The realization during 2006-2010 of the Russian-Bulgarian projects “Vzaimodejstvie” and ”Zarjad” (“Interaction” and “Charge”)


Астрономия и авиация

More then 10 years work on the Space station (SS) MIR evidenced that the SS, including the International Space Station (ISS), can be used to provide long-term observations from space. One type of these observations is the monitoring of a number of physical parameters and processes that provide (or can provide in the future) significant influence...



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Scientific report about the realization during 2006-2010

of the Russian-Bulgarian projects “Vzaimodejstvie” and”Zarjad” (“Interaction” and “Charge”)

1. Introduction

More then 10 years work on the Space station (SS) MIR evidenced that the SS, including the International Space Station (ISS), can be used to provide long-term observations from space. One type of these observations is the monitoring of a number of physical parameters and processes that provide (or can provide in the future) significant influence on the environment – the human environment.

The orbits of the SS trace that part of the near-Earth space called ionosphere and located between the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. Important characteristics of the ionosphere are the presence of plasma and the earth magnetic field. Due to the relatively high, in comparison with other near-Earth space regions, ionosphere plasma density it is an important interface in the energetic process of the solar-magnetosphere-atmosphere interactions.

The magnetosphere is a peculiar protective shield that protects the human being from the penetration of high energetic (radiation) particles of space or solar origin. The ionosphere, so as predominantly the atmosphere, protects the human being from the fatal (in large doses) ultraviolet radiation. Knowledge of the processes that can rebuild the magnetosphere and ionosphere structure i.e. the “space weather” is vitally important.

A component of the space weather are also the perturbations coming in the surrounding space from the earth surface that have natural (such as earth quakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, etc. [1]) and anthropogenic (such as industrial electromagnetic radiation and gases, technogenic disasters, etc.) origin. The effects, connected with the power lines radiation, increase with the increase of power consumption in the world (2000Tvt in 1955, 12000 Tvt in 1992). Since the ionosphere heating by radio waves was discovered in 30es (Lyuksenburg effect) it is known that the anthropogenic activity can perturb the ionosphere. Transmitters, used in the radio navigation (in the range of 4-20kHz and 20kHz-2MHz) heat the ionosphere and change the natural plasma parameters. Gases from industrial activity penetrate in the lower ionosphere sheets and change there natural chemical composition and so change the electro-dynamical plasma parameters.

Based on the objectives above the purposes of the space experiments on the SS should be:

  1.  Geophysical investigations, that suggest long-term monitoring measurements of the plasma parameters and plasma-wave processes, connected with the demonstration in the ionosphere of the solar-magnetosphere-ionosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere connections.

The parameters of the ionosphere plasma depend on the parameters of the solar radiation and solar activity (solar wind, coronal mass ejections, etc.) and reflect in the Earth-magnetic field perturbations (geomagnetic storms and substorms), as well as in the ionosphere. These perturbations generate electric fields and this causes large scale plasma convection in the ionosphere. The plasma is very sensitive to various disturbances. The response to the perturbations is the generation of wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from fractions of hertz to tens of megahertz.

Acquisition of new data of the electromagnetic parameters of the ionosphere plasma are needed to refine models of near-Earth space in this region, where, in particular, long term flights with a man on board are made. During a long-term operation of the space stations (10-15 years old and over), along with short-term disturbances (substorms and magnetic storms), we can investigate the long-term variations of geomagnetic disturbances, such as 11-year cycle of the solar activity [2].

An important area of the research should be the study and prediction of “space weather”, i.e. the current and projected state of the ionosphere [3, 4]. These data are necessary for the teams, that control the work of an applied spacecraft in orbit, in order to ensure their long-term active work. For example, it is possible that by a forecast of strong magnetospheric disturbances, some spacecraft should be transfered into sparing mode of operation of onboard equipment.

  1.  Investigation in the near-surface area of the SS of plasma-wave processes

It should be noted that the MIR and ISS are a new class of spacecraft - superlarge SC (SLSC), moving in the Earth's ionosphere. Some parameters of the SLSC, such as inducted electric fields on the long (10-100 meters) structural elements, the length of the plasma trace, etc. up to now were not measured, but they (the parameters) can affect the flight conditions of the SLSC, as well as those of the SC, coupling with the SLSC.

Investigation of the interaction of the SLSC with the ionosphere are necessary both for fundamental geophysical research as well as for the applied ones [5, 6].. Electric and magnetic fields and currents near to the surface of the SLSC are determined by the parameters of space plasma environment and the nature of the interaction of the materials, on the surface of the spacecraft, with this medium [7].

Carried on board of the SC measurements allow to trace the changes of these fields during the flight, depending on the orbital parameters and characteristics of the environment, which are determined by the degree of the external geophysical disturbances and their nature. The experience in conducting such measurements indicate that in some cases these fields reach values that lead to failure of separate devices and systems.

  As the results of research on the SC show, the plasma environment refers to the factors that affect the reliability of the onboard equipment. In the formation of the plasma environment are involved as their own sources of gas and plasma, in particular on the ISS, so and the external environment that interacts with the station surface when moving in the ionosphere.

Investigations of the particle concentration, temperature, potentials, leak-in currents, electromagnetic fields and other plasma parameters around the ISS, as well as factors, influencing there formation near the station surface, are of great scientific and practical interest. The relevance of these studies is determined by the practical tasks by the creation of devices and systems for a long-term use on the SC  and by the investigation of the possibilities and options of the location of such equipment on the SC, in particular on board of the ISS, which is sensitive to the effects of electromagnetic fields and plasma.

