94576

Basic English Grammar Course. Учебное пособие

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Impersonal Sentences. Tasks for Self-Control. Imperatives. Types of Questions. Imperative Sentences. Types of Questions. Tasks for Self-Control. The Nouns. The Noun. Plural of Nouns. The Possessive Case of the Nouns. Tasks for Self-Control.

Английский

2015-09-13

832 KB

3 чел.

Ответственный редактор

кандидат психологических наук, доцент Гришечко О.С.

Рецензенты:

кандидат филологических наук, доцент Дзюбенко А.И.;

кандидат педагогических наук, доцент Герасимова Н.И.

Авторы – составители:

кандидат педагогических наук, доцент Лубянова М.А.;

кандидат филологических наук, доцент Жарина О.А.

Basic English Grammar Course. Учебное пособие по грамматике английского языка для студентов факультета лингвистики и словесности отделения славянской и западноевропейской филологии ПИ ЮФУ. – Ростов н/Д: ИПО ПИ ЮФУ, 2012.132 с.

Настоящее пособие составлено в соответствии с учебно-тематическим планом и предназначено для обеспечения учебно-методического комплекса дисциплины Б.3.В.8 «Практическая грамматика» (1 курс, 1 семестр). Содержание пособия охватывает базовый этап развития иноязычной грамматической компетенции. Пособие состоит из 7 модулей. Каждый модуль включает в себя три основных блока: информационный, практический и контролирующий (с квалиметрическим обеспечением). Теоретический и практический материал пособия отражает современные нормы британского стандарта английского языка.


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION___________________________________________________ 5

MODULE I. The Verbs “to Be”, “to Have”. _______________________________8

  1.  The Verb “to Be”.___________________________________________8
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 10
    2.  The Verb “to Have”.________________________________________12
    3.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 14
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module I._____________________________ 16
    5.  Revision. Module I.________________________________________ 17
    6.  Progress Test I.____________________________________________18

MODULE II. The ConstructionThere+to Be”. Impersonal Sentences._________25

  1.  The ConstructionThere+to Be”._____________________________ 25
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 26
    2.  Impersonal Sentences.______________________________________ 29
    3.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 29
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module II._____________________________31
    5.  Revision. Module II.________________________________________33
    6.  Progress Test II.___________________________________________ 34

MODULE III. Imperatives. Types of Questions. __________________________ 41

  1.  Imperative Sentences._______________________________________41
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 41
    2.  Types of Questions.________________________________________ 43
    3.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 45
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module III.____________________________ 47
    5.  Revision. Module III._______________________________________48
    6.  Progress Test III.__________________________________________ 49

MODULE IV. The Nouns.____________________________________________ 52

  1.  The Noun. Plural of Nouns. _________________________________ 52
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 55
    2.  The Possessive Case of the Nouns.____________________________ 57
    3.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 58
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module IV.____________________________60
    5.  Revision. Module IV._______________________________________60
    6.  Progress Test IV.__________________________________________ 62

MODULE V. The Quantifiers. _________________________________________67

  1.  The Numerals. ____________________________________________67
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 69
    2.  Much, Many, Little, a Little, Few, a Few._______________________ 71
    3.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 71
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module V._____________________________74
    5.  Revision. Module V._______________________________________ 75
    6.  Progress Test V.___________________________________________76

MODULE VI. The Pronouns. _________________________________________ 81

  1.  Types of the pronouns.______________________________________81
    1.  Exercises.________________________________________________ 85
    2.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module VI. ___________________________ 92
    3.  Revision. Module VI._______________________________________94
    4.  Progress Test VI.__________________________________________ 97

MODULE VII. The Adjectives and Adverbs._____________________________103

  1.  The Adjectives. Degrees of Comparison._______________________103
    1.  Exercises._______________________________________________ 107
    2.  The Adverbs. Degrees of Comparison.________________________ 114
    3.  Exercises._______________________________________________ 117
    4.  Tasks for Self-Control. Module VII. __________________________120
    5.  Revision. Module VII._____________________________________ 123
    6.  Progress Test VII._________________________________________126

RATING SCALE__________________________________________________ 132

BIBLIOGRAPHY _________________________________________________ 132


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Учебное пособие разработано на модульно-компетентностной основе ФГОС ВО 2010 г. с квалиметрическим обеспечением в рамках компетентностного подхода и документа «Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком: изучение, обучение, оценка».

Компетентностный подход к определению целей и результатов лингвистического образования усиливает его практическую, личностную и коммуникативно-деятельностную ориентированность. Формирование компетенции выступает как конечный результат образовательного процесса, модуль – как средство его организации. Такой подход позволяет более четко определить все этапы обучения и обосновать их необходимость, как для студентов, так и для преподавателей, т.е. сделать процесс обучения доступным и прозрачным.

Учебное пособие «Basic English Grammar Course» соответствует учебно-тематическому плану и предназначено для обеспечения учебно-методического комплекса дисциплины Б.3.В.8 «Практическая грамматика» (1 курс, 1 семестр).

Целью изучения практической грамматики является развитие грамматических навыков, входящих в структуру иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности студента.

Содержание пособия охватывает базовый этап развития иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности, соотносящийся с уровнем B1 «Общеевропейских компетенций…».

По окончании I семестра (базовый уровень) студент должен:

- правильно употреблять глаголы «to be», «to have» во всех типах предложений, уметь определять их функции в предложении;

- уметь строить все коммуникативные типы предложений и грамматически верно употреблять их в речи;

- уметь применять на практике теоретические знания употребления имен существительных, прилагательных, наречий, числительных, местоимений;

- анализировать ситуацию общения с целью выбора соответствующей грамматической единицы;

- переводить с русского на английский и с английского на русский:

а) ситуации, содержащие монологические и диалогические высказывания в рамках изученной тематики,

в) спонтанно переводить с русского на английский предложения, содержащие пройденный лексический и грамматический материал.

Контроль сформированности грамматической составляющей коммуникативной компетенции осуществляется на модульной основе с использованием квалиметрического мониторинга, включая аудиторную и самостоятельную работу студентов.

Пособие имеет междисциплинарный характер и может использоваться для подготовки студентов, обучающихся по направлениям 031203 – Теория и практика межкультурной коммуникации; 030602 – Связи с общественностью; 031201 – Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур.

Каждый модуль имеет цель, содержание, задания для аудиторной и домашней работы, упражнения для самостоятельной работы студентов, тесты рубежного контроля. Также в пособии содержится список литературы для самостоятельного изучения. Все тесты рубежного контроля имеют ссылки на электронные варианты, представленные в информационном пространстве ЮФУ (www.incampus.ru).

МОДУЛЬНАЯ СТРУКТУРА УЧЕБНОГО ПОСОБИЯ

«BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR COURSE»

№ модуля

Название

модуля

Цель модуля

Содержание

модуля

1.

The Verbs “to Be”, “to Have”.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале темы: The Verbs “to Be”, “to Have”.

Спряжение глаголов to Be, to Have. Функции глаголов tо Ве, to Have. Глагол to Have Got как синонимический эквивалент глагола to Have. Устойчивые фразы с глаголами to Be, to Have.

2.

The Construction “There+to Be”. Impersonal Sentences.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале темы: The ConstructionThere+to Be”, Impersonal Sentences.

Оборот There + to Be.

Безличные предложения.

Сфера употребления конструкций It is /there is.

3.

Imperatives. Types of Questions.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале тем: Imperatives. Types of Questions.

Просьбы. Команды. Запрет. Побуждение. Вежливые и косвенные формы выражения побуждения и просьбы. Структура и сферы употребления общих, специальных, разделительных и альтернативных вопросов.

4.

The Nouns.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале темы: The Nouns.

Понятие о существительном. Основные разряды существительных. Категория числа. Категория падежа.

5.

The Quantifiers.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале тем: The Numerals: Much, Many, Few, Little.

Понятие о числительном. Количественные и порядковые числительные. Хронологические даты. Дроби. Сферы употребления числительных. Способы выражения категории неопределенного количества в английском языке.

6.

The Pronouns.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале темы: The Pronouns.

Понятие о местоимении. Классификация местоимений: личные, притяжательные, указательные, возвратные, неопределённые, отрицательные, относительные, вопросительные, соединительные, усилительные.

7.

The Adjectives and Adverbs.

Сформировать грамматическую составляющую коммуникативной компетенции на материале темы: The Adjectives and Adverbs.

Понятие о прилагательном. Понятие о наречии. Морфолого-синтаксические характеристики прилагательных и наречий. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий. Сравнительные конструкции с прилагательными и наречиями. Порядок прилагательных и наречий.


MODULE I

THE VERBS «TO BE», «TO HAVE»

THE VERB ‘TO BE’

          Present                            Past                                     Future

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plu

ral

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plu

ral

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plural

 

I

am

we

are

I

was

we

were

I

will be

we

will be

you

are

you

were

you

will be

he

she

it

is

they

are

he

she

it

was

they

were

he

she

it

will be

they

will be

In affirmative sentences the form of the verb ‘to be’ immediately follows the subject:

 She is a student. They were at home. I will be there.

In interrogative sentences the form of the verb ‘to be’ is placed before the subject:  Is he your brother? Were you married?

In negative sentences the negative particle ‘not’ is placed after the form of the verb ‘to be’:

 I am not a doctor. We were not ready.

In the future the verb ‘will’ is placed before the subject in interrogative sentences and the negative particle ‘not’ is placed after the verb ‘will’ in negative sentences:  Will you be at home? It will not be good.

The functions of the verb ‘to be’

The verb ‘to be’ can perform the following functions in the sentence:

that of a notional verb:

 He is here.   I was at home.  You will be at the library.

that of an auxiliary verb (to form tenses in the active and passive voice):

 They are running very fast (the present continuous tense).

  Were you reading when the telephone rang? (the past continuous tense)

  The doctor was sent for (passive voice).

The capital of China is called Beijing. (passive voice)

that of a modal verb:

  We were to meet at the station at five (expresses arrangement or  agreement, part of a plan).

You are to stay at home till your mother comes (expresses orders and  instructions).

that of a link verb in the compound nominal predicate where the nominal part may be expressed  by a noun, an adjective, a pronoun, a numeral, etc.:

 He is a pupil. The sea is beautiful. We are four. It was he.

5.   The verb ‘to be’ is used to talk about mental or physical condition:

 to be hungry (thirsty, warm, hot, cold, sleepy, afraid, lucky, right, wrong).

6.   The verb ‘to be’ is used to talk about age, height, weight, length, size, shape, colour:

 I’m nearly forty. He is six feet tall. The room is 10 metres long. What size are your shoes? What colour are his eyes?

 7. The verb to be is used in the construction there + to be:

There is a radiator under the window.

Note! The sentence «There is a table in the room» is more often used than «The table is in the room».

8.  The verb ‘to be’ is not used in the continuous form.

But we can use the structure I am being/you are being + adjective/noun to talk about actions and behaviour in a particular situation, but not to talk about feelings:

 You’re being stupid = You’re doing stupid things.

I was being very careful = I was doing something very carefully.

But: I am happy (a feeling). I was very depressed when you phoned (a feeling).

9. Normally ‘be’ is used without the auxiliary ‘do’:  I’m not often sick.

   But ‘do’ is used to make negative imperative sentences with ‘be’ (when we tell smb. not to do smth.)

Don’t be silly! Don’t be such a nuisance!

And ‘do be’ can begin emphatic sentences:

 Do be careful! Do be quiet, for God’s sake!

10. Set expressions with the verb ‘to be’:

to be right - быть правым

to be wrong - быть неправым

to be well - хорошо себя чувствовать

to be healthy - быть здоровым

to be ill/ sick - болеть

to be glad - быть радым

to be pleased with - быть довольным чем-то

to be lucky - быть удачливым

to be satisfied with - быть удовлетворённым чем-то

to be mistaken - ошибаться

to be hungry - быть голодным

to be thirsty - испытывать жажду

to be angry with - злиться на кого-то

to be afraid of - бояться чего-то (кого-то)

to be interested in - интересоваться чем-то

to be late - опаздывать

to be on time - быть вовремя

to be in / to be at home - быть дома

to be out - не быть дома

to be at work - быть на работе

to be married - быть замужем (женатым)

to be single - быть не замужем (не женатым)

EXERCISES

Exercise 1.  Fill in ’m, ’s, ’re, ’m not, isn’t or aren’t, as in the example.

1. We aren’t old. We’re young.  2. My favourite sport is tennis. It ... golf. 3. The Pyramids …. in Paris. They’re in Cairo. 4. I ….. from Spain. I’m from Mexico. 5. She isn’t Stella. She ….. Molly. 6. I’m not Bill. I ….. Tom.  7. The Taj Mahal isn’t in Ottawa. It ….. in Agra.  8. They ….. from Poland. They’re from Sweden. 8. Jill ….. my friend. She isn’t my sister. 9. I ….. 24 years old. I’m 27.

Exercise 2.  Fill in am, is, or are.

1. Roses and daisies and tulips …are… grown in our flower garden. 2. A garden ….. a place where we grow fruit trees. 3. Fruit ….. good for you to eat. Eating fruit helps us to be healthy. 4. Glass ….. used to make things. Windows …..  made of glass. Glass ….. something hard that you can usually see through. It ….. easy to break glass. 5. I ….. happy.  ….. you happy too? 6. A kangaroo …..  a large animal that eats plants. They .…. good jumpers. 7. A mother ….. sometimes called Mom or Mommy. 8. Neighbours ….. people who live near one another. 9. Georgia and Ross  ..…  not neighbours, they live far from one another.

Exercise 3. Insert was or were.

1. I.... was .... working on a puzzle. I ….. trying to put all the pieces of the puzzle together. 2. Diana’s cold ….. worse yesterday. Her cold is not as bad today as it ….. yesterday. 3. I don’t think you ….. right. 4. A zoo ….. a place where I liked to go when I ….. seven. 5. The rain started to fall from clouds. Some clouds ….. white and puffy. Other clouds ….. big and dark.

Exercise 4. Use the correct form of the verb given in brackets by crossing out the wrong one.

1. The audience (was/were) listening attentively. 2. The jury (has/have) left for discussion. 3. The crowd (is/are) wild today. 4. The club (has/have) expelled them. 5. The committee (was/were) asked to express (its/their) opinion. 6. The crew (was/were) proud of (its/their) ship. 7. The family (is/are) all watching TV. 8. What (was/were) the choir singing when we entered? 9. The Government (go/goes) on holiday in July. 10. (Was/were) all the team young? 11. The police (was/were) working at the place of the accident. 12. The public expressed (its/their) opinion in the press.

Exercise 5. Insert shall be or will be. 

Next year I ... shall be ... 30.

Maybe, the weather … better tomorrow.

Do this job today. Tomorrow it … late.

Don’t worry, your children … happy there.

Someday I … cleverer at last. Not now.

I hope her party … on Sunday.

Exercise 6. Choose words from the list to complete the sentences.

Swiss, Egyptian, American, Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese, Polish, Bulgarian, Japanese

A: What nationality are you?  –  B: I’m . …Japanese… .(Japan)  

A: What nationality is she?    –  B: She’s …..  (the USA)

3 A: What nationality are they?  –  B: They’re ….. (France)

4 A: What nationality is he?    –  B: He’s  ….. (Switzerland)

5 A: What nationality are they?  –  B: They’re ….. (Spain)

6 A: What nationality is he?   –  B: He’s ….. (Poland)

7 A: What nationality is she?    –  B: She’s ….. (Egypt)

8 A: What nationality are you?  –  B: I’m ….. (Bulgaria)

9 A: What nationality is he?   –  B: He’s ….. (Russia)

10 A: What nationality is she?   –  B: She’s ….. (China)

Exercise 7. Rewrite the following sentences in the negative form.

Model: She was a writer. — She wasn’t a writer.

1. My parents were happy. 2. The bus stop was at the end of the street. 3. Your favourite sport was skating. 4. He was married. 5. We were thirsty. 6. It was cold two days ago. 7. It was dark.

Exercise 8. Form questions according to the model.

A - Jane is late. - Jane is late, isn’t she?

1.He was late. 2. They will be late. 3. He is a doctor. 4. They are busy. 5. You are glad.

B. - It was not dark in the room.  - It was not dark in the room, was it?

You will not come, ….. . 2. She was not ill, … . 3. We were not glad to hear that, …. . 4. They will not be at home, ….. . 5. He was not the first to come, ….. . 6. Your friend was not there yesterday, ….. . 7. He won’t arrive in the evening. .... . 8. It wasn’t funny, ….. .

Exercise 9. Ask questions to the following statements.

1. I am a teacher. 2. You are in the classroom. 3. We are all students. 4. Some of the students are boys. 5. Two and two are four. 6. That answer is right. 7. They are here. 8. He is near the window. 9. There are only two books in the picture. 10. There are a great many people in London. 11. There is a book on the table. 12. There is a train at the station. 13. My parents were happy. 14. The bus stop was at the end of the street. 15. Your favourite sport was skating. 16. He was married. 17. We were thirsty. 18. It was cold two days ago. 19. It will be dark soon dark. 20. He will be at college next year.

Exercise 10. Say if the verb «to be» is:

a)  notional, b)  link verb, c)  modal, d)  auxiliary.

