of a website’s … is its content.
  5.  A successful site needs elegant presentation and ….
  6.  The 5 golden principles of design: balance, …, proportion, dominance, and … should always be kept in mind.
  7.  Critical, observational, … and analytic thinking is required for designing page layout and .
  8.  Any graphic image which has a …   should be placed to point towards the most important section of the page.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

естетичні якості, натхнення, красива упакова, витончене представлення, ескіз, ключова навичка в роботі вебдизайнера, спостережливий, графічне оформлення друкованого тексту, розташування.

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

quality, elegant presentation, proportion, dominance, unity, balance, rhythm, visual elements, lay-out, exclusivity.

VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:

web design, graphic design, web page, web site, , , , communication design, content, corporate identity.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

  1.  Процес створення вебсторінок або вебсайтів дуже складний.
  2.  Вебсайти дуже відрізняються за змістом, стилем та багатьма іншими аспектами.
  3.  Ядром привабливості сайту є його зміст.
  4.  Будь-яке графічне зображення, яке має напрямок, треба розмістити так, щоб воно було спрямоване до найголовнішої секції сторінки.
  5.  Будь-який вебдизайн має бути стильним, з використанням оригінальних ілюстрацій.
  6.  5 золотих принципів будь-якого дизайну включають рівновагу, ритм, пропорцію, переважання і єдність.

X   Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

web design, graphic design, aesthetic qualities, multiple disciplines, n-number of aspects, content, promotion, the 5 golden principles of design, the primary tool for web design, a 's work, graphics, skills, training, sketch, style, balance.

TEXT B

I    Read and learn:

  1.  soap? мило 
  2.  sophistication  витонченість
  3.  vibrancy  вібрація
  4.  flamboyancy  яскравість
  5.  sacred  священний
  6.  to dazzle  засліпити
  7.  highlighting  висунення на перший план
  8.  nauseous  нудотний 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

The Importance of Colour

Colour is an important part of any design and web design is not an exception. Colours have different effects on our emotions. Red and orange excite the senses and increase heartbeat, blues and greens are more restful. Yellow reminds us of sunshine and is a happy colour. These are the meanings of colours accepted in our country. But websites are internationally viewed and it's easy to get messed up by the meaning of colour, when dealing with international visitors.

Blue represents peace, tranquility, calm, stability, harmony, unity, trust, confidence. In China, blue is associated with immortality. In Colombia, blue is associated with soap. In India blue is the colour of Krishna, in the Middle East blue is a protective colour.

Black represents power, sophistication, formality, elegance, anonymity, unhappiness, wealth, mystery, fear, evil also. In the USA black is for mourning.

Green represents nature, health, good luck, renewal, youth, vigor, spring, generosity, fertility, jealousy. In India green is the colour of Islam. In Ireland green has religious significance (Catholic). In some tropical countries green is associated with danger.

Orange represents energy, balance, warmth, enthusiasm, vibrancy, flamboyancy. In Ireland orange has religious significance (Protestant).

Purple represents royalty, spirituality, nobility, ceremony, mystery, transformation, wisdom, enlightenment.

Red represents love, danger, desire, speed, strength, violence, anger, and blood. In China red symbolizes celebration and luck, used in many cultural ceremonies that range from funerals to weddings. In India red is the colour of purity. It is often used in wedding outfits.

White represents purity, simplicity, cleanliness, peace, humility, innocence, youth, birth, good, and marriage. In Japan, white carnations signify death. In eastern cultures white symbolizes coldness and sterility. In the USA it signifies virginity.

Yellow represents joy, happiness, optimism, idealism, imagination, hope, sunshine, and cowardliness. In Asia yellow is sacred and imperial.

In web design, when setting text and background colours, readability must be preserved at all costs. Dark backgrounds make you feel as if you're in a small space and also have a depressing effect on your mood. Certain coloured backgrounds make it very difficult to read the text; purples, orange tonings and reds dazzle the eyes.

Contrast should always be preserved. If the text is light coloured then the background has to be dark and vice a versa. White and black always make a good combination, and red and blue are useful for highlighting. Using the combination of black as a background with warm colour text should always be avoided, as it might be great clarity wise but has a tendency to make visitors nauseous.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

  1.  Why is colour an important part of any design?
  2.  What meanings of colours are accepted in our country?
  3.  What different meanings of blue exist?
  4.  Can colours have religious significance? Illustrate.
  5.  What colour is associated with nobility and royalty?
  6.  What colour symbolizes purity in India?
  7.  How does the meaning of white vary from culture to culture?
  8.  What must be preserved when dealing with colours in web design?
  9.  What combination of colours should be avoided in web design?
  10.   What colour do you prefer to work with? Why?