Periodically (about once a month – at different years in different way) from the solar corona is emitted a huge cloud of hot, but rarefied plasma, that at rate of 2.1 million kilometers per hour is distributed through the solar system.

     Approximately in 10% of the cases the Earth is in the way of such a cloud (having dimensions of about 50 million km in diameter) which leads to strong perturbations in near-Earth space (magnetic storms, auroras, etc.) as well as on the Earth’s surface (violations of radio communication in the Arctic areas, congestion in transmission lines, strong current in long pipelines, etc.).

Such an event occurred on 6 - January 11, 1997. Coronal mass ejection of substance (about 10 billion tons, roughly equal to the total weight of all harvested on Earth minerals) flew out from the Sun on Jan. 6 (what was seen by optical instruments at the European Space Station SOHO) and then moved towards the Earth for about 3.5 days. Early in the morning on the 10 January the plasma-magnetic cloud came into contact with the earth's magnetic sheath (magnetosphere) and caused the development of a strong magnetic storm. This process was recorded from about 20 near-Earth satellites (two of them Russian - INTERBALL-1 and INTERBALL-2) and 30 ground-based observatories.

The most severe disturbance – a hit of a huge bunch of extremely dense (up to 200 particles/cm3, with the usual 5 – 10 particles/cm3) plasma – earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere have experienced about one o'clock on January 11. At this time, through the near-Earth space passed the back edge of the magnetic cloud. The total energy enclosed in such a dense plasma bunch, was comparable to the total amount of electricity that all plants on the Earth produce for a year. The magnetosphere experienced an extremely strong contraction, that led to the development of a new phase of the magnetic storm and a strong "pumping" of the near-Earth space by energetic particles, coming from the Sun, and accelerated to high energies particles of magnetosphere origin.

This process led to a sharp increase in the level of ionizing radiation in the Earth's radiation belts and, in particular, the instantaneous failure of the electronic components of the American television retransmitter Telstar-401 (valued at approximately $ 200 million), which was at that moment in the zone of the most intense ionizing radiation.

     Could this accident be avoided? Most likely, yes, if the satellite equipment was turn off for a few hours, for example, upon receiving an alarm from a special Space Patrol carrying out continuous monitoring of the plasma parameters at a distance of about 1.5 million km from the Earth (in the libration point) and continuous observations of the Sun with the help of optical instrumentation. In this case, the development of this event on the solar surface and in its vicinity could be registered 2 - 3 days earlier and note the presence of large inhomogeneities in the solar wind for 30 - 40 minutes before they reached the Earth.

Literature to Introduction 
1. Гальперин, Ю.И., В.А. Гладышев, Н.В. Джорджио и др. Высыпание энергичных захваченных частиц в магнитосфере над эпицентром готовящегося землетрясенния. Космич. исслед., т.20, в1, 89-106, 1990.

2. Петрукович,А.А., Климов С.И. Использование измерений солнечного ветра для анализа и прогноза геомагнитной активности. Космические исследования, том 38, №5, с. 463-468, 2000.

3. Климов,С.И., В.Г.Родин, О.Р.Григорян. Изучение и контроль “космической погоды”. Земля и вселенная, №3, стр. 9-18, 2000.

4. Klimov, S.I., V.E.Korepanov, Yu.V.Lissakov, O.V.Lapshinova, I.V.Sorokin, S.Belyaev, G.A.Stanev, B.Kirov, K.Georgieva, M.P.Gough, H.S.C.K.Alleyne, M.Balikhin, J.Lichtenberger, Cs.Ferencz, K.Szego, S.Szalai, J.Bodnar, J.Juchiewicz, K.Stasiewicz. “Obstanovkaexperiment onboard International Space StationThe use for Space Weather research. Magnetospheric Response to Solar Activity, 9-12 September 2003, Prague Czech Republic, Charles University Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Book of Abstracts, p. 60, 2003.

5. Климов, С.И., Ю.В.Лисаков, О.В.Лапшинова, Б.А.Медников, И.В.Сорокин, В.Е.Корепанов, З.Клос, Ю.Юхневич, К.Георгиева, Б.Киров, А.Варга, К.Сёге, Комплексное исследование электромагнитной обстановки Российского сегмента МКС в космических экспериментах “Обстановка” и “Трабант”. V межотраслевая научно-техническая конференция «Электризация космических аппаратов и совершенствование их антистатической защиты как средства увеличения надёжности и сроков активного существования» 16-17 мая 2002, ЦНИИмаш. Сборник тезисов докладов, с. 71-74, 2002.

6. Klimov, S.I., V.E.Korepanov, Yu.V.Lissakov, A.S.Belousov, O.V.Lapshinova, I.V.Sorokin, Yu.V.Afanasyev, S.Belyaev, G.A.Stanev, K.Georgieva, B.Kirov, M.P.Gough, H.S.C.K.Alleyne, M.Balikhin, J.Lichtenberger, Cs.Ferencz, L.Bodnar, K.Szego, S.Szalai, J.Juchniewicz, K. Stasiewicz. “OBSTANOVKA” experiment for space weather research on board the Russian segment of the ISS. 54th International Astronautical Congress, 29.09.-03.10.2003, Bremen, Germany, IAC-03-T. 4. 09, 2003.