1. There are a lot of things to do. 2. It’s six o’clock. He is at home at this time. 3. She is too young to understand it. 4. The whole country is going on strike. 5. The new film is to be on at our cinema next week. 6. He is taking his English exam tomorrow. 7. The football match will be shown on TV. 8. The door was open. 9. She is to return on Saturday. 10. It was a nasty day. It was raining cats and dogs. 11.1 was surprised that there was so little traffic in the streets. 12. Sentence 5 is on page 15. 13. What am I to do? 14. Sunday is my day off. 15. My mother was 40 yesterday. 16. Have you ever been in trouble? 17. Salads are often made of vegetables. 18. His pet is called Nancy.

Exercise 11. Translate into English, using ‘to be’.

1. Я студент педагогического института ЮФУ (South Federal University). 2. Его брат – менеджер, а не PR специалист. 3. Ее сестра сейчас на работе. Она - социолог. 4. Он студент факультета лингвистики и словесности - (Slavonic and West European department). 5. Вы бухгалтер (accountant)? - Нет, я врач. 6. Моя подруга была дома вчера, она в отпуске сейчас (to be on a leave). 7. Мы не на занятиях, мы - в общежитии (hostel, hospice). 8. Мой брат – адвокат (lawyer). Он в суде сейчас. 9. Ваша мама дома? - Нет, она на работе. 10. Ваш двоюродный брат дома? - Нет, он на стадионе.  Он - спортсмен. 11. Ваша сестра экономист? - Нет, она финансист (financier). 12. Твой папа был на рыбалке (fishing)? — Нет, он был в гараже. 13. Твоя племянница секретарь? - Да. - Она дома? - Нет, она на работе. 14. Мой дедушка - ученый. Он специалист в области лингвистики. 15. Мой дядя – кадровый военный (professional soldier). Онвоенный врач (medical officer).

Exercise 12. Translate into English, using ‘to be’.

1. Он здоров, потому что занимается спортом. 2. Ты хорошо себя чувствуешь? Ты выглядишь бледной. 3. Он был прав, когда сказал, что я очень рассеянный (absent-minded). 4. Они не были голодны, поэтому заказали только кофе. 5. Моя бабушка не интересовалась музыкой, но знала группу Битлз (the Beetles). 6. Ты удовлетворен результатами экзаменов? 7. Мы будем рады видеть его. 8. Правда (to be true), что он все еще злится на меня? 9. Он был очень удачлив в бизнесе. 10. Хочешь пить? 11. Ты будешь доволен этим выбором (choice). 12. Она не была больна. Просто плохо себя чувствовала. 13. Чего ты боишься? Ты не ошибешься. Тест очень легкий. 14. Поспеши (Hurry up)! Мы опоздаем. 15. Ты был неправ. Изучение языка – кропотливая (painstaking) работа. 16. Мы будем вовремя. Сейчас нет пробок на дороге (traffic jam). 17. Вся семья была дома, когда мы пришли. 18. Ты женат? Нет, я не женат, но помолвлен (to be engaged). 19. Анны нет дома. Она на работе. 20. Я не интересуюсь классической живописью (classical painting).

THE VERBTO HAVE

       Present                                     Past                                      Future

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plu

ral

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plu

ral

Per

son

Sin

gular

Per

son

Plu

ral

 

I

have

we

have

I

had

we

had

I

will have

we

will have

you

have

you

had

you

will have

he

she

it

has

they

have

he

she

it

had

they

had had

he

she

it

will have

they

will have

I. The verb ‘to have’ has a meaning of ‘to possess’.

In affirmative sentences the form of the verb ‘to have’ immediately follows the subject:

 I have a dog. They had four lessons today. We will have a day off on the 10th  of    September.

In interrogative sentences two variants are possible in the present:

the form of the verb ‘to have’ is placed before the subject:

 Have you a flat? Has she many friends?

the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ is placed before the subject:

Do we have enough money? Does he have free time?

The second variant is more common in modern speech. In the past only the second variant is possible:

    Did you have a spare pen? Did they have a book?

     In negative sentences also two variants are possible:

the negative particle ‘not’ is placed after the form of the verb ‘to have’:

 I have not anything to do. She had not any pet.

the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ and the negative particle ‘not’ are placed after the subject:

 He does not have food. We do not have good equipment.

I did not have your article.

As in interrogative sentences in negative ones the second variant is also more common.

In the future the verb ‘will’ is placed before the subject in interrogative sentences and the negative particle ‘not’ is placed after the verb ‘will’ in negative sentences:  Will you have enough time to do this task? I will not have free time  tomorrow.

II. Got-forms of “have”.

In conversation and informal writing, the double form “have got” is used in British English.

I’ve got a new boyfriend (Sounds more natural in speech than I have a new  boyfriend).

 I’ve got a headache.

It is less used to talk about repeated and habitual states:

- I have / I’ve got toothache. – I often have toothache.

In forming questions and negative sentences the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ is not used:  Has your sister got a car? I haven’t got your keys.

        Have you got time to go to London this weekend?

Got-forms of ‘have’ are not used in short answers and tags:

‘Have you got a light?’ – ‘No, I haven’t.’ Anne’s got a bike, hasn’t she?

Got-forms of ‘have’ are not used in the past tense:

 I had flu last week.

The functions of the verb ‘to have’

The verb ‘to have’ can perform the following functions in the sentence:

that of a notional verb:

They have three cars. Have you got any brothers or sisters?

that of an auxiliary verb (to form perfect tenses in the active and passive voice):

I have lost my key. I realised that I had met him before.

that of a modal verb (it expresses obligation):

You have to finish the translation. I had to work last Saturday.

Had better + Infinitive without to (in the meaning of It would be   better)

  is used to give strong advice, or to tell people what to do (including ourselves):

 You’d better turn this music down before your Dad gets angry.

It’s seven o’clock. I’d better put the meat in the oven.

5.  ‘Have’ + object is often used to talk about actions and experiences:

to have breakfast / tea / coffee / a drink;

to have a bath / a shave / a shower;

to have a rest / a sleep / a dream;

to have a good time / a bad day / a holiday / a day off;

to have good journey / flight / trip;

to have a talk / a chat / a word with smb / a conversation / a row / a quarrel / a    fight;

to have a swim / a walk / a ride / a dance / a game of tennis;

to have a look

to have difficulty / trouble (in the meaning of “encounter” – неожиданно встретиться с ч-л)

6. ‘Have’ can be followed by object + infinitive (without to) and object + past participle.

a) ‘Have’ + object + infinitive can mean ‘cause somebody to do something’. This is mostly used in American English, to talk about giving instructions or orders.

I’m ready to see Mr Smith. Have him come in, please.

The manager had everybody fill out a form.

b)  ‘Have’ + object + past participle (=have something done) can mean ‘cause something to be done by somebody else’. The past participle has a passive meaning.

I must have my watch repaired. (= I want my watch to be repaired.)

I’m going to have my hair cut this afternoon.

If you don’t get out of my house I’ll have you arrested.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Use «to be» or «to have» in the Present Indefinite Tense.

1. You ... welcome. 2. The metro station ... far from my house. 3. Mary and Nelly ... friends. 4. She ... out. 5. It ... 5 o’clock now. 6. She ... a nice flat. 7. We ... a little child. She ... four. 8. They ... a big car. It ... red. 9. How ... you? 10. How old ... Mary? 11. How many children ... they? 12. What country ... she from? 13. We ... well. 14. They... a small cottage. It... far away. 15. She ... at home. 16. She ... no time. 17. He ... bad habits. 18. How far ... it from here? 19. It ... easy to ask him about it. 20. It  ... not good of her to say so. 21. She ... two mistakes in the test. Her mistakes ... bad. 22. They ... glad to see her. 23. It... a rainy day ... he an umbrella with him?

Exercise 2. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.

1. Her name is Lucy. 2. Ted is nine. 3. Her face is round. 4.  He is nice. 5. It is a good film. 6. My flat is fine. 7. I am happy. 8. They are clever, 9. His cat is black. 10. We are at school. 11. You are pale. 12. Her baby is in bed. 13. It is a nice day. 14. They are late. 15. She has a white dress. 16. They have a four-year-old son. 17. You have a big car. 18. We have many English books. 19. He has many uncles and aunts. 20. The house has five floors. 21. She is from Russia. 22. Her name is Nelly. 23. It is time to go to bed. 24. You’re a first-year student. 25. It’s cold today. 26. We are glad to see them.

Exercise 3. Finish the following sentences.

1. It is  .... 2. She is  ... . 3. We are  ... . 4. They have  ... . 5. I am ... .6. Why is she ... ? 7. Why am I... ? 8. Her bag is … .9. We have....10. You have....11. Has he...? 12. Is he ...? 13. Are they...? 14. Is her flat...? 15. Are the children...? 16. Have they ... ? 17. Is it time ... ?

Exercise 4. Express surprise using the models:

Models: She is thirty. —Is she?

He hasn’t any pictures. — Hasn’t he?

I’m a student. — Are you?

1. She is in her last year at the University. 2. Bill is the best football player in our school. 3. Tom has a new bicycle. 4. I have a new hat. 5. Jane isn’t at school today. 6. It’s ten o’clock. 7. They are my good friends. 8. I haven’t any camera. 9. I am absent-minded. 10. She has a good job. 11. We are married. 12. Maria is never late.

Exercise 5. Change the sentences according to the model.

A. Model: She is from Canada, — Is she from Canada or the USA?

1. Jim is ill. 2. Her name is Mary. 3. Their baby is nice. 4. It is a fine plan. 5. Jack is late again. 6. It is his book. 7. Her son is twelve. 8. She has English books. 9. They have a nice flat.10. It is a fine day. 11. She is not happy. 12. They are not at home. 13. She has no children. 14. We have no cat. 15. It is a good idea. 16. It is not warm today.

B.  Model: Why is he sad? — I wonder why he is sad.

1. Why is Kate late? 2. Why is he pale? 3. Why is the day so long? 4. Why is his idea bad? 5. Why is their child ill? 6. Why is her dress dirty? 7. Why aren’t they at school? 8. Why am I so angry? 9. Why aren’t we happy?

Exercise 6. Make these sentences negative and interrogative.

1. Some families have a pet cat. 2. Alligators have long jaws and sharp teeth. 3. On her birthday she always has a birthday cake. 4. The house has tall trees all around it. 5. Each family has its own flat. 6. Most butterflies have wings of many beautiful colours. 7. Many dolls have names. 8. I have as much sugar as I need. 9. I have a gift for Mother. 10. Lucy has red hair. 11. We have much to do today. 12. John had a nice photo. 13. My friend has got only one dog. 14. Yes, I have my dress ironed. 15. Yes, we have parties from time to time. 16. I think, they have a very pleasant time on the seashore every year. 17. I have my video repaired. 18. They have got that beautiful picture, painted by that famous artist. 19. He has a bath every day. 20. I think, she has to do it. 21. I’ve got a headache. 22. I haven’t got any keys. 23. My sister has got a car. 24. The flat hasn’t got a proper bathroom.

Exercise 7. Ask questions using have/has got.

your mother/a car — Has your mother got a car? 2. she/a sister ….. 3. your parents/a nice house ….. 4. you/a family ….. 5. Mrs Hawkins/any children ….. 6. you/a TV …..

Exercise 8. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: Is he twenty? — I wonder if he is twenty.

1. Is she happy? 2. Is he sleepy? 3. Are you worried? 4. Is Tim sick? 5. Is it time to go to school? 6. Is it easy to translate this text? 7. Is the doctor in? 8. Are they out? 9. Is Ann well? 10. Has she any sons? 11. Have they many friends? 12. Have you a summer cottage? 13. Has he a fast car? 14. Has this child a cat? 15. Is it important to see them immediately? 16. Are they well? 17. Is she beautiful? 18. Is it five o’clock? 19. Are they busy? 20. Is the winter cold in Moscow? 21. Is it cold today? 22. Have you an umbrella with you?

Exercise 9. Say if the verb «to have» is:

a)  notional, b)  auxiliary, c)   modal, d)  part of a set phrase.

1. It has been a hard day. 2. Jane has got a good voice. 3. We haven’t had our dinner yet. 4. You don’t have to worry. 5. We have no time left. 6. My father has a farm in the North of Scotland. 7. She had ten minutes before she had to leave for work. 8. I hope you had a good time yesterday. 9. Does this bus go to the centre? — No, it doesn’t. You’ll have to change for No 5. 10. I’ve never been to Athens and I’ve never been to Rome. 11. I have to work tomorrow. 12. Have they a car? —-No, they haven’t bought one yet. 13. I don’t mind having a holiday for a change. 14. Let’s have a break. 15. It has been raining since morning. 16. I didn’t have enough money to buy the coat.

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL

MODULE I

Task 1. Translate into English.

1. Ане восемнадцать лет. 2. Она — студентка. 3. У них новая квартира. 4. У меня нет автомобиля. 5. У него большая семья. 6. Мамы нет дома, она на работе. 7. Семь часов. Пора вставать, 8. Холодно. У вас есть камин? 9. Дом моих родителей недалеко от Москвы. 10. Ее брат — миллионер. У него два «Мерседеса». 11. Студенты в аудитории, у них сейчас лекция. 12. Эта книга есть у нас в библиотеке. 13. Фильм неинтересный. 14. Она говорит, что у нее нет времени. 15. Ты сейчас занята? 16. Сколько вам  лет? 17. Интересно, дома ли она сейчас. 18. В это время они обычно обедают. 19. Летом здесь очень жарко, но у нас есть бассейн. 20. Спроси его, почему он сердится. 21. Я буду дома. У меня болит голова. 22. У тебя есть время пойти в магазин с нами? 23. ты лучше отдохнул. У тебя был очень тяжелый день. 24. У тебя есть пластиковая карточка? 25. Мне нужно починить часы. 26. Ты бы лучше помог мне. Я устала. 27. Я лучше попробую еще раз позже. 28. Она постригла волосы (to have ones hair cut).

Task 2. Translate into English.

1. Где твоя машина? - Она около нашего дома. 2. Ты был прав. Погода плохая и мы не можем идти на пляж (beach). 3. У нее темный цвет лица? - Нет, ее лицо светлое. 4. Ваши друзья дома? - Да. Их дети тоже дома. 5. Мой друг Пит в Канаде. Его семья тоже в Канаде, а родители в Америке. 6. — Катя дома? — Да, но она занята. У нее много работы. — Очень жаль. 7. Цветы были такие свежие! 8. Джон сейчас на Средиземном море (the Mediterranean sea). Я полагаю, он там хорошо проводит время. 9. — Что мы возьмем на обед? — Я возьму только салат. Я не голодна. 10. — У вас есть вопросы? — Нет, все ясно. 11. — Я никогда не опаздываю. — Да? Сейчас пятнадцать минут десятого. 12. — У меня есть этот видеофильм. — Да? 13. Не сердись на него. В следующий раз он придет (будет) вовремя. 14. — Ты замужем? — Нет еще. Сначала я хочу иметь высшее образование и хорошую работу. 15. Я была рада увидеться с тобой. Мне повезло встретить тебя через столько лет. 16. Кони были уставшими и хотели пить. Отряд (the detachment) остановился у озера. 17. — Брайен был здесь минуту назад. — Интересно, где он. – Он пошел сыграть партию в теннис. 18. Ты простужен. Ты бы лучше сходил к врачу. 19. Ты не прав. Я нас было замечательное путешествие. 20. Взгляни на эту композицию. Ты удовлетворен результатом? 21. Уже поздно. Ты бы лучше поспешил. 22. У тебя есть домашние животные? 23. Ты бы лучше не будил меня, когда приходишь.

REVISION 

MODULE I

Exercise 1. Translate into English.

Меня зовут Алиса. У меня есть сестра Энн и два брата, Майк и Джек. У всех у нас светлые волосы и голубые глаза. У нас все в семье стройные; единственный толстяк – это Майк. Энн очень симпатичная девочка и у нее много друзей. У меня только один: его имя Стив. Он замечательный. Я немного (a bit) похожа на отца. У меня его длинный нос и достаточно большие глаза, но фигура у меня мамина.

У нас есть два дяди и тетя. У них трое маленьких детей. Я люблю свою племянницу и племянников.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.

1. Вы хорошо провели время на каникулах? 2. Я очень устал и мне жарко. Я лучше приму душ и вздремну. 3. Ты был прав. Они не интересуются современными танцами. 4. Она опоздает. Мы можем завтракать без нее. 5. Твой научный руководитель (scientific adviser) очень доволен твоей работой. 6. Боюсь, ты не прокатишься на лошади сегодня. Уже поздно и она очень устала. 7. Я поболтала с ним по телефону. Он чувствует себя хорошо. 8. Ты был рад увидеть ее на вечеринке? 9. Я не женат и живу с родителями. У нас большая семья. 10. Майкл сейчас на работе. Вечером я переговорю с ним. 11. Тебе повезло. Она сейчас дома и вы можете поговорить. 12. Ты голодна или хочешь пить? – И то, и другое. 13. Ты ошибался, когда сказал, что ее не было дома. 14. Взгляни на эту картину. Нам повезло видеть ее в оригинале. 15. У нас проблема. Декан болен и нам придется ждать до понедельника. 16. Ты бы лучше сказал ему правду. 17. Мне починили машину. 18. У меня есть новая компьютерная игра.

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE I

Choose the right form

  1.  A tree ….. a plant.

A are

B is

C am

  1.  ….. trying to open the window

A I’s                           

B I’m                       

C I’re

  1.  “You” ….. the word people use when they are talking or writing to another person.