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner:

  •  I’ve just started the course in web design but I still have lots of questions to clarify. Would you be so kind to help me, Jack? You are known to be an expert in this field.
  •  Willingly. What shall we start with?
  •  As for me, reading from a screen is painful and people visiting my webpage can get bored and tired of it…
  •  First of all, you should remember the rule: use 50% less words than you would use on print. If a page is too long, break it into several pages and link to them. And, of course, avoid long blocks of text. Use tools that facilitate scanability, like bullets, subtitles, highlighted keywords, hyperlinks, etc.
  •  And how should I represent the content of the page? I realize that the top of the page is intended for the most important content but what about the fonts?
  •  It’s better to use high contrast for the body of your page: i.e. black text on white background, or white text on black background, try different variations but remember that they must contrast for easy viewing. And don't use too many different fonts in one page, try to stick with 2-3 at the most. Also, avoid using small serif fonts (like Times New Roman): they are difficult to read from a computer screen. Verdana and Arial are the most widely used fonts on the web.
  •  It’s rather surprising! I’ve always used Times New Roman for my pages… And what formats are more preferable for graphics? It’s impossible to design a webpage without graphics, you know…
  •  You are absolutely right. Graphics must be optimized. Use only .gif and .jpg formats. Make your image files as small as possible while maintaining acceptable quality. Avoid graphics that look like ads. People ignore them.
  •  I see. Thanks for your tips. They are very helpful. But there are still lots of questions about navigation, linking, branding…
  •  That is another story. Practise writing, content presentation and graphics at first and then we’ll get back to our discussion. Good luck in your beginnings. Remember: a good beginning is half the battle.

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.  

TEXT C

I  Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  to?target??мати на меті, націлитись
  2.  saturation  насиченість
  3.  infinite нескінчений
  4.  to split розділяти  
  5.  cyan блакитний
  6.  to invoke викликати
  7.  unsettled  невизначений
  8.  to lean  схилятися

II Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  The colour wheel theory is used for analyzing saturation or brightness levels?
  2.  There are almost infinite amounts of colours and a more limited amount of shades that can be analyzed.
  3.  Sir Isaac Newton’s colour wheel was joined at the ends to display the natural hue progression.
  4.  The psychological effects of colours have never been studied.
  5.  Johann Wolfgang Goethe modified the wheel to the form we see today.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  How are colours divided with psychological effects taken into account?
    1.  What is the most favourite colour scheme for web design?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of Unit 13 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1imagery     a) партнер

2 grid      b) образи

3 page layout    c) масштабна сітка

4 associate     d) оформлення сторінки

5 essence     e) вплив

6 blurring distinction   f) мистецтво реклами  

7 quality     g) незначна різниця

8 advertising art    h) єдність

9 unity    i) якість

10 impact     j) сутність

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1value  a) harmonious arrangement or relation of  or  within a

?? b) the physical  of something (especially with  to the  and  of the  constituents of a substance)

?????c)  or  of a

?? d) and significant  by  of  or

?? e) the harmonious  of objects, motions, impulses, sounds, accents, and the like, producing an agreeable effect

UNIT 15

PHOTO & VIDEO DESIGN

TEXT A

I    Read and remember the words and their translation:

  1.  to capture  фіксувати, захоплювати
    1.  emitted випромінюваний, випущений
    2.  device  пристрій, прилад
    3.  to store  зберігати, запам'ятовувати
    4.  advertising  рекламування
    5.  devoted  присвячений
    6.  to emphasize  робити наголос, підкреслювати  
    7.  still life   натюрморт
    8.  to depict  зображувати, відображати
    9.  distinction  відмінність  

II   Read and remember the following phrases:

  1.  silver halide based – на основі галогеніду срібла
  2.  timed exposure – експозиція з заданим часом
  3.  self-fulfilment – самовдосконалення, самовдоволення
  4.  light-sensitive – світлочутливий
  5.  fine art photography – художня, мистецька фотографія
  6.  commonplace – загальновідомий, банальний
  7.  landscape photography – пейзажна фотографія
  8.  artistic endeavour – художня творчість
  9.  editorial – редакційний, поліграфічний
  10.  inanimate – неживий, млявий

III Read and translate the following text:

Photo Design

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Photography is used to preserve memories of favourite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. It is thinking made visual.

The word "photography" comes from  phos ("light") and graphis ("drawing"), together meaning "drawing with light."

Photography is the process of recording  by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a  or .  patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose a sensitive  based chemical or electronic medium during a timed , usually through a  in a the image-forming device known as a  that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically using digital electronic or magnetic memory.  Photography has many uses for both business and pleasure. Photography can also be viewed as a commercial and artistic endeavour.

The  "one picture is worth a thousand words" formed an interesting basis for photo design. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography. Commercial advertising relies heavily on photography and has contributed greatly to its development. Many people take photographs for self-fulfilment or for commercial purposes. Hence, the commercial photographic world can divided into various specific branches of photography.