7. Сопрунюк, П.М., С.И.Климов, В.Е.Корепанов. Электрические поля в космической плазме. Киев, Наукова думка, 1994.


2. Methodology for investigation of ionosphere plasma-wave processes in the near surface region of super-large space objects.

 Measurement of environmental parameters (concentration, temperature of charged components, electric and magnetic fields) on board of the SC moving in space is not an easy task, because the SC itself changes these parameters. The measurement of environmental electrodynamics parameters is complicated by the fact, that under the influence of electric and magnetic fields, charged particle fluxes and optical radiation, existing in the space plasma, the outer surface of the spacecraft acquires an electric charge (potential). The appearance of electric charge on the surface of a body, placed in plasma, was known from the ground plasma experiments in a vacuum long before launching the first artificial Earth satellite, in the classic works, where the method of probe measurements in plasma was proposed and justified. The investigation of charging (the acquisition of an electric potential) of a spacecraft began almost with the launch of the first scientific satellite, both experimentally and theoretically (by modeling). Currently, studies of the dynamics of the spacecraft potential are going on, both abroad and in Russia. Data, obtained from board of the spacecraft, in laboratory and theoretical studies, are supplemented by physic - mathematical and computer modeling.

The problem of the electric charging, whose solution is important for increasing the periods of successful functioning of the spacecraft in orbit (low apogee, high apogee, geostationary), as well as in the interplanetary and interplanetary space, is connected with the spatial-temporal diversity of the environmental space parameters and with the variety of assignments, sizes and shapes of the modern spacecrafs – from micro satellites to super-large orbital complex (OC) such as the ISS. The physical measurements of environmental parameters from board of the super-large spacecraft are complicated, because of the complex bulk configuration. Moreover, the data on the potential of the surfaces of the spacecraft are essential for preparing and conducting a series of space physics and technological experiments on board, in particular, on the ISS. The study of the potential dynamics is of great importance to ensure the long-term, reliable operation of the SC, used for global communication and are in geostationary orbit, and for the SC, used in global positioning systems.

Around the body, placed in plasma, a layer of positive ions is formed and the body acquires an electric charge (potential), such that the total current directed towards the body will be zero. That are the equilibrium or the floating potential (FP). When the spacecraft is moving on orbit the sign, magnitude and spacecraft charge dynamics depend on the surrounding the apparatus at the current moment plasma parameters. Such parameters are the concentration (of the neutral and charged components) and energetic characteristics (thermal plasma temperature and the translation motion energy for directed flows of charged particles. The plasma parameters at the spacecraft’s height are determined by the solar-terrestrial interactions, controlled processes on the Sun and the Earth’s own magnetic field. There for, the spacecraft’s charge is determined by the orbit’s inclination, by the changes in the orbit’s height in its motion, by orbit’s illumination (day-night).

In the ionosphere plasma exists a spatial plasma potential, that is determined by the charged component’s density and is characterized by the Debye-radius. In accordance with the theoretical expectations for typical ionospheric conditions, the equilibrium potential of the spacecraft is usually at least a few volts and usually has a negative value. Near the surface of the SC is formed a border charged layer (Langmuir layer), that is the double layer of the space charge, in which the potential varies from the value fp (equal to FP) on its surface to sp (equal to the spatial) on the outer boundary layer. The thickness of the double layer is determined by Debye radius, which typical value in the ionosphere is from 0,2 to 0,7 cm.

The floating potential is an integral parameter characterizing the interaction of the spacecraft with the surraunding plasma, which is expressed by the zero value of the total SC current. Actually the floating potential is a continuously changing (dynamic) parameter, which small-scale measure of its dynamic are the leak-in current fluctuations, that for example on the MIR were in the range from 10–5 to 2.210–4 A/cm2 (sometimes even more).

The theoretical and laboratory researches of charging of a body moving in plasma (flowed round by plasma) with supersonic speed show that the SC potential in such conditions should take a small negative value of an order of some kT/e.

The essential external factor influencing the SC potential dynamic, is the periodic change of day and night sites of the orbit which duration, depending on the orbit parameters and its natural evolution, can change. On the shined sites of the orbit there is a photoionisation of the environmental components and a photoeffect from the SC surface itself. The escape of electrons from the surface leads to that the potential becomes more positive, therefore when crossing the terminator respective potential alterations are observed. One more factor influencing the potential dynamics of an SC, is the geomagnetic activity, which is shown as a change of the plasma density and structure, and as a magnetic field change.

On the ISS orbits, because of its supersonic movement in the plasma ionosphere, the basic external factor stabilizing the potential, is the presence of thermal plasma which provides the final plasma resistance and the run off of the nonequilibrium charge from the SC for a short enough time.

The interaction of a moving body (SC) with ionosphere plasma is mainly determined by:

- firstly, the parameters of the ionosphere plasma at the SC flight altitudes

- secondly, the geometric dimensions of the SC and the ratio of the areas of the conducting and nonconducting SC surfaces, the shape and electric-physical characteristics of the surface material, which primarily include: electrical conductivity, photo-, second- and thermal -emission properties of the materials, used in the SC construction, the bulk form of the surface.

