94351

Learning English

Реферат

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

My grandfather was a market gardener in Ireland. He grew flowers, fruit and vegetables, and sold them in the market every day. He worked hard all his life, and when he died, his son (now my uncle) and daughter (my mother) inherited a large house and garden (received this house and garden from my grandfather when he died).

Английский

2015-09-08

12.24 MB

1 чел.

ББК Ш13(Англ)-923

Рецензенты:

А.Г. Садыкова, проф. Татарского государственного гуманитарно-педагогического университета, д-р филол. наук;

А.Р. Ахметшина, доц., помощник ректора КГФЭИ по международному сотрудничеству, к-т филол. наук

Learningenglish1.ru: учебное пособие / Е.М. Галишникова, Ю.Н. Горелова, Е.Е. Журавлева, Л.Р. Исмагилова, О.В. Полякова, Р.М. Марданшина, Л.В. Хафизова – КГФЭИ, 2011. – 195 с.

ISBN

Материалы учебного пособия направлены на формирование коммуникативной компетенции студентов средствами английского языка. Предлагаемые тексты и задания развивают навыки восприятия англоязычной речи на слух, способствуют овладению навыками чтения аутентичных источников, использованию речевых образцов, закрепляют умения  самостоятельных высказываний в устной и письменной формах. Содержание учебного пособия отвечает требованиям, предъявляемым к оригинальным учебникам зарубежных издательств. Для него характерны: наличие словарного минимума в каждом учебном модуле, компактность подачи грамматического материала, наличие упражнений тренирующих различные виды чтения, профессионально-ориентированный материал для совершенствования навыков чтения, коммуникативная направленность тренировочных заданий, позволяющих студентам освоить активную лексику и приобрести навыки профессиональной деятельности, наглядность иллюстративного материала.

Для студентов экономических факультетов.

УДК 811.111:378

ББК Ш13(Англ)-923

ISBN                                                                    Коллектив авторов, 2011


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов экономических факультетов.

Целью учебника является формирование коммуникативной компетенции средствами английского языка, что включает знание лексических единиц, грамматических структур, стилистических особенностей английского языка в рамках определенного уровня владения (intermediate, upper intermediate), формирование навыков восприятия англоязычной речи на слух, овладение навыками чтения аутентичных текстов, использование речевых образцов, умения  самостоятельно высказываться в устной и письменной формах.

Учебник состоит из четырех разделов, в каждом по три модуля, что помогает тематически структурировать материал. Каждый раздел предваряется заданием, которое вводит студентов в тематику последующего материала. Комплексный подход к созданию модулей позволил объединить  все составляющие речевой деятельности: чтение, говорение, аудирование, письмо.

В модулях содержатся задания для индивидуальной работы, мотивирующие студентов к самостоятельной познавательной деятельности.

Особое внимание уделяется грамматической составляющей учебника. Компактное представление  грамматического материала в форме таблиц осуществляется на основе тематики модуля с опорой на экономическую терминологию. Упражнения по грамматике учитывают особенности использования речевых клише в устной речи и тонкости их перевода на русский язык. Тренировочные упражнения обеспечивают эффективное повторение и закрепление материала.

Лексическая составляющая учебника представлена аутентичными текстами соответствующей тематики, что способствует организации разнообразных видов работы по формированию навыков чтения и говорения. В конце каждого модуля предлагается активный лексический минимум.

Тематика учебника включает: Getting acquainted (Family life, Daily routine, Job hunting), Native land (Russia, the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan), English speaking countries (Across Britain, the USA, Canada), Higher education (Higher education in Russia, Higher education in Britain, Higher education in the USA), Texts for home reading, Grammar Reference.

Языковой материал наряду с общеупотребительной лексикой содержит экономическую терминологию, что позволяет студентам вести беседу на общие темы с элементами экономической направленности. Особое внимание уделяется аутентичным экономическим текстам для домашнего чтения с разнообразными заданиями (шестой раздел).

Грамматический справочник, включающий теоретическую и иллюстративную части, завершает представленный материал.

Материалы учебника прошли апробацию в Казанском государственном финансово-экономическом институте на кафедре иностранных языков в сфере экономики, менеджмента и бизнеса.

Разделы учебника разработаны преподавателями кафедры:

Раздел 1 – Исмагилова Л.Р., Горелова Ю.Н., Заляева Е.О., Солодкова И.М.;

Раздел 2 – Борзова М.В., Валеева Л.А., Журавлева Е.Е., Сиразеева А.Ф., Хафизова Л.В.;

Раздел 3 – Галишникова Е.М., Уразметова Д.И., Абдуллина Л.Г., Калганова Г.Ф., Марданшина Р.М., Соколова Т.А.;

Раздел 4 – Кудрявцева М.Г., Полякова О.В., Григорьева Е.В., Денисова В.С., Тарасова Е.В.;

Раздел 5 – Большакова Ю.А., КудрявцеваМ.Г.;

Раздел 6 – Хусаинова А.А.

Редакционная коллегия: профессор, д.п.н. Галишниковой Е.М., доценты к.филол.н. Горелова Ю.Н., к.п.н. Журавлева Е.Е., к.с.н. Исмагилова Л.Р., к.с.н.Полякова О.В., ст. преподаватели к.п.н. Марданшина Р.М., Хафизова Л.В.

 

CONTENTS


UNIT 1

GETTING ACQUAINTED

Module 1 Family Life

PREVIEW

  1.  Look at the picture and answer the questions below.
  2.  Who are those people in the picture?
  3.  Do they know each other?
  4.  Why do you think so?
  5.  How are they related to each other?
  6.  Can you predict their relationships?

6) Is it difficult for you to start a talk with an unknown person?

  1.  Which of the following happens to you for the first time when you meet someone?
  2.  I talk too much because I am nervous.
  3.  I don’t speak at all because I can’t think of anything to say.
  4.  I smile a lot so that the other person likes me.
  5.  I act in exactly the same way as I would with a person I know.
  6.  Can you remember when and where you met some of the following people for the first time?

  •  A very good friend
  •  A girlfriend/ a boyfriend

  •  A groupmate
  •  A teacher

LANGUAGE SKILLS 1: STARTING A CONVERSATION

A. When you start a conversation try to reply in a way that develops the conversation. Match the question with an appropriate reply.

How are you?

Thanks. I bought it from Harrods.

Nice to see you again.

Yes, I think we last met two years ago in Manila.

It's been a long time, hasn't it?

Yes, awful. I think it's rained every day since I arrived.

Nice weather today, isn't it.

Fine thanks. And you? You're looking well.

Terrible weather isn't it.

Yes, I did thanks. It was very useful.

That's a nice shirt/blouse.

Yes, it is, isn't it? Not like the coffee you get in Italy.

This coffee's a bit weak.

Yes, lovely. I hope it stays like this for the weekend.

Did you get that mail I sent you?

Nice to see you too. How are you?

B. Now try to go around a class, greet and start a conversation.

LANGUAGE SKILLS 2: INTRODUCING YOURSELF & PEOPLE

C. Practice introducing yourself, friends and groupmates. Remember to smile (and use handshakes where appropriate).

  •  After you have been introduced to someone, it is polite to ask a few general questions to get acquainted. For example:
  •  Where are you from, Carol?
  •  I'm from Connecticut.
  •  Connecticut, which part?
  •  Hartford, the capital. How about you, Ben?
  •  Nebraska - a place called Bellevue. It's near Omaha.
  •  How do you know Alan (A)?
  •  He is my friend from college.
  •  When meeting someone for the first time, it is not appropriate to ask certain types of questions. Do NOT ask: A person's age, Birth date, Salary, Weight, Marital status. You may ask general questions about the situation. For example:
  •  How do you know Alan (the person who introduced us)?
  •  Are you a student at this university?
  •  Is this your first time here?
  •  What do you do for a living?
  •  How long have you been working for (company)?

LANGUAGE SKILLS 3: CLOSING A CONVERSATION

                                                                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                        

D. How would you close a conversation in the following situations?

  •  You are in a hurry to leave. What do you say?
  •  You really don't want to leave, but you can see the other person needs to go.
  •  You’ve just met someone at a party, but you have to leave the party early.
  •  You are "seeing someone off" at the airport/train station.

E. A host (H) and a guest (G) are sitting in the airport lounge after a successful business meeting. Role-play the dialogue according to the model given below.

G: Start a 'leaving' dialogue

H: Reply to the guest

G: Say why you must leave

H: Show interest in the guest’s plans

G: Give more information

H: Make a final reference to business

G: Thank the host for his/her help

H: Reply - say it's been a pleasure

G: Make a second reference to leaving

H: Wish the visitor a good trip and send your regards to someone

G: Refer to the next meeting and say goodbye.

VOCABULARY 1: JOBS

  1.  Match professions with their definitions.

Professional people

architect

teaches in a university

lawyer

plans for buildings of roads, bridges, machines, etc

engineer

controls the financial situation of people and companies

accountant

designs buildings

university lecturer  

buys and sells stocks and shares

broker (stock market)

works for the government

civil servant

represents people with legal problems

Medical professions               

doctor

animal doctor

nurse

operates on people

surgeon

gives medical treatment and tries to solve medical problem

dentist

helps people to solve personal problems

vet

practices dentistry

psychologist

looks after and takes care of others

Manual jobs (these jobs are done with hands and all the examples given

below are skilled jobs and need a lot of training)

bricklayer

makes things using wood

carpenter

repairs cars

plumber

fits and repairs electrical things

electrician

builds walls

mechanic

fits and repairs water pipes, bathrooms etc.

Armed forces and emergency services

soldier

serves in the navy

sailor

is in the police service

pilot

works in the fire brigade

police officer

serves in the army

firefighter

flies the aircraft

  1.  Write down at least one job from the list that would probably be impossible for these people.
  2.  Someone who didn’t go to the university
  3.  Someone with very bad eyesight (cannot see very well)
  4.  Someone who is always seasick on a boat
  5.  Someone who understands nothing about cars.
  6.  Someone who will not work in the evening or at weekends.
  7.  Someone who is afraid of dogs.
  8.  Someone who is afraid of heights and high places.
  9.  Someone who is terrible at numbers and figures.
  10.  Someone who can’t stand the sight of blood.
  11.  Someone who is a pacifist, who is anti-war.
  12.  You have just bought a piece of land and you are planning to build a house on it.  Write down at least six people that you may need to help you. What would you need their help for?

VOCABULARY 2: FAMILY & FRIENDS

  1.  Discuss.
  •  Where were you born and brought up?
  •  Who is the core of your family?
  •  How many people form a family?
  •  What’s the ideal age to start up a family life?
  •  Does any ideal family exist?
  1.  Study the following.

Relatives = members of your family

male

female

Your parents' parents

grandfather

grandmother 

Your parents' brother and sister

uncle(s) 

aunt(s) 

Your aunt's/uncle's children

cousin(s) 

cousin(s) 

The father and mother of the person you marry

father-in-law 

mother-in-law 

The brother and sister of the person you marry

brother-in-law 

sister-in-law 

Your brother's/sister's children

nephew(s)

niece(s) 

The person you marry dies, so you are a ...

widower 

widow 

Your mother or father remarries, so you have a…

step-father 

step- mother 

Family background = family history

My grandfather was a market gardener in Ireland. He grew flowers, fruit and vegetables, and sold them in the market every day. He worked hard all his life, and when he died, his son (now my uncle) and daughter (my mother) inherited a large house and garden (= received this house and garden from my grandfather when he died). They carried on the business together until my mother met my father. He was three years her senior. (She was 3 years junior to him). They got married, moved to England, and I was born two years later. They didn't have any more children, so I am an only child.

Family names

When you are born, your family gives you a first name, e.g. James, Kate. Sarah and Alex are common first names in Britain. Your family name (also called your surname) is the one that all the family share e.g. Smith, Brown, Jones, and O'Neil are common surnames in Britain. Some parents give their children a middle name (like a first name), but you do not usually say this name. Your full name is all the names you have, e.g. Sarah Jane Smith.

Changing times

Society changes and so do families. In some places, people may decide to live together but do not get married. They are not husband and wife, but call each other their partner. There are also many families in some parts of the world where the child or children live(s) with just their mother or father; these are sometimes tailed single-parent families.

Friends

We can use a number of adjectives before friend: 

an old friend (= someone you have known for a long time)

a close friend (= a good friend; someone you like and trust)

your best friend (= the one friend you feel closest to)

We use the word colleagues to describe the people we work with.

Ex-

We use this for a husband/wife/boуfriend/girlfriend we bid in the past but do not have now: The children stay with my ex-husband at the weekend. I saw an ex-girlfriend of mine at the disco last night.

  1.  Look at the family tree and complete the sentences below.

Albert & Mary Dodds

John = Susan      Jill = Paul (died 1995)          Barry = Sheila

               Eve        Ana                                                Timothy       Tom  

?

  1.  Correct the mistakes.
  2.  My full name is Katy.
  3.  Unfortunately my family is full, I live with my mum only.
  4.  There are so many helpful close friends in my office.
  5.  My partner (the man I got married with) has brought a wonderful bucket of flowers on our anniversary.
  6.  I divide the flat with my brother.
  7.  I’ve got a niece, son of my brother, who we name John.
  8.  We have so many best friends working with the hospital that I had to become a doctor.
  9.  His wife died last year so he is an ex-husband now.
  10.  She is my senior, so she does what she’s told.
  11.  As their uncle had no other relatives they were granted the house after his death.

?

?

??????????????

  1.  Work with a partner. What is a phrasal verb? What makes it different from other verbs? Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences.
  2.  I grew up/down in Brazil.
  3.  The children were brought down/up by their aunt.
  4.  My brother always told me off/on for borrowing his records.
  5.  You really take before/after your father. You are always complaining.
  6.  My sister looked after/before me when I was ill.
  7.  I don’t get on/off very well with my mother.
  8.  I still look down/up to my older brother, and ask him for advice.
  9.  We carried off/on arguing until they left home.
  10.  Use the sentences in Ex. A to help you match the phrasal verbs from A with the definitions from B.
  1.  

    John is Jill's …
  2.  Timothy is Jill's …
  3.  Eve and Ana are Timothy's…
  4.  Eve is Sheila's  …
  5.  Albert Dodds is Tom's …
  1.  Barry is Eve's …
  2.  Susan is Timothy's …
  3.  As Paul died in 1995, Jill is a …
  4.  Tom is Mary's …

10) The only two people who are not related are…and….

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  1.  Complete the text using the correct form of the phrasal verbs in Exercise B.

I was brought up in a small town near Paris. My parents are English, so I (1) speaking English and French. A young English student lived with us during the school holidays, and she (2) me when my parents were away on business. I remember my father always (3) us (4) in English when he couldn’t hear us, because it was easier for both of us. She was an artist and we (5) very well. I (6) her, and later tried to become a painter myself. Unfortunately, I (7) my father, who wasn’t artistic, and so I was never successful.