A are                         

B am                         

C is

  1.  How ….. you today?

A are                         

B am                        

C is

  1.  They ….. hungry.

A wasn’t                     

B were not                

C isn’t

  1.  They …..  ….. leaving soon.

A shall be                     

B will be                  

C will are  

  1.   …..  thinking of what you’ve just said.

A I’s    

B I    

C I’m

  1.  They say it ….. raining all day tomorrow.

A is                             

B shall be                    

C will be

  1.  We  …..  playing golf at 2 o’clock yesterday.      

A were                        

B are                          

C shall be

  1.   Butter …..  made from milk.

A are                                  

B is                          

C were

  1.   ….. the news today.

A Is he expecting                

B He is expecting      

C Expecting is he

  1.   Many accidents ….. caused by careless driving.

A won’t                               

B is                        

C are

  1.   When  …..  America discovered.

A is                                      

B was                      

C will be       

  1.   Can you wait for me? I ….. very long.

A will be                               

B am not                   

C won’t be

  1.   You …..  stupid. (ты ведешь себя глупо)

A will be                                

B are being                  

C are             

  1.   …..  quiet! (восклицание)

A Do be                                

B will be                       

C Be you   

  1.   There ….. light in your room.

A aren’t                               

B isn’t                          

C won’t        

  1.    He ….. being examined now.

A is                                     

B will be                 

C will

  1.   There ….. an interesting film on TV last night.

A will be                             

B won’t be               

C was

…..  watching a new film now?

A Are your parents              

B Your parents are    

C Will your parents  

Some families ….. a pet.

A have                               

B has                         

C are having

How many friends have you got? –  …..

A I has got few friends.      

B I’ve got friends.      

C I have few friends.

Each family ….. its own flat.

A have                            

B has                         

C are having

….. lunch at 10 o’clock?

A Do you have                

B Have you got          

C Have you

Peter …..  a baby brother.

A doesn’t have                    

B don’t have             

C have not got

 …..   a nice new car?

A Do they have got             

B They have got          

C Have they got

She ….. blue eyes.

A is not having                  

B hasn’t                      

C haven’t

She ….. her laundry done.

A has                               

B is having                 

C has got

We ….. much to do yesterday.

A have got                       

B have                          

C had

We ….. a party tonight.

A have got                       

B are having                   

C had

Have you got a garage? – Yes, ….. .

A I have                           

B I have got                   

C I’ve got

I’m afraid he ….. a bath now.

A has got                         

B is having                     

C hasn’t got

Alligators ….. long jaws and sharp teeth.

A have                            

B has                             

C are having

….. a bath every day?

A Have he                        

B Does he have               

C Has he got

He ….. his room papered.

A have                              

B was                                

C has

….. the party last week?

A Have you enjoyed         

B Have you got enjoyed   

C Did you enjoy

You are hungry.  ….. to go to the canteen.

A You have got               

B You had better             

C You would rather

…..  your tooth filled yesterday?

A Did you have                 

B Has you had                 

C Have you got    

 ….. to go to school yesterday?

A Did you have              

B Have you had                

C Have you got    

 They ….. cut the bread yet.

A did not                           

B have not got                   

C have not        

Define the function of the verb  

A unicorn (единорог) is a make-believe animal.

A link verb                  

B auxiliary verb              

C notional verb

Zippers (застежка-молния) are made of small pieces of metal or plastic held together by a piece of cloth.

A link verb                  

B auxiliary verb              

C modal verb

There are about 790,000 words in English.

A link verb                    

B modal verb                 

C notional verb

People use it when they are talking or writing to another person.

A link verb                  

B auxiliary verb                

C  notional verb

My sister is to lay the table.

A auxiliary verb           

B modal verb                   

C notional verb

We’re at home.

A link verb                 

B modal verb                  

C notional verb

An ocean is also called a sea.

A link verb                  

B auxiliary verb               

C notional verb

They are working on the computer now.

A modal verb               

B auxiliary verb              

C notional verb

They are to come in half an hour.

A modal verb              

B auxiliary verb                

C notional verb

The order  will be delivered.

A modal verb                

B auxiliary verb              

C notional verb

They are at the disco now.

A notional verb             

B modal verb                   

C auxiliary verb  

All my money was stolen at the hotel.

A auxiliary verb         

B modal verb                  

C notional verb

My brother was here yesterday.

A auxiliary verb            

B modal verb                   

C notional verb    

I am sorry.

A auxiliary verb           

B link verb                        

C notional verb

It’s time we went home, darling!

A modal verb              

B link verb                       

C notional verb

I am to answer this call immediately.

A modal verb              

B link verb                     

C notional verb

It is ten o’clock now.

A link verb                   

B auxiliary verb               

C notional verb

The children are sitting and playing in their room.

A notional verb             

B modal verb                  

C auxiliary verb  

There aren’t people here.

A notional verb            

B modal verb                    

C auxiliary verb  

I wish I were five years younger.

A auxiliary verb       

B link verb                     

C notional verb

They have not arrived yet.

A notional verb         

B auxiliary verb               

C modal verb

I’ve got a headache.

A notional verb           

B part of a construction   

C auxiliary verb

We are having breakfast.

A auxiliary verb            

B have+object                 

C notional verb

Now he has a small business and feels quite happy.

A notional verb          

B auxiliary verb               

C have+object

We have to help our group-mates.

A notional verb         

B auxiliary verb                 

C modal verb

When Lucy is hungry she has bread and cheese.

A notional verb           

B auxiliary verb             

C have+object

He had his watch repaired.

A have+object           

B modal verb                     

C part of a construction   

When I came, my mother had gone.   

A notional verb           

B auxiliary verb                

C part of a construction

Tomorrow  I’ll have much free time.

A modal verb               

B auxiliary verb                 

C notional verb

He has a shower every morning.

A have+object          

B modal verb                    

C notional verb

I have to get up early to catch the bus.

A have+object          

B modal verb                   

C notional verb

I had the letters posted yesterday.

A auxiliary verb           

B have+object                  

C part of a construction   

He has returned to Moscow.

A auxiliary verb          

B part of a construction     

C modal verb

He has no books on this subject.

A auxiliary verb        

B notional verb             

C modal verb

Has he got a good dictionary?

A notional verb           

B auxiliary verb              

C have+object

When do you have dinner?

A notional verb           

B auxiliary verb               

C have+object

They won’t have to read the whole book.

A have+object             

B modal verb                   

C notional verb       

Have you bought that beautiful car?

A notional verb          

B auxiliary verb            

C have+object

He had his shoes cleaned this morning.

A part of a construction   

B have+object               

C modal verb                

She will have to do it once more.

A auxiliary verb             

B notional verb                

C modal verb

TOTAL: 80 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749510&tab=3 

MODULE II

THE CONSTRUCTION “THERE + TO BE”.

IMPERSONAL SENTENCES

THE CONSTRUCTION “THERE + TO BE”

1. In sentences, which say that something exists or does not exist somewhere, we usually use ‘there’ as a kind of introductory subject and put the real subject after the verb:

There is ice on the lake. There is a lot of noise in the street.

There is a long historical tradition in this process.

2. ‘There are’ is used with plural subjects:

I don’t know how many people there are in the waiting room.

Mind! If there are some subjects in the sentence the choice of the form of the verb ‘to be’ depends on the number of the first one:

There is a table, six chairs, a TV set and a bookcase in the room.

There are six chairs, a table, a TV set and a bookcase in the room.

3. ‘There’ can be used with all tenses of the verb ‘to be’:

Once upon a time there were three wicked brothers.

There has never been anybody like you.

There will be snow in the mountains.

4. ‘There’ can be used with modal verbs + be and with some other verbs (seem, appear, happen), verbs which refer to states or arrivals:

There must be somebody at home – ring again.

There seem to be some problems.

Could you be quiet? There happens to be a lecture.

In a small town in Germany there once lived a poor shoemaker.

There remains nothing more to be done.

Suddenly there entered a strange figure dressed all in black.

There followed an uncomfortable silence.

5. Note also the structure: there is certain/sure/likely/bound to be.

There is sure to be trouble when she gets his letter.

Do you think there’s likely to be snow?

6. Infinitives (there to be) and –ing forms (there being) are also used.

I don’t want there to be any more trouble.

What’s the chance of there being an election this year?

7. Introductory “there” is often used with ‘gerunds’ and ‘infinitives’ in the negative form:

There was no stopping him. — Его было невозможно остановить.

There was never any telling when he would turn up. — Никак нельзя было предугадать, когда он появится.

8. Set expressions withsense’, ‘point’, ‘use’ and ‘need’ have some modal meaning and speak about ‘possibility/impossibility’, ‘willingness/unwillingness’ to perform the action expressed by the gerund.

There is no sense in making him angry.-He нужно/Нет смысла сердить его.

Is there any point in talking about it again? — Нужно ли опять об этом говорить?

Do you think there is any use trying to explain? — Вы считаете, что нужно попытаться как-то это объяснить?

There is по need to hurryweve got plenty of time. — Нет необходимости торопиться, у нас много времени.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Agree with the following statements using «there is/are».

Models: You’ve got three members in your family. — Yes, there are three members in my family.

You can see a boy in the picture. — Yes, there is a boy in the picture.

1. You’ve got a book in front of you. 2. She’s got many foreign books in her library. 3. They’ve got many pets at home. 4. She’s got three mistakes in her test. 5. You’ve got no laboratory on the first floor. 6. You can see a farm near the forest. 7. You can see a lot of interesting pictures in this book. 8. You can see a TV set in the hall. 9. You can see a large family in this picture. 10. You can see many difficult words in this text. 11. You can see many countries on this map. 12. You can see two sentences on the blackboard.

Exercise 2. Change the sentences according to the model (make disjunctive questions).

Model: There are four files on the table, aren’t there?

There aren’t any posters on the wall, are there?

A. 1. There are twelve months in a year. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. There is much snow in winter. 4. There are sixty minutes in an hour. 5. There are few mistakes in my dictation. 6. On the table there are two exercise books and a textbook. 7. In a fortnight there are two weeks. 8. In a month there are four weeks. 9. There is no blackboard in the room. 10. There are some flowers on the window sill. 11. Under the window there is a radiator. 12. There is no garden behind her cottage. 13. There is a black cat in the basket. 14. There is a little milk in the bottle. 15. There isn’t any butter on the plate.

B. 1. There was much snow in Moscow last winter. 2. There will be much noise in the classroom. 3. There will be no sunshine tomorrow. 4. There was a storm yesterday. 5. There were two children in the family. 6. There were no daughters in the family. 7. There were many cups on the table. 8. There were no mistakes in her dictation. 9. There were no maps on the wall.

Exercise 3. Use the verb «to be» in the correct form.

A. 1. There ... a pen and two pencils on the desk. 2. There ... two pencils and a pen on the desk. 3. There ... a lot of snow in the streets. 4. There ... much bread on the table. 5. There ... twelve chairs and a table in the room. 6. There ... a table and twelve chairs in the room. 7.... there much water in the jug? 8. ... there much or little money in the purse? 9. ... there any chalk on the blackboard? 10. How many pages ... there in the book? 11. .... there much food in the fridge?

B. 1. There ... news from them. 2. There ... a lot of vegetables in the market. 3. There ... so little hair on his head that he looked much older. 4. There ... some money for you to spend. 5. The room seemed empty. There ... hardly any furniture. 6. There ... a lot of children’s summer clothes in our shop. 7. In the newspapers there ... a lot of information about computers. 8 There ... good as well as useless advice. 9. There... little I can do to help you. 10. There ...no means of achieving your aim.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

1. In this country there .... .2. In Asia there ... . 2. In our library there ... . 4. In the street there ... . 5. In the sun there ... . 6. In the University there ... . 7. In the room there ... . 8. Under the window there ... . 9. On the table there ... . 10. On the wall there ... . 11. In the picture there ... . 12. In the exercise there ... . 13. On the page there ... . 14. In the kitchen there ... . 15. In the fridge there ... . 16. On the left there ... .

Exercise 5. Ask general questions.

Model: There is a panel today. – Is there a panel today?

1. There are many photos in this album. 2. There is a lot of fruit in the basket. 3. There is some clean paper on the desk.4. There is a magazine in your bag. 5. There are no people in the hall. 6. There is a key in his pocket. 7. There is a lot of noise there. 8. There is nobody at home. 9. There are two sandwiches in her bag. 10. There is something in your hand. 11. There are many employees in the room. 12. There is a teacher in the classroom.

Exercise 6. Ask alternative questions.

Model: There is much (little) additive (добавка) in the product. – Is there much or little additive in the product?

1. There is much (little) cheese on the plate. 2. There is much (little) milk in the jug. 3. There are many (few) pieces of cake on the plate. 4. There are many (few) forks on the table. 5. There are forks (spoons) on the table. 6. There is a cup (a glass) on the table. 8. There is a woman (a man) in the room. 9. There is a garden (a lawn) in front of the house. 10. There are four (five) rooms in her flat.

Exercise 7. Ask about the place you want to find.

Model: I want to buy a new dress. Is there a shop near here?

1. I want to see a film. 2. I want to post a letter. 3. I want to get to the centre. 4. I want to buy some food. 5. I want to buy a pair of shoes. 6. I am hungry. 7. I want to buy a newspaper. 8. I want to make a call home.

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В этом журнале есть несколько интересных рассказов. 2. Много веков тому назад вокруг Сити была стена. 3. Прогноз погоды сообщает, что завтра будет гроза. 4. Сколько гостей будет на обеде? 5. Времени осталось немного. 6. В этой группе мало студентов. 7. Весной здесь почти не бывает дождей. 8. В холодильнике есть масло, молоко, сыр, но нет мяса. 9. Если в магазине есть рыба, купи, пожалуйста. 10. На этой стороне улицы есть кинотеатр. 11. В семье много детей, и поэтому всегда много работы по дому. 12. В комнате были стол, два стула и диван, больше ничего не было. 13. На этом перекрестке нет светофора. 14. Сколько экзаменов будет зимой? 15. Сегодня по телевидению нет ничего интересного. 16. Спорить не о чем. 17. После собрания был концерт? 18. Кажется, нет надежды. 19. В ее лице было что-то знакомое. 20. Нет ничего лучше чашки крепкого кофе рано утром.

Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind the meaning of the predicate.

1. As the number of radio transmitters grew, there developed an annoying number of instances where two stations were operating near enough to each other so that the program of one would be imposed upon the sound of the other. 2. While Europe in the 9th century was still a disorder of war and pillage, there flourished a great Arab Empire in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 3. It always seemed to them that there hung about the house faintly the acrid (едкий) smell of opium. 4. There entered John and Lucy holding each other’s hands.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences into English using the construction «there is/are». Use either the verb ‘to be’ or any other suitable verb.

1. В эпоху Возрождения в Америке процветала самобытная местная культура. 2. В том доме жила очень странная пара. 3. В XVIIIXIX веках во многих европейских городах появились биржи. 4. В колониальный период в Америке появилось много новых газет. 5. В комнате пахло табачным дымом. 6. В последнее время в России появилось множество мобильных телефонов. 7. В этом языке наблюдаются значительные диалектные различия. 8. В XIV веке в Европе был значительный дефицит рабочей силы. 9. В 2003 году в Америке прошли митинги против войны в Ираке. 10. За этим процессом стоит долгая историческая традиция.

Exercise 11. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind their modal meaning.

1. When David saw that there was no persuading Daniel to stay, he ceased to urge it. 2. After all, there was no harm in trying. 3. There’s no need to speak about it any further. 4. There is no knowing what he is going to do. 5. Once the conflict spins out of control, there is no stopping it. 6. There is no point in talking about this again. 7. Although there was a lot of competition between the radio and the newspapers in the 1920s, there was no stopping radio’s ability to cover major events.

IMPERSONAL SENTENCES

Impersonal sentences begin with the pronoun ‘it’. They are used to talk about time, day (months, season), distance, weather, states: (nice, easy, hard, good, necessary, difficult, interesting, cool, exciting, wonderful, thrilling, awful, terrible, important).

It’s half past ten.

It’s Monday. It’s the 16th of December.

It’s three miles from our house to the centre of the city.

It’s a long way from here to the station.

It’s raining.

Does it snow very often?

It’s warm / cold / windy / sunny.

It is – There is

We use ‘it’ as a meaningless subject with expressions referring to time, weather, temperature or distance.

It is + adjective - It is foggy today. It will be hot in Rome tomorrow.

We use ‘there’ as a kind of preparatory subject in sentences which say that something exists.

There is + noun – There is fog today. There will be heavy rain in Madrid today.

Note! Don’t confuse «it’s» and «its».

«It’s» = it is (a personal pronoun and the verb “to be”):

It’s (it is) very nice here.

«Its» is a possessive pronoun followed by a noun:

I bought a new skirt. Its colour is blue.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Use «it» or «there».

A. 1. ... is winter. ... is a lot of snow. 2. ... was Christmas. ... were a lot of presents for the children under the Christmas tree. 3. ...were a lot of clouds in the morning. Now... is clear again. 4. I think ... is time to begin. 5. What is ... ? 6. ... is wonderful music in this film. 7. Our class went to a concert. ... was a success. 8. ... is a student from Britain in our group. ... is a swimming pool near my house, but ... is no water in it. 10. ... were a lot of rains last autumn.