For example, for MIR, as noted above, the SC is considered as a probe immersed in the ionospheric plasma. The MIR is, above all, a probe with a very large area and complex surface configuration. The maximal length, taken by one of the construction axes of the MIR, is 30 m. Evaluation of the total surface area of the the MIR with an accuracy of about 20% gives a value of 1700 m2. Of great importance for the interaction of the spacecraft with the space plasma is the ratio of the surface areas made of conductive and nonconductive materials.

For the MIR, the estimation shows that the total surface area includes about 70% of non-conductive surface (it is - mostly screen-vacuum thermal insulation - SVTI, non-conductive surface of the solar panels (SP) and other design elements) and about 30% conducting surfaces (metal). In some studies it is noted, that there exists a proportional relationship between the potential value and the geometric dimensions.

Electric fields around the spacecraft, moving at a low-altitude orbit, emerge as a consequence of the interaction of the electric fields of the space charge, existing in the ionosphere plasma due to the differences in the electron and ion density (in the scale of the Debye radius), with the electric field created by the SC. The electric field generated by the spacecraft itself, has two components:

- electric field arising as a result of the interaction of the spacecraft with the environment, including the effect of [VxB];

- electric fields that arise as a result of the functioning of the spacecraft equipment, including influencing them remanence of the spacecraft.

Spacecraft’s charging in the space plasma, naturally, leads to the appearance of an electric field around the spacecraft. In the ionospheric plasma, the electric field generated by the spacecraft, greatly exceeds the natural electric fields existing in the ionosphere, which are within a few mV/m.

VxB - effect. Geomagnetic field induces in the moving spacecraft a potential gradient (VxB - effect), that may be of great importance in the case when the device has very long rods and/or a large size (ISS). In this case, we can not assume that the spacecraft has an equipotential surface, its potential is changed along the apparatus in accordance with (VxB)d, where d is the distance to a point on the SC surface, measured from its center. The potential in the points remote to the plane, passing through the center of the SC and perpendicular to (VxB), will be more positive (in the direction VxB) or more negative relative to the points lying in this plane. Since the effect associated with VxB, is directly proportional to the size of d, then the use of long antennas could lead to a significant drop in the SC potential on the SC surface. In general, in the ionosphere VxB is much more, then the measured intensity of the natural electric field. The speed of the artificle Earth’s satellites is approximately 8 km/s, the maximum value of the magnetic field of about 50000 nT, which corresponds to the maximum field VxB about 400 mV/m. The measurement of natural ionospheric electric fields in such background conditions requires special experimental techniques.

Electric fields that arise as a result of the SC equipment operation, including the influences on them of the SC remanent magnetization, create background electric and magnetic fields, which should be minimized during the preparation of the ground space experiment, to comply with the requirements of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and the magnetic purity, i.e., to ensure adequate electromagnetic environment (EME) during the plasma-physical experiments in flight. In space the electric charge (potential) of the SC affects the measurements of the natural electrical fields, thermal plasma parameters and energy spectra of the charged particles fluxes.

First of all, the own charge of the spacecraft influences the measurements of the natural electric fields, that significantly complicates such measurements. Even if we exclude the influence of the VxB-effect of the SC, the electric field detectors can purchase their own potential, on the background of which the natural ionosphere fields measurements are carried out, and it must be considered.

The presence of negative or positive spacecraft surface charge leads to errors in the thermal plasma parameters measurements. Thermal plasma with an energy below the absolute charge value (for ions of positive values and for electrons of negative values) can not be registered with the appropriate device.

When measuring the energy spectra of the charged particles fluxes the positive charge of the spacecraft leads to inhibition of the positive ions, that must be registered by the appropriate device, and to acceleration of the electrons; the negative charge accelerates the positive ions and slows down the electrons, which leads to a shift in the measured energy spectrum of the charged particles at low energies range. This effect is used as a method of measuring the potential (charge) of the spacecraft. For example, if a device for energy spectra measurement of the electrons is calibrated on lower energy threshold detection of 10 eV, then at a potential of the spacecraft -10 V, the electrons with energies of 10 eV will be inhibited and will not be registered with the device; at a potential of+10 V the device will record the accelerated to 10 eV electrons of the thermal plasma.

Protection of the sensitive detectors of the  on-board scientific instruments from a variety of interferences caused by magnetic and electric fields in the satellite surrounding plasmas, is currently one of the central problems of ensuring the proper functioning of complex space plasma-wave experiments. Parasitic effects of permanent magnetic fields, except the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft, include magnetic fields generated by direct currents flowing in current-carrying paths of the solar panels. The mechanisms of generation of permanent electric fields on the spacecraft surfaces and the effects they cause. The question of the satellite potential relative to the plasma, associated with the occurrence of Langmuir space-charge layer around any of the plasma probe, has a long history.

Parasitic effects, due to the charging of the spacecraft, also apply to electric field measurements, where the double probe method can respond to the local electric field, induced by the SC charge. The thickness of the device Langmuir layer will increase when increasing its potential and size, and thus the sensors must be located as far as possible from the zone of disturbance. This is the reason for the  removal of the sensors on booms at significant distances from the SC. With the decrease of the positive potential of the satellite and of the conductive parts of the bars, on which the electric field sensors are located, can significantly reduce the local field perturbations and thereby increase the value of the electric field measurements.


3. Space experiment “OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage” on board of the ISS

A long-term monitoring of the parameters of ionosphere and some areas of magnetosphere from the board of orbital stations can be of valuable help first for the users of current information for the ionosphere status (broadcasting and navigation) and for the researchers of solar - terrestrial relations.