D. Answer these questions about yourself and your region.

  1.  What is your first name? What is your surname?  Is that a common name in your region?
  2.  Are you an only child?
  3.  Where did you grow up?
  4.  Who is your oldest friend?
  5.  How many of your ex-classmates are still your friends?
  6.  As a child, did anyone tell you off? Why? Did this make you stop or did you carry on anyway?
  7.  Which member of your family do you get on with best?
  8.  Who in your family do you take after?
  9.  Who looks after you when you are ill?
  10.  As a child, who did you look up to?
  11.  Are single parent families becoming more common in your region?
  12.  In your region, do more and more people live together without getting married?
  13.  When you bring up a child, what do you think is the most important thing to teach him/her?

E. Draw your own family tree and write a short summary of your family background.

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?????????????????????????

  1.  Who do you live with? Do other members of your family live near you, or do you have to travel to see them?
  2.  Match the words to the definitions.

A

B

to grow up

to admire and respect someone

to bring up

to continue (doing something)

to tell (someone) off

to develop from being a child to being an adult

to take after (someone)

to take care of (someone or something)

to look after (someone or something)

to talk angrily to someone because they have done something wrong

to get on with (someone)

to have a friendly relationship with someone

to look up to (someone)

to look or behave like another member of your family

to carry on (doing something)

to care for children until they are adults

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to get divorced

divorce n

someone that is married to one of your parents, but isn't your parent

second wife/second husband       

to (make something) become larger in amount or size

step mother/stepfather                        

legally end someone’s marriage (the legal ending of a marriage)

half-sister/half-brother                    

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

to go to see

two people who are married or in a romantic or sexual relationship, or two people who are together for a particular purpose

suburbs (in the suburbs)

a flat

average

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????dle

apartment

to visit

couple

someone that you marry when you have already been married  to someone else before

to increase

someone who has the same mother, or the same father, as you, but not both parents

C. Read the text and find out how many people Callum, Meera, Веn and Trudy share a house with.

Modern families

What is a "traditional" family nowadays? With more and more couples choosing not to get married, and with the number of divorces and second marriages increasing, the idea of the "traditional family" (two married parents, an average of two children, grandparents living nearby) is rapidly disappearing in some countries.

Here are some stories of people around the world telling about their families.

I'm Callum, and I live with my parents in Cambridge, in the east of England. We moved here when I was five because of Dad's job, but my mum comes from the north of England, and Dad comes from Scotland I've got a grandma in Edinburgh and a granddad in Yorkshire. And I've got two cousins who live near London, because that's where Dad's sister and her husband live. We see my cousins about three times a year, and we go up to Edinburgh every New Year, but I can't remember when I last saw my granddad in Yorkshire. He always sends me presents, though!

Mу name's Meera, and I live in Wolverhampton, near Birmingham, in England. I live with my parents, my brother and my sister. My grandmother lives next door. My mum was born here in Britain, but my grandmother moved here from India in the 1960s when my dad was a little boy. My dad has two sisters - Auntie Sunita and Auntie Rani. Auntie Sunita lives in the same street as us, and Auntie Rani lives in Birmingham, which is only 15 miles away. They're both married, and I've got five cousins. We see them almost every week. Someone is always visiting our house, or we go to Birmingham to see them. And two years ago we all went to India to see our family there.

I`m Ben, from Portland, Oregon, and my family is a bit complicated! I've got a sister called Ella, but three years ago my parents got divorced and now both of them are re-married. We live with my mom, Julie, and my stepfather, Bob. Bob's got a daughter called Daisy, but she doesn't live with us, she lives with her mom. My father's name is Pete. He and his second wife have just had a baby boy, Charles, so I've got a new half-brother!

May name's Trudy and I've got a sister called Beth. Our mum and dad are divorced, so we live with just our mum in the suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Our dad has an apartment in the centre of town, and we spend every other weekend there. After school every day we go to our grandma's house and have a meal there, because our mum doesn't finish work until six o'clock. She collects us at half past six, except on Wednesday evenings when we go swimming with our dad.

D. Underline the correct alternatives to complete the sentences.

  1.  Callum's aunt and uncle/grandparents live near London.
    1.  Callum often/sometimes sees his cousins.
    2.  Meera's aunts both live near/far away.
    3.  Meera often/rarely sees her cousins.
    4.  Daisy is Ben's half-sister/stepsister.
    5.  Julie is Pete's ex-wife/stepmother.
    6.  Trudy’s mum and dad live in different places/together.
    7.  Trudy never sees her dad/sees her dad regularly.

E. Translate sentences into English using underlined words from the text.

  1.  Они были такой красивой парой, очень жаль, что они развелись.
  2.  Так как мой друг живет по соседству, мы часто ходим в гости друг к другу.
  3.  Я навещаю бабушку трижды в неделю, потому что она живет всего лишь в 100 километрах от Казани.
  4.  В пригороде Уфы открылся новый центр семейного досуга, куда мы ходим каждые выходные.
  5.  После развода мой сводный брат остался жить с отчимом.
  6.  В нашей группе в среднем по одному ребенку в семье.
  7.  Вторая жена моего отца переехала в Питcбург, откуда она родом.
  8.  После учебы мы ходим домой вместе, поскольку живем на одной улице.

SPEAKING

  1.  Read the statistics about families in the USA and the UK.  How do you think the same statistics would be different in Russia?
    1.  What’s your opinion of the current situation with the family life in our country? Is it different from the situation twenty years ago? If yes, what are the possible reasons for that? And how could it be changed?

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????????????????????????

Families

in the USA      

in the UK

in Russia

Marriages that end in divorce

50%

33%

Families with only parent

25%

25%

Children who live in a single-parent home at some time

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Children whose parents aren’t married

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40%

Single parents who are men

10%

10%

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  1.  Find the examples of Present tenses in the text “Modern families”.

B. Open the brackets paying attention to the usage of Present Simple (negative/question/affirmative forms).

  1.  My niece never (to eat) snacks.
  2.  They (to be) ex-spouses.
  3.  His uncle always (to invite) us to drink tea in his garden.
  4.  My aunt (to have) two children but I (to be) an only child in the family (not to have) anyone to play with.
  5.  My colleagues (to enjoy) playing tricks on me.
  6.  Her ex-husband (to have) another family?
  7.  He (not to play) with us, he (to prefer) dealing with his flowers.
  8.  Secretaries of Indigo, plc always (to call) the partners of the company at 10 a.m.?
  9.  It is said that widows always (to wear) black clothes.
  10.  Belgian chocolates (to taste) marvelous?

C. Choose the best alternative between Present simple and Present Perfect.

  1.  Marcel and André are/have been friends of mine for more than 10 years.
    1.  They are about to divorce I never understand/have never understood why they don't take measures.
    2.  As I have mentioned/mention before, we can't go on like this.
    3.  My granny keeps saying to my little brother that the sun has risen/rises in the east.
    4.  My parents are/have been there five times.
    5.  Research shows/has shown that most internet surfers are women.
    6.  Do you visit/have you visited your stepmother often?
    7.  Have you heard/do you hear they want to divorce and start a new life separately?
    8.  His middle name has sounded/sounds funny.
    9.  Their cousins own restaurant business but they have had/have some losses recently.

D. Decide whether the verbs in these sentences are right or wrong, mind the usage of Present Progressive and Present Simple tenses.

  1.  Look your cousin is climbing up the tree over there.
  2.  Can you here those people? What do they talk about?
  3.  Are you believing that your best friend spreads gossips about you?
  4.  Look! That man tries to open the door of your car.
  5.  My brother attends a kindergarten.
  6.  I’m thinking it would be a good idea to visit grandfather in June.
  7.    The government is worried because the number of single-parent families is increasing.
  8.  I’m usually going to my girlfriend by car.
  9.  Mothers are always caring about their children. No matter that they are 25 or 40 years old.
  10.  I know my step father’s telephone number, so, I can easily phone him but I don’t want to.

E. Supply the suitable form of present tenses.

  1.  Hurry! The bus (to come). We can’t be late, granny (to phone) already.
  2.  Grandfather usually (to grow) vegetables in his garden but this year he (not to grow) anything because of his disease.
  3.  A: Can you drive? B: No, but I (to learn). My father-in-law (to teach) me.
  4.  George (my cousin) says his girlfriend is 26 years old but I (not to believe) him. She actually (to look) younger.
  5.  My parents (to live) in London. They (never to live) anywhere else. Where your parents (to live)?
  6.  My close friend is a teacher. He (to work) in different places, but he (not to work) at the moment.
  7.  She (to stay) with her sister at the moment until she finds somewhere to live.
  8.  I think I (to learn) all fairy tales my granny (to read) to me.
  9.  Daddy, (ever to snow) in India?
  10.  Why you (to want) to punish me? I (not to break) that china vase.


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A. Listen to James describing his family situation and answer the questions.

  1.  Who are: Rachel? Louise? Richard?
  2.  What is James's opinion of Richard?
  3.  Who is the oldest child in the house?
  4.  Why doesn't James like Louise's behaviour?
  5.  What does their mum say when James and Rachel complain about Louise?
  6.  What happens when they have an argument with Louise?
  7.  Look at the verbs expressing attitude. Describe relationship between James, Louise and Richard.

Present Simple

Formation

 V1, V-s/-es (for 3d person Singular)

He reads newspapers every day.

They always walk a dog in the morning.

Question form

do/does

Does he read newspapers every day?

Do they walk a dog in the morning?

Negative form

do + not (don’t)/does + not (doesn’t)

He doesn’t read newspapers every day.

They don’t walk a dog in the morning.

Usage

routine, habits, universal truth, facts

Signal words

always, often, rarely, never, usually, every day, sometimes

Present Progressive

Formation

be (am, are, is) + Ving

My nephew is sleeping now.

Twin-brothers are playing football in the yard.

Question form

be (am, are, is) + subject +Ving

Is my nephew sleeping now?

Are twin-brothers playing football in the yard?

Negative form

be (am, are, is) + not + Ving

My nephew isn’t sleeping now.

Twin-brothers aren’t playing football in the yard

Usage

action going on at the moment of speaking, temporary event or situation, future arrangements describing a state which is changing

Signal words

now, at the moment, currently, at this period, Look! Listen!

Present Perfect

Formation

have/has + V3

I have just called my sister-in-law.

She has dyed her hair red.

Question form

have/has + subject+V3

Have I just called my sister-in-law?

Has she dyed her hair red?

Negative form

have/has + not + V3

I haven’t just called my sister-in-law.

She hasn’t dyed her hair red.

Usage

action started in the past and continues into the present, recent events with visible result, past events without specific time

Signal words

just, yet, still, already, never, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for

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C. Describe the relationship between you and your parents, within your group, with your neighbour(s).

D. Discuss what you think James should do about his family situation (use new expressions).

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  1.  Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words using the information from the sites:

;

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Diana, the Princess of Wales, was a(n) …, …. woman. She had … skin and …, … eyes. Her hair was neatly cut and … in length.

Princess Diana was always … and liked … clothes which were usually made by famous designers. However, when she was on holiday with her children she enjoyed wearing … clothes.

During her appearances with Princes Charles she was very … and didn’t speak much. Later on, however, she became more …. Unlike most members of the Royal Family, she was involved with ordinary people. She was a very … person who supported various charities.

B. Imagine, that your cousin/uncle/aunt/mother etc. must go to London on a business trip. Describe his/her appearance to the person who has to meet him/her.

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  1.  Study the typical questions for Application Form.






core verb

positive

 negative

to like

to love

to dislike

to respect

to fancy

can’t stand

to attract

to look up to

to look down on

to be attracted to

to turn smb on

to hate

to turn off

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  1.  You are going to visit your grandmother living abroad. You will need to fill in the application form similar to the one above. Write your answers.


WORD FILE

Surname         

Smith

First name  

John

Initials JS

Age     

25

Sex: female    male     (please tick)   

Marital status       

single   married   divorced   widow/widower (please tick)   

Date of birth        

7 May 1992

Country of Birth       

United Kingdom

Place of Birth: Bristol

Next of Kin         

Susan Smith

Address  

23 Southfield Road, Purbey, Westshire

Postcode

PU23 4HJ

Telephone    

0560 152439

E-male address       

jsmith@internetsp.com

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Module 2 Daily Routine

PREVIEW

  1.  ?????????
  2.  Do you work or study long hours/at weekends/ at nights?
  3.  What is your favorite time of the day/week? Why?
  4.  What is your least favorite time of the day/week? Why?
  5.  What is a typical day like for you?
  6.  What do you do in your free time?

  1.  ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

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Unit 1 Module 1

nurse

surgeon

dentist

vet

psychologist

manual jobs

bricklayer

carpenter

plumber

electrician

mechanic  

architect

lawyer

engineer

accountant

university lecturer

broker (stock market)

civil servant

soldier

sailor

police officer

firefighter

 

grandfather/grandmother

uncle(s)/aunt(s)

cousin(s)

father/mother/ brother/sister-in-law

nephew(s)/ niece(s)

widower/widow

 step-father/mother

only child

a first/family/middle/full      name

partner

single-parent family

an old/close/best friend

colleague

ex wife/husband /girlfriend                       

second wife/husband       

stepmother/-father/ -sister/-brother                 

half-sister/brother   

couple

husband/wife

common name

to grow up

to bring up

to tell smb off

to take after smb

to look after smb or smth

to get on with smb

to look up to smb

to carry on (doing smth)

to get divorced

to turn smb on/off

to inherit

to get married

to share

to call    

divorce (n, v)

 to be smb’s junior/ senior/I'm senior to her

to fancy

to like/dislike

to hate

to adore

to idolize

can't stand

to respect

to look up to

to admire

to look down on

to despise

to attract/ to be attracted to  

apartment

to increase

nearby

because of

to come from

(three) times a year

to live next door

in the same street

(15) miles away

to move

every other weekend

to go to see

suburbs (in the suburbs)

average

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C. Look at the verb phrases in the box above. In your copybooks:

  1.  write the things you do every day
  2.  write the things you only do at weekends
  3.  write the things you sometimes do
  4.  write the things you never do

D. Write more verb phrases of things you do

  •  every day
  •  only at weekends

E. Compare your list from D with a partner. Do you do the same things?


GRAMMAR 1: PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

chat on the phone          go to the cinema             get up early               go to bed late

   stay in bed late        have breakfast/lunch/dinner       watch TV           drive a car

check your e-mails       do sport       go for a walk      go clubbing     play bowling

          do nothing           catch a bus/train/taxi        study hard       eat out      stay in

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A.  Insert
at, on or in where necessary.

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IN

ON

AT

in + year/month/season

in 1988

in September

in winter

in the 21st century

on + day/date

on Wednesday

on 15 April

on that day

at + clock time/meal time

at three o’clock

at lunch (time)

at that time

at the same time

at the moment

in + a week or more

in the Easter holiday

in the autumn term

on + a single day

on Easter Monday

on Christmas day

at + two or three days

at Easter/Christmas

at the weekend

in + a part of the day

in the morning

in the evening

on+ a day + a part of the day

on Friday morning

at night

NB We do not use in, on, at before every, last, next, this, tomorrow, yesterday.

We go to Greece every summer.

I will see you next Friday.

The party is tomorrow evening.

in time = early enough

We will have to hurry if we want to be in time for the show.

We got to the airport in time to have a coffee before checking in.

on time = at the right time, on schedule

The plane took off on time.

Rachel is never on time. She is always late.

in is used for a future time measured from the present

The photos will be ready in an hour.

in is used for the time it takes to complete something

I did the crossword in five minutes.