B. 1. What is ... you wanted to tell me? 2. Since ... was nothing much to see, we left. 3. Where ... is life, ... is hope. 4. ... is no use telling him the truth. ... is nothing to him. 5. ... is important to keep in mind that ... is left-side traffic in Britain. 6. Is ... any I news? 7. Is ... enough food in the house? — ... is enough to feed the whole group. 8. ... is nothing like walking about the countryside when ... is warm and ... is sunshine and ... isn’t a single cloud in the sky and ... is not going to rain and ... is someone to make you happy. 9. Along time ago ... used to be a fortress on that hill. 10. ... is nothing but the result of her nervous disorder. 11. ... is nothing I can do to help you. 12. ... a medieval castle in the woods. ... has existed since the 14th I century. 13. ... comes my bus. ... is number 17. 14. ... no time to waste. ... is high time we take some steps. 15. ... was here that we met Ethel. 16. «I like ... when I’m alone», she said. 17. ... was something extremely civilized about her so that … surprised you to see her in those surroundings. 18. Let ... be so. 19. Let ... always be sunshine. 19. ... is no smoke without fire. 20. ... never rains but ... pours.

Exercise 2. Say what you keep:

in the draw of your desk;

in your safe;

in you pocket, bag, wallet/purse.

Exercise 3. Use «it» or «there».

1. ____ a bike parking near the metro station. ____ is a safe place. 2. ____ is a fax today. _____ is for you. 3.____ is a Xerox ['zɪərɔks] in the laboratory. ____ is very useful. 4. _____ isn’t a printer to this computer. ____ isn’t good. 5.____ is always a tiny ray of hope. ____ is better to be optimistic. 6. _____ is no ink in the cartridge. Is ____ an old one? — Yes, _____ is. 7. _____ is some fish and an octopus on the screen saver. _____ is a very pleasant picture. 8._____ was so much rain last summer. _____ was really like _____ is in England, but _____ was very hot there. 9. _____ is no money left on my account. _____ is very, very sad. 10. _____is so much information in the Internet. _____ is really a world of knowledge. 11. Once upon a time _____ lived a very kind doctor. _____ is a famous children’s story. 12. Once _____ was a brave captain. _____ is a story about Captain Cook. 13. _____ is a fine day today! _____ are many dog-walkers in the park. 14. _____ is up to you to decide this question.

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Зима. Декабрь. Очень холодно. Кругом много снега. 2. Весна. Апрель. Тепло и солнечно. Это чудесное время года. 3. Сегодня суббота. Это мой свободный день. 4. Пасмурно, похоже, будет дождь. — Какой сегодня день? — Это пятница. Мой любимый день. — Который час? — 14 часов. Пора обедать. 7. — Боюсь, что я опаздываю. — Ты никогда не опаздываешь. 8. — Далеко ли отсюда до парка? — Не очень далеко. 9. — Какое сегодня число? Кто отсутствует? — Сегодня 5 Марта. Все здесь. 10. — Кто сегодня дежурный? — Я дежурная сегодня. Мы готовы к уроку. — Да, пора начинать урок. 11. — Время для второго завтрака. — Да, уже 12 часов. Хочется пить. 12. Это трудный вопрос. Необходимо решить его. 13. Мир тесен. В нем так много людей, которые знают друг друга. 14. В Лондоне всегда много туристов. В английской столице столько достопримечательностей. 15. Тебе сообщение на дисплее. Оно срочное.

Exercise 5. Tell about your area, street, house, flat using there is/was/will be;it is/was/will be; its+noun.

Exercise 6. Use «it» or «there».

1. ___ is autumn. ___ is getting cold. ___ usually gets dark very early. 2. ____ were many people on the bus. ____ was a peak hour. 3. ___ is no wind today. — Yes, ___ isn’t windy. 4. ___ are twelve months in the year, ____ is a fact. 5. ___ is a long way from here to the airport. But ___ is a taxi at the shop. 6. ___ was a fine day. ___ were a lot of people in the park. 7. ___ is something I’d like to tell you . ____ is very important. 8. ___ is a new book. ___ are many interesting facts in it. 9. ___ isn’t a difficult task. ___ are many ways to do it. 10. We can’t take any pictures . ___ isn’t a film in the camera. ____ such a pity! 11. ___ is warm in the room. ____ is a fireplace here. 12. ____ was a lot of snow last winter. ___ was a cold winter. 13. — Is ___ snowing? — No, ___ is raining hard. ___ are dark clouds in the sky. 14. ___ is a supermarket down the street. ___ is a five minute walk from here. ___ is close to the bus station. 15. — Who is that man? — ___ is Mr. Smith, our director. 16. — ___ is a question I’d like to ask you. — Is ___ difficult? 17. ___ is a good question, and I’ll try to answer it. Sometimes ___ are questions that you can’t answer. 18. ___ is about ten o’clock. ___ is little time left before the lecture starts. 19. ___ is an island in the ocean. ____ is a small island, but ___ are many hotels there. 20. — What’s this? — ___ is a secret file. ___ is very important formation in it.

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English.

1. — Что находится в этом красивом здании? — Это педагогический университет. Это новый университет. — А я решил, что это банк. Нет, есть несколько банков на противоположной стороне улицы. - Это тихая и красивая улочка старой Москвы. Мне здесь нравится. 2. Рядом с метро есть большой торговый центр «Атриум». Это недалеко от нашего университета. В нём много различных маленьких магазинов. Некоторые дорогие, некоторые нет. Есть хорошие магазины для молодых людей. Приятно зайти в него и походить по магазинам и выпить чашку чая в кафе. 3. На противоположной стороне этой улицы есть книжный магазин. Его легко найти. На нём висит вывеска. Это новый магазин. Он достаточно большой. В нём много различных книг и учебников. Когда вы идёте туда, важно знать, что вы хотите купить. Там есть продавцы, которые помогают найти книги. Приятно найти там что-то новое и интересное. 4. Что находится в вашем холодильнике? — О, это большой холодильник. В нём две камеры и в нём много различных продуктов. Есть сыр, масло, молоко, джем, сок. В морозилке есть мясо, рыба, мороженое. В нём также есть фрукты и овощи.

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL 

MODULE II

Task 1. Translate these sentences into Russian. Mind the word order.

1. There is a great number of theories about behavior and development in psychology. 2. There have been many attempts in recent years to apply formal semantics to natural language. 3. In a language that is spoken by any large number of people there are great differences of dialect. 4. While the ecological situation is dire (ужасный, страшный, зловещий) it is not hopeless. There are solutions, sensible strategies that will clean up pollution and reverse the decline of our waters. 5. There are an estimated (примерно) 75 million cubic yards of contaminated sediments (зараженные осадки) spread over the lake bottom to a depth of 15 inches. 6. Commerce along the American coast was slowly increasing in the 17th century and there was thriving trade (процветающая торговля) with the West Indies. 7. In Europe there had been a long tradition of affiliation (связь) between the postal service and journalism. Many of the early continental newspapers had been published by postmasters. 8. So many people had died of the plague (чума) in the 14th century, that there were serious labor shortages all over Europe. 9. By 1950 there were an estimated 17,000 men and 2,000 women employed as experienced practitioners in public relations. 10. There were 1,700 religious magazines by 1970 in the USA, including 1,100 Protestant, 400 Catholic and 200 Jewish. 11. By 1965 there were anti-Vietnam rallies (выступления, демонстрации) (rallies against the war in Vietnam) at Berkeley and at the University of Michigan.

Task 2. Translate the sentences into Russian using the construction there + to be and the words from the previous exercises.

1.Невозможно было уговорить его остаться. 2. Когда военный конфликт выходит из-под контроля, его невозможно остановить. 3. Нет смысла больше об этом говорить. 4. Нет смысла делать эти упражнения еще раз. 5. Трудно сказать, когда он вернется. 6. Нельзя отрицать, что она права. 7. Остановить его было невозможно. 8. Не возможно было определить, поверила она моему рассказу или нет. 9. Мир переменился, и возврата назад быть не может. 10. Нет смысла проводить эту пресс-конференцию. 11. Неизвестно, что этот автор напишет в будущем. 12. Когда эта девочка начинает говорить, ее не остановить. 13. Неизвестно, как будут развиваться коммуникативные технологии в XXI веке.

Task 3. Use «it» or «there».

1. ____ is the middle of December now. ____ are ten days left before Christmas. 2. _____ is not any money in the safe, sir, _____ is empty. ____ was someone here. 3. _____ is hot all the year round on Bali, that’s why ____ a lot of tourists there are always. 4. _____ is so much work to do. _____ is necessary to start today. 5. _____ is a very expensive hotel, but _____ are not any vacant rooms in it. 6. _____ was no news yesterday. _____ was Sunday. _____ is usually our day-off. 7. _____ is nobody in, _____ is still very early. But _____are two guards at the entrance. 8. _____ is your duty to look after the children. ______ are so many dangers around. 9. Look! ______ is a star in the sky. _____ is the North Star. _____ is big and bright. 10. Once upon a time _____ lived an old man near the blue sea. 11. _____ was a fish in the net. _____ was not an ordinary fish, ______ was a golden fish. 12. _____ was a misprint in text five. ____ was a bad mistake. 13. ____was night, ____ was two o’clock in the morning, ____ were no people around. 14. _____ is a good magazine. ______ is so much useful information in it. 15. _____ is so pleasant to stay at home. _____ are no classes today. 16. ____ is a tray on the table for you. ____ is lunchtime. 17. ____ was such a boring film! ____ weren’t many people in the cinema. 18. ______ was a strange object in the sky. I was sure that _____ was a flying saucer. 19. ____ is common knowledge that ____ is no place like home. 20. ____was just an accident. ____ were too many cars on the road.

Task 4. Read the proverbs and give their Russian equivalents.

1. It’s never too late. 2. Where there’s much talk, there’s little work. 3. There is no rose without a thorn. 4. There’s nothing new under the moon. 5. It’s never late to learn. 6. There is no smoke without fire. 7. There is a black sheep in every flock. 8. There is no fool like an old fool. 9. There is no medicine like hope. 10. There is no place like home. 11. This is a small world. 12. Where there is a will, there is a way. 13. There is no place like home when you’re not feeling well.

REVISION

MODULE II

Exercise 1. Translate these sentences into English.

1. Это его новое пальто. 2. Это тетрадь для рисования. 3. Моя новая подруга - бухгалтер. 4. Это место для гаражей. 5. В комнате находятся вещи, собранные для благотворительного фонда (fund). 6. Там лежат учебники по грамматике. 7. Это моя флэшка (flash card). 8.Скоро я стану директором школы. 9. Гостиничные номера здесь очень дорогие. 10. В этом подвале много мышей. 11. В больших городах оживленное движение. 12. В этом районе города находятся театры, магазины и много офисов. 13. В твоей комнате есть телевизор? 14. В столовой большие часы. 15. Во дворе много детей. 16. В вашей комнате есть картины? 17. Сколько фруктовых деревьев в вашем саду? 18. В квартире нет кондиционера (air conditioner). 19. В принтере нет бумаги, не так ли? 20. В парке много старых деревьев. 21. В холодильнике нет масла, сыра и колбасы. 22. В стакане нет воды. 23. На дереве птицы, не так ли? 24. На озере много уток. 25. В вашем городе была церковь с часовней? 26. На остановке не было людей. 27. Сколько книг было на выставке? 28. Рядом с нашим домом будет прекрасный парк. 29. В этом здании был музей, не так ли? 30. На стене висят часы. 31. В нашем районе много больших магазинов. 32. Рядом с горой было прекрасное озеро.

Exercise 2. Use «it» or «there».

A. 1. - How many colours are ___ in the rainbow? - ___ is a fact that ___ are seven colours in it. 2. ___ is some juice in the bottle. ___ is orange juice. 3. ___ is a note for you on the desk. ___ is from David. 4. ___ is a karaoke club in this street. ___ is very popular. 5. ___ is such a pity that ___ is only one birthday in the year. 6. ___ is a garden behind the house but ___ is very small. 7. ___ is a new university. ___ are fifteen faculties in it. 8. ___ is a big bookshop. ___ are many good books in it. 9. ___ was a surprise in the box. ___ was a beautiful watch. 10. ___ was a flower in the vase. ___ was a tulip. 11. ___ is a cheese festival in Hungary every year. ___ is a wonderful holiday. 12. ___ is thirty miles to our country house. ___ is to the South. 13. - How far is ___ to the cafe? - Well, ___ is one ___ near the supermarket. ___ is small but ___ is a big choice of cakes there. - Thanks, ___ is very kind of you to help me. 14. How many letters are ___ in this word? ___ is a long word. 15. ___ is no news from home. ___ makes me unhappy.

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В нашем вокабуляре так много волшебных слов — «спасибо», «извините», «мне жаль». Пользуйтесь ими! 2. Около метро есть большой вокзал. Это Курский вокзал. 3. Жила-была девочка. Её звали Алиса. 4. Это маленькое кафе, но в нём всегда есть вкусные пирожки. 5. Жил-да-был один король. Звался он Луи Второй. 6. Есть вопрос, который я хочу задать вам, но он личный. 7. На небе радуга Она очень красивая. В ней семь цветов. 8. — Сколько дней в декабре? — Это последний месяц года. В нём тридцать один день. 9. Каждый год во Франции и Италии состоится фестиваль шоколада (a chocolate festival). Это интересный праздник. 10. На моём столе новый компьютер. Это ноутбук. 11. Во Флориде есть морской лагерь. Это экологический лагерь. 12. Сегодня пасмурно. Похоже, будет дождь. 13. Для вас есть электронное письмо. Оно очень важное. 14. Англия — это остров. На нём много больших и маленьких городов. 15. Мир тесен. В нём так много людей, которые знают друг друга.

Exercise 4. Use it’s or its.

1. I like Moscow. I like ___ streets and squares. 2. ____ a new magazine. ____ price isn’t high. 3. What a beautiful book! ____cover is so bright. 4. _____ a big company. ____ main office is in New York. 5. The baby elephant called _____ mother. 6. ____a long way from here to there. 7. ____ not too bad. 8. The cat was playing with ____ tail. 9. Well, I don’t know. ____ up to you. 10. _____ snowing out there. 11. _____ Tuesday today. 12. - We like the place. _____ so beautiful. What’s _____ name? - ____ Kuskovo. 13. ____ me! Open the door! 14. ____ a great painting. ____ very expensive, ____ price is a secret. 15. He liked London for ____ style. 16. ____very important. 17. The baby lay in ____ carrycot. 18. The group had ____ last exam yesterday. 19. ____ a complete waste of time. 20. Eat more fruit. _____ good for you. 21. Well, ____ so good to be here with you. 22. _____ such a surprise for me! 23. ____ a new word. I don’t know ____ meaning. 24. Every city has ____ own face.

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE II

Choose the right form

1. There ….. some fair people in my family.

A is     

B are    

C is being

There ….. a small table and two chairs in the kitchen.

A are    

B were    

C - is

How many students ….. there in your group?

A are    

B is     

C was

There ….. a mistake in your test.

A is    

B are    

C is being

There ….. any apples in the kitchen.

A aren’t   

B isn’t    

C wasn’t

….. there any ice-cream in my fridge?

A are    

B aren’t    

C is

There ….. any money in the cupboard.

A aren’t   

B isn’t    

C is

The road is very dangerous. There ….. been many accidents.

A have    

B has     

C is being

There ….. a magazine and two photos on my table.

A are    

B were    

C is

There ….. much cheese on the plate.

A is    

B are     

C is being

I have to go back home. ….. there an intercity traffic here? (междугородное сообщение)

A is    

B are    

C is being

….. there any point in talking about it again?

A are   

B were    

C is

There ….. no butter, milk and cheese in the fridge.

A are   

B aren’t    

C is

The traffic ….. very heavy in big cities.

A are   

B is     

C were

Do you think there ….. any use trying to explain?

A are   

B aren’t    

C is

How many fruit trees ….. there in your garden?

A are   

B is     

C aren’t

There ….. a theater, shops and many offices in this part of the city.

A is   

B are     

C were

There ….. no stopping here.

A are   

B is     

C were

There ….. sure to be a lot of joy when she gets his letter.

A is being  

B are    

C is

There ….. no sense in your going there alone.

A is   

B are     

C is being

There ….. any butter or jam on the plate.

A aren’t  

B isn’t     

C won’t

There will ….. no concert tomorrow.

A is   

B was    

C - be

There ….. some flowers on the window sill.

A is being

B are    

C is

There ….. a dog and two cats in the room.

A is being  

B are    

C is

There ….. much snow in Moscow last winter.

A was   

B were    

C is

There ….. a lot of people at the bus-stop.

A are    

B is    

C were

In a fortnight there ….. two weeks.

A was   

B were    

C are

There ..... much bread on the table.

A are   

B is being    

C is

The room seemed empty. There ..... hardly any furniture.

A is   

B was    

C were

There ..... little I can do to help you.

A are   

B is     

C is being

There ….. plenty of employees in the room.

A is   

B was    

C are

There ….. no sense doing all these exercises.

A be    

B is     

C were

There ….. a plate and some forks on the table.

A is    

B are    

C were

How many guests will ….. there at dinner?

A being

B be     

C are  

….. there many tickets left?

A Is

B Was  

C Are

There seems ….. no hope.

A to be

B being  

C ―

Do you think there ….. likely to be snow?

A be  

B is    

C was

There ….. no point in asking him questions.

A be   

B are    

C is

There ….. a wonderful park next to our house.

A will be

B be    

C is being

There ….. lots of shops in our town.

A are  

B is    

C is being

….. is a tourist here. He wants to ask you a question.

A it       

B there

….. was a peak hour.