The experiment is being held for the need of fundamental space research and has researching character, since the SC and energetic characteristics of electromagnetic fields in ionosphere (at an altitude of 350-400 km) are not known till the moment. At these altitudes there have not been and there are not such Russian satellites with long life expectancy, but there is only a space station with the help of which a complex research on the properties of ionosphere plasma could be done. The researching character of the experiment requires setting up the optimal functioning modes of plasma-wave complex (PWC), which on its turn requires sending a considerable quantity of telecommands from Earth to board, i.e. carrying out the intensive program of Space Experiment (SE),

The complex PWC is a set of scientific devices with both self -dependent and inter-dependent functional use, and also a set of devices used for control functioning modes of scientific devices, acquisition, processing and data storage the measurements, providing the communication between onboard systems of the ISS, keep- up of thermal mode.

Giving an account for the considerable self-dependence and the functioning of scientific devices, and their use in many space projects (Intercosmos-Copernicus 500, Intercosmos -Bulgaria 1300, Interball-Tail Probe, Mars 94/96, etc.), and considering also that the design is made in different countries a decision has been taken, on financial grounds as well, that original constructions of the devices should  be used. Using the original constructions is also dictated by the originality of the sensors of the scientific devices.

The complex of physical parameters planned for measuring in the process of implementation of SE «OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage» will allow to investigate many physical  phenomena in ionosphere and in the zone which is very near to the surface of the ISS. Considerable part of these phenomena have not been researched experimentally enough and precise criteria for their display have not been defined.

Based on what it is mention above and the real possibilities for realizing the SE «OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage», the following tasks are expected to be  solved:

  1.  A study on dynamical characteristics of ionosphere interference that are induced by meteorological process in troposphere.
  2.  Detection of ionosphere display of tectonic activity.
  3.  Detection of physical regularities related to thermal radiation, AGW, electromagnetic ELF radiations (both from seismic and anthropogenic sources).
  4.  Detection of possible electromagnetic radiations ELF range from lithospheric and anthropogenic sources


The purposes of the scientific program that are reached in the SE «OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage»:

- Actions and providing ecological low-frequency monitoring interference in environment based on technical equipment used in SE which make the plasma –wave measuring on the board of the SC upon the program for fundamental research on solar-terrestrial relations;

- Creation of experimental data base for electromagnetic status of ionosphere of the Earth for detection and prevention of catastrophic variations;

- Development of methodology for providing a long-term ecological electromagnetic monitoring of interferences in space using long life expectancy of the ISS in the most active area of the ionosphere – F2 layer.

In the frame of the «OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage» it is envisaged a study on ionosphere interferences for the purpose of defining the level of influence of the interference on electromagnetic status and plasma cover in the zone that is very near to the surface of the ISS, and therefore functional capability of scientific and services systems of the ISS. The electromagnetic waves are radiated from Earth surface in different range frequency. Radiation related to power line in the range of 10-4000Hz is possible to be observed over industrial regions. Frequencies: 50 и 60 Hz (and also harmonic modes) are the main ones depending on the country geographical location. The effects related to radiations provoked by electrical power lines amplify with the increase of electricity consumption in the world. (2000 TW in 1955, 12000 ТW in 1992).

The devices set in the «OBSTANOVKA 1-st stage» and their designers are presented in Table 1. The list of physical parameters is presented in table 2.

Table 1. PWC devices content




Combine wave probe  – CWP-1, CWP-2   



Flaxe-gate  magnetometer – DFM1



Flaxe-gate  magnetometer – DFM2



Langmuir probe – LP1, LP2

SSTRI BAS                     


Sensor of the potential – DP1, DP2

SSTRI BAS                     


Correlation spectrometer electrons - CORES

Sussex University  


Radiofrequency analyzer – RFA





Sampler and analyzer signals – SAS-3

SRG Etvos University,



Data acquisition and control units – DACU1, DACU2



Board storage telemetry information -BSTM



Booms for sensors and primer amplifiers

RSC “Energia”


Cases for devices integration – CWD1, CWD2



PWC ground testing device - EGSE



Table 2.

Physical parameters


Measurement device

plasma current  density  

- Currents range: 2х10-10 - 2,5х104 А/см2,

- Frequencies range: 0.1 - 20000 Hz


electrical field potential

- Potentials range: 5 microV -   2 V,

- Frequencies range: 0.1 - 20000 Hz


magnetic field intensity

- Filed range: 0.05 - 20 nT,

- Frequencies range: 0.1 до 20000 Hz


quazistationary electrical  field  intensity 

- Filed range: 0.5 microV -   2 V,

- Frequencies range: 0.01 - 10 Hz


variable electrical field  intensity

- Filed range: 0.05 microV/m - 2 V/m,

- Frequencies range: 0.1 - 20000 Hz


vector ( three components) constant magnetic field intensity

- Filed range: +/- 64000 nT,

- Frequencies range: 0.01 - 10 Hz

- Sensitivity: 1 nT


variable magnetic field intensity

- Filed range: 0.05 - 20 nT,  

- Frequencies range (+/- 10%): 55, 110, 165, 400, 800 Hz


particles concentration

- Electrons and ions: 106 - 1010 cm-3,


electrons temperature

- Range: 1000 до 6000 0K 


floating surface potential

- Range: +/- 200 V


floating surface potential

- Range: +/- 200 V, error: +/- 0.1 V,

- Range: +/- 20 V, error: +/- 0.01 V ,


power electrons specter  

- Range: 10 eV - 10 keV,

- field of view: 3600 х 20 ,


specter of  frequency modulation of  flow electrons

- Frequencies range: 0  10 MHz,

- Frequencies range: 0 - 10 kHz,

- Frequencies range: 0 - 150 Hz


specter density of  power electromagnetical  field

- Range: 0.1 - 20 MHz 


sensor temperature

Temperature range  : -55 to +1250С


As noted above, for the realization of the high sensitivity of devices as a rule from prior experience of satellite experiments projects the sensors (antennas) of the devices are necessary to be moved to a certain distance of several meters from the electronic devices. In this way booms have been used in the composition of PWC.