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B. Insert at, on or in where necessary.

  1.  Bill Gates was born in Seattle ….. 1955.
  2.  I haven’t seen Ann for a few days. I last saw her ….. Wednesday.
  3.  The price of electricity is going up ….. January.
  4.  I’ve been invited to the wedding …. 14 February.
  5.  Hurry up! We’ve got to go …. five minutes.
  6.  I’m busy just now but I’ll be with you ….. a moment.
  7.  Jenny’s brother is an engineer, but he is out of work ….. the moment.
  8.  There are usually a lot of parties …. Christmas.
  9.  I hope the weather will be nice …. the weekend.
  10.  …. Saturday night I went to bed …. 11 p.m.
  11.  I don’t like travelling …. night.
  12.  We travelled overnight to Paris and arrived …. 5 o’clock …. the morning.
  13.  The course begins …. 7 January and ends sometime …. April.
  14.  My brother came home …. last Christmas.
  15.  It was quite a short book and easy to read. I read it …. a day.
  16.  I might not be at home … Tuesday morning but I’ll probably be there … the afternoon.
  17.  My car is being repaired in the garage. It will be ready …. two hours.
  18.  The group set off … yesterday morning.
  19.  The telephone and the bell rang … the same time.
  20.  I’m pretty busy … this week. I’m afraid I can’t see you … Friday.

C. Complete the sentences with ‘in time’ and ‘on time’.

  1.  The bus was late this morning but it is usually …
  2.  I like to get up … to have a big breakfast before going to work.
  3.  We want to start the meeting …, so don’t be late.
  4.  I have just washed this shirt. I want to wear it this evening, so I hope it will be dry …
  5.  The train service isn’t very good. The trains are rarely …
  6.  I nearly forgot that it was Joe’s birthday. Fortunately I remembered …
  7.  Why are you never …? You always keep everybody waiting.

VOCABULARY 1: DAILY ROUTINE

  1.   Study the following.

Sleep

During the week, I usually wake up at 6.30 a.m. I sometimes lie in bed for five minutes but then I have to get up. Most evenings, I go to bed at about 11.30 p.m. I am usually very tired, so I go to sleep/fall asleep very quickly. Occasionally though, I cannot get to sleep. When that happens, I sometimes manage to fall asleep at about 3 a.m., and then I oversleep in the morning. If I have a late night (≠ an early night), I try to have a nap in the afternoon. The weekends are different. On Saturday and Sunday I have a lie-in. 

Food

In the week I have breakfast at 7.30 a.m., lunch at 1.00 p.m., and dinner around 7 p.m. I also have one or two snacks, e.g. cakes, biscuits or fruit, during the day at work. As I live alone/on my own/by myself, I also have to make my own breakfast and dinner, but during the week I do not bother to cook very much. I also have to feed my two cats twice a day as well.

Keeping clean

In the summer I have a shower in the morning, but in the winter I often have a bath instead. Sometimes I have a shave at the same time, or I shave when I have a wash and brush my teeth after breakfast. I wash my hair two or three times a week.

Study

In the morning I leave home about 7.30 a.m. and go to the university by bus. It takes me about 20 minutes. My classes start at 8 a.m.  We usually have two lectures and one seminar or practical. During the lecture we listen to the lecturer and make notes. At the seminars we discuss different problems and answer the questions of the professor holding the seminar. My lunch break is about 40 minutes, so I can go to the refectory or to the snackbar. At the end of each term we take exams and have tests in several subjects.

Evenings

During the week I usually stay in, do my home assignments and have a rest. But at the weekend I often go out, but quite often I also have friends for dinner, or friends just come round for a chat or we play cards, e.g. poker or bridge.

Housework

I do the shopping on Saturday. Fortunately I have a cleaner and she does most of the housework: she does my washing, the washing-up and does most of the ironing.

  1.  Match the definitions with the italicized words and phrases from the text.

1) … 6 June

6) … September

11)... ten minutes

2) … 8 o’clock

7) … Saturday night

12) ... night

3) … Saturday

8) … the weekend

13)…  breakfast time

4) … this evening

9) … the morning

14) … every weekend

  1.  … 2009

10)... last night

15) … next week

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  1.  The text includes a number of expressions with “have + noun”, e.g. have breakfast, have a shower. Can you remember six more?

  1.  Now complete some more word partnerships and expressions by matching the verbs on the left with the correct word on the right.
  1.  dining hall
  1.  to succeed in sleeping
  1.  to sleep too long
  1.  to go to bed very late
  1.  to go to bed very early
  1.  without other people
  1.  to stay in bed until later
  1.  to have small amounts of food
  1.  to have a short sleep, e.g. 20-25 minutes
  1.  to do homework
  1.  to make an effort
  1.  a teacher in higher education
  1.  part of the academic year
  1.  to clean teeth
  1.  to put down necessary information
  1.  to stop work or study for a meal
  1.  to stay at home
  1.  to relax and do nothing
  1.  to invite friends to one’s house and cook dinner for them
  1.  to leave the house for social reasons, e.g. go to the cinema or disco with friends
  1.  to visit somebody at the house
  1.  conversation
  1.  to buy  food and clothes
  2.  to wash the clothes
  1.  a meeting of a group of students for tuition

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E. Complete this dialogue with suitable words or phrases from the text.

A:?Don't ??? to cook a meal this evening.

B: Why not?

A: We could ??? instead.

B: Yeah. Where?

A: Well I'd like to go to that new Korean restaurant. We could ask Karen and Mike to come.

B: That's miles away. No, I think I would rather ??? and have an ????night.

A: But it's Friday. You can have a ??? tomorrow if we have a late night.

B: Yes, I know but I am tired. Look, why don't you ask Karen and Mike ??? for a meal, I can order some pizzas from the takeaway and we'll have a nice evening here.

A: Sorry, but if you don't want to come to the restaurant with me, I'll go ????

F. Translate the following sentences into Russian.  

  1.  Did you go out last night?
  2.  I think I am going to stay in this evening.
  3.  I overslept this morning.?
  4.  I couldn't get to sleep last night.
  5.  Do you want to come round this evening?
  6.  ??forgot to do the shopping.?
  7.  What time did you get home?

G. Can you find three facts from the text which are exactly the same in your routine, three which are similar, and three which are completely different? Complete the table below.

to fall

a rest

to do

tests

to have

a seminar

to take

notes

to have

asleep

to get up

the ironing

to hold

early

to make

exams

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H. Tell about your day according to the plan: sleep, food, study, housework, evenings.

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(lab.com/schedule/schedrd1.htm)

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  1.  Mind the vocabulary that you will here in the conversation.

same

similar

completely different

I go to bed around 11.30 p.m.    

I leave home at 8.40 a.m.         

I never do any ironing.

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  1.  Fill in the gaps with appropriate words.
  2.  How late do you … on the weekend?
  3.  We need to buy … for tonight's party.
  4.  You should … time and money for your next vacation.
  5.  I … the bus every morning at 7:15 a.m.
  6.  After I … work, I'll drop by your house.
  7.  Be sure to … enough money to pay for books.

C. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions.

1) What time does the man get up?

  1.  at 5:00 a.m.
  2.  at 6:00 a.m.
  3.  at 7:00 a.m.

2) What time does he get to work?

  1.  at 7:00 a.m.
  2.  at 8:00 a.m.
  3.  at 9:00 a.m.

3) What does he do with his family around 6:30 p.m.?

  1.  They read books together.
  2.  They play games.
  3.  They eat dinner.

4) What do the man and his wife do after the kids go to bed?

  1.  They watch TV.
  2.  They clean the house.
  3.  They listen to music.

5) What is one thing the man does NOT say about his wife?

  1.  She has to take their children to school.
  2.  She helps the kids with their homework.
  3.  She goes shopping for food.

D. Think about and write down your typical schedule for a weekday and a weekend.

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  1.  Read the following statements. Which do you think are true for your country? Compare your ideas in groups.
  2.  People are working longer hours than in the past.
  3.  Watching TV is the most popular leisure time activity.
  4.  Most people read a newspaper regularly.
  5.  The majority of women work full-time.
  6.  Women do the main share of the housework.
  7.  People are eating more and more ready meals and takeaways.
  8.  The majority of young people have a full-time job by the time they are twenty.
  9.  Young people these days spend more time socializing than doing homework.
  10.  Pensioners are more physically active than teenagers are.
  11.  Regular Internet users are often keen on sport as well.
  12.  The majority of people take part in a sport at least once a week.
  13.  People waste a lot of time at work.


B. Read the text. Which country (or countries) does each of the statements in exercise A refer to? Which are true all over the world?

How we really spend our time

Time, it seems, is what we are all short of these days. One reason, perhaps, why there are thousands of studies every year into how we spend our time and how we could spend it better. Some of the results are startling. Did you know, for example …?

Although people all over the world are working longer and longer hours, we also have more leisure time than ever before.

After sleeping and working, watching TV is by far the most popular leisure activity the world over. Several decades ago people spent more time walking outside or doing sports.

According to the recent research, the British watch more TV than any other nation in Europe, but they also read more. The vast majority, eighty-five percent, regularly read newspapers, and fifty-four percent regularly read books.

Although up to two thirds of modern European women work full-time, they still do the main share of the housework, too. Husbands help more in the house than they did in the past, but in the UK, for example, men do an average of just six hours a week compared to their wives, who do over eighteen hours. No wonder that the vast majority of working women in the UK say that they are stressed and exhausted!

According to the latest survey by supermarkets, the average British family spends just eleven minutes preparing the main evening meal, that is six times less than it used to, and prefers ready meals and takeaways to home-cooked food. Almost half of all families in the UK eat together only once a month or less.

More than half-young people in the UK have a full-time job by the age of nineteen, but the majority of young Spanish and Italian people do not start full-time work until they are twenty-four.

Teens, who half a century ago were playing football in the backyard, are now surfing the Internet all the day round. The average American fourteen-year-old spends only half an hour doing homework, and less than a fifth of young people participate in sports, clubs, music or other traditional hobbies. Instead, sixty-five percent say they spend their time chatting on their mobiles and hanging out with their friends in shopping malls.

In the UK, pensioners are almost twice as active as teenagers, according to recent research. People over sixty-five spend nearly two hours a day doing physical activities such as walking, cycling, gardening or sport, while teenagers spend only seventy-five minutes. However, surprisingly, people who use the Internet regularly do more sport than people who never use it.

The Swedes and Finns are the sportiest nationalities in Europe. Seventy-three percent do some kind of sport at least once or twice a week.

People may spend more time at work these days but are they always working? The latest research reveals that each day the average British employee spends fifty-five minutes chatting, sixteen minutes flirting, fourteen minutes surfing the Internet and nine minutes sending e-mails to friends.

  1.  Write down four things from the text that you think are surprising or interesting. Compare with your partner.
  2.  Are you happy with the way you use your time? What would you like to spend more/less time doing? Discuss in groups.

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to catch  –  to get on

to get off work – to finish work

to stay up –  not to go to bed

to set aside  –  reserve, allow, or give a certain amount to

toughest –  most difficult, hardest

to take care of – to watch, to look after

groceries –  food and other items at a supermarket

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A. Identify the tenses of the underlined verbs in the text above.

B. Open the brackets paying attention to the usage of Past Simple tense (negative/question/affirmative forms).

  1.  The majority of women (not to work) full-time in London in 1980-s.
    1.  When I (to study) at school I (not to be keen) on sports at all.
    2.  We usually (to have) friends for dinner when we (to live) in a village.
    3.  I usually have one or two snacks during a day but I (to be in a hurry) yesterday so I (not to have) any.
    4.  Last year we (to go) to Paris where we (to see) a lot of interesting places, (to do) the shopping, (to go) to bed very late because we (to chat) a lot with our new French friends.
    5.  I (to pull) myself together easily at our last meeting because I (to have) an early night.
    6.  (To work) extra hours when you (to work) at Linkist, ltd?
    7.  What you (to be) responsible for at your previous job?
    8.  How much your brother-in-law (to earn) when he (to work) for Mr. Blake?
    9.  My holiday pay last year (to be) 1,000 $.
  2.  Choose the best alternative between Past Simple or Past Progressive.
  3.  I was doing/did my shift from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. on Tuesday.
  4.  I was managing/managed Sales department last year.
  5.  When he was arriving/arrived we dealt/were dealing with a very difficult project.
  6.  We often took/were taking takeaways when we were staying/stayed in a hostel.
  7.  How was he earning/did he earn his living?
  8.  What were you advising/did you advise your clients yesterday?
  9.  Laura didn’t want/wasn’t wanting to deal with lots of paperwork, so they were dismissing/dismissed her quite quickly.
  10.  The sun shone/was shining brightly so, he was deciding/decided to lie-in a bit longer.
  11.  I envy my nephew, when he lived/was living in another city. He did/was doing what he was wanting/wanted to do, slept/was sleeping longer, wasn’t doing/didn’t do any housework, etc.
  12.  Who were you working/worked for last year in the USA?
  13.  Read the text and open the brackets using Past Simple or Past Perfect tenses.

It (to happen) two years ago. Martha (my sister) and I (to decide) to make a trip to Canada. We (to pack) our suitcases rather quickly. Martha (not to be fond of) ironing very much that time so, she (to be) very surprised that I (to iron) all her clothes beforehand. When we arrived in Toronto we suddenly (to understand) that we (to leave) the address of our hotel on the table at home. Martha (to be) in panic of course I (to try) to pull myself together. We (to start) searching for our hotel. It (to turn) out that they have six hotels with the same name located in different parts of the city. We (to take) a taxi and (to go) around the city. As I (to know) the city well we (to find) our hotel soon. Surprisingly, the driver who (to give) us a drive round the city (to offer) me to work as a tour guide for those who (to come) from Paris. I (to agree), moreover, I (to have) an experience in Morocco. I (to be) in charge of different tours around the city and fortunately I never (to deal) with complaints. Our trip (to be) fascinating and we (to be) glad that we (to forget) our hotel’s address at home.

  1.  Supply the suitable form of past tenses.
  2.  It (to rain) heavily so, we (to decide) not to go hiking but to invite friends to our house and cook dinner together.
  3.  I (to refer) to John when I told the meeting about our current problem.
  4.  No, I (to go) to Italy two years ago.
  5.  When I last went to Italy, a team of scientists (to examine) the falling tower of Pisa.
  6.  What you (to do) when I phoned yesterday?
  7.  By the time we got to the cinema the film (to start), so we missed the first five minutes.
  8.  I spent a week in Miami recently. I (not to be) there before.
  9.  She told me she (to attend) a lot of meetings in Prague.
  10.  When I (to get back), nobody (to do) the washing up. I was furious.

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Past Simple

Formation

V2

I fell asleep very quickly last night.

My brother-in-law lived in Moscow in 2008. 

Question form

did + subject + V1

Did I fall asleep very quickly last night?

Did my brother-in-law live  in Moscow in 2008?

Negative form

did + not (didn’t)

I didn’t fall asleep very quickly last night.

My brother-in-law didn’t live in Moscow in 2008.

Usage

past action or a series of completed past actions

Signal words

yesterday, …years ago, last year, last month

Past Progressive

Formation

was/were + Ving

I was making my breakfast when Tom came.