A it      

B there

Every city has ….. own face.

A its      

B it’s

….. is necessary to solve this question as soon as possible.

A it       

B there

. ….. is much snow outside.

A it      

B there

….. a great painting.

A its      

B it’s

….. is time to begin.

A it      

B there

….. is no wind today.

A it      

B there

The baby elephant called ….. mother.

A its      

B it’s

….. is a secret file.

A it       

B there

….. is very important information in it.

A it       

B there

….. is something I’d like to tell you.

A it      

B there

….. not bad.

A it’s      

B its

….. is a difficult question.

A it      

B there

….. are twelve months in the year.

A it       

B there

….. is a fact.

A it    

B there

….. such a surprise for me!

A it’s    

B its

….. a complete waste of time.

A its    

B it’s

….. is a message for you on the display.

A it    

B there

….. is not windy now.

A it    

B there

….. is a long way from here to the airport

A it    

B there

But ….. is a taxi at the door.

A it    

B there

….. very important.

A it’s    

B its

….. is no fool like an old fool.

A it    

B there

The baby lay in ….. carrycot.

A its     

B it’s

….. was such a pity!

A it     

B there

The group had ….. last exam yesterday.

A its    

B it’s

….. was a hard year.

A it     

B there

What is ….. in that nice building?

A it     

B there

….. is our pedagogical institute.

A it     

B there

The cat was playing with ….. tail.

A its    

B it’s

.….. is no medicine like hope.

A it     

B there

Every city has ….. own face.

A its   

B it’s

When you go to the shop …. is good to know what you want.

A it    

B there

….. are a lot of shop assistants who can help you with your choice.

A it    

B there

….. me! Open the door!

A it’s   

B its

….. is never late to learn.

A it    

B there

….. is no smoke without fire.

A it    

B there

….. is a black sheep in every flock.

A it    

B there

….. is a small world.

A it    

B there

TOTAL: 80 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749510&tab=3 

MODULE III

IMPERATIVES. TYPES OF QUESTIONS

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Imperatives are used to tell or ask people to do things, to make suggestions, to give advice or instructions, to encourage and offer, and to express wishes for people’s welfare.

Affirmative imperatives have the same form as the infinitive without ‘to’:

Come here. Be quiet. Speak louder.  Stop talking!

Try again – you nearly did it. Have some more tea.

Enjoy your holiday.   Look in the mirror before you drive off.

Negative imperatives are constructed with ‘do not (don’t):

Don’t worry about it.    Don’t cross the street here.

Please do not lean out of the window.   Don’t be silly.

Commands are generally spoken with a falling tone. They can be softened and made into requests with the help of the word “please, a rising tone, a tag question or a question beginning with the words will, would, could:

Come here, please. Repeat the last word, will you?

Will (would, could) you open the window?

We can make an emphatic imperative with ‘do’:

Do sit down. Do be more careful. Do forgive me. Do be quiet!

English does not have first-person imperative (used to suggest that ‘I’ or ‘we’ should do something) or a third-person imperative (for other people, not the hearer). These ideas are often expressed by a structure with ‘let’:

Let him try again. Let me see. Let them come in. Let him wait.

 Let us (let’s) have some tea. Let me do the room myself.

There are two negative constructions with “let for the first person:

Let’s not speak about it.

Don’t let’s speak about it.

A third person command admits only one negative construction:

Don’t let him watch TV in the evening.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Express requests using the models.

A. Model: Ask (tell) John to shut the door. - John, shut the door, please.

1. Ask Bob to give you a call after five. 2. Ask Mary to buy a birthday present. 3. Tell Nelly to pay for the Internet. 4. Tell Olga to lay the table for three. 5. Tell Andrew to be careful. 6. Ask Peter to buy some bread on his way home. 7. Tell Sam to turn off music. 8. Advise him to think again before he decides.  

B. Model: Ask (tell) John not to shut the door. - John, don’t shut the door, please.

1. Ask Nick not to speak so loudly. 2. Ask your mother not to get up early tomorrow. 3. Tell Ann not to read at lunch. 4. Tell Kate not to send him a telegram. 5. Tell Susie not to come home so late. 6. Ask Janet not to waste money on sweets. 7. Ask her not to tell me what to do. 8. Tell her not to make a white sauce.

Exercise 2. Make the following imperative sentences negative.

1. Give this letter to your boss. 2. Invite your boyfriend to the party. 3. Read the text aloud. 4. Smile when you are talking to me. 5. Take her to your parents’ place. 6. Wait for him for an hour. 7. See this film. 8. Take a taxi. 9. Get up! 10. Forget about it.

Exercise 3. Express polite requests instead of commands.

Model: Come here! Will (would) you come here, please ?

Make me a call at three! 2. Come and baby-sit tonight! 3. Meet me at the station! 4. Wash up the dishes! 5. Speak to your teacher at school! 6. Turn on the light! 7. Explain it to me! 8. Stay at home on Saturday! 9. Tell me the truth! 10. Move out of the way! 11. Remember to post the letter! 12. Go to bed at once!

Exercise 4.

A. Read the following:

How to Be Fit

Don’t stay in bed in the morning too long.

Don’t forget to do morning exercises.

Don’t eat your breakfast.

Don’t be late for classes.

Don’t take lunch to school.

Don’t eat sandwiches in class.

Don’t sit in one place during the breaks.

Don’t drink too much water and other drinks.

Don’t say you are hungry when you are.

Don’t eat chocolates or cakes.

Don’t take a bus when you can walk.

Don’t go to parties where they serve good food.

Don’t smoke or drink alcohol.

Don’t use drugs.

Don’t visit doctors unnecessarily.

Don’t lie on the sofa when you watch TV or listen to music.

Don’t go to bed during the day.

B. Give similar recommendations to your friend about:

how to make a good career;

how to become a famous scientist;

how to marry successfully.

Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English.

Перестаньте разговаривать. 2. Снимай пальто и проходи в комнату. 3. Положи сахар и молоко в кофе. 4. Не ешь столько мороженого. 5. Не выходи на улицу без шапки. 6. Останься посмотреть телепрограмму с нами. 7. Попроси Ника принести словарь. 8. Пригласи их в гости. 9. Переходите улицу только на перекрестке. 10. Проводи меня домой. 11. Не ссорься с родителями. 12. Не перебивай меня. 13. Вели ей подать кофе. 14. Попроси ее перевести письмо. 15. Спроси полицейского, где почта. 16. Подумайте, прежде чем отвечать. 17. Не ешьте много на ночь. 18. Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня. 19. Попроси ее подождать нас. 20. не говори мне что делать. 21. Скажи ему быть внимательным.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

There are four main types of questions:

1. General questions (Yes/No questions) require the answer «yes» or «no». They are spoken with a rising intonation.

a) They open with an auxiliary, modal or link verb.

With the verbs “to be”, “to have (got)” and modal verbs the question is formed by inverting the subject and the verb:

She has got a car. – Has she got a car?

They are having lunch. – Are they having lunch?

I can speak English. – Can you speak English?

b) With other verbs we use Do/Does/Did + subject + infinitive without the particle “to”.        

                    We like fish. – Do you like fish?

He knows Andrew. – Does he know Andrew?

They enjoyed the picnic. – Did they enjoy the picnic?

Negative general questions.

These questions express astonishment or doubt. In Russian the particles разве, неужели are used in such questions. They are formed by placing an auxiliary, modal or link verb + the particle not before the subject.

Aren’t you Carmen’s sister?

Hasn’t he told you yet?

Don’t you spend the summer in the country?

2. Special questions (Wh – questions) begin with an interrogative word. They are spoken with a falling intonation.

The order of words is the same as in general questions, but the interrogative word precedes the auxiliary verb. (Wh-word + auxiliary + subject + main verb (notional verb).

Where do they live? Why are they laughing?

When special questions contain prepositions they are placed at the end of the sentence except a very formal writing and the speech where “whom”  is used after the preposition:

Who did you buy these flowers for?

For whom did you buy these flowers? (very formal)

What are you talking about?

Who did you buy the tickets from?

When the interrogative word (who, what) is the subject of the sentence or an attribute to the subject, the order of words is that of a statement, no inversion is used.

Who phoned ?(‘Who’ is the subject)    

Who did you phone?(‘Who’ is the  object)

What happened? (‘What’ is the subject)    

What did she say? (’What” is the object)

Who knows the answer?

Which costs more – the blue one or the grey one?

When the interrogative word (which, whose) is an attribute to the subject, the order of words is

Wh-word + noun + main verb:

Which type of battery lasts longer?

Whose pen is on the table?

3. Alternative questions indicate choice. They are spoken with a rising intonation in the first part and a falling intonation in the second part.

There are two types of alternative questions.

One type is like a general question:

Do you live in the town or in the country?

Is it your CD or is it mine?

Are they in or are they out?

The other is like a special question:

What do you want to do this weekend, stay at home or go to the cinema?

4. Disjunctive questions (Tag questions) require the answer “yes” or “no”.

They consist of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question (positive answer is  expected), or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question (negative answer is expected). They correspond to such Russian questions as «Не так ли? Не правда ли? Ведь так?»

The first part of these questions is spoken with a falling intonation and the second part is spoken with a falling intonation if the speaker is sure that his information is correct. The second part can also be spoken with a rising intonation if the speaker is not very sure if the information is correct or not.

You knew that before, didn’t you? – Yes, I did.

You are not tired, are you? – No, I am not.

There is a piano in the hall, isn’t there?

I’m right, aren’t I?  (the short form in the singular is not used here)

I’m not your boss, am I? (a politically correct question)

              Everybody is her, aren’t they? (a politically correct question)

There is one more pattern with a tag question which is less frequently used (mostly when the speaker comes to a conclusion about some event):

Positive statement + positive tag

               You knew about it before, did you?

Negative statement + negative tag

                You didn’t know about it before, didn’t you?

There are some other types of questions in spoken English.

a) In declarative questions we do not always use ‘interrogative’ word order:  

                 You’re working late tonight?

     These questions are used when the speaker thinks he/she knows or has understood smth, but wants    to make sure or express surprise. A rising intonation is common.

This is your car? (= I suppose this is your car, isn’t it?)

That’s the boss? I thought he was the cleaner.

b) Rhetorical questions do not expect an answer. We use them as a way of drawing attention to something.

                Do you know what time it is? (= You are late.)

                Who’s a lovely baby? (= You’re a lovely baby)

               What’s the use of asking her? (=There’s no use asking her)

c) Why/How should …? Can be used aggressively to reject suggestions, requests and instructions.

                      Ann’s very unhappy.  ~ Why should I care?

                     What time does the film start? ~ How should I know?

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Ask alternative questions.

1.

It’s a difficult question,

a.

are they?

2.

German isn’t a global language,

b.

aren’t I?

3.

Cats are wonderful pets,

с.

isn’t there?

4.

He isn’t aggressive,

d.

is it?

5.

Everybody is happy,

e.

are they?

6.

I am a lucky person,

f.

are there?

7.

There is a lot of light in the house,

g.

aren’t I?

8.

There aren’t any chances to win,

h.

is he?

9.

I am right,

i.

aren’t we?

10.

Pigs are not nice pets,

j.

am I?

11.

We are partners,

k.

isn’t it?

12.

I am not a dreamer,

1.

aren’t they?

13.

Her clothes are new,

m.

aren’t they?

14.

I am not right,

n.

aren’t they?

15.

Nobody is late for my class,

о.

am I?

Exercise 2. Ask tag questions.

1. There are many stars in the sky. 2. He is a star in showbiz. 3. Something is wrong. 4. She is never happy. 5. It’s fine weather today. 6. It isn’t my day today. 7. There is a fax for her. 8. There aren’t any messages for us. 9. Money is important. 10. Mice aren’t nice. 11. There is a lot of snow in the streets. 12. These are not your papers. 13. It’s late. 14. These are good examples. 15. These are not correct data. 16. She isn’t old. 17. He isn’t young. 18. I am on duty today. 19. They are not friends.

Exercise 3. Make questions with ‘who’ and ‘what’. In these sentences who/what is the subject.

1. Somebody broke the window. 2. Something happened. 3. Somebody is coming. 4. Somebody took my umbrella. 5. Something made me angry. 6. Somebody wants to see you. 7. Somebody told me about the accident. 8. Something went wrong.

Exercise 4. Make questions with ‘who’ and ‘what’. In these sentences who/what is the object.

I met somebody. 2. I’m doing something. 3. I’m reading something. 4. I saw somebody. 5. I want something. 6. I phoned somebody. 7. I’m going to cook something. 8. I bought something.

Exercise 5. Make questions with ‘who’ and ‘what’. Sometimes who/what is the subject, sometimes who/what is the object.

1. Somebody lives in that house. (Who) 2. Tom said something (What). 3. They have lost something. (What) 4. Somebody cleaned the kitchen. (Who) 5. I asked somebody for money. (Who/did/money) 6. Somebody asked me for money. Who) 7. Something happened last night. (What) 8. Jack bought something. (What) 9. Somebody telephoned me yesterday. (Who) 10. I telephoned somebody yesterday. (Who) 11. Somebody knows the answer. (Who) 12. Something woke me up this morning. (What) 13. Somebody has got my pen. (Who/pen) 14. Tom and Ann saw something. (What) 15. Somebody saw the accident. (Who) 16. Somebody did the washing-up. (Who) 17. Jill did something. (What) 18. This word means something. (What)

Exercise 6. Write questions.

1. I’m thinking about something. 2. He went out with somebody. 3. I’m waiting for somebody. 4. She danced with somebody. 5. He’s interested in something. 6. I had dinner with somebody. 7. They’re looking for something. 8. George was with somebody. 9. I gave the money to somebody. 10. I’m looking at something. 11. They were talking about something. 12. I dreamt about somebody. 13. He was afraid of something. 14. They’re going to a restaurant. 15. She spoke to somebody. 16. I stayed at a hotel.

Exercise 7. Ask questions with “What  was/were … like”?

Model: Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the weather.

           What was the weather like?

1. Your friend has just come back from the cinema. Ask about the film.

. Your friend has just arrived at the airport. Ask about the flight.

. Your friend has just been to a concert. Ask about the concert.

. Your friend has just finished an English course. Ask about the lessons.

Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the hotel.

Exercise 8. Put in what/which/who?

Model: What is this man’s name? Which way shall we go?

1. You can have tea or coffee. ____do you want? 2. «I can’t find my umbrella». – « ____ colour is it? » 3. ____is your favourite sport? 4. This is a very nice house. ____ room is yours? 5. ____ is more expensive, meat or fish? 6. ____ is older, Ann or George? 7._____ is your telephone number? 8. ____ kind of TV programmes do you like watching? 9. «She’s got three cars». – « _____ car does she use most?» 10. « ____ nationality are you?» – «I’m Brazilian».

Exercise 9. Write questions with «How long does/did it take …?».

A. Model: How long does it take you to run 5 kilometers?

1. (have a shower?) 2. (fly to London from your country?) 3. (study to be a teacher in your country?) 4. (walk from your house to the nearest shop?)

B. Model: How long did it take you to run 5 kilometers?

1. She found a job. 2. You walked to the station. 3. They cleaned the house. 4. You learned to swim. 5. He found an apartment.

Exercise 10. Use the proper auxiliary verb in the following question and answers.

1. ____ you want to join us? — No, we _____ busy. 2. ____ your clock show the right time? — No, it ____ . It ____ fast. 3. How long ____ it usually take you to get home? - It ____ take me long. 4. What ____this word mean? ____ anyone know it? 5. ____ your parents know about it? - My mother ____ , but my father _____ . 6. ____ you like living in Moscow? - No, I ____, life _____ hectic here. 7. _____ it ever snow in California? - No, it ____ , it _____ always hot there. 8. _____ pupils make many spelling mistakes? - Yes, they _____ , English spelling _____ killing. 9. _____ anyone help you with housework? - Yes, my daughter _____ it when she _____ at home. 10. ____ your son like animals? - Yes, he _____. He ____ a vet (veterinarian). 11. ____ your children go to school? - My son _____ , but my daughter ____ only four years old. 12. ____ it usually take you long to look through the e-mail? - No, it ____, it ____ the secretary’s duty. 13. _____ it ever snow in the Sahara? — No, it _____ , it _______ a desert. 14. How well ____ he run his firm? - He _____ a good businessman. 15. ____ you agree with me? - No, I ____. I ____ still cross with you.

Exercise 11. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative.

1. Good weather makes me happy. 2. Irene helps her mother. 3. I take my dog out for a run every morning. 4. She prefers tea to coffee. 5. Students spend a lot of money on books. 6. It takes a long time to become clever. 7. The Chinese like spaghetti. 8. Old people like to wear T-shirts and jeans. 9. He goes on business trips every month. 10. It rains a lot in autumn. 11. It seldom snows in the south of England. 12. It takes me half an hour to get to my work. 13. She waters the flowers in her garden twice a week. 14. Children enjoy playing computer games. 15. I meet my classmates every year. 16. We agree with you. 17. I love Paris in the spring. 18. I am angry with you.

Exercise 12. Translate these sentences into English.