Given the complex configuration of the ISS structure and hence the distribution in the area near to the electromagnetic field, it is necessary to implement spatially distributed measurements. Thus two booms with sensors have been used. The booms are placed at a distance of three meters apart. A corresponding electronic module is placed to each boom.  

  Fig.  1. Layout on the location of the “OBSTANOVKA – 1-st stage” on board of the ISS


 The location of the outer surface of boom and electronic blocks requiring an exit for the operators from hermetic part of the ISS, should meet a number of specific requirements such as: convenience and safety performance of operators, providing safe access for operators to different parts of the ISS. The study on all requirements shows (Fig. 1 and 2) conformity of the PWC location along longitudinal parapets of the services module (SM) of the Russian segment of the ISS (SM RS ISS).

Equipment of PWC complex is provided on board of the ISS by the Space Transportation Satellite «Progress».

Fig 2. Layout of the location of PWC on the SM RS ISS

The location of the PWC outer surface meet the requirements in the optimal way - the absence between the booms (the upper parts of the booms to be three meters apart) and absence of the construction of the SM RS ISS in the field of view of sensors systems  is available.

The location of the sensors with preliminary amplifiers of booms ShVD1 ShVD2 demand rigid requirements on their operating temperature range from -50oC to + 50oС. The normal functioning of the sensors is ensured by the fact that under “off“ condition all elements referring to their technical specifications respond to the present temperature range, and under “on” condition a thermal power is emitted in the sensors, and then their operating temperature is within -200С to + 500С .

4. The realization of projects “Vzaimodeistvie” and “Zaryad” within the agreement between Russian Academy of Sciences and Bulgarian  Academy of Sciences in the area of Fundamental Space Research (2006-2010 )

In accordance with the annex to Protocol on scientific cooperation between Russian Academy of Sciences and Bulgarian  Academy of Sciences in the area of Fundamental Space Research in the years 2006-2010 in the list of common Russian –Bulgarian projects in  the years  2006-2010   to be continued:

4.1 Project “Vzaimodeistvie” - Research on  the close- to- surface processes  in the zone of wave plasma process of interaction of orbital stations (supperbig spacecrafts) with ionosphere.

Organizations – participants: Space Research Institute of the RAS (IKI RAN) and Space Solar - Terrestrial Research Institute (SSTRI-BAS)


From IKI RAN - Klimov S.I.;

From SSTRI BAS - B.Kirov.

4.2 Project “Zaryad ISS” – Investigation of the close–to- surface processes charging of spacecrafts with high dimension (the ISS).

Organizations – participants: Space Research Institute of the RAS (IKI RAN) and Space Solar - Terrestrial Research Institute (SSTRI-BAS)


From IKI RAN - Klimov S.I.;

From SSTRI BAS – Stanev G.

4.3. During 2006 taking into consideration of methodologically – based developed by Russian and Bulgarian specialists with cooperation of colleagues from England, Hungary, Poland, Ukraine and Sweden, the Bulgarian specialist have made the following:

Constructive documentation for devices have been development

- Langmuir Probe – LP1, LP2.

- Sensor of the potential – DP1, DP2.

4.4. Design of technological patterns for devices LP and DP.

- Design of control testing system for devises LP and DP.

- The documentation of devices have been developed and applicable for LP and DP.

- Test for acceptances have been made for technological device LP and DP.

- Acceptance of technological devices of LP and DP in Bulgaria.

- Input test on technological devices of LP and DP has been made (Fig. 3).

- A program for ground experimental processing of devices has been developed.

  1.  For the period 2006-2010.

4.5.1. Russian and Bulgarian specialists have been carried in IKI RAN ground testing on technological pattern PWC related to program for ground experimental processing of devices, include EMC.

4.5.2. The Russian specialists carried out in RKK «Energia» testing of technological pattern of PWC on complex stand of service module of the ISS. The Bulgarian specialists have made analysis on telemetric information that has been received in these tests.

Fig 3. Technological pattern of LP and DP devices.

Fig.4. Testing upon parameters Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) in spatial camera in IKI RAN.

4.5.3. The Bulgarian specialists have developed flight pattern for LP and DP device (Fig. 5, 6).

a)       b)



Fig. 5. DP.

Primary transducer – DP-PP [a). A view from electroconnectors.

b). Nonconducting  flange enforcement. c). Side view] are situated on the booms (ShWD1 and ShWD2). Sensitive elements (sphere) are covered with protected case (red colour).

The secondary transducer – DP-VP [d). View from panel electro-coupling] which are inside the devices CWD1 and CWD2.




Fig. 6. LP.