We were doing the shopping while our sisters were doing the housework.

Question form

was/were + subject + Ving

Was I making my breakfast when Tom came?

 Were we doing the shopping while our sisters were doing the housework?

Negative form

was + not (wasn’t)/were + not (weren’t) + Ving

I wasn’t making my breakfast when Tom came.

We weren’t doing the shopping while our sisters were doing the housework.

Usage

action in progress in the past, two or more actions in progress at the same time

Signal words

from …to …

Past Perfect

Formation

had+V3

He had already fed the cat when I came.

They had done the washing-up.

Question form

had + subject + V3

Had he already fed the cat when I came?

Had they done the washing-up?

Negative form

had + not (hadn’t) + V3

He hadn’t already fed the cat when I came.

They hadn’t done the washing-up.

Usage

action happened earlier than an action which followed

Signal words

before

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  1.  Write the words in the correct order to make questions.
  2.  coming / are / time / your / business partners / what  
  3.  to work / you / always / why / drive / do
  4.  worked / how long / in / that company / she / has
  5.  last / make /  a good presentation / did / when / you
  6.  tonight / are / make / your business plan / you / to / going
  7.  you / would / business lunch / like / tomorrow / to / have / with me
  8.  going  / are / on business trip / time / where / next / you
  9.  her / make / a report / often / does /  how / she
    1.  Insert the proper words and write the questions.

e.g.  My favorite brand is ….

What is your favorite brand?

  1.  I like dealing with ….

What …?

  1.  We usually go to … for our holidays.

Where …?

  1.  She prepared the … for a newspaper.

What …?

  1.  I bought …

What …?

  1.  My boss can … really well.

What…?

  1.  I’m going to start driving lessons in …

When …?

  1.  They were late for a job ... last week.

How many times?

  1.  Make who- or what-questions.
  2.  You were talking to someone.
  3.  Somebody gave me the credit card.
  4.  This report belongs to somebody.
  5.  I borrowed the money from somebody.
  6.  My boss telephoned me.
  7.  I am worried about my colleagues.
  8.  Somebody works in that office.
  9.  My brother sold his shares.
  10.  They have invited many guests to the business meeting.
  11.  My colleague told me about a new contract.
    1.  Make up tag questions.
  12.  You don’t like interviews.
  13.  She arrived yesterday.
  14.  This company is very famous.
  15.  She’s gone home.
  16.  He’s got no money at the moment.
  17.  You’re always forgetting your office password.
  18.  She didn’t like a new employee, when she met him.
  19.  We’ll go to a business trip next week.
    1.  Make an embedded question or a new sentence from the question in brackets.
  20.  (Where has Tom gone?)  Do you know where Tom has gone?
  21.  (Where is the post office?)  Could you tell me where …?
  22.  (What time does the conference begin?)  I wonder …?
  23.  (What does this report mean?)  I would like to know …?
  24.  (What time did the boss leave?)  Do you know …?
  25.  (Is Sue busy tonight?)  I don’t know ….
  26.  (Where does Carol work?)  Have you any idea …?
  27.  (Where did I leave my cell phone?)  I can’t remember ….
  28.  (Why didn’t Kay come to the business lunch?)  I don’t know …
  29.  (How far is it to the airport?)  Can you tell me …?

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  1.  You are going to interview your partner in order to complete a similar pie-chart how he/she spends his/her time. First spend a few minutes preparing for the interview. Think about:
  •  the questions you will ask your partner to find out how he/she spends?his/her time.
  •  any special vocabulary you need to describe your interests.

Work in pairs. Interview your partner and draw his/her pie-chart. You’re going to tell the rest of the class about your partner, so find out as much as you can.

B. Look at the pictures.  Discuss with your partner what questions in the box below can be asked in situations a-f. Add two or three questions to each situation and role-play small dialogues.

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Types of questions

yes/no questions

Do you like dealing with figures?

Did you visit the headquarters yesterday?

Were you present at the conference last week?

wh-questions

What did you do in the office last weekend?

wh-question words

what, where, when, who, why, which, whose, how

wh-question words together with other words

what time, how much, how many, how often, how long, which one

What time did you finish the report?

How long have you worked here?

Word order

  •  When the main verb is to be, put the verb before the subject.

Where were you yesterday?

  •  When there’s a main verb (with no auxiliary verb), we put do/does/did before the subject +infinitive.

Do you like working as an accountant?

  •  For verbs with an auxiliary, we put the auxiliary verb (have/has/had/will/can/ would etc.) before the subject. 

Can you play business games?

Subject questions

  •  When we are asking about the subject of a sentence, the verb comes after the question word (we don’t use an auxiliary)

Who comes to visit us on Friday?                    NOT: Who does come to visit us on Friday?

Who left the door of the meeting room open?  NOT:  Who did leave the door of the meeting room open?

Which company produces equipment better? NOT: Which company does produce equipment better?

Object questions

  •  When we are asking about the animate object, we can also use the question word who. But the word order is reversed.

The client complained to the manager.

Who complained to the manager? (subject question)

Who did the client complain to? (object question)

Tag questions

  •  A tag question is formed by an auxiliary + subject: did she? aren’t they? have you? Positive sentences are generally followed by a negative tag, negative sentences – by a positive tag.

They went to the conference, didn’t they?

He’s waiting for his boss, isn’t he?

Embedded questions

  •  Embedded questions are those that are hidden in long questions. In the normal question the position of the subject and the auxiliary is reversed, while in embedded questions it is like in affirmative sentences.

Where is the bank? (normal question)

Could you tell where the bank is? (embedded question)

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  1.  Study the following.

What do you do?

People may ask you about your job. They can ask and you can answer in different ways:

  1.  What’s your date of birth?
  1.  Where are you from?
  1.  How long are you going to stay?
  1.  What time is it?
  1.  Where is the nearest (bank)?
  1.  Can I help you?
  1.  Which part of (Russia) are you from?
  1.  Do you speak English?
  1.  Sorry, could you repeat that please?
  1.  How do you spell …?
  1.  Can we have the bill, please?
  1.  Anything else?

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NB 'Work' is usually an uncountable noun, so you cannot say 'a work'. If you want to use the indefinite article you must say ‘a job, e.g. She hasn't got a job at the moment.

What does that involve? = What do you do in your job?

When people ask you to explain your work/job, they may want to know your main responsibilities, or something about your daily routine. They can ask like this: What does that (i.e. your job) involve?

Main responsibilities

I'm in charge of all deliveries out of the factory.

I have to deal with any complaints.

I run the coffee bar and restaurant in the museum.

Daily duties/routines

I have to attend a lot of meetings.

I visit/see/meet clients. I advise clients.

It involves doing quite a lot of paperwork. 

Pay

Most workers are paid every month and this pay goes directly into their bank account. It is called a salary. We can express the same idea using the verb to earn:

My salary is $60,000 a year. = I earn $60,000 a year.

With many jobs you get holiday pay and sick pay (when you are ill). If you want to ask about holidays, you can say: How much holiday do you get? or How many weeks' holiday do you get?

The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income. This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two different jobs you have. And on this income you have to pay part to the government - called income tax.

Working hours

For many people in Britain, these are 8.30-9.00 a.m. to 5.00-5.30 p.m. Consequently people often talk about a nine-to-five job. Some people have flexi-time; and some have to do shiftwork. Some people also work overtime. Some people are paid to do/work overtime, others are not paid.

  1.  Match the definitions with the italicized words and phrases from the text.

What do you do?

What's your job?

What do you do for a living?

I'm (+ job) a banker/an engineer/a teacher/a builder

I work in (+ place or general area) a bank/marketing

I work for (+ name of company) Union Bank, Fiat

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  1.  Match the verbs on the left with the nouns or phrases on the right to form collocations. Use each word once only.
  1.  to go to
  2.  to include
  3.  to be responsible for
  4.  to be  in control of/manage
  5.  to give somebody help and opinion
  6.  to take all necessary action

7) to work extra hours 

8) duties 

  1.  what you do every day/week
  2.  people one does business with or for

11) regular working hours

12) work at different times

13) irregular working hours

14) a general word we use for routine work that involves paper e.g. writing letters, filling in forms, etc.

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D. Starting with the words you are given, rewrite each of these sentences using vocabulary from the text. The basic meaning must stay the same.

???I am a banker.

I work in banking.

  1.  What do you do?

What's …?

3) I earn $50,000 dollars.

My…

4) I get £20,000 from my teaching job and another £10,000 from writing.

My total …

5) I am an economist.

I work for …

6) In my job I have to look after and maintain all the computers in the building.

My job involves …

7) I'm responsible for one of the smaller departments.

I'm in …

E.?This is part of a conversation with an accountant about her job. Can you supply the missing questions?

A: …?

B: I usually start at nine and finish at four.

A: …?

B: Yes a bit. Sometimes I work until five o'clock, and then I get paid extra.

A: …?

B: Four weeks. That's one of the bad things about being an accountant.

A: …?

B: Yes, we do.  That's one of the advantages of being an accountant.

F. Can you answer these general knowledge questions about work?

  1.  What are normal working hours for most office jobs in your country?
  2.  Can you name jobs that get very high salaries in your country?
  3.  When you start paying income tax in your country, what is the minimum amount you have to pay?
  4.  What jobs often involve shiftwork? (Give at least two examples.)
  5.  Is flexi-time common in your company or your country?

G.  Add one job to each letter below. Use the pictures to help you.

to earn

to work

to pay

to go to

to deal with

to run

overtime

meetings

a shop

clients

£500

income tax

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H. Think of the job, but don’t say what it is. Describe the job by saying about the responsibilities and routine. Let other students guess what job you’re describing.

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  1.  Read the email and answer these questions:
  2.  What is Gaby describing?
  3.  What is Gaby doing?
  4.  Where is Gaby flat?
  5.  What does Gaby ask Enrico?

A is for architect and ….

B is for barman and ….

C is for civil servant and ….

D is for doctor and …

F is for farmer and ….

J is for journalist and …

L is for lawyer and …

N is for nurse and …

P is for psychologist and …

S is for shop assistant and …

T is for taxi driver and…

W is for writer and …

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B. Write an e-mail to a friend you haven’t talked to for long time. Tell him/her about the way you have spent your summer holidays. Mind past tenses (past simple, past continuous, past perfect).


WORD FILE

Hi Mike,

I’ve got so much to tell you. Things are different for me now. Last September we moved to Canada. Before we had lived in France for 6 months. We’re here for a year.

James changed a lot of jobs. He was working in a shop, for an IT company, but now he is working for a bank in Vancouver and I’m studying at the film school. We’re staying in a lovely flat in the centre of the town. There are a lot of things to do in the city, but every weekend we go the countryside. It’s really beautiful!

Last summer we couldn’t have a rest, but next summer we’re going to visit my parents and to have a trip around Europe.

What about you? I’d love to know what you’re doing these days. Send me an e-mail soon.

Love, Gaby xxx?

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Module 3 Job Hunting

PREVIEW

  1.  Work in pairs. What do the people in the photos do?

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B. Read the following tips for finding a job and discuss which ones you agree or don’t agree with. Why?

  •  Contact your friends and see how they can help.
  •  Visit an employment agency and ask about available jobs.
  •  Look for the job that gives the best salary.
  •  Read the advertisements in the Business section of your local newspaper and try to find a job that matches your skills, qualifications and interests.
  •  Ask your parents or their colleagues to get you a job in the companies where they work.
  •  Discuss your goals and interests with your friends and make a plan for how to proceed.
  •  Talk to a counselor at the place where you are studying and ask for some advice.


LANGUAGE SKILLS: EXPRESSING YOUR PERSONAL VIEW

  1.  How would you personally start job hunting? Use the phrases in the box to help you.

e.g. I think it’s time to start by asking my friend to help me.

May be I should begin by visiting an employment agency.

Why don’t I look through a Job Advertisements Section in a newspaper to find the most suitable position?

READING: FIRST DAY NERVES 

  1.  What do you remember about your first day at school or university? Describe your feelings and behavior (mind using Past Tenses).
  2.  Here are some “dos” and “don’ts” about how to behave in a new job. Can you tell which are which?

Unit 1 Module 2

daily routine

ready meals

takeaways

refectory

to brush one’s teeth

to come around for a chat

to do shopping

to do sport

to eat out

to fall asleep = to get asleep

it takes me (2 hours)

to make notes

to hold seminars

to take exams

to pass exams

to have tests

to do home assignments

to be keen on smth

to go out

to hang out with friends

to have a late night

to have a lie-in

to have a lunch break

to have a nap

to have a shave

to have a shower (a bath)

to have a snack

to have a wash

to have an early night

to leave home

to lie in bed

to live alone (on one’s own; by oneself)

to oversleep

to participate in smth

to set aside

to socialize

to stay in

to stay up

to surf the net

to work full-time

to work long hours

responsibility = duty

complaint

holiday pay

income

income tax

nine-to-five job

salary

sick pay

to advise (clients)

to attend (meetings)

to be in charge of

to deal with

to do paperwork

to do shiftwork

to earn

to have flexi-time

to involve = to include

to run (a restaurant)

to work overtime

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C. Before you read the article, match the following words with their definitions.

  •  Smile and be friendly
  •  Learn all the office gossip
  •  Compare the new job with your old one
  •  Introduce yourself to everyone
  •  Learn the names of your colleagues
  •  Refuse offers to help
  •  Leave on time, you aren’t paid to stay on
  •  Volunteer for projects
  •  Wear casual clothes, it’s more relaxed
  •  Arrive at work on time
  •  Stick to your lunch hour, it’s part of the contract
  •  Ask questions
  •  Stick to deadlines

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  1.  Read the article and find “dos” and “don’ts” from the list on the previous page.

How can you make sure that your first few weeks in a new job will not be your last?

Let’s start with your clothes. Plan what you are going to wear in advance. Being smart tells people that you are organized and reliable. Have a good breakfast and don’t forget to work out how to get to your new workplace before you leave!

Walk into the company with a smile and make eye contact. It can be difficult to do this when you are nervous but it will make you look more approachable. Be polite and friendly to everyone including the receptionist. Don’t forget to find out where things are, such as the water cooler and the toilets.

Introduce yourself to your new colleagues. It is useful to learn names as soon as possible. It is good to have a positive attitude, too. You need to watch the things you say and do as they will be remembered.

You don’t need to be perfect in your first few weeks – everyone has to learn. So don’t be afraid to ask questions. It is better to ask for help than to do a job wrong! Listening is also important. Use a notebook and make notes so you don’t have to keep asking the same things. Find out from your boss your responsibilities, specific projects and their deadlines.

You should watch how your colleagues behave. Every company has its own culture. It may be formal or informal. For example, you may be allowed to make personal calls or surf the net, or you may not. Ideally in the first weeks you should arrive early, and leave not earlier than the majority of your colleagues. Starting late and finishing early never makes a good impression.

While it is useful to learn about your colleagues, it is important not to get involved in office gossip as it may make people feel they cannot trust you. Stay out of office politics and avoid criticizing your boss or colleagues to other people. But take advantage of after-hours activities to get to know your co-workers. And join them for lunch if they invite you.