Кто этот парень? - Это Дима. Он мой друг. 2. Чем он занимается? (Кто он?) - Он студент. 3. Кто эти люди? - Они наши соседи. - Чем они занимаются? (Кто они?) - Они служащие. 4. Чья это папка? - Она моя. 5. Какого рода эта работа? - Она неплохая. 6. Сколько лет твоей жене? Сколько лет твоим детям? - Вы ведь не инспектор, не правда ли? 7. В Англии много хороших традиций, не так ли? 8. Что это за фильм? - Это комедия. 9. Который из этих дисков твой? - Они все мои. 10. Как Вы? Как жизнь? Как родители? - Всё прекрасно, спасибо. 11. Почему ты такая печальная? В чём дело? - Я просто голодна и хочу спать. 12. Когда твой день рождения? - Это секрет. 13. Я прав или не прав? - Это трудно сказать. 14. Где ученики? Где учитель? - Они в зале. Там концерт. 15. Это не очень-то хорошая идея, не правда ли? 16. Почему вы здесь? - Я новый секретарь. Какие мои обязанности? 17. Что он за человек? - Он честный человек и помешан на работе.

TASKS FOR SELFCONTROL

MODULE III

Task 1. A. Make up rules for hotel guests. Start with:

Keep the room clean.

Put out the light when you go out.

Don't forget to leave the key with the receptionist.

B. Tell your friend how to bake an apple pie. Start with:

Take 400 gr of flour ...

Task 2. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Настрой скрипку и сыграй мою любимую сонату (sonata), пожалуйста. 2. Скажи ему, чтобы приходил встречать брата на вокзал в пятницу. 3. Не ешь так много мороженого – простудишься. 4. Давайте включим свет и прочтем письмо. 5. Выключи компьютер и пойди погуляй. 6. Принеси воды, пожалуйста, и потом иди играть с приятелями. 7. Не открывай дверь незнакомым людям. 8. Выйди на улицу и иди налево. 9. Закрой дверь и слушай меня внимательно. 10. Не забудь отправить письмо. 11. Просыпайся, солнце уже высоко. 12. Прочти всю литературу по списку (on the list) и подготовь доклад. 13. Позвони Тому, пожалуйста,  и скажи, что он мне нужен. 14. Не выходи на улицу, там идет сильный дождь. 15. Возвращайте скорее и постарайся не простудиться. 16. Запомни: завтра в пять. 17. Давайте поедем отдыхать в Крым (the Crimea) в этом году. 18. Скажи ему, чтобы не смотрел на меня так внимательно, я смущаюсь (to be embarrassed). 19. Не играй так долго в компьютерные игры, ты испортишь зрение (to ruin ones eyesight). 20. Попроси Аню купить хлеба и сахара.

Task 3. Write questions of all types to interview your mates about their home reading (hobby, holidays).

REVISION

MODULE III

Exercise 1. Translate the sentences.

Скажи мне свой номер телефона, пожалуйста. 2. Когда ты получила мое письмо? 3. В гостиничном номере (hotel suite) есть душ, не так ли? 4. Расскажи мне сказку на ночь (before going to bed), пожалуйста. 5. Что вы тут делаете? 6. Пусть он купит свежих овощей, и мы сделаем салат. 7. Не позволяй Марку поздно ложиться спать. 8. Ты видел затмение Солнца (solar eclipse)? 9. Не шумите! Дайте мне послушать музыку. 10. Ты ведь тоже там был, не так ли? 11. Не буди меня завтра рано. У меня выходной. 12. Ты будешь (пить) кофе или чай? 13. Сколько лет твоей  племяннице? 14. Давайте пойдем на концерт Валерия Меладзе. 15. Сколько стоит билет в партер (the pit)? 16. Ты зайдешь к нам завтра? 17. Скажи ему, чтобы пришел ровно в семь. 18. Кто знает стихотворение наизусть? 19. Ты ведь не будешь плохо себя вести, не правда ли (to behave ill=to be at it)? 20. Не заставляй (вынуждай) бабушку ждать тебя. 21. Сколько лет твоей подружке? 22. Мы останемся здесь или пойдем на пляж? 23. Давайте учить деловой английский. 24. Я не такая толстая, не так ли? 25. Кто знает ответ на этот вопрос?

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE III

Choose the right form.

….. everyone hear me apologize the assistant manager?

A do                              

B did                  

C is

….. told you to shut up?

A who                           

B when             

C why

A. What you are looking at?

B. What are you looking at?

C. At what are you looking?

….. take the dog for his run?

A might I                      

B may I                  

C do I may

My friend isn’t fond of reading, ….. he?

A is                                

B was                      

C doesn’t

….. you seen him make that experiment?

A are                           

B did                       

C have

You’ve liked it since your childhood, …..?

A had you                     

B did you                 

C haven’t you

A. Who did you draw the picture for?

  B. Who for did you draw the picture?

  C. For who did you draw the picture?

…. did he suddenly change the subject?

A who                    

B what                        

C why

….. she finally get her licence last week.

A did                             

B where                     

C who

A. What do you suspect of him?

          B. What of do you suspect him?

          C. What do you suspect him of?

….. your holiday.

A Enjoy                           

B To enjoy                

C Who enjoy

The method of working these parts isn’t the most modern, ….. it?

A does                            

B wasn’t                     

C is        

….. did somebody ask you for money in the street?

A who                             

B when                      

C what

….. you ever been to America?

A did                             

B have                         

C were

A. Why should you apologize for?     

          B. What should you apologize for?

          C. What should you apologize?

….. do you believe it important?

A why                           

B who                          

C what

….. you answered yet?

A haven’t you               

B have you                 

C did you                            

19. ….. you come home when it began to rain?

A did                           

B was                          

C have

20 ….. don’t  they find it desirable?

A who                           

B why                          

C what

A. What kind of music do you enjoy?

          B. What do kind of music you enjoy?

          C. What of the music kind do you enjoy?

The storm began two hours ago, ….. ?

A had it                      

B didn’t it                   

C wasn’t it

You have been playing tennis, …..?

A has you                  

B were you                

C haven’t you

Your brother didn’t shave in the morning, ….. he?

A doesn’t                   

B was                          

C did

….. she staying in the country now?

A is                            

B was                        

C why

Who ….. that she should do it again?

A did demand           

B demanded            

C is demanded     

A. Which way they went?

         B. Which way did they went

         C. Which way did they go?

….. that skirt too wide for me?

A doesn’t                    

B isn’t                         

C does

….. you so excited that you can’t think?

A is                              

B do                           

C are

…..  so old that she could be your grandmother?

A who is                      

B who                         

C who are

A. Where you come from?

          B. Where do you come from?

          C. Where from do you come?

….. the violin best?

A who play                  

B who plays                 

C who do play

33.  ….. him try again.

A Let                        

B Let’s                       

C Lets

Doctors say smoking is not good for health, ….. they?

A don’t’                    

B did                             

C aren’t

35. Which of these is a general question?

              A. Who turned and waved?

              B. Did my brother turn and wave?

             C. Who did my brother wave to?

36. Which of these is a special question?

             A. What was the wall of the house covered with?

             B. Was the wall of the house covered with vine?

             C. The wall of the house was covered with vine, wasn’t it?

37. Which of these is a question to the subject?

             A. What did we buy the toys for?

             B. Who did we buy the toys for?

             C. Who bought the toys?

38. Which of these is an alternative question?

             A. Did they sit on the top of the hill to watch the sun?

              B. Did they sit on the top or at the foot of the hill to watch the sun?

              C. They sat on the top of the hill to watch the sun, didn’t they?

39. Which of these is a disjunctive question?

             A. Did Lucy or did Jan keep looking at the clock?

             B. Lucy kept looking at the clock, didn’t she?

             C. What did Lucy keep looking at?

40. Which of these questions expresses aggression?

            A. Why should know such nonsense?

            B. Who can know such nonsense?

            C. Who might know such nonsense?

TOTAL: 40 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749510&tab=3 

MODULE IV

THE NOUNS

THE NOUN. PLURAL OF NOUNS

The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the word. In the concept of substance we include not only names of living beings (eg. boy, girl) and lifeless things (eg. chair, table), but also names of abstract notions, i.e. qualities, states, actions (kindness, strength, fear, conversation, fight), abstracted from their bearers.

Nouns that can be counted have two numbers: singular and plural. The main types of the plural forms of English nouns are as follows:

1. The plural form is marked by the inflexion -s. It’s pronounced as:

a) [z] after vowels and voiced consonants:  bee – bees; dog – dogs;

b) [s] after voiceless consonants: book – books.

2. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -x, -z have the ending -es that is pronounced as [iz]:

actress - actresses; bush - bushes; watch - watches; box - boxes.

3. If the noun ends in –o preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally formed by adding –es:

hero – heroes, potato – potatoes ,tomato – tomatoes, echo – echoes.

But a few nouns ending in –o preceded by a consonant form the plural in –s:

photo - photos, piano - pianos, solo - solos.

All noun ending in –o preceded by a vowel form the plural in –s:

kangaroos, radios, studios.

There are a few nouns ending in –o which form the plural both in –s and –es:

mosquito – mosquitos or mosquitoes; banjo – banjos or banjoes.

In proper names the ending -s is used:

Romeos; Filipinos.

4. The letter -y is changed into -i if it is preceded by a consonant and the ending -es is added:

sky - skies.

But -y remains unchanged and the ending -s is added:

after vowels: day - days;

in proper names: Do you know the Kennedys; I hate Februarys.

in compounds: stand-by - stand-bys.

5. Thirteen nouns ending in –f(e) form their plural changing –f(e) into –v(e):

calf – calves; elf – elves; half – halves; knife – knives; leaf – leaves; life – lives; loaf – loaves; self – selves; sheaf – sheaves; shelf – shelves; thief – thieves; wife – wives; wolf – wolves.

Other noun ending in – f(e) have the plural inflexion –s in the regular way:

proof – proofs; chief – chiefs; safe – safes; cliff – cliffs; gulf – gulfs, kerchief – kerchiefs, etc.

There are some nouns which have two forms in the plural:

scarf – scarfs/scarves; dwarf – dwarfs/dwarves; hoof – hoofs/hooves.

6. Nouns ending in –th take the ending -s. It is pronounced as [ðz] after long vowels or diphthongs and as [өs] after short vowels and consonants:

bath [ba:ө] – baths [ba:ðz]; path [pa:ө] – paths [pa: ðz]; oath [ǝuө] – oaths[ǝuðz];

month [mʌnө] – months [mʌnөs ]; myth [mIө] – myths [mIөs]; health [helө] – healths [helөs].

7. For historical reasons some nouns form their plural differently. Seven nouns form the plural by changing the root vowel:

man – men; woman – women; tooth – teeth; foot – feet; goose – geese; mouse – mice; louse – lice, person – persons (off.)/people, peoples = народы.

Two nouns form the plural in –en:

Ox – oxen; child – children.

8. With some nouns the plural is identical with the singular form:

sheep – sheep; swine – swine; deer – deer.

This sheep looks small. All those sheep are good.

There are some animal names that have two plurals:

fish – fish/fishes; pike – pike/pikes; salmon – salmon/salmons.

The zero plural denotes hunting quarries (We caught only a few fish. We caught five salmon.). The regular plural is used to denote different individuals, kinds of animal.

9. Nouns indicating number also have identical forms for singular and plural: pair, couple, dozen, score, etc.

Five dozen of eggs.

10. A number of foreign (particularly Latin and Greek) nouns have retained their original plural endings:

basis – bases; crisis – crises; analysis – analyses; thesis – theses; criterion – criteria; phenomenon – phenomena; stimulus – stimuli; nucleus – nuclei; formula – formulae; datum – data; index – indices.

Some nouns may have two plural forms: the English plural and the Original foreign one:

formula – formulae/formulas; index – indices/ indexes.

12. As a rule in compound nouns the second component takes the plural form:

toothbrush – toothbrushes; boy-scout – boy-scouts.

Compounds in which the first component is man or woman have plurals in both components:

woman-doctor – women-doctors; man-servant – men-servants.

In compounds originating from a prepositional noun phrase only the first noun takes the plural form:

mother-in-law – mothers-in-law; editor-in-chief – editors-in-chief.

In compound nouns formed by a noun plus a preposition, an adverb, or an adjective the first element takes the plural:

passer-by - passers-by.

When a compound is a substantivized phrase which does not contain a noun, the last element takes the ending –s:

forget-me-not – forget-me-nots; grown-up – grown-ups.

12. Some nouns cannot change their number, they are always singular in meaning or they denote plurality.

Singular nouns:

non-count nouns (material nouns and abstract nouns):

tea, sugar, gold, music, anger.

proper names:

Wales, Henry, the Thames.

some nouns ending in –s:

news, means, measles, advice.

nouns ending in –ics:

classics, linguistics, politics, athletics.

Plural nouns:

names of tools and articles consisting of two equal parts which are joined:

glasses, scissors, shorts, trousers, pyjamas [pɪ’ʤɑːməz], clothes [kləuðz].

some proper nouns:

the Netherlands, the Highlands.

other nouns:

goods, stairs, thanks, contents, holidays.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Form the plural of the following nouns. Classify them according to the pronunciation of the ending -s/-es. Mind the spelling.

A seed, a tax, a discovery, a sketch, a method, an enemy, a toy, a baby, a song, a trip, a book, a step, a lock, a match, a box, a guy, a flash, a bag, a day, a rug, a sandwich, a judge, a page, a face, a watch, a chicken, a duck, an egg, a shape, a blouse, a clock, a sentence, an adjective, a noun, a preposition, a dress, a wage.

Exercise 2. Give the plurals of the following nouns.

A cow, an army, a baby, a story, a tomato, a potato, a box, a wish, a child, a wolf, a patio, a tooth, a monkey, a key, a house, a goose, a way, a scarf; a lady, a gentleman, a housewife, a forget-me-not, a mother-in-law, a relative.

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with a singular or plural noun.

l. The ... smells delicious (cake, cakes). 2. The ... is full (box, boxes). 3. Do you know the ... that lives next door (woman, women)? 4. Our ... are modern (computer, computers). 5. ... are dangerous animals (lion, lions). 6. These ... are very funny (photo, photos). 7. ... grow very well here (potato, potatoes).

Exercise 4. a) Write the following nouns in the plural and use quantifiers. Study the table.

All kinds of nouns

Class nouns

(countable nouns)

Material nouns

some

some

some

any

any

any

no

no

no

a lot of

many

much

lots of

(a) few

(a) little

plenty of

lot of

a lot of

lots of

lots of

several

a good deal of

plenty of

plenty of

a number of

A leaf, a wish, a zoo, a knife, a rose, one tomato, one tooth, a thief, a chief, a roof, a piano, a photo, an auto, a hero, a mosquito, a goose, a mouse, a fish, a bacterium, one cactus, a crisis, a phenomenon, a butterfly, a volcano, a baby, a wolf, a scarf, a tax, a taxi, the editor-in-chief, a mother-in-law, a forget-me-not.

b) Translate into English

1. Много воды, некоторое количество газет, масса снега, мало яблок, немного хлеба, несколько человек, какое-то количество машин, много детей. 2. Дайте мне какие-нибудь газеты. 3. В этом лесу много оленей. 4. Мы собирали ягоды летом. 5. Где твои часы? 6. Крыши черные. 7. Листья уже желтые. 8. Кто эти женщины? 9. Посмотри на этих прохожих. 10. У нее очень много денег. 11. Сегодня новости хорошие.

Exercise 5. Rewrite the following in the plural:

A. This cup, that boy, this woman, my toothbrush, his teacup, this lady, this baby, that flower, my piano, his scarf, this fork, that spoon, her cat, this cat.

B. A good book, a pretty girl, a nice dress, a long night, a bright pupil, a large flat, a short man, a black dress.

C. 1. My brother is in the army. 2. The cake is delicious. 3. A bus is the best way of getting to town. 4. A lion is a dangerous animal. 5. His father is an actor. 6. A computer is expensive. 7. A train is faster than a bus. 8. This film is not suitable for children. 9. The address on the letter is wrong. 10. The letter is on the table. 11. This is a cup of tea. 12. He is a teacher. 13. This girl is an actress. 14. This is a good book. 15. This is a thick textbook. 16. That is a nice tie. 17. This woman is a doctor 18. That girl is my niece. 19. This boy is my cousin. 20. This film is very long. 21. This play is dull. 22. This lady is our new neighbour.

Exercise 6.

A. Read and rewrite the following in the plural.

A flower, this mug, that bookshelf, my furniture, bad news, a tall gentleman, a grown-up, a spoonful, his work, a naughty child, my brother’s wife, his photo, that table, this book, that knife, her scarf, the roof.

B. Read and rewrite the following in the singular.

Two matchboxes, these chairs, these rows, those mosquitoes, ten sheep, their feet, several flower shops, some passers-by, many mice, those cactuses, his trousers, these data, two spoonfuls, two postmen, naughty children, those geese, these women, those leaves, these handkerchiefs.

С. Read and rewrite in the opposite number.

l. The roof of the house is wet. 2. Both my cousins are actresses. 3. Three little mice live under the floor. 4. This knife is silver, that knife is iron. 5. This is a mosquito and that is a beetle. 6. There is a bed of flowers in front of the flower shop. 7. The children put on their scarves and warm coats. 8. Two postmen brought a large parcel. 9. This is a matchbox and that is a box of chocolates. 10. Both my friends are pilots.

Exercise 7.

A. Use the following plural nouns to complete the sentences below: trousers, feelings, scissors, jeans, goods, sights, belongings, clothes, holidays.

l. He is very unhappy. Probably, we have hurt his ... . 2. She was wearing brown ... . 3. I was asked to buy a pair of ... . 4. My brother likes to wear ... . 5. Britain needs to export more ... . 6. We walked round the city to see the ... . 7. He packed all his ... into one suitcase. 8. My ... are soaking wet. I need to change. 9. The children aren’t at school. They are on ... .