Primary transducers – LP-PP [a). Side view, sensitive elements (Fig.6b – cylinder diameter 3 mm) are covered with protected case (red colour)] are situated on the boom (ShWD1) and on the upper top of the CWD2.

Secondary transducer LP-VP [c) view from panel electro-coupling] which are inside the devices CWD1 and CWD2.

One set of the primary transducers DP-PP and LP-PP is provided on board of the ISS in special containers (made by of the RKK «Energia») in the set of the boom ShWD1 (Fig. 7), and the second set DP-PP in the set of boom ShWD2 (Fig. 8).

Fig. 7. Container ShWD1.

Fig. 8. Container ShWD2.

Further there have been carried out:

  1.  In Bulgaria acceptances test of the Flight pattern (LO) of LP and DP devices.
  2.  The acceptance is carried out from specialists from IKI RAN LO of LP and DP in Bulgaria.
  3.  The acceptance LO of LP and DP in IKI RAN with the participation of Bulgarian specialists.

Russian specialists have carried out in IKI RAN assembling of LO PWC.

The Bulgarian specialists have presented in IKI RAN output data for the documents which should be coordinated with RKK «Energia»:

  1.  Methodology for realization of space experiment «Obstanovka 1-st stage» (Fig. 9).
  2.  Program for realization of space experiment.
  3.  List of nonmetallic materials for Safety Certificate.
  4.  Program and methodology for realization in RKK «ENERGIA» input testing LO PWC.
  5.  Program and methodology for realization on CS in RKK «ENERGIA» complex tests LO PWC.

Fig.9. Discussion methodology for realization of space experiment between Bulgarian and Russian specialists (September 2008) on the exhibition in IKI RAN, using the model of the fragment RS ISS.

Forthcoming  actions:

  1.  May-August 2011 – Acceptance and complex tests of the LO PWC in IKI RAN with the participation of representatives of international cooperation.
  2.  September-November 2011 – Complex test of the LO PWC in RKK “Energia”.
  3.  December 2011 – Preparation of the LO PWC for delivery to the ISS on the board Transportation Spacecraft  “Progress”.



 What has been discussed with the participants in the experiment in the further development of space experiment “Obstanovka” suggests (Space experiment “Obstanovka second stage” included in the perspective program of Scientific- Technical experiments of the Russian Segment of the ISS, approved by CSTC) conducting multicomponent (vector) measuring of the electrical fields, and also realization of the plasma parameters with mobile, autonomous mini-complex scientific device equipment (bouye), situated in all places from the ISS surface.

 Important factor for decreasing the weight is the application of new technologies in the construction of electrical conjunctions (cables substitution).

 One of the ways to solve this problem taking into accountant that a great part of plasma wave sensors have analog outputs is to digitalize the analog signals and to form digital data directly in the sensors. Considering that the sensors are situated on the booms, i.e. they should function in enormous ranges of temperature, and also they have high dynamical range (~120 dB) and frequent range (from several Hz to tens of MHz) the requirements to ADC are very strict (rigid). The validation of this methodology has positive results in space experiment on orbital station “MIR” [1…3].

 The lasting monitoring of the ionosphere parameters and some areas of magnetosphere from on the board of orbital stations can be very useful for the users of the current information for the status of ionosphere (broadcasting and navigation)  and also  for the researchers of the solar terrestrial relations.

The experience of the geophysical experiments on the board of orbital station “MIR” shows that the realization of different space experiments that function upon their own cyclogram transmitting data on different telemetric systems not considering one type but not tested together measurement apparatus, make the solution difficult, for example for such a complex task as the research of the processes of relations extra-large SC with ionosphere.

The experience that IKI RAN has in conducting different types automatic spacecrafts of complex measuring of electromagnetic fields in wide ranges of frequencies and amplitudes show that using measuring instruments made from different working teams require realization of special measures to achieve compatible results. Such measures are the following:

- Creation of unique metrological requirements to measuring apparatus and testing and conform to these requirements.

 - Using the compatible calibration measures. 

- Compatible presentation of the measuring results obtained in the realization of the space experiment that is directed to research on charged particles and plasma functioning together on the board of ISS.

During the process of realization of scientific program of experiment “Obstanovka – 1-st stage” the following should be created:

  1.  Experiment data base on electromagnetic parameters “Space Weather” and technogenic process for disturbances in ionosphere.
  2.  Methodology for organization of long-term space experiment on board of the ISS for operational monitoring on electromagnetic parameters of Space Weather
  3.  Experimental Data Base on parameters of electromagnetic environment around SM PC ISS
  4.  Experimental Data Base on parameters of electromagnetic status of ionosphere of the Earth for disaster variations detection and prevention.


  1.  Климов, С.И., В.Е.Корепанов, Ю.Юхневич, М.П. Афанасенко, В.А.Грушин, И.А.Добровольский, Е.А.Грачев, О.Р.Григорян, А.А.Марусенков. Волновой комплекс аппаратуры СПРУТ-VI. Приборы и техника эксперимента, № 1, с. 122-126, 2004.
  2.  Беляев, А.А., О.Р.Григорян, С.И.Климов, Л.С.Новиков, С.Б.Рябуха, И.В.Чурило. Комплекс аппаратуры СПРУТ-VI для орбитальной станции МИР. Приборы и техника эксперимента, № 1, с. 95-100, 2004.
  3.   Грачев, Е, О.Григорян, W.Riedler, K.Schwingenschuh, W.Magnes, G.Berghofer, W.Koren, T.Zhang, K.-H.Glassmeier, H-U.Auster, K-H.Fornacon, J.Rustenbach, В.Грушин, С.Климов. Магнитометрическая система аппаратуры СПРУТ-VI. Приборы и техника эксперимента, № 1, с. 127-133, 2004.