  1.  Read the article again and find out why…
  2.  it is important to be smart
  3.  you should be careful what to say
  4.  it is OK to ask questions
  5.  it is worth having a notebook
  6.  you should watch your colleagues
  7.  you shouldn’t arrive late and leave early
  8.  you shouldn’t gossip
  9.  it is a good idea to socialize with your colleagues
  10.  Scan the article and find the opposite of these adjectives.

co-worker

a time or day by which something must be done

to make an eye-contact

to express disapproval of someone or to make judgments about something

deadline

something that is done for enjoyment, especially an organized event after the end of a working day

to criticize

before a particular time, or before doing a particular thing

after-hours activity

when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time

in advance

to be careful of some thoughts or opinion, words or sounds you pronounce

to watch the things you say

one of a group of people who work together

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G. Translate the following words from Russian into English and make up your own sentences with them:

место работы; отношение; следите за тем, что говорите; продолжать спрашивать; делать личные звонки; большинство; производить хорошее впечатление; вести себя; доверять; держаться подальше, вмешиваться (ввязываться); продумать (решить).

VOCABULARY: PERSONAL TRAITS

  1.  Match the descriptions in column B with the personality adjectives in column A. Use a dictionary if necessary.

casual

confident

disorganized

easy

negative

unreliable

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  1.  These pairs of words describe employee qualities and performance. Match synonyms from the boxes.

A

B

shy                 

works well, doesn’t waste time

tidy   

wants to have a top job

self-confident

doesn’t get angry when he or she has to wait

reliable           

doesn’t feel confident when talking to people he or she doesn’t know

patient            

trustworthy, dependable

demanding     

thinks carefully before doing or deciding anything

nervous          

arrives on time

ambitious       

keeps desk, papers, files, etc. in good order

relaxed           

calm, unstressed, unworried

cautious       

has a positive feeling about him or herself

dynamic       

makes other people work hard, often to a high standard

efficient       

be afraid, doesn’t have a lot of confidence

punctual       

energetic and (usually) successful

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  1.  Many positive words describing character have clear opposites with a negative meaning. Write the negative forms of the following adjectives using the prefixes un- (11 examples), in- (7 examples), dis- (3 examples), ir- (1 example), im- (1 example).

friendly     tidy     careful     intelligent     shy     reliable     relaxed        flexible

self-confident       systematic     excellent     satisfactory

clever     timid     easy-going     acceptable     self-assured     cautious

adaptable     neat     consistent     dependable      outstanding     warm

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D. Which of the adjectives given in exercises A, B, C best describe either you own or a friend’s character? How do you or your friends demonstrate these characteristics? Which of these qualities are necessary for an economist?

e.g. sociable – I’m sociable because I love being with other people.

LISTENING: JOB INTERVIEW

(Test Your Listening/Penguin English CD: Do sit down, Track 10)

  1.  You will hear a manager interviewing a person for a job. Listen out for these verbs, and then use them to complete sentences 1-5.

start off                 stay in                  work for                 move on                 look for

  1.  Could you … by telling me a bit about yourself?
  2.  I didn’t want to … that field.
  3.  I think it’s time to ….
  4.  I’m … more of a challenge.
  5.  You’ve been … a design company.
  6.  Listen again to the interview and complete the notes the interviewer makes.

Post: Marketing Director

Interviewee: Chris Clarkson

Qualifications:1 (1) degree and M.A.2 in (2) from US

Experience3: (3) with Proton Designs

tidy

organised

accurate

systematic

sensitive

patient

orthodox

honest

conventional

traditional

convincing

responsible

secure

sincere

experienced reliable

obedient

efficient

predictable

friendly

diplomatic

trustworthy

tolerant

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GRAMMAR: FUTURE ACTIONS

  1.  Read the short extract from the interview and recognize any constructions expressing Future Actions.

Reasons for wanting job:

  1.  Company is too (4) 
  2.  Wants more (5) work

Good points:

  1.  Speaks (6) and (7) 
  2.  Responsible for developing (8)

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  1.  Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets using either to be going to or will form of the future tense.   
  2.   Sally: There is no paper left!   

Betty: Oh, I (to get) some from the shop.

  1.   The population of Valencia (to reach) 2 million by the year 2010, the report says.
  2.  Boss: I told you to type this document today.

Employee:  Sorry, Mr. Smith, I forgot. I (do) it after lunch.

  1.   Sally: Why don't we meet for coffee on Friday morning?

Willy:  Sorry. I can't. I (to have) a job interview then.

  1.  "Tomorrow (to be) a bright and sunny day everywhere in Spain, except in Madrid," said the weatherwoman.
  2.   Look at that big black cloud. I think it (to rain).
  3.  Sally: What are your plans for the week-end?

Betty: Brad Snow, my employer phoned. I (to get ready) for our annual meeting.

  1.   Betty: Have you booked the flights yet?

Sally: Don't worry. It's all organized. I (to go) to the travel agent's tomorrow morning. You (to go) certainly to your business trip.

  1.   In the future people (to work) less.
  2.  If we miss the bus, we (to take) a taxi.
  3.  Put the verb into the most suitable form with future meaning, Present progressive or Present simple.
  4.  We (to have) a corporate party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
  5.  I (not to go) away for my holidays next month because I haven’t got enough money. They haven’t paid me holiday pay yet. (You/to go) away?
  6.  Our first job interview this afternoon (to start) exactly at 3:30.
  7.  George, is it true that you (to work) overtime next week?
  8.  My seasonal work (to start) May, 25 and (to end) October, 25.
  9.  What time the (next shift/to end)?
  10.  Ann, we (to go) to town. (You/to come) with us?
  11.  Don’t make any plans I (to surf) the Net tonight.
  12.  Our after-hours activities usually (to start) after 8 p.m.
  13.  I (to look for) a position of a banker.
  14.  Put the words into the correct order paying attention to the usage of tenses denoting future actions.
  15.  Doing/I/ course paper/am/ with/ in the evening/ my father.
  16.  Company /in our /seasonal overtime/ /starts/ May, 1.
  17.  Going/a new /vacancy/I am/to find/ my sister-in law/for.
  18.  You/to place/where/going/your/are/new/ job advertisement?
  19.  Arrive/your employer/does/when?
  20.  Colleagues/ for Madrid/are/my/in the next few days/leaving.
  21.  Become/next year/will/I/a good specialist.
  22.  With/Playing/our partners/volleyball match/are/tonight/we.
  23.  Is/to do/ironing/nobody/the/going.
  24.  Having/friends/we/for dinner/are /tonight.
  25.  Open the brackets paying attention to the usage of tenses denoting future actions (negative/question/affirmative forms).
  26.  The meeting (to start) at 10 o’clock.
  27.  We (to discuss) our project on Monday.
  28.  The employer (to plan) a series of interview with the applicants.
  29.  What you (to do)? I (to surf) the net.
  30.  We (to supply) you with all necessary equipment tomorrow.
  31.  The train (not to arrive) at 6 p.m. It goes behind the schedule.
  32.  Your working hours (start) at 8 a.m. and (to end) at 5 p.m. Please, be punctual, tomorrow (to be) your fist time at work.
  33.  (to go) anywhere this week? No, fortunately I haven’t got any business trips.
  34.  You (not to sell) your car, right? It is new!
  35.  He (to join) us later, don’t worry.

SPEAKING

  1.  Role-play the following situation.

Student A: Interview candidate

You have applied for a holiday job as a waiter at a local fast food restaurant. You are well qualified for the job and have some experience of this kind of work. Soon after the interview has begun, you change your mind about the job. You decide you are no longer interested. Do and say whatever is necessary to make sure you do NOT get the job.

Student B: Interviewer

You are interviewing applicants for a job in your fast food restaurant. You have interviewed several people already, but found no one suitable. Soon after the beginning of the interview with A, you decide he/she is the right person for the job. Do everything possible to make the interview a success.


WRITING: CURRICULUM VITAE

  1.  Read Adam Hall’s Curriculum Vitae (CV).

 


Future Simple

Formation

will + V1

You will make a good impression on your employer.   

He will surf the Internet tomorrow.

Question form

will + subject + V1

 Will you make a good impression on your employer?   

 Will he surf the Internet tomorrow?

Negative form

will + not (won’t) + V1

You won’t make a good impression on your employer.   

He won’t surf the Internet tomorrow.

Usage

future facts and predictions

Signal words

tomorrow

Present Progressive

Formation

be (am, are, is) + Ving

I am going to my new workplace tonight.

He is visiting a job interview.

Question form

be (am, are, is) + subject + Ving

Am I going to my new workplace tonight?

Is he visiting a job interview?

Negative form

be (am, are, is) + not + Ving

I am not going to my new workplace tonight.

He is not visiting a job interview.

Usage

personal arrangements and plans, particularly when the time and place are known

Present Simple

Formation

V1, V-s/-es (for 3d person singular)

Job interview starts at 9 o’clock.

Deadlines end July, 12.

Question form

do/does + subject + V1

Does job interview start at 9 o’clock?

Do deadlines end July, 12?

Negative form

do + not (don’t)/does + not (doesn’t) + V1

Job interview doesn’t start at 9 o’clock.

Deadlines don’t end July, 12.

Usage

schedules and timetables

to be going to = to be about to

Formation

be (am, are, is) + going to

I am going to discuss my projects on Monday.

They are going to leave the office soon.

Question form

be (am, are, is) + subject + going to

Am I going to discuss my projects on Monday?

Are they going to leave the office soon?

Negative form

be (am, are, is) + not + going to

I am not going to discuss my projects on Monday.

They are not going to leave the office soon.

Usage

things we plan to do, or have planned to do, predictions based on what we can see now

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B. Answer the questions.

  1.  Where did Adam study environmental problems?
  2.  What did he do while he was in Poland?
  3.  Who is Dr Elizabeth Gordon?
  4.  What do you think Adam's main interest is?
  5.  Where did Adam graduate from?
  6.  What commercial experience has he had?

C. Write a CV to attract employers and make them want to employ you as an Economist of Sales Department to a Coca-Cola company. Remember that the perfect CV should be:

Date of birth:

Address:

Tel.:

Email:

25 February 1990

25 Victoria Road, Birmingham B19 2ZK

01218953 9914

Profile

A highly-motivated, well-travelled, and creative graduate with practical work experience in both sales and TEFL4 teaching. A 4-month postgraduate residency at the Biosphere 2 Center, Arizona, has given me wide-ranging knowledge of, and insight into, environmental problems and ways of presenting them to the public.

Education

 

1998-2002

2002-2006

July, 2004

King Edward's School, Birmingham

0 Levels5: Art, Biology, Chemistry, English, French, Geography,              

History, Maths, Spanish

A levels:6

Art       A

Environmental Studies   A

Chemistry                                 B

Spanish   B                       

Leeds Metropolitan University

BA7  Environmental Studies:     2:1

Academy School of English, Leeds  Cert CELTA

Work experience

April 1999 – July 1999

January 2002 - May 2002

Weekend sales assistant, Kings Norton Garden

Centre, Birmingham

TEFL tutor, JA School of English, Katowice, Poland

Other information

September 2003

December 2003

May 15-16,2004

June 20-24, 2004

4-month residency at the Biosphere 2 Cent

Arizona, USA

Co-presented 'No smoke' at the Bretton Hall Sculpture Park, University of Leeds. An installation which explored the environmental implications of major forest fires, both natural and man-made.

Co-presented 'Time microscope' at the Covent Garden Flower Festival. An installation which explored different ways of presenting information about the natural world

Interests

My main interest outside work, although related to it, is travel. In 19— I took part in a school expedition to the High Atlas mountains in Morocco, and produced a video of the trip. In my gap year I travelled extensively in South America, again documenting the trip by means of sketchbooks and video. I also enjoy World Music, particularly that from countries I have visited, and play the guitar  

References

Prof. T.N- Fagin

Department of Environmental Studies

Leeds Metropolitan University

LS23RX

Dr Elizabeth Gordon

Principal

JA School of English

Ulica Czysta 14

Katowice

Poland

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WORD FILE

  •  Well-structured
  •  Short, simple and clear
  •  Easy to read and professional looking

  •  Suitable to the job and the employer
  •  Focused on the results not simply competency
  •  Free of unnecessary details

  •  Without spelling and punctuation errors
  •  Grammatically perfect
  •  Not your hobbies and interests unless they
  •  demonstrate relevant job qualities
  •  One or two pages maximum

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UNIT 2

NATIVE LAND

Module 1 Russia

PREVIEW

?? 2   3 4

                            5      6

  1.  What do you know about Russia? Match the above pictures 1-6 with descriptions a) – f). What information can you give about the pictures?

a) The Cathedral of the Redeemer          d) Peter the Great

b) The Red Square                                  e) Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation

  c) The flag of Russia                               f) First Russian cosmonaut

SAYING DATES

Unit 1 Module 3

advertisement

after-hours activities

attitude to smth

available (jobs)

colleague = co-worker

deadline

employment agency

in advance

majority of

qualifications

skills

smart (clothes)

to criticize

to get involved in (office gossip)

to keep doing smth

to look approachable

to make a good/strong impression on smb

to make eye contact

to make personal calls

to match smth e.g. qualifications

to take advantage of

to trust

to watch the things you say

to work out

accurate

ambitious

cautious

conventional

convincing

demanding

dynamic

efficient

experienced

honest

nervous

obedient

organized

patient

polite

predictable

punctual

relaxed

reliable

responsible

secure

self-confident

sensitive

sincere

systematic

tidy

tolerant

trustworthy

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Years

Ordinal numbers

1984  nineteen eighty four

2010 two thousand and ten

1st first     2nd second     3rd third

4th fourth     5th fifth

Dates

              3rd April 1998 (BrE)      the third of April, nineteen ninety eight

                 3 April 1998  (BrE)      April the third, nineteen ninety eight

                 April  3, 1998 (AmE)     April third, nineteen ninety eight

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  1.  There are many national holidays in Russia. Match the dates with the holidays.

                                     

HISTORY OF RUSSIA

  1.  Use the dictionary to find the meaning of the following words:

to found/to establish, to destroy, to rule, efforts, to invade, to divide into.

  1.   Can you say what these dates mean in the history of Russia? Use the dates to complete the sentences below.

New year is

Victory day is

Women’s day is

Independence day  is                                                                                                                                     

Christmas is

Day of Knowledge is

Day of the defender of Motherland is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

on 9th May

on 1st September                                                             

on 7th January                    

on 23rd February

on 31st December  

on 12th June

on 8th March  

?

  1.  Tradition says in … the Viking Rurik came to Russia and founded the first Russian dynasty in Novgorod.
  2.  Vladimir “the Saint” became Christian in...
  3.  In …, Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols.
  4.  After the final battle of  in ... Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) transformed Russia and  into a multiconfessional state.
  5.    founded Saint Petersburg on …as the capital of the .
  6.   (Catherine the Great), who ruled from …, continued the efforts to establish Russia as one of the  of Europe.
  7.  Napoleon’s efforts to invade Russia failed in ….
  8.  On 7th November …Vladimir Lenin headed the Bolshevik Revolution.
  9.  After victory in the Civil War, the  together with three other Soviet republics  the  on ….
  10.  On …,  invaded the Soviet Union .
  11.  The USSR was divided into fifteen independent republics….