B. Use the following singular nouns to complete the sentences below: a walk, the sun, the dark, a rest, news, information, electricity, traffic, freedom, advice, help, food, water.

1. The ... is shining brightly. 2. Why don’t we go for ... . 3. Children are often scared of ... . 4. I’m tired. Let’s have ... . 5. She’s worried. She’s got bad ... . 6. I’d like some ... about the trains. 7. Do you cook by gas or ... ? 8. The street is busy. There’s so much ... . 9. He spoke about ... . 10. If you need my ... , call me. 11. I need ... with my translation. 12. The horse needed ... and ... .

C. Use the following collective nouns to complete the sentences below: police, family, crew, media, Spartak, audience, staff.

1. The ... are informed at once. 2. My … are perfectly well. 3. The ... of the ship were saved. 4. Newspapers and other ... are very important. 5. Do you think Moscow ... are the best football players? 6. He didn’t like the ... at the last night’s performance. 7. The office is closed. The ... are on holidays.

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. Мне нужно купить хлеба. 2. Где можно купить хлеба? 3. Объясните эти явления, пожалуйста. 4. Эти данные очень интересны. 5. Вечером прохожие торопятся домой. 6. Осенью гуси и утки летят на юг. 7. На их ферме есть коровы и овцы. 8. Кошки ловят мышей. 9. У нее красивые ровные зубы. 10. Чья эта одежда? 11. Полиция уже здесь. 12. Ее советы помогают. 13. Новости довольно интересны. 14. У нее есть довольно много информации для вас. 15. Отсутствие новостей – уже хорошая новость. 16. Где её одежда? – Она висит на вешалке в шифоньере.

THE POSSESSIVE CASE OF THE NOUN

Case is a grammatical category which shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence.

I. English nouns have two cases: the common case and the possessive (genitive) case. However, not all English nouns possess the category of case; there are certain nouns, mainly nouns denoting inanimate objects, which cannot be used in the possessive case.

II. The common case is unmarked, it has no inflexion. The possessive case is marked by the apostrophe s (‘s).

In writing there are two forms of the possessive case: for most nouns it is ‘s (mother’s) and for nouns ending in –s and regular plural nouns only the apostrophe (‘) (mothers’).

III. There are four variants of pronunciation of the possessive case:

[z] after vowels and voiced consonants: dog’s, Mary’s;

[s] after voiceless consonants: student’s;

[iz] after sibilants: prince’s, judge’s;

zero endings: girls’, boys’.

Note: with nouns ending in –s and forming the possessive case in two ways (Dickens’ novels, Dickens’s novels) the ending is pronounced [iz] whether the letter s is written or not.

IV. a) Irregular plural noun forming their plural by vowel change have the regular ‘s in the possessive case: women’s faces.

b) Compound nouns have –’s joined to the final component: my mother-in-law’s garden.

c) A specific feature of the English possessive case is the so-called group genitive when ‘s can be joined to a group of two nouns if such a group refers to a single idea (when two persons possess or are related to something they have in common): John and Mary’s son (but Byron’s and Shelley’s poems).

V. The main meaning of the genitive case is that of possession. It is used:

With nouns denoting persons and animals: John’s idea, the swallow’s nest.

With other nouns (denoting inanimate objects or abstract notions) the of + noun phrase is used: the legs of a table.

With nouns denoting time and distance, such as minute, moment, hour, day, week, month, year, inch, foot, mile and substantivized adverbs, such as today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc: a moment’s delay, today’s newspaper, a week’s time, a mile’s distance, yesterday’s conversation, a day’s wait.

Compare: We went for a two-mile walk. – It was two miles’ drive.  

With the names of countries and towns: Britain’s national museums, Canada’s population, Moscow’s streets.

With the names of newspapers and nouns denoting different kinds of organizations: the Guardian’s analysis, the company’s plans, the government’s policy.

With the nouns world, nation, country, city, town: the nation’s wealth, the world’s history.

With the nouns ship, boat, car: the ship’s crew.

With the nouns denoting planets: the sun’s rays, the Earth’s population.

VI. There are some cases when the noun in the possessive case is not followed by the headword. It is the so-called absolute genitive. It is used:

To avoid repetition: Our house is better than Mary’s (than Mary’s house).

After the preposition of: an old friend of my mother’s.

To denote shops such as the butcher’s, the baker’s, the grocer’s, the chemist’s or places of residence: at my uncle’s.

Note! The possessive case is not used on dedications:

The Pushkin Monument, the Kennedy Center, the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Tate Gallery.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Read the following aloud paying attention to the pronunciation of the ending of the possessive case. Underline nouns in the possessive case.

1. Jack’s clothes are too big for him. 2. Irene’s neck is long. 3. George is Alice’s friend, not mine. 3. I like Burns’s poems. 4. My sisters’ friends often come to see us. 5. As a rule there are bright pictures in children’s books. 6. I often work in my brother-in-law’s library. 7. Peter and Helen’s flat is large. 8. Aunt Julia’s husband is a doctor. 9. He slipped his arm through Flora’s. 10. Yesterday I dined at my friend’s. 11. Moscow is Russia’s capital. 12. Moscow’s theatres are among the best in the world. 13. The ship’s crew stood on deck. 14. What is the car’s number? 15. He liked to wander by the river’s bank all day. 16. We’ll have two weeks’ holiday in winter. 17. It’s about ten minutes’ walk from the hostel. 18. It’s a good hour’s walk. 19. Yesterday’s TV program was very interesting. 20. We had a still summer’s day without a cloud in the blue sky. 21. We shall soon know the Moon’s geography as well as the Earth’s. 22. He is a friend of my brother’s. 23. The room of my brother’s wife is very cosy.

Exercise 2. Make as many sentences as you can, using the table below. Mind that you can use nouns in the possessive case to denote a building, a business or a place without using such nouns as office, shop, house, etc. 

Model:  I met him at the butcher’s.

We buy

medicines

at the grocer’s

tea and coffee

at the fishmonger’s

fish and oysters

at the greengrocer’s

sugar

at the chemist’s

bread

at the stationer’s

pads and paper

at the butcher’s

parsley and garlic

at the baker’s

oranges

meat

We have our

clothes cleaned

at the hairdresser’s

hair cut

at the barber’s

teeth filled

at the cleaner’s

lunch

at the dentist’s

at McDonald’s

Exercise 3. Change the following sentences using the possessive case of the nouns according to the model:

Model: We had to wait for five minutes. - There was a five minutes’ wait.

1 .There’s only a mile to walk from here. 2. He had to wait for two hours before the manager accepted him. 3. The meeting lasted for three hours. 4. They travelled fifty miles to take part in the competition. 5. It took us a week to prepare for the performance. 6. We had to wait ten minutes. 7. It cost 10 pounds. 8. I asked her to buy an ice cream that cost 8 rubles. 9. The reporters were granted an interview with the president that lasted twenty minutes. 10. The test that we wrote last week was easier than that this week. 11. It took the scientists six months to find out the cause of the epidemic. 12. The flight lasted two hours and a half. 13. The airplane covered the distance of 10 000 miles.

Exercise 4. Replace the possessive pronouns by the possessive case of the nouns in brackets.

1. Her reign began more than fifty years ago (Queen Elizabeth II). 2. Her death shocked the world (Princess Diana). 3. Her birthday was widely celebrated in Great Britain (Queen Mother). 4. His speech impressed the audience (the Lord Mayor of London). 5. It was his best interview (the BBC reporter). 6. She was his secretary (the President of the Trade Company). 7. We liked their last film very much (Johnson and Hardy). 8. It is her dog (the lady next door). 9. Their toys were scattered all over the place (the little twins of my neighbour). 10. It was his last interview before retirement (the Minister of Foreign Affairs). 11. Her dog scared the robber (my mother-in-law). 12. Their products are always of fine quality (Johnson and Johnson).

Exercise 5. Read and translate the following sentences.

l. He had a hair’s-breadth escape. 2. They kept at arm’s length. 3. The children ate the lion’s share of ice cream. 4. From here you can get a bird’s-eye view of Moscow. 5. Don’t rely on him. He is tied to his mother’s apron strings. 6. I can still see her pretty face in my mind’s eye. 7. It’s old wives’ tale. 8. This fat cat’s supermarket brings him super profits. 9. People who don’t know him think he is a wolf in sheep’s clothing. 10. The news was not penetrating the bird’s feathers. 11. She never takes criticism personally. For her criticism is like water off a duck’s back. 12. The scientists thought that they had discovered a new element but later it proved to be nothing, but fool’s gold.

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL

MODULE IV

Task 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. Моими учителями в школе били в основном женщины. 2. В нашем городе есть много хороших магазинов для мужчин. 3. Дети — цветы жизни. 4. Работа — лучшее лекарство. 5. Многие люди сей час держат мышей, крыс, змей, поросят в качестве домашних животных. 6. Олени очень красивые животные. 7. Гуси спасли Древний Рим много лет назад. 8. В этой реке есть много рыбы. 9. Рыба вкусная? Она тебе нравится? 10. Твои часы спешат. 11. — Где мои часы? — Они на столе. 12. Овцы дают нам шерсть. 13. Зубы этой актрисы очень белые. 14. Мои ноги устали. Давай сядем. 15. Дантисты лечат наши зубы. 16. В подвале дома есть мыши. 17. Вы можете увидеть несколько быков в поле. 18. Мужчины более чувствительны (sensitive), чем женщины.

Task 2. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. Она положила папку на стол начальника (босса). 2. В сегодняшних газетах нет ничего интересного. 3. Сегодня день рождения Бориса. 4. Все устали, давайте сделаем десятиминутный перерыв. 5. Советы моих друзей не всегда полезны, б. Где ключи от машины? 7. Завтра я пойду в парикмахерскую и в химчистку. 8. Мне понравилась идея Томаса. 9. В конце урока учитель отвечает на вопросы учеников. 10. Будущее моих детей беспокоит меня. 11. Мне нравятся романы Чарльза Диккенса. 12. Имя моей младшей сестры Вера. 13. Доклады тех студентов отличные. 14. В этом магазине есть мужские рубашки. 15. Многие детские игрушки сделаны в Китае. 16. Как звали того парня? 17. Цена бензина важна для водителей. 18. — Мне нравятся песни Робби Вильямса. — А мне песни Энрике Иглесиаса. 19. Увлечение Принца Чарльза — лошади. 20. Ферма Мистера Харриса великолепна. 21. Климат земли постоянно меняется. 22. Солнечные лучи дают нам жизнь.

REVISION

MODULE IV

Exercise 1. Rewrite the following in the plural. Make all the necessary changes.

1. She is a lady. 2. Не is a gentleman. 3. Не is an honest partner. 4. She is a good translator. 5. He is an accountant. 6. It is a mouse. 7. It’s a butterfly. 8. He is a fisherman. 9. She is a Swiss. 10. It’s a swine. 11. It’s an ox. 12. That is a wild goose. 13. There is a sheep in the field. 14. There is a ship in the sea. 15. There is a mouse in the kitchen. 16. There is a Vietnamese in our group. 17. He is a passer-by. 18. It’s a forget-me-not. 19. It’s a good dictionary. 20. He is an Englishman. 21. I’m a teenager. 22. This is a good offer. 23.1 am an expert on business. 24. That man is a German. 25. This woman is a Chinese.

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of the verb.

1. «There … money in my pocket», I said to the porter. (is, are) (Hemingway) 2. I know my hair … beautiful, everybody says so. (is, are) (Hardy) 3. The works … his country, his home, his reason for being. (was, were) (Heym) 4. These white swine … not live. (does, do) (Sabatini) 5. Means … easily found. (was, were) (Thackeray) 6. This watch … a special favourite with Mr. Pickwick, having been carried about for a greater number of years than we feel called upon to state, at present. (was, were) (Dickens) 7. «Good», I said. «No one shall tell me again that fish … no sense with them.» (has, have) (Llewellyn) 8. The deer … ravaging the man’s fields. (was, were) (Twain) 9. Money … so scarce that it could fairly be said not to exist at all. (was, were) (Dreiser) 10. I was here before the gates … opened, but I was afraid to come straight to you. (was, were) (Dickens) 11. The papers … dull, the news … local and stale, and the war news … all old. (was, were) (Hemingway) 12. At Capracotta, he had told me, there … trout in the stream below the town. (was, were) (Hemingway) 13. The sugar tongs … too wide for one of her hands, and she had to use both in wielding them. (was, were) (Ch. Bronte) 14. Her hair … loose and half-falling, and she wore a nurse’s dress. (was, were) (Hemingway) 15. And the baggage … apparatus and appliances. (contain, contains) (Wells) 16. The china … good, of a delicate pattern. (was, were) (Dreiser) 17. The nurse’s wages … good. (was, were) (Collins)

Exercise 3. Use – ‘s, -s’, –’.

1. We met at Mr. Harris house. 2. I need Bess phone number. 3. My sister husband is a broker. 4. We’ll have a children party next week. 5. I’ll spend the weekend at my friends house. 6. They need a month time to finish the project. 7. This is a women shop. 8. She works in a girls school. 9. Columbus discovery of America was a historic event. 10. Do you remember Pythagoras Theorem? 11. «Alice Adventures in Wonderland» was written by Lewis Carroll. 12. From the radio came Elvis voice. 13. My brother is now reading «Gulliver Travels». 14. It’s teenagers style. 15. I work at Mr. Phillips office. 16. My grandparents house is very old.

Exercise 4. Use the possessive case where possible.

1. The cover of this dictionary is glossy. 2. This video cassette belongs to Liz. 3. We heard the sound of the plane. 4. Our students study the History of the English language. 5. The roof of the house was red. 6. The dresses of the girls were very pretty. 7. The future of a girl depends on her character and good luck. 8. The prices of the houses go up and up. 9. I borrowed a mobile phone from Denis. 10. My seat was at the end of the hall. 11. This theatre is in the centre of the city. 12. He knows much about the history of Russia. 13. We need some bread. Let’s go to the shop of a baker. 14. A rest for an hour will do you good. 15. The news we got yesterday was unbelievable.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences.

1. Давид провел две недели в Ярмуте у мистера Пеготти. 2. Уезжая в Ярмут, мальчик ничего не знал о предполагаемом (intended) браке своей матери. 3. После путешествия, которое длилось несколько часов, Пеготти с Давидом прибыли в Ярмут. 4. Приближаясь к дому мистера Пеготти, Давид увидел детскую фигурку, стоявшую на пороге. 5. Дядя Хэма и Эмили усыновил их, когда они были детьми. 6. Пеготти с гордостью говорила о доброте своего брата. 7. Двухнедельное пребывание в Ярмуте доставило Давиду большое удовольствие. 8. В присутствии мужа миссис Копперфильд боялась приласкать своего сына. 9. После минутной нерешительности Давид подошел к миссис Копперфильд и поцеловал ее. 10. После смерти жены мистер Мердстон послал Давида в Лондон, где мальчик должен был работать в торговом доме (warehouse) Мердстона и Гринби.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences.

1. Спасибо за хороший совет. 2. Какая сегодня прекрасная погода! 3. Мне очень жаль, но у меня плохие новости. 4. Я думаю, что только работа может ему помочь. 5. Это трудная работа. 6. Он любит давать советы своим друзьям. 7. Я не люблю чай с лимоном. 8. На завтрак у меня яйцо и чашка кофе. 9. Я люблю бутерброды с ветчиной и сыром. 10. Волосы у нее черные, а глаза голубые. 11. Эти деньги не мои, я не могу их взять. 12. В плохую погоду я не выхожу. 13. Его знания отличаются глубиной и системностью.14. Его успехи в английском потрясающие!

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE IV

Choose the right form

1. When he was going through a narrow passage between two … , he heard … .

A merrys-go-round, laugh,

B merry-go-rounds, a laugh,

C merry-goes-round, laughter

D merry-goes-rounds, a laughter,

2. These were his neighbours, two … girls.

A twenty-years old

B twenty-year old’s

C twenty-year’s old

D twenty-year old

3. They decided to open a season. Though it was a fashionable party and the walls were decorated with … and … , the majority of the guests … wearing jeans and T-shirts.

A lilies-of-the-valley, forget-me-nots, were

B lily-of-the-valleys, forget-me-nots, were

C lilies-of-the-valley, forgets-me-not, was

D lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-nots, was

4. The … wife was wearing a plain white dress with a string of pearls that cost more than my … salary.

A governor’s-general, two years’

B governor-general’s, two years’

C governor-general, two years

D governor’s-general’s, two-year

5. The proceeds of the campaign … been spent on the construction of the Children’s Care Centre. Roadworks … being held there to build a new … crossing.

A has, are, pedestrian’s

B have, are, pedestrian

C has, is, pedestrians

D have, is, pedestrians’

6. The criteria … too vague. If there were a sharper … to make our choice, I would be happy.

A is, criterion

B are, criterion

C is, criteria

D are, criteria

7. Measles … a dangerous disease and a lot of children catch … at an early age.

A is, them

B is, it

C are, them

D are, it

8. This … the most effective means of production and … can be adjusted to your business in … time.

A is, it, two month’s

B are, they, a two-months

C is, they, two-month

D is, it, two months’

9. The Azores … are dark blue species that require … cultivation in temperate regions.

A forget-me-nots, greenhouse

B forgets-me-nots, greenhouse’s

C forget-me-not, greenhouse

D forgets-me-not, greenhouse’s

10. Reliable … about everyday clothing from the past … hard to obtain.

A evidences, are

B evidence, is

C evidences, is

D evidence, are

11. … depths are usually much greater than … depths because of … low density.