Publication 2006-2010.

1. Климов, С.И., Б.Киров, Г.Станев. Электромагнитные параметры космической погоды. SENS’2006 Second Scientific Conference with International Participation SPACE, ECOLOGY, NANOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY, 14-16 June 2006, Varna, Bulgaria, Book of Abstracts, p.185-187.

2. Климов, С.И., В.Е.Корепанов. Комплексный эксперимент «Обстановка». Шестая Украинская конференция по космическим исследованиям, 3-10 сентября 2006 г. НЦУИКС, Евпатория. Сборник тезисов, с. 52.

3. Климов, С.И., В.А.Грушин, В.Е.Корепанов. Комплексный эксперимент «Обстановка». Научно-техническая конференция по основным результатам научно - прикладных исследований на РС МКС, г. Королев, Московская обл., 01 марта 2007.

4. Лисаков, Ю.В., С.И.Климов, О.В.Лапшинова, Н.М.Пушкин, А.С.Машков. Анализ измерений квазистационарных электрических полей в приповерхностной зоне орбитального комплекса МИР. Космические исследования, 2007, том 45, № 3, с. 270-273.

 Lissakov, Yu.V., S.I.Klimov, O.V.Lapshinova, N.M.Pushkin, and A.S.Mashkov. The analysis of measurements of quasi-stationary electrical fields in the near-surace zone of the Mir Orbital Complex. ISSN 0010-9525. Cosmic Research, 2007, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 253-256.

5. Климов С.И., В.Е.Корепанов. 40 лет совместных исследований – итоги и перспективы. 7-я Украинская конференция по космическим исследованиям в Национальном центре управления и испытаний космических средств г. Евпатория, 4-7 сентября 2007 г., с. 115.

6. Korepanov, V.; Klimov, S. Wave Probea new instrument for space research. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Volume 9, 2007, EGU General Assembly 2007, EGU2007-A-00678.

7. Klimov, S.I., V.A.Grushin Organizational and methodical problems of the comparison of data of the ground-based and satellite measurements. Fourth UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA/BAS Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science "First Results from IHY 2007", 2-6 June 2008, Sozopol, Bulgaria. Book of Abstracts, p. 13.

 8. Grushin, V.A, S.I.Klimov. Study of electromagnetic parameters of space weather. Plasma Phenomena in the Solar System: Discoveries of Prof. K.I. Gringauz - a view from the XXI century. International conference. Moscow, Space Research Institute of RAS, 9 – 11 June 2008. Program and Abstracts, p. 14.

9. Грушин, В.А., С.И.Климов.  Плазменно-волновой комплекс научных приборов для измерения волновых и плазменных параметров на борту Российского сегмента Международной космической станции (РС МКС). Международная конференция ”SPEXP-2008” Научные и технологические эксперименты на автоматических космических аппаратах и малых спутниках. 2 – 5 сентября 2008 г., Самара, Россия, Программа. – Самара: Изд-во СНЦ РАН, 2008, с. 129.

10. Зелёный Л.М., С.И.Климов, М.М.Могилевский, Н.Е.Рыбьева. Программа исследования физических механизмов глобальных изменений климата и окружающей среды Земли: Космические наблюдения и математическое моделирование. International Conference Fundamental Space Research. Resent development in Geoecology Monitoring of the Black Sea Area and their Prospects. Conference Proceeding. Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, September 21-28. 2008, p. 338-342.

11. Grushin, V.A., S.I.Klimov, B.Kirov, G.Stanev. Parameters of thermal plasma and the potential of spacecraft - key parameters of the space weather. International Conference Fundamental Space Research. Resent development in Geoecology Monitoring of the Black Sea Area and their Prospects. Conference Proceeding. Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, September 21-28. 2008, p. 421.

12. Грушин, В.А., С.И.Климов, В.Е.Корепанов, С.А.Сорока, Г.Станев, К.Георгиева, Б.Киров, П.Гаф, Ю.Юхневич, К.Стасевич, Ш.Салаи, Ю.Лихтенбергер, Ч.Ференц, Л.Боднар. Комплексный наземно-космический эксперимент «Обстановка» по изучению электромагнитных параметров космической погоды. 6 Открытая всероссийская конференция. Современные проблемы дистанционного зондирования Земли из космоса. Институт космических исследований Российской академии наук Москва, 10–14 ноября 2008 года.

13. Kirov B, K.Georgieva, D.Batchvarov, A.Boneva, R.Krasteva, G.Stainov, S.Klimov, T.Dachev. A Remote Upgrading of a Space-Borne Instrument, Advances in Space Research, 42(7) 1180-1186, 2008.

14. Зелёный, Л.М., Климов С.С., Петрукович А.А. Международные эксперименты Российской академии наук в рамках Программы по космической погоде. 15-я международная научная конференция «Системный анализ, управление и навигация» Крым, Евпатория 27 июня – 4 июля 2010 года, Тезисы докладов. – М.: Изд-во МАИ-ПРИНТ, 2010, с.6-8.


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