LANGUAGE SKILLS: SHOWING LACK OF CERTAINTY & SURPRISE

D. Make up short dialogues expressing lack of certainty and surprise. Use prompts given below.

e.g. If I remember rightly, Vladimir Lenin studied in Kazan.

Really? It’s news to me. When was it?

1) There are more than 200 holidays in Russia and only 7 are state ones!

2) In 1240 Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols.

3) The first animal in space was a Russian dog, Laika.

4) Viking Rurik founded the first Russian dynasty in Novgorod.

5) 13 cities in Russia have population over 1 m.

6) The USSR was divided into fifteen independent republics.

7) The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups.

862

988

1240

??

1812

?????????????

????????????????                            ?????????????????????????                               ????????????????????                      ?

on 22 June 1941

on 7th November, 1917                       

??????????????????????????????????????????????

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E. Write in words how you would say the numbers in brackets, in British English. The first one is done as an example for you.

1) 456, 780 - four hundred and fifty six thousand, seven hundred and eighty

2) 1, 230                              5) 120, 330                       8) 3/8

3) 12, 300                            6) 12.33%                         9) 0.169

4) 12,030                             7) 1/5                                10) 174, 607, 513

F. What is the answer to these sums? Write the sums and the answers in figures.

  1.  Twelve multiplied by eight is - 12 x 8 = 96
  2.  One hundred and forty four divided by twelve is -     
  3.  Twenty eight multiplied by three is -
  4.  One point five million multiplied by three is -
  5.  Seven hundred eighty-nine divided by six is -
  6.  Thirty seven point five multiplied by five is -
  7.  One million six hundred divided by five is -

G. Read some statistics about Russia.

???????????????

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????????

100                             a/one hundred

1000                           a/one thousand

1 000 000  (1m )        a/one million

3 000 000 000 (3bn)   three billion

Bigger numbers?

3 560  three thousand five hundred   and sixty (BrE)

                                                          sixty (AmE)

598, 374  five hundred    and ninety-eight thousand, three hundred and forty-

                                       seven(BrE)

                                       ninety-eight thousand, three hundred forty-seven(AmE)

Decimals

Vulgar fractions

16.5  sixteen point five

17.38 %  seventeen point three eight percent      

0.185 (nought) point one eight five                                                              ?

1/8  a/one eighth

3/8 three eighths

1/2  a/one half

3/4 three quarters

???????????????????????????????

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Moscow

St. Petersburg

Nizhniy Novgorod

Population

10,469,000 (2003 census)

4,596,000 (2005 census)

1,370,200 (2007 census)

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?????????????????????

  1.  How would you say these numbers?
  2.  My credit card number is 87 63 05 33 09 74
  3.  It’s too hot today + 29°!
  4.  There are nine 0 in a figure billion.
  5.  In yesterday’s game Ak Bars won 5:0
  6.  Average temperature in winter is – 18 C°

READING: Some facts about Russia

a. Read the facts about Russia and discuss in pairs. Use the Language Skills phrases above.

  1.  ??????????????????????

Russian?

??????

??????????

????????

??????????????

?????%

????%?

??? %?

????%

???? ???????????

?? ??? 

?? ????????

?? ???????

??????????????

?????????????

according to

census

two-headed eagle

to appear  

superpower

to contain

approximately

обширная территория

лежать, находиться

простираться, тянуться; длиться

покрывать

граничить c 

в отношении

согласно….

перепись

двуглавый орел

появляться

сверхдержава

содержать в себе, включать

приблизительно

  1.  Read and translate the text.

Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territory of Russia lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Russia extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe through 11 time zones. At 17,075,200 square kilometers Russia is the : it covers more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area. It borders on China, Kazakhstan, Finland, Norway and many other countries. With 142 million people it is the  in terms of population.

According to the   Russia is a  and formally a  , where the  is the  and the  is the .

Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. According to the 2002 census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by  with 5.3 million and German with 2.9 million speakers. , , , and  are Russia’s traditional religions.

As a state symbol the two-headed eagle first appeared in the XVth century when the country was called Moscovia. The most common version states that two heads of the eagle symbolize two parts of Russia – European and Asian and their importance for the country. Peter the Great was the first to use the three - colour Russian national flag. In those times red colour symbolized the Earth, blue – the sky, and white – the world of God.

Russia has the world's greatest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is known as an . It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world’s fresh water.

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  1.  Complete the fact file about Russia.

RUSSIA’S ??????????

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  1.  Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

?????????

Land borders?

??????????

???????????

??????????????????

????????????????

??????????

??????????????????

?????????????

??????????????

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  1.  Mongols… the main population centers except for Novgorod and Pskov in the 13th century.
  2.  Peter the Great moved the … from Moscow to St. Petersburg.
  3.  of population, Russia is the ninth largest country in the world.
  4.  Russia … most of Eastern Europe and north Asia.
  5.  Russia … Norway and Finland in the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, and Lithuania …; Georgia and Azerbaijan in the southwest; and Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea …
  6.  The population of Moscow is …10,500,000.
  7.  the census there are more than 140 languages and dialects in Russia.
  8.  Two-headed eagle … two parts of Russia – European and Asian.
  9.  Siberia is a very … territory.

SPEAKING

Speak about Russia using the prompts.

STATISTICS

  1.  Match pictures 1-4 to a)-d).

?????????????

capital     in terms of     covers        in the south        symbolizes       vast

borders  on        approximately       according to        destroyed        in the west

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  1.  Graphs, charts and diagrams give a clear picture of trading performance and other statistical information. Study the statistics vocabulary.
  1.  ??????????????????????????????

  1.  ?????????
  1.  ???????
  1.  ?????

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C. Choose the correct words.

1) There was a slight/slightly rise in profits last month.

2) There was a sharp fall in/of our sales last month.

3) Our sales fell by/of 6% last quarter.

4) Inflation is increasing slow/slowly at the moment, in/by about 1% a year.

5) There is a slow/slowly increase in the rate of inflation, of/by about 1% a year.

D. Complete the chart below with the past form of the verbs from the box.

to stand at

Sales stand at 5 units.

 

to remain constant     

Sales remained constant.

5                             

                             

to reach a peak of

Sales reached a pick of 5 units.

                                          

5                                           

2                                           

to increase                        an increase of

to rise                by/to       a rise of

to go up

to grow

Chocolate price increased by £3.

Chocolate price increased to £5.

There was a price rise of £2.   

                                            

                                            

2                                          

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

?????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????

????????????

Sales decreased to 2 units last year.

3

to level off at

Sales levelled off at 3 units.       

                                             

                                          

                

to fluctuate

Sales fluctuated for one year.

You may use the following adverbs and adjectives with the above verbs and nouns

sharply/dramatically –  резко

rapidly – быстро

slightly – слегка, немного

gradually – постепенно  

steadily – стабильно   

Prices increased sharply last year.

Sales declined rapidly during May.

sharp/dramatic   

rapid

steady

There was a sharp increase in sales.

There was a rapid decline in May.

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fluctuate       level        go down       reach          decline        drop        fall

decrease        grow        go up        rise       increase        remain        stand

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E. Look at the words in Column A and their meanings. These words can define numbers more exactly. Match phrases in column A with their translation in column B.

????????-???

????????????????

??????????????

???????????

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  1.  Look at the graph below and complete the sentences with to, at, of, by.

  1.  At the beginning of 2002 sales stood … 300 units.
    1.  Over the next 12 months sales dropped … 200 units.
    2.  Sales levelled off … 200 units for 12 months.
    3.  Sales rose … 200 units during 2004.
    4.  At the beginning of 2005 they reached a peak … 400 units.
    5.  During 2005 they decreased … 300 units.
    6.  Then there was a rise … 50 units in 2006.
    7.  During 2007 sales levelled off … 350 units.

  1.  Put the parts of a sentence in the correct order and describe the graph below.
  2.  sales/100 units/At the beginning of the year 2002/sharply/stood at/and rose  
  3.  Sales /at 200 units/remained constant /by the middle of /2003
  4.  rapid/ In the middle of 2003/there was a/50 units /drop of
  5.  dramatically/At the beginning of 2004/grew/400 /and reached/sales/a peak of  
  6.  over/There was a/decline of 50 units/slight/the first half of the year
  7.  fluctuated/Sales/during 2 years/by the end of 2006
  8.  by 200 units/dropped /sharply/Sales/to 150/by the middle of 2007
  9.  by 2008/There was a/decline/over 6 months/steady

  1.  Read a part of a business plan and draw the graph of the rate of inflation.

Let us look briefly at the way inflation has developed during the period 2001-2006. On the graph in front of you, the horizontal axis represents the years from 2001 to 2006 divided up into six-monthly periods. The vertical axis shows the percentage rate of inflation from zero to 25. Let us now look in detail at the development.

If we start with 2001, you can see that at the beginning of the year inflation stood at 5%. It increased steadily over the next 12 months to 8%. The situation improved at the beginning of 2002 and it levelled off for a six months period. The improvement continued and inflation decreased gradually by 2% during the rest of the year. Unfortunately, as you can see, the decline was not maintained and over the next six months inflation rose slightly and reached 9% by the middle of 2003. Then things went bad - I’m sure you will remember how inflation went up dramatically to 17% during the next 12 months and the effects this had on our exports. After a drop of 3% over the second half of 2004 when we all thought that things were improving, inflation increased rapidly until it reached a peak of 24% in the middle of 2005. This marked the low point for us and the high point for inflation. It then fell to 20% by the end of 2005 and levelled off until the middle of 2006. Now let’s look at our results during the same period…

  1.  What kind of movement do the verbs below describe? Match them to the symbols. Use some symbols more than once. ?

A?

B

by 50 %

150            200%

около 50%

ровно 50%

на 50%

вырос до 50% примерно 50%

более 50%

почти 50%

менее 50%

almost 50%

48%

nearly/about/around 50%

48-52%

approximately/roughly 50%

45-55%

more than/over/above 50 %

57%                     

less than/ under 50  %  

43%                     ?

?

exactly 50 %  

50%?

?

up to 50 %                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

30            50%?

?

?

double                  gain                     drop                increase               rocket

decrease               fall                       halve               level off               triple

hit the bottom      fluctuate              improve          peak                     rise

plummet              recover                 soar                collapse                stabilise

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G. Describe the graphs. Use the expressions from task I.

Events that influenced sale:

1st Quarter: Low consumer demand

2nd Quarter: Price drop

3rd Quarter: Price war with competitors

4th Quarter: Strong holiday buying

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WORD FILE

  1.  1)

2)             4

  2            

3)

4)

      

??????

?????????????????????????????????

????

????

????

  1.  ?

?

  1.  ?
  1.  ????????????????

???????????????????????????????????????????????????

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Module 2 The Republic of Tatarstan

“You wouldn’t believe it,

but I would rather live in Mamadysh

rather than in Venetia, Rome or Naples…“

From a letter of Leo Tolstoy

17 March 1786

PREVIEW

  1.  What do you know about Tatarstan? Do the quiz and say which of the data were surprising for you?

1) Tatarstan is situated approximately 800 km … of Moscow.

  1.  east
  2.  west
  3.  north

2) Islam was established as a state religion in ….

  1.  1552
  2.  922
  3.  1147

3) During the years of the World War II, Boris Pasternak used to live in ….

  1.  Naberezhniye Chelny
  2.  Chistopol
  3.  Bavly

4) Kazan was captured by the troops of Emel'yan Pugachev in ….

  1.  1774
  2.  1147
  3.  1552

5) The second largest town of Tatarstan is ….

  1.  Bugulma
  2.  Chelny
  3.  Nizhnekamsk

6) On … Mintimer Shaimiyev was elected the first President of the Republic of Tatarstan.

  1.  25th March, 1990
  2.  25th March, 2005
  3.  12th June, 1991

7) There are about … small lakes in the Republic.

  1.  8,000
  2.  4,500
  3.  1,000

8) The Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan was adopted on ….

  1.  September 5, 1991
  2.  November 6, 1992
  3.  June 12, 1990

READING: TATARSTAN

  1.  Read and translate the text.

 History

Tatarstan is one of the most industrialized republics of the Russian Federation in terms of population and economic potential. The process of inhabiting the territory of the republic began at the time of the early Palaeolithic age (about 100,000 years ago). In the 8th – 9th   centuries, the tribes of ancient Bulgars, ancestors of the modern Tatars, began to populate the Volga Region. The first state – the Volga-Kama Bulgaria – was set up at the end of the 9th - beginning of the 10th centuries. In the 13th century this territory became a part of powerful Zolotaya Orda (Golden Hord) State. The collapse of the Golden Hord in the 30-40s of the 14th century resulted in the formation of new states including the Kazan Khanate. Kazan became the capital of this state. The Kazan Khanate ceased its existence in October 1552, when troops of Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) conquered Kazan.  As the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic it was established on 27th May, 1920 on the territory of the former Kazan Province. Seventy years later, on 30th August, 1990 the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic was signed.

Geographical position

The Republic of Tatarstan is located in the center of the East-European Plain where Europe meets Asia and two large rivers - the Volga and the Kama – carry their joint waters to the Caspian Sea. The Republic of Tatarstan covers the territory of 67,800 sq.km and stretches for 290 km from North to South and for 460 km from West to East. Climate in the Republic is moderate-continental with warm, sometimes hot summers and moderate cold winters.

 The capital

The capital of the Republic is Kazan, its industrial, commercial and cultural center, a city of more than 1.1 mln people. There are 19 cities and towns and 3,100 settlements in the Republic. The total population of the republic is about 3.8 mln people. Peculiarity of the Republic of Tatarstan and its culture is in that they reflect two different civilizations: eastern and western, and two different religions: Moslem and Christian (Orthodox). Tatarstan is a multinational republic, as it is home to representatives of more than 100 nationalities: the Tatars (over 50%), the Russians (nearly 42%), the Chuvashes, the Mordvinians, the Mari, the Udmurts, etc.

The government

The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President. Tatarstan’s unicameral State Council is elected for 5 years as well and has 100 seats: 50 are for representatives of the parties, other 50 are for deputies from the republic’s localities. The official languages are Tatar and Russian. The state emblem represents a winged snow leopard with a round shield on his side. The national flag is a horizontal tricolor with stripes of green, white and red.

Industrial regions

The main industries of the Republic are oil production, petrochemistry, aircraft industry, mechanical engineering and instrument-making. The territory of the Republic is divided into several economic regions.

Old industrial Northwest region with Kazan and Zelenodolsk as its centre. Major industries of the region are machine-building, instrument-making, chemical and light industries. OAO Kazanorgsintez is one of the giants of petrochemical center of Tatarstan. It produces more than a half of the whole polyethylene production of the country. Produce quality meets the European standards and is exported to many countries. Kazan Automotive Industrial Enterprise (KMPO) has more than 60 years experience in aircraft engine production. It has been producing 65% of all engines for civil planes, as well as the engines for bombers and helicopters.