Advertising photography is made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images are generally done with an ,  or with an in-house corporate design team.

Fashion photography is a genre of  devoted to displaying  and other  items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for  or   such as , , or . Over time, fashion photography has developed its own  in which the clothes and fashions are enhanced by exotic locations and story lines. Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models.  emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in  may be nude, but this is not always the case.

Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.

usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.

can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.

Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine.

 can be considered a subset of editorial photography as the photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.

and are usually bespoken with the customer and sold directly to the end user of the images.

 is made to fulfil a vision whereas landscape photography represents different locations made to be sold to tourists as postcards.  in its turn demonstrates life of the animals.

Photographers can also specialize in other subjects unique to photography, including , , ,  and .

IV Answer the questions:

  1.  What is the origin of the word "photography"??
  2.  What is photography??
  3.  What storage media can be used?
  4.  What was the basis for photo design?
  5.  Why do people take photographs?
  6.  What specific branches of photography are mentioned in the text? Add to the list.
  7.  How can you describe fashion photography?
  8.  What is still life?
  9.  What is preferably used to capture details?
  10.  How can photographers be often categorized?

V   Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

  1.  Photography is not only the process of taking shots. It is … .
  2.  People take photographs not only for commercial purposes but for … as well.
  3.  … photography is made to illustrate and sell a service or product.
  4.   displays  and other  items.
  5.  … photography accentuates on the model.
  6.   captures the bridal couples during wedding ceremonies.
  7.  A story or main idea for the magazine is illustrated in … photography.
  8.  … is similar to still life photography.
  9.  … is often used to capture specific details.
  10.   demonstrates life of the animals.

VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

документальні зйомки, художня фотографія, натюрморт, мистецька фотографія, портрет, пристрій для зйомки в інфрачервоних променях, місце натурних зйомок, портретний живопис, модельна фотографія. 

VII Make up sentences with the terms:

light patterns??representation??light-sensitive medium??commercial photography??fashion photography??still life??landscape photography??.

VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:

photo design??fashion photography??glamour?photography??s??editorial photography??????.

IX Translate the sentences into English:

  1.  Фотографія зберігає найкращі спогади, розповідає історії з нашого життя, передає наші думки.
  2.  Фотографія створюються завдяки відображенню світла, що проходить через лінзу фотокамери, на світлочутливому носії.
  3.  Рекламний бізнес неможливий без творчих зусиль фото-відео дизайнерів.
  4.  Натюрморт відображує зображення неживих загальновідомих природних речей.
  5.  Фотожурналістика дуже близька до поліграфічної зйомки, але її результати стосуються здебільшого матеріалів новин.
  6.  Модельна фотографія фокусується на зображенні манекенниць і моделей для журналів переважно з чоловічою аудиторією.
  7.  Фотограф – це той, хто робить знімки за допомогою фотокамери, дизайнер – створює неперевершені картини, кожна з яких варта тисячі слів.

X  Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

drawing with light, the process of recording , a  or , a sensitive  based medium, both business and pleasure, artistic endeavour, “one picture is worth a thousand words”, various specific branches of photography, commercial photography, a photographer, to specialize in.

TEXT B

I  Read and remember:

  1.  elaborate  ретельно продуманий, розвинутий  
    1.  sophisticated  витончений, складний
      1.  elevation  підвищення
        1.  movie sequences        послідовність кінофрагментів/кадрів
        2.  resolution  чіткість зображення, роздільна здатність
        3.  scale  масштаб
        4.  rotation  обернення
        5.  opacity  каламутність відбитку
        6.  transparency  діапозитив
        7.  to interpolate  робити вставки

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

Video Design

Video design may be referred to as motion graphic design or . Motion design is the art of  within the context of  such as ,  or . Examples include the typography and graphics seen as the titles for a film, broadcast design like show opens for television or the spinning, three-dimensional logo at the end of a TV commercial. If you watch much TV or see many films, you will notice that the graphics, the typography, and the visual effects within these mediums have become much more elaborate and sophisticated. The dramatic elevation of this art form is largely due to technology improvements. Computer programs for the film and video industry have become vastly more powerful, and more available. Probably the leading program used by motion graphic designers is Adobe After Effects, which allows to create and modify graphics over time. Adobe After Effects is sometimes referred to as "Photoshop for film." A newcomer to the market for motion graphic design programs is Apple Computer's Motion. Motion is an inexpensive and user-friendly program that promises to hugely enlarge the ranks of motion graphic designers. A typical motion designer is a person trained in traditional graphic design who has learned to integrate the elements of time, sound and space into his/her existing skillset of design knowledge. Motion designers can also come from filmmaking or animation backgrounds.

A lot of people when using a graphic motion design application, find it is an object-oriented application. These media files can be still images in pixel or vector format, movie sequences and audio files. Inside the application a 'new composition' with its own and independent timeline, resolution, frames-per-second and pixel size can be created.