A Snow, rain, snow

B Snow’s, rain’s, snow’s

C Snow, rain, snow’s

D Snow’s, rain, snow’s

12. … are tiny white bells hanging from a single erect stem about 30 cm tall with the … as a red berry.

A Lilies-of-the-valley, fruit

B Lilies-of-the-valley, fruits

C Lily-of-the-valleys, fruit

D Lily-of-the-valleys, fruits

13. The … was shaky and he decided to go to the secondhand … store.

A leg’s table, furniture’s

B leg of the table, furniture’s

C leg of the table, furniture

D leg’s table, furniture

14. One hundred pounds … a large sum for her and she decided to put the money on her … account.

A was, savings

B was, saving’s

C were, savings

D were, saving’s

15. This is the … cloakroom, and that one is for … .

A ladies’, gentlemen’s

B lady’s, gentlemen’s

C ladies’, gentlemen

D lady, gentlemen

16. The … at the … talks made a deep influence on everybody.

A Minister of Foreign Trade’s speech, peace’s

B Minister’s of Foreign Trade speech, peace

C Minister of Foreign Trade’s speech, peaceful

D Minister of Foreign Trade’s speech, peace

17. The official … is a table containing the holy days, … and festivals of the church.

A Christian church calendar, saints’ days

B Christian’s church calendar, saint days

C Christian church’s calendar, saint’s days

D Christian’s church’s calendar, saints’ days

18. The most beautiful … of carved jade in the form of ornamental pieces, such as vases, bowls, tablets, and statues, many of which are now … , were made in China.

A specimen, museum pieces

B specimens, museum pieces

C specimen, museum’s pieces

D specimens, museum’s pieces

19. At its height in the early 1900s, the British Empire included over 20 … of the … land area and more than 400 … people.

A percents, world, million

B percent, world’s, millions

C percent, world’s, million

D percents, worlds’, million

20. The … history goes back to 1808.

A state’s newspaper’s

B state’s newspaper

C state newspaper’s

D state newspapers’

21. Both my … work in a bank which is situated on the … of town.

А brothers-in-law, outskirts;

B brother’s-in-law, outskirts

C brothers-in-law, outskirt

D brothers-in-law, outskirt’s

22. My … family is not very large.

A sister-in-law

B sister-in-law’s

C sister’s-in-law

D sisters-in-law

23. My … favourite TV series … ‘Santa Barbara’.

A grandmother, is

B grandmother’s, are

C grandmother’s, is

D grandmother, are

24. Mathematics ... hard. I don’t understand it.

A are

B is

C was

D were

25. Books differ from periodicals and newspapers because they are not published on a strict … schedule.

A days, weeks, or months

B day, week, or month

C day’s, week’s, or month’s

D daily, weekly, or monthly

26. … scissors, owing to the special warning of Mother’s, … kept out of … reach.

A This, were, John’s

B Those, is, John

C These, were, John’s

D That, is, John

27. Don’t rely on him. He is tied to his … strings.

A mother’s apron

B mother’s apron

C mother’s apron

D mother apron

28. Here … the pocket money my uncle has sent me today. … will be enough to settle all my debts.

A are, It

B is, They

C is, It

D are, They

29. The latest news from the Middle East countries … disturbing. A close-up camera showed a man running somewhere. His face was bruised and his clothes … torn.

A was, was

B were, were

C was, were

D were, was

30. The premises … big enough, but the inspection took them a lot of … , and they had to drive home at … .

A was, time, dusks

B were, times, a dusk

C was, times, dusk

D were, time, dusk

31. The price for … has increased by ten … in the last quarter. Lodgings … very expensive nowadays.

A an accommodation, per cent, is

B accommodation, per cent, are

C accommodations, per cents, is

D accommodation, per cents, are

32. That species of birds … migrant and … found in Africa in winter. Our surroundings … too severe for such birds and they leave … early in September.

A is, is, are, them

B are, are, are, them

C is, is, is, it

D are, are, is, it

33. Where … Nick’s pyjamas? - … on the bed.

A is, It is

B are, They are

C is, They are

D are, It is

34. Bread and cheese … his usual meal and he has been living on … for two months.

A was, them

B are, it

C is, it

D is, them

35. His … decreased because his salary was cut by 7 … .

A earnings, per cent

B earnings, per cents

C earning, per cents

D earning, percentage

36. The producer presented his new … film. The show took … time.

A two-series, three hour’s

B two-seria, three hours

C two-series, three hours’

D two-series’, three hour’s

37. The story of the magnificent … castle the guide told us about was exciting.

A five-centuries-old

B five-century’s-old

C five-century-old

D five-century-old’s

38. This is the … cloakroom, and that one is for … .

A ladies’, gentlemen’s

B lady’s, gentlemen’s

C ladies’, gentlemen

D lady, gentlemen

39. I wish we were at … house but they ordered that we stay here.

A Carter’s

B the Carters’

C the Carter’s

D Carter

40. If I could only have one flower, I would have … , the small ones that grow wild and smell so nice.

A lilies-of-the-valley

B lily-of-the-valleys

C lily’s-of-the-valley

D lilies-of-the-valley

TOTAL: 40 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749483&tab=3 

MODULE V

THE QUANTIFIERS

THE NUMERALS

1. The numeral is a part of speech which denotes number or the order of things or persons in succession.

Accordingly numerals fall into two groups: cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).

Cardinals

1 one

2 two

3 three

4 four

5 five

6 six

7 seven

8 eight

9 nine

10 ten

11 eleven

12 twelve

13 thirteen

14 fourteen

15 fifteen

16 sixteen

17 seventeen

18 eighteen

19 nineteen

20 twenty

21 twenty-one

30 thirty

40 forty

50 fifty

60 sixty

70 seventy

80 eighty

90 ninety

100 one (a) hundred

101 one (a) hundred and one

1,000 one (a) thousand

1,001 one (a) thousand and one

100,000 one hundred thousand

1,000,000 one million

1,000,001 one million and one

Ordinals

1st first

2nd second

3rd third

4th fourth

5th fifth

6th sixth

7th seventh

8th eighth

9th ninth

10th tenth

11th eleventh

12th twelfth

13th thirteenth

14th fourteenth

15 fifteenth

16th sixteenth

17th seventeenth

18th eighteenth

19th nineteenth

20th twentieth

21st twenty-first

30th thirtieth

40th fortieth

50th fiftieth

60th sixtieth

70th seventieth

80th eightieth

90th ninetieth

100th one hundredth

101st one hundred and first

1,000th one thousandth

1,001st one thousand and first

100,000th one hundred thousandth

1,000,000th one millionth

1,000,001st one million and first

2. The cardinals

Among the cardinals there are simple, derived and compound words.

The cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple; those from thirteen to nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix –teen; the cardinals denoting tens are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix –ty.

The cardinals from twenty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over hundred are compounds. In cardinals consisting of tens and units the two words are hyphenated.

In cardinals including hundreds and thousands the word denoting units and tens are joined to those denoting hundreds, thousands by means of the conjunction and:

103 – one hundred and three;

225 – two hundred and twenty-five;

3038 – three thousand and thirty-eight;

9651 – nine thousand six hundred and fifty-one.

The words for common fractions are also composite. They are formed from cardinals denoting the numerator and ordinals denoting the denominator. If the numerator is a numeral higher than one, the ordinal in the denominator takes the plural form. The numerator and the denominator may be joined by means of the hyphen or without it:

1/3 – one-third (one third);

2/7 – two-sevenths (two sevenths).

In mixed numbers the numerals denoting fractions are joined to the numerals denoting whole numbers by means of the conjunction and:

3 1/5 – three and one-fifth;

20 3/8 – twenty and three-eighths.

In decimal fractions the numerals denoting fractions are joined to those denoting whole numbers by means of the words point or decimal:

0.5 – zero point (decimal) five;

2.3 – two point (decimal) three;

0.005 – zero point (decimal) zero zero five.

3. The ordinals

Among the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.

The simple ordinals are first, second and third.

The derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals by means of the suffix –th: Four – fourth; ten – tenth; twenty – twentieth.

Before the suffix –th the final y is replaced by –ie: Thirty – thirtieth.

The compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case only the last component of the compound numeral has the form of the ordinal:

twenty-first; forty-second; one hundred and first.

The numerals ten, hundred, thousand do not have plural forms:

four thousand people.

But the corresponding homonymous nouns ten (десяток), hundred (сотня), thousand (тысяча) do:

to count in tens; hundreds of people; thousands of birds.

Nouns premodified by ordinals are used with the definite article:

the third month, the first men on the moon.

When used with the indefinite article, they lose their numerical meaning and acquire that of a pronoun (another, one more):

A second man entered, then a third. – Вошёл ещё один человек, потом ещё.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Give the right form of the figures in brackets in letters.

1. My birthday is on ... of ... . 2. They got flat (40) on (5) floor in house (123). 3. Find file (11) and correct (2) sentence. 4. Catherine (2) put a monument to Peter (1) in St. Petersburg. 5. – What’s the date today? – It’s ... of ... today. 6. Read (3) paragraph. 7. My son is (21) today. 8. They are celebrating their (15) anniversary on 15 Saturday. 9. Take (1) turning to the right. 10. You’ll find text (12) on (30) page. 11. We live on (6) floor. 12. Is (2) o’clock all right with you? 13. There are more than (200) languages spoken in Nigeria. 14. A (1000) is a (1000) years. 15. In the jungle we were attacked by (1 000 000) of mosquitoes. 16. If you need money badly, we can give you a loan of (200) dollars. 17. Will you give me (2) chance? 18. (2) song will certainly become a hit. 19. Lie was said to have salted away (4 000 000) dollars. 20. There are (300) kinds of macaroni in Italy. 21. Statistics say that more than (4 000 000) adults in Britain have trouble with reading and writing.

Exercise 2.  How do you say these numbers in English? Write your answers after each one.

462;   2 l/2;  2,345; 6.75;  0.25;  3¾ ;1,250,000; 10.04; 47 %; 10 September; 3 July; 602 477 (phone number); -5º Centigrade; in 1903;  in 2001;  0.7.

Exercise 3. Insert the right article if necessary.

1. Today in court we are listening to  ...  case 243. 2. ... second part of the book was much more interesting than ... first one. 3. ... participle one is used for building up progressive tenses. 4. ... second participle is used to sharp. 6. The planes came again for ... second attack. 7. Let’s regard it as ... first step, just ... beginning. 8. It was ... first-night and the actors were nervous. 9. ... exercise 27 begins at ... page 44. 10. ... year passed, then ... second, and ... third, but there was still no news. 11. They agreed to meet on ... Fifth Avenue near ... building No. 112. 12. ... two years in Africa taught him a lot. 13. ... flat 55 is on ... fifth floor. 14. The room was at ... sixes and sevens. 15. This style was in fashion in ... eighties. 16. It was ... fifty-fifty deal. 17. She was ... third-year medical student.

Exercise 4. Write answers to these problems.

1. 23 and 36 is ... . 2. 24 times 8 is .... 3. 80 minus 20 is  ... . 4. 65 divided by 13 is ... . 5. Add 10 and 6, multiply by 8, then subtract 40 and divide by 11. What have you got left? 6. Divide 33 by 11, multiply by 7 and subtract 16. What number is left?

Exercise 5. Answer these questions. Write your answers in words.

1. When were you born? 2. How much do you weigh? 3. What is the number of the flat or the house where you live?  4. Is that an odd or an even number? 5. What is the approximate population of your town? 6. What is the approximate population of your country? 7. What is the normal temperature of a healthy person? 8. How many kilometers are there in a mile? 9. How many years are there in a millennium?

Exercise 6. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type.

1. She is a second cousin of Mark’s father. 2. He was quite certain she had no need or desire to meet with him a second time. 3. Edvina returned to her book without giving her mother a second glance or a second thought. 4. It’s said that everything goes in threes. 5. And then, to be a second wife was so much more difficult than to be a first. 6. I’m glad they’ve gone to Venice for a second honeymoon. 7. He was heavily defeated in a second round of local elections. 8. In the bookshop to his delight Maxim spotted a copy of «The Young Lions» by Irwin Shaw, his favourite writer. It was a first edition, published in 1948. 9. Over the years I have acquired a sixth sense about my mother’s mood. 10. Is it possible to find a second job? 11. A third clerk left her desk and prepared to leave. 12. Without a second thought Blackie said urgently, «I have a solution, Emma! Marry me!» 13. The boy slopped through the ledge on all fours. 14. I think it’s better this way, that we go out in twos and threes – less noticeable, for one thing. 15. I was worried. Everything seemed to be at sixes and sevens. 16. I began, as they say, to put two and two together. 17. A first class college offers you the highest standards of educating. 18. Elevenses is a light snack that you have in the middle of the morning.

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. Дом 92 на этой улице. 2. Третья комната ваша. 3. Мой брат родился 15 мая 1985 года, 4. Он приезжает 19 сентября. 5. Откройте книгу на странице 25. 6. Отсчитайте две страницы и на третьей начинайте писать. 7. Мы сделали упражнение 7 на странице 24. 8. Эта книга стоит 120 рублей. 9. Она встает в половине восьмого. 10. Я буду свободна после шестого урока. 11. Кошка поймала двух мышей. 12. Ее номер телефона- 231 657. 13. Номер ее комнаты в отеле - 503. 14. Ростов был основан в 1749 г. 15. Миллионы людей посмотрели фильм «Гарри Поттер».

MUCH, MANY, LITTLE, A LITTLE, FEW, A FEW

Much means «много», little means «мало». They are used with uncountable nouns: much time, much effort, little energy, little money.

Many means «много», few means «мало». They are used with plural countable nouns: many friends, many people, few cars, few countries.

A lot of, lots of, plenty of are used as the synonyms of many and much with uncountable and countable nouns: a lot of time, a lot of people, lots of books, lots of energy, plenty of money, plenty of ideas.

We use much and many mainly in negative sentences and questions:

We didn’t spend much money.

Have you got many friends?

In positive sentences it is better to use a lot of. Much is especially unusual in positive sentences:

We spent a lot of time.

There has been a lot of rain recently.

But we use too much and too many in positive sentences:

There’s too much sugar in this tea.

Too many people were present at the lecture.

Little and few have negative meaning – not many, not much, not enough:

We can’t go skiing today. There’s little snow.

He was a very good man. There are few like him in the world today.

A few means «несколько», a little means «немного некоторое количество», they have positive meaning – some, a small amount or a small number:

We have a little time. Let’s take a walk in the garden.

He left after a few moments.

But ‘only a little’ and ‘only a few’ have a negative meaning:

Hurry up! We’ve only got a little time.

The village was very small. There were only a few houses.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Use indefinite pronouns «much», «many», «little», «few» in the right form.

1. This season we have had ... fruit than last year. 2. There is ... hope that he’ll keep his promise. He never does. 3. At the weekends there are ... people in the city because ... of them prefer to go to the country. 4. Cats eat ... than dogs. 5. Ask Peter, I think he knows ... about it. 6. This time you have made ... misprints, you are making progress. 7. Come here, there’s ... room and ... noise. 8. In midsummer there is ... water in the pond and you can swim. 9. If you spend your holiday in Greece you’ll get ... sunshine. 10. This time you’ve got ... letters, Mr. Ford. Next time you’ll have ... . 11. … people know it, and still ... want to learn it because it’s dull. 12. Then ... settlers came and stayed, and then still ... came and built their houses and soon there appeared a village. 13. ... people have so ... wisdom. 14. We saw ... and ... of him and soon we forgot about him.

Exercise 2. Choose between much and many, (a) little and (a) few.

1. Nowadays he was very busy and he saw ... of his old friends. 2. I suggested that he should get ... grapes and some bread. 3. Aunt Florrie had ... money while none of the other family had inherited as ... as a pound. 4. He was so happily absorbed in the building of his house that events outside it affected him ... . 5. My sister spends so ... money on her clothes that she has none left for holidays. 6. My dear, I’m afraid I have not ... news to convey but still there are ... things I should like to add. 7. I began to miss London: it was not so ... that I had ... close friends there, for I have ... friends, but I missed variety. 8. Tom has eaten so ... that he can’t move. 9. Adeline had slept ... last night and she had a headache. 10. She was glad to see me because I was English and she knew ... English people. 11. My engagements were ... and I was glad to accept the invitation. 12. He knew he was not a good teacher, and he intended to do ... of that. 13. At the bar ... men were discussing the coming elections in loud barking tones. 14. Virginia returned to England at the moment when ... were leaving it. 15. I have so ... things to do that I don’t know which to do first. 16. Last week there was so ... rain that I was not able to go out.

Exercise 3. Make the following sentences affirmative and replace many and much by suitable expressions:

l. Ann had not had many visitors lately. 2. He didn’t earn much money and lived in the country. 3. I drove along the edge of the sea. There were not many people about. 4. Were there many things that your mother minded your doing? 5. He hasn’t much work to do this afternoon. 6. Dick doesn’t smoke much. 7. There isn’t much time to catch the train. 8. I didn’t get much to eat when I had dinner with the Greens. 9. I haven’t much time for watching TV. 10. My father didn’t read many books on economics.

Exercise 4. Match the following English and Russian proverbs. Learn them