New industrial Northeast region with  Naberezhniye Chelny and Nizhnekamsk as its centre. Major industries of the region are power engineering, automobile and chemical industries. OAO Kama Automobile Works (KamAZ), situated in the city of Naberezhniye Chelny, is considered to be the best Russian exporter of heavy-duty trucks. These large capacity lorries work under any road and climatic conditions. KamAZ has 6 enterprises located in Russia, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The products of KamAZ are used in over 83 countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. As for Nizhnekamsk, it is the main chemical center of Tatarstan. OAO Nizhnekamskneftekhim is the largest producer and exporter of petrochemical products in Eastern Europe and one of the largest budget-forming enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan. OAO Nizhnekamskshina is one of the leading tyre manufacturers in the CIS.

The Southeast oil-extracting region. It is oil that made our republic well-known all over the world. The main oil-producing towns are Almetyevsk, Leninogorsk and Bugulma. Tatneft, located in Almetyevsk (a city of about 151,000 people) is the main oil-producing company of the Republic. Since 1994, it exists as a joint-stock company.

The North, Central, South and Southwest parts of the Republic are rural agricultural regions. Agricultural sector employs more than 16% of economically active population. Agriculture of the Republic covers the local needs in the basic food stuffs. 4.5 mln hectares of land are cultivated which is equal to 67% of the Republic’s territory. Main grain crops are wheat, rye, barley, oats and buckwheat. Fodder crops cover 36% of the sowing area. The Republic is also well-known for its cattle-breeding. Production of such staples as meat, potatoes, milk, eggs per capita in Tatarstan is 15-60% higher than in Russia.

The Republic of Tatarstan ranks number one among the Volga regions in terms of foreign trade turnover and foreign economic activity. The foreign relations of Tatarstan have expanded especially over the past decade. It has signed agreements with Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Germany, Australia, etc. The main export products are crude oil, petrochemical items, compressors, optical devices, trucks, automobile tyres and spare parts.   

  1.  Match the words with their definitions.

Unit 2 Module 1

to found/to establish

to destroy

to rule 

efforts

to invade

to divide into

zero

nought

nil

nothing

point

vast territory

to lie

to extend

to cover

to border on

in terms of

population

according to

census

two-headed eagle

appear

symbolize

superpower

contain

approximately

STATISTICS

pie chart

bar chart

graph

table

to stand at

to remain constant

to increase/an increase of                                                             

to  rise/a rise of                                                                      

to go up

to grow

to decrease/a decrease of

to fall/a fall of

to drop/a drop of

to decline/a decline of

to reach a peak of         

to level off at              

to fluctuate  

sharply/dramatically

rapidly

slightly

gradually

steadily

at the beginning of

at the end of

in the middle of

by the beginning of/

by the end of/ by the middle

during/for/over

by 50 %

almost 50%

nearly/about/around 50%

approximately/roughly 50%

more than/over/above 50%

less than/ under 50%

exactly 50%

up to 50%

to double                  

to gain                     

to rocket

to halve          

to triple

to hit the bottom  

to improve          

to peak                    

to plummet              

to recover                 

to soar                

to collapse                 

to stabilise

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  1.  Answer questions to the text. Make up a dialogue on the basis of this information.
  2.  What are the main industries of the Republic?
  3.  What economic regions is the republic divided into?
  4.  What giant represents the old industrial Northwest region? What does it produce?
  5.  What are the main industries of the new industrial Northeast region?
  6.  What is KamAZ? Where is it located? What are the main oil-producing towns?
  7.  What parts of the Republic are known as rural agricultural regions?
  8.  What are the main grain crops of the Republic?
  9.  What can you tell about the foreign relations of Tatarstan?
  10.  What are the main export products of the RT?

LANGUAGE SKILLS: EXPRESSING OPINIONS. AGREEING & DISAGREEING

                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                             

 

                                                                                                                                                       

A. Make up short dialogues expressing your opinion, agreeing or disagreeing.  Use the prompts given below.

e.g. I believe that oil made our Republic well-known all over the world.

There may be something in what you say but there are also other things that contributed to the fame and well-being of the Republic.

Prompts: knowing foreign languages; making friends when travelling; studying in a foreign country; making Tatarstan a tourist attraction; trying new cuisine; investing in new technology.

  1.  Work in pairs. Write down 3 true and 3 false statements about the Republic of Tatarstan using the information from the text. Read the statements to each other, and agree or disagree with them using expressions from the Language skills box above.

GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE

  1.  ????????????????????

to cease

a basic type of food that is used a lot

to locate

a period of 100 years

conquest

connected with or like the countryside

agricultural

a thick rubber cover that fits round the wheel of a bicycle, car, or other vehicle

to inhabit

to stop happening or continuing

century

a particular period of history

unicameral

a feature that only belongs to a particular person, thing, place, etc.

ancestor

to put or build smth in a particular place

staple

having only one main governing body

rural

relating to farming

age

the act of taking control of a country, city, etc. by force

tyre

to live in a particular place

peculiarity

a person in your family who lived a long time ago

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B. Find passive forms in the text about Tatarstan and analyse their tense form.

C. Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.

1) We have cancelled the meeting. 2) We asked Mrs. Fry to chair the meeting. 3) She pays a lot of money. 4) They should not interrupt production at any other time. 5) Management makes the conditions more comfortable for workers. 6) The government increased workforce dramatically.7) Investors put a lot of money into production.

D. Put the verbs in brackets into passive voice.

  1.  After the Russian revolution of 1905 Tatars (to allow) to revive Kazan as a Tatar cultural center.
  2.  The city has a beautiful citadel, which (to declare) the World Heritage Site in 2000.
  3.  In the beginning of 1990s most of Central Kazan (to cover) by wooden buildings, usually consisting of two floors.
  4.   (to establish) in 1804.
  5.   and  widely (to speak) in the city.
  6.  Kazan (to serve) by , which (to locate) approximately 30 kilometers from the city centre.
  7.  Until recently there was  at the eastern end of the city, but it (to pull down) as a new  (to build) in its place.
  8.  Information on the efficiency of those enterprises (to require).
  9.  The irrigated lands (to saw) mostly with cotton.
  10.  The desire to expand friendly ties (to express) by both sides.

WRITING: MAKING UP AN ITINERARY

  •  An itinerary is a detailed list of what you will be doing and where you will be while you are away. It includes information about transportation methods, places you will be staying, attractions you will be visiting, meetings you will be attending. Be sure to include names, addresses and any other contact information you have. Take a copy with you and leave one at your office and with family and friends.
  •  Read the step-by-step guide on making an itinerary:
    •  Choose where you are going to go on holiday, i.e. Moscow, Yelabuga, Naberezhnye Chelny, New York, London, etc.
    •  Find some information about amazing sites, places to visit, things to do.
    •  Write all of the places down and choose which one best suits you and your fellow traveller (some may prefer to visit historical sites, others may want to visit shopping malls).
    •  After you have chosen where you want to go, choose the type of transportation you are going to get around, i.e. car, taxi, train, plane, bus, boat, etc.
    •  Consider an appropriate place to stay, i.e. hotel, hostel, motel, house, etc.
    •  Group all of the information you have gathered, now you are ready to write down an itinerary.

A. Write an itinerary for a business trip of your partner who is in oil business. You may wish to include all oil-extracting cities of Tatarstan. Don’t forget about an entertainment programme. Use the example below.

Itinerary of William Smith, trip to New York, 23-26 November

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Present Simple

am/is/are +Ved/V3

Applicants (shortlist) and (interview).

Modern production (characterize) by the high level of automation.

Jobs (create) where society needs them.

Past Simple

was/were+ Ved/V3

Help (give) to small farmers.

Many enterprises (set up) in 1990s.

Present Perfect Simple

has/have been + Ved/V3

The agreement (sign) by our countries.

???????????????????????????????????

Modal verbs

can/may/must/ be +Ved/V3

The data (can/regard) as conclusive.

Preparation for the project (must/ complete) this week.

This (may/call) a local problem.

Future Simple

will be + Ved/V3

New laboratory (provide) with the most modern equipment.

Future Perfect

will have been + Ved/V3

About a quarter of all electricity (generate) by atomic power plants.

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  1.  Create an advertisement that advertises your itinerary. The advertisement should include some pictures of places that are in the itinerary, but you may create it however you think would be most effective.


WORD FILE

Date

departure/
from (time and place)

arrival/
to (time and place)

Flight no.

Info

???????

????????????

????????????????????????

?????????New York, JFK

????????

take taxi to Lowell Hotel 28 east sixty third Street (28 km, 20 minutes drive)

???????

????????????

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take taxi to CitiLife, 315 Bleecker Street, New York, NY 10014, phone: 212-349-6726 (100 km, 60 minutes drive)

????????

?????????????????????

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Meeting with Mr. Braun, Mrs. Green, Mr. Yoko, Mr. Walker and Mrs. Mankowich

?????????

???????????????????????????

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lunch with Mr. Braun and Mr. Bright (senior account manager)

????????

?????????????????????

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Meeting with the marketing department. ??????????????????

4:00 PM

7:00 PM

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Free time, visiting sights, gifts shopping

????????

?????????

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Dinner with Mr. Braun. He will pick you up at the hotel

????????

????????????

????????

?????????????????????

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Report to Mr. Braun. Guided tour of the factory, including lunch

????????

?????????????????????

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Meeting with the new PR-manager, Mrs. White (successor of Mr. Gefferson).

??????????

????????????

????????New York, JFK

12:00????London, Heathrow

????????

Take a taxi to the airport (28 km, 20 minutes drive)

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  1.  Tell if you agree or disagree with these quotations.   

“When you look at a city, it’s like reading the hopes, aspirations and pride of everyone who built it.”

Hugh Newell Jacobsen

“A great city is not to be confounded with a populous one.”

Aristotle

B. How well do you know Kazan and its history? Do the quiz and check your knowledge.

  1.  In 1446 Kazan became the capital of ….
    1.  Khanate of Kazan
    2.  the Golden Horde
    3.  the Bolgar state
  2.  In 1774 Kazan was destroyed by ….
    1.  the troops of Yemelyan Pugachev
    2.  great fire
    3.  troops of Ivan the Terrible
  3.  Which building is not on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin?
    1.  the Kul-Sharif mosque
    2.  the Spasskaya Tower
    3.  Nurullah mosque
  4.  The Peter and Paul Cathedral was built to commemorate the visit of …. to Kazan.
    1.  Peter the Great
    2.  Catherine the Great
    3.  Alexander I
  5.  Kazan state emblem represents …
    1.  a snake
    2.  a horse
    3.  a panther
  6.  Match these famous people of Kazan and their field of work.

Unit 2 Module 2

industrialized republic

to inhabit

tribe

troop

to populate

age/century

ancient

collapse

to cease one’s existence

to conquer

conqueror

conquest

to number … people

to be established

on the territory of …

to sign (agreements)

to be situated = to be located

plain

to cover the territory of sq.km.

to stretch for … km  from… to…

moderate-continental

settlement

total population

peculiarity

to reflect  

nationality

religion: moslem/ christian (orthodox)

multinational

civilization

to be home to smb

to elect smb for the term of … years

party

unicameral/bicameral

representative (n, a)

deputy

to be divided into regions

giant (a)

to meet standards

to export/to import

to produce = to manufacture

enterprise

budget-forming enterprise

to work under any conditions

leading

agglomeration

CIS countries

to exist

joint-stock company

rural

agriculture; agricultural

to employ

economically-active population

main = major

to cover the needs

hectare

sowing area

per capita

foreign trade turnover

to expand

to exist

to extract

to exceed

to cultivate

to be equal to  

industries = branches of industry

oil production

oil-extracting

petrochemistry

aircraft industry

mechanical engineering/engineering/ machine-building

automobile industry/ motor-car industry

instrument-making

machine-tool industry

chemical industry

light industry

power engineering

manufacturing/processing

mining

items of produce

oil/crude oil/petrochemical items

polyethylene

aircraft engines (for civil planes, bombers and helicopters)

heavy-duty trucks/large-capacity lorries

compressors

optical devices

automobile tyres (AmE tires)

spare parts           

grain crops (wheat, rye, barley, oats and buckwheat)

fodder crops

cattle-breeding

basic food stuffs/staples (meat, potatoes, milk, eggs)

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LANGUAGE SKILS: ASKING THE WAY

  1.  Match phrases 1)–8) with pictures a)-f), some of them can be used more than once:

N.A. Mislavskiy?

medicine, anatomy

V.M. Bekhterev

chemistry

K. Nasyri

physics, mathematics

A.M. Butlerov

history, ethnography

P.F. Lesgaft

physiology

A.Ye. Arbuzov

psychiatry, psychology

Kh.M. Mushtari

organic chemistry

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       a)                         b)                   c)                   d)                     e)   

                                                                                               f)

B. Practice the following conversation with a partner using the substitutions in the box.

A: Do you know where I can get a cup of coffee?

B: Sure. You could try the Capital cafe.

A: Where’s that?

B: It’s on Pushkin Street near to Clocks on Bauman Street.

A: Thanks.

B: No problem.

1) Go straight ahead/ carry on.                       5) Turn right.

2) Walk along the street.                                6) Turn left at the crossroads.

3) Take the first (second) turning on the right. 7) Take a bus to…

4) Get off the bus at …                                   8) It’s next /across from/ opposite/beside.

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GRAMMAR1: PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION

get some clothes      get some cat food     buy some milk     buy some jewelers

grab a hamburger      get some aspirin     see a movie      buy a book      mail a letter

buy some CDs      have a snack

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C. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.

1) I found the key … the cushion. 2) Her office is … those stairs. 3) A lamp hung … the table. 4) The earth goes … the sun. 5) We parked our car … the sports hall. 6) It’s easy to find – there’s a church just … my house. 7) There was a low brick wall … our garden and the field beyond. 8) We’re driving … Follyfoot Road. 9) Would you like me to help you … the road? 10) The cat ran out from … the tree. 11) James walked … without looking in my direction. 12) She stood … and walked … the window.   13) The ball went flying … the window.   

GRAMMAR 2: USE OF PREPOSITIONS IN, AT, ON

NB We say 'in the corner of a room', but 'at the corner (or 'on the corner') of a street'.

We say 'in the front/in the back' of a car.

We say 'at the front/at the back' of buildings/groups of people. 

We say 'on the front/on the back' of a piece of paper.

 

D. Choose either in, at, or on.

1) The label is … the bottle. 2) Jack is waiting …the bottom of the stairs. 3) Our seats are … the third row. 4) Turn left … the lights. 5) He's sitting …the chair next to the piano. 6) I met Jack …the street. 7) He has a lot of beautiful pictures … the wall. 8) I live … the fifth floor of my apartment building. 9) We waited for over an hour …the bus-stop. 10) Who is that woman … the photograph? 11) You will find an explanation … page 18. 12) Paris is … the river Seine. 13) The instructions are … the back of the box. 14) What do you have … your hands? 15) Can you see who is … the door?

E. Choose the correct prepositions.

I'm Peter and I live … Germany. … summer I like to travel … Italy, because … the weather and the people there. Last summer I took a plane … Munich to Rome. … the airport we went to our hotel … bus. We stopped … a small restaurant for a quick meal. The driver parked the bus … the restaurant. Nobody could find the bus and the driver, so we waited … the restaurant …one hour. The driver was walking …the small park …the restaurant which we did not know. So we were very angry … him. But my holidays were great. We sat … campfires and went dancing … the early mornings.