When creating a composition, one or more of media files can be inserted. The files appear on the composition window, as well as in the timeline.

Layers have properties which can be manipulated such as position (x, y and sometimes z), scale, rotation, opacity, etc. Layers merge with each other by using transparency information provided by the alpha channel and blending modes, which change the way a layer affects the layers below. Almost all the modifiable properties can be keyframed, which means that its value can be stored at certain positions through time. And this is one of the basic principles in computer animation, the use of the computer to interpolate values between keyframes through time.

Since motion design is created using images and video sequences, a great complementary tool is a 3d software package.  is widely used for its intuitive interface, layered export to Adobe After Effects, and the additional MoGraph module, but there are also several others. Such packages can generate images or video sequences with an , which stores all the transparency information.

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Render the text in brief in a written form.

VI Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

  1.  What is video design?
  2.  Where and how can video design be implied?
  3.  What influenced the development of this area of design?
  4.  What computer programs are used in motion design field?
  5.  What skills are needed to become a video designer?
  6.  What kinds of media files do you know?
  7.  What can be created inside those files?
  8.  What properties do the layers have?
  9.  How do the layers merge with each other?
  10.  What is one of the basic principles in computer animation?

VII Practise reading the dialogue with your partner:

  •  Nice head shot, John!?
  •  It’s a picture of my wife. We went for a walk up the woods today and I saw a ray sunshine coming through the trees so I asked my lovely wife to stand in the light while I tried to get a shot. It was taken at 3.30 this afternoon. But I’m afraid it’s not really a head shot, but a portrait.
  •  Why? A head shot is a photographic technique where the focus of the  is a person's face. It is essentially the same as . However, headshot is an image that portrays people as they are and is more of a 'mug shot', however simple or stylized it might be.
  •  Not exactly. The emphasis here must be done on the word “portrays”. A portrait will often 'portray' the person with elements of his life, such as his work, interest, etc. Whereas, a head shot is a front-on (photograph, facing straight at the , with the face being the centre of the picture and containing minimal or no surroundings. The facial expression is usually neutral. These head shots are usually used as a form of identification. They are used as  photos,  and on other forms of  and often require the temporary removal of facial accessories such as glasses.
  •  I think it’s really hard to distinguish whether it is a head shot or a portrait. But anyway it’s great! I like it, light looks good, is it all natural light, or did you use any fill flash on it?
  •  All natural light, mate, I didn’t take my flashgun with me. As I’ve already said the light coming through the trees was lovely…
  •  This photo shows how good natural light can be, I definitely under-use it.
  •  Nice lively expression. You've captured her eyes beautifully. It’s well lit/exposed with just the right amount of detail in the hair and skin. It’s great DOF* – there is no distraction at all from the background.
  •  Thank you. I’m pleased you like it.

* (DOF) depth of field

VIII Give the main idea of the dialogue in your own words.

IX Make up your own dialogues using the key words and expressions from the unit.  

?

TEXT C

I   Mind the following words and word-combinations:

  1.  to diminish? зменшувати, скорочувати
    1.  positive transparency      позитивний діапозитив
    2.  post-processing    подальша обробка
    3.  superiority  перевага
    4.  highlighting  висвітлення, привернення уваги
    5.  shadow  тінь
    6.  exposure latitude        допустимий інтервал витримок при зйомці; інтервал експозиції
    7.  archival storage        архівне зберігання

II Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:

  1.  Film, optics and photographic paper give the opportunity to capture shadow and highlight details.?
  2.  Colour photography displays the classic monochrome look.?
  3.  Digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium.?
  4.  Black-and-white photography became available in the mid 1800s.?
  5.  68 percent of?professional photographers prefer analogue photography because of the wide exposure latitude of film.

III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

  1.  Why do more than two-thirds of professional photographers prefer the results of analogue photography?
  2.  How does colour photography form images?

REVIEW ASSIGNMENTS

I Revise the vocabulary minimum of unit 14 to be checked up.

II Match the words:

1 saturation      a) авторська розробка

2 cyan      b) передача даних

3 flamboyancy     c) блакитний

4 to dazzle      d) насиченість

5 typography     e) безперервність

6 continuity      f) привабливість

7 authoring      g) перевантажений

8 rendering  h) графічне оформлення друкованого тексту

9 attractiveness      i) яскравість

10 augmented     j) засліпити

III Match the words in the left column with their definitions:

1 flamboyancy   a) act of raising in rank or position

2 animation  b) a visual  (of an  or  or  or abstraction) produced on a

3 content c) a  or  wholly or partially created by photographing drawings, sculptures, or other inanimate  in  to create the  of

4 image    d) extravagant

5 promotion e) everything that is included in a collection and that is held or included in something