F. Work in pairs. Student 1 looks at Map A. These buildings are not marked on your map, but they are marked on your friend's map: the police station, the bank, the hospital, the chemist, the charity shop, the disco, the shoe shop, the newsagent's, the internet café, the snack bar.  Ask your friend how to get there and find the ten buildings on your map.

Map A

Student 2 looks at Map B. These buildings are not marked on the map, but they are marked on your friend's map: the post office, the Chinese restaurant, the bookshop, the cinema, the supermarket, the car park, the baker's, the dry cleaner's, the fashion boutique, the Swan Hotel. Ask your friend how to get there and find the ten buildings on your map.

Map B

READING: KAZAN

  1.  Study the vocabulary

Preposition

Use

Examples

above

higher than smth

The picture hangs above my bed.

across

from one side to the other side

You mustn't go across this road here.
There isn't a bridge
across the river.

along

in a line; from one point to another

They're walking along the beach.

among

in a group

I like being among people.

behind

at the back of

Our house is behind the supermarket.

below

lower than smth

Death Valley is 86 metres below sea level.

beside

next to

near

Our house is beside the supermarket.

between

smth/smb is on each side

Our house is between the supermarket and the school.

by

near

He lives in the house by the river.

in front of

the part that is in the direction it faces

Our house is in front of the supermarket.

inside

opposite of outside

You shouldn't stay inside the castle.

opposite

on the other side

Our house is opposite the supermarket.

out of

leaving smth

The cat jumped out of the window.

outside

opposite of inside

Can you wait outside?

over

above smth/smb

The cat jumped over the wall.

round

in a circle

We're sitting round the campfire.

through

going from one point to the other point

You shouldn't walk through the forest.

to

towards smth/smb

I like going to Australia.
Can you come
to me?

under

below smth

The cat is under the table.

up

from low to high

He went up the hill.

mosque

to found

it is worth +Ving

to contribute to smth

contribution

hangout

pedestrian walkway

keepsake

to hold

to have smth at one’s disposal

sights

to do the sights/to go sightseeing

мечеть

основать

стоит сделать что-либо

внести вклад

вклад

постоянное место встреч

пешеходная улица

подарок на память, сувенир

проводить, организовать

иметь что-либо в чьем-либо распоряжении

достопримечательности

осматривать достопримечательности

  1.  Read and translate the dialogue.

Guide: Good morning. Welcome to Kazan! Today we will go about the town and see the most well known sights.  Let’s start our excursion.

Kazan is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan and a city of more than one million residents. It is situated on seven hills - just like Rome. It occupies an area on the left bank of the Volga River and on both banks of the Kazanka. It has its own Kremlin, Russia's third oldest university and a number of mosques. As one of Russia's oldest cities, Kazan celebrated its 1,000th anniversary in 2005.

Tourist: Who was it founded by?

Guide: It was founded by Bulgars. The first mention of Kazan dates back to the 11th century. Now we are in the historic heart of Kazan - in the Kremlin. The Kremlin is the former Tatar fortress. The Spassky tower and the famous falling Suyumbike tower are the architectural symbols of the city.

Tourist: Oh! It’s impressive. What are these?

Guide: Splendid, isn’t it? Orthodox cathedral stands next to the recently built mosque of Kul-Sharif. Tourists are usually impressed by the combination of Russian and Tatar cultures in the architectural appearance of the city.

Tourists: Can we climb up the Kremlin walls? 

Guide: Certainly. Turn right and you’ll see the circus and the view of the Kazanka and the city's districts on the opposite bank.

Guide:  We are walking along Kremlyovskaya Street. It connects two of Kazan's important sights in the city center The Kremlin and the Kazan State University. On the right is the National Museum. It is worth visiting to learn about the traditional Tatar way of life and history.

Here we are! The Kazan State University was founded in 1804. The library of the university is one of the richest and the most unique in the world. The University is the birthplace of organic chemistry, due to the contribution of Alexander Butlerov, Vladimir Markovnikov, Alexander Arbuzov and others. It is the alma mater of Nikolai Lobachevsky, the inventor of non-Euclidean geometry. In all there are 29 establishments of higher education in the city, alongside the Science Academy of Tatarstan, the Kazan Center of the RF Science Academy and a number of scientific and research institutes.

Take the first turning on the right and you will see that Universitetskaya Street goes down from the state university building to Gabdulla Tukay Square. This square is named after the Tatar poet and often referred to by locals as the ‘Koltso' (Ring).

Tourist: A real tourist attraction. So many people! Guide: The Ring is the midpoint of the modern city center and a popular hangout for local youths. The square hosts the Koltso shopping center, a few other modern buildings and a monument to revolutionary Vakhitov on a high hill. A pedestrian walkway Bauman Street, like Moscow's Arbat, starts on the Ring. There are many new shopping and office centers around this area.

Tourist: Souvenirs! What should we buy as a keepsake of the city?

Guide: Postcards, pictures and cups with views of Kazan. And don’t forget Tatar national sweets. They are worth buying!

Guide: We go straight ahead along Pushkin Street to the Opera and Ballet Theater named after M. Jalil. Being the centre of multi-national culture, Kazan holds the

International Festival of Opera Singing, named after Shalyapin and the International Festival of Ballet Dancing. The citizens and the guests have at their disposal six theatres, Philharmonic, a number of museums, among them is the Fine Arts museum, concert and exhibition halls.

This is the end of our excursion. Have you got any questions?

Tourist: I heard much about Moslem mosques. Where can I find them?

Guide:  Most of the mosques are around the lake Kaban. It’s the area where the Tatars used to live before the revolution.

Tourist: Could you tell me how to get there?

Guide:  Sure! Take any bus to Moskovskaja Street. There you’ll find the Asimov mosque, the most beautiful one in Kazan, and the Mardzhany mosque, the oldest of them. On the right bank of Kaban you will see the minaret of Zakabannaya mosque.

Tourist: Thank you very much!

Guide:  You are welcome. Good luck!

SPEAKING

A. Kazan is the city where a lot can be seen and much can be done. Develop this idea and say what people can see and do in the capital of Tatarstan.

B. Imagine that a group of teenagers has come to Kazan. What will you tell them about Kazan or a place where you live.

C. You are talking to a friend. Make up questions about the places he/she has seen.

  1.  Where/Kremlin street/ situated?
  2.  When/the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral/built?
  3.  When/the Suyumbike Tower/ appear?
  4.  Where/the Governor’s Palace/located?
  5.  When/the Palace of the President of Tatarstan/erected?
  6.  When/the Tainitskaya Tower/ ruined?

D. Imagine you are a teacher. Let your classmates answer your questions.

T: Why did you go to the Kazan Kremlin? 

S1: I went there to see the Suyumbike Tower.

T: When did you go there?

S1: I went there in summer.

  1.  Why/Kazan? When/there?
  2.  Why/Bauman Street? When/there?
  3.  Why/the National museum of Tatarstan? When/there?
  4.  Why/Square named after G.Tukai? When/there?
  5.  Why/Musa Jalil Street? When/there?
  6.  Why/University Street? When/there?

E. Create the Fact File of Kazan describing its location, religions, emblem, population and places of interest.

OVER TO YOU 

A. Here are some extracts from a sightseeing programme for a group of tourists who visit Kazan for 4 days. When they arrived at the Kazan railway station they were met by the representatives of the Tourist Agency which organized their trip, who acted as their guides.

1) Discuss what you think the tourists could do on Wednesday and Thursday. Work out a programme for these days. Some ideas: The Kremlin, Bauman street, Kremlyovskaya street, the National museum, the art gallery, shopping, etc.

2) Discuss the programme and express your opinion of it. Would you be satisfied with this programme if you were in the group? Which of the visits do you think would be the most interesting for you? Why?

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B. If you come from other cities of Russia and Tatarstan, you may prefer to speak about your native town or city. Work out a plan of places to visit and to see in it. Present it as an excursion around the city.  

WORD FILE

Programme for a visit to Kazan

Monday 1st July

  1.  Arrival at the railway station. Transfer to the “Kazan Grand Hotel”.

19.30 Dinner at the hotel.

Evening free

Tuesday 2nd July

07.30-08.30 Breakfast

09.00 Departure from the hotel by coach for the sightseeing tour of Kazan including the river port, Bulak street

12.30 Lunch in a typical tatar café “Al-Anash”

13.30-18.00 Free time

18.00 Dinner at the hotel

20.00 Kazan at night. The coach tour of the illuminated places of interest.

Wednesday 3rd July…

Thursday 4th July …

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UNIT 3

ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES

PREVIEW

  1.  What countries is English the first language? Match English-speaking countries with their national flags and capitals.

Unit 2 Module 3

anniversary

to date back to (from)

a fortress

due to

a contribution

an establishment

alongside

midpoint

to host

a pedestrian walkway

a keepsake

to hold

to have smth at one’s disposal

mosque

to found

it is worth +Ving

to contribute to smth

contribution

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hangout

pedestrian walkway

keepsake

to hold

sights

to do the sights/to go sightseeing

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  1.  Do you know where English is the second official language? Rearrange the letters and read some of these countries, name their capitals.

ANIID  ~   ESLRIA   ~  ONGHOGNK   ~  LMTAA  ~   HETCEURBPILFOUHSTORAFIAC

Module 1 Across Britain

  1.  Match the facts about the UK with the places on the map.

the USA     Australia     Great Britain

Canada     the Republic of Ireland

New Zealand

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Washington D.C.     Wellington

London     Ottawa     Canberra

Dublin

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READING 1: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1.  Study the vocabulary from Exercises B, E. 

  1.  The Royal Family residence is located here

 

e. A world renowned writer William Shakespeare was born in this town

  1.   The Legendary  band Beatles started their career in this city

f. Prime Meridian (0 degree meridian) passes  through

  this place

  1.  This prehistoric monument is one

of the most famous

sights in the world

g. It is the capital of the part of Great Britain where bagpipes are played

d. It is the UK’s2nd

largest city in terms

of population

h. Thanks to this it takes just 35 minutes to get from

England to France

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B. Read and translate the text.

The British Isles is the geographical term for a group of about 5,000 islands off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. The largest island is Britain or Great Britain, which is also the largest island in Europe. It consists of England (south eastern part), Wales (south western part) and Scotland (northern part). The next largest island is Ireland, which is made up of Northern Ireland (or Ulster) and the Irish Republic (also known as Eire). Britain and Northern Ireland, together with a number of small islands, form the United Kingdom of Britain and Northern Ireland, more commonly known as the United Kingdom. With a total population of 58 million people the UK ranks about fifteenth in the world.

Britain has a generally mild, temperate climate. The weather, however, tends to be very changeable as a result of constant influence of different air masses. South-western winds bring warm air from the Atlantic. There are few extremes in temperature, which rarely goes above 32˚C or below - 10˚C. In summer southern Britain is warmer than northern Britain because of its latitude but, in winter a warm sea current keeps the west milder than the east. Consequently Wales and the south-west peninsula have the most moderate climate and eastern England is the most extreme. The west and the north of Britain get more annual rainfall than its eastern and central parts. The reason is that western areas are more mountainous and higher than the rest of the country and therefore they get more rain.

C. Match the names with the maps.

island

a piece of land completely surrounded by water

isle

a word for an island, used in poetry or in names of islands: the British Isles

peninsula

a piece of land almost completely surrounded by water but joined to a large mass of land

mainland

the main area of land that forms a country, as compared to islands near it that are also part of that country

coast

the area where the land meets the sea

off the coast

in the sea near the land

latitude

the distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees

mild

not to cold or wet, and sometimes pleasantly warm

temperatemoderate

a type of weather that is never very hot or very cold

extreme n

something that goes beyond normal limits, so that it seems very unusual and unacceptable

rainfall

the amount of rain that falls on an area in a particular period of time

spell n

a period of a particular kind of activity, weather etc, usually a short period: sunny spell 

shower

a short period of rain or snow

gale

a very strong wind

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D. Speak about the weather features and its causes in Britain.

the British  Isles

the UK

Great Britain

England

Scotland

Wales

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

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E. Match the weather forecast with the correct chart. Then write a weather forecast for the other chart.

Causes

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1very changeable weather

2 few extremes in temperature

3 south warmer than North

4 west milder than East

5 west wetter than East

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Weather forecast

Cloud with a little rain will persist over south-eastern parts of England, but there will be sunny spells over much of the country. Showers will extend from the north west through western areas of Scotland and Northern Ireland. Some of these showers will be heavy on west-facing coasts. Temperatures will be quite mild for January, with a minimum of 7 degrees Celsius in northern Scotland and a maximum of 11 degrees Celsius in south-west England but there will be a strong westerly wind with gales in the far south-west.

 F. Look through the texts again and find A) synonyms and B) antonyms for the following words and phrases.

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G. What do we add to short regular adjectives to make comparative and superlative forms? What do we add to long adjectives? Translate the following sentences. 

  1.  Великобритания – самый большой остров в Европе. 2) Ольстер более известен как Северная Ирландия. 3) Благодаря теплому морскому течению климат на западе мягче, чем на востоке. 4) В Уэльсе самый умеренный климат, а восточная часть Англии больше всего подвержена резким климатическим изменениям. 5) На севере и на западе Великобритании выпадает больше осадков, чем на востоке. 6) В западной  части острова больше гор и возвышенностей.

READING 2: BRITAIN

  1.  Solve the quiz and check your answers.

A)

strong wind

B)

a little rain

be made up of

above

rainfall

the most moderate

parts

changeable

mild

minimum

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  1.  Study the vocabulary.

The longest river in the UK is …

  1.  the Severn
  2.  the Thames
  3.  the Avon

Ben Nevis is …

  1.  a name of whiskey
  2.  a football player
  3.  a mountain

The symbol of Scotland is …

  1.  bagpipe
  2.  kilt
  3.  thistle

The capital of Wales is …

  1.  Swansea
  2.  Cardiff
  3.  Belfast   

All the following languages are spoken in the UK except …

  1.  Welsh
  2.  Celtic
  3.  Gaelic

The flag of the UK is called the …

  1.  Stars and stripes
  2.  Union Jack
  3.  Maple Leaf

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C. Read and translate the text.

England information file: Total population  49 mln. Capital - London. National day - St. George, April 23. National symbols - Red rose, lion, and bulldog. Language - English.

Of the four parts which make up Great Britain England is the largest and most densely populated part of the United Kingdom. The greatest concentrations of population are in London, Birmingham and north-west industrial cities.?

England is mostly a lowland country. There are upland regions in the north and in the southwest, but the rest of England is almost flat. The coasts of England are washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Straight of Dover. There are many rivers in England. The longest is the Severn, the most important is the Thames.  

flat adj

smooth and level

valley

an area of land between two lines of hills or mountains, usually with a river flowing through it

plain n

a large area of flat dry land

range

a group of mountains or hills, usually in a line

rural

happening in or connected with countryside, not the city

agriculture

the practice or science of farming

dairy farming

the practice or business of keeping cows to produce milk

pasture

land or a field that is covered with grass and is used for cattle, sheep etc to feed on

sheet

a large flat area of something such as ice or water spread over a surface

plateau

a large area of flat land that is higher than the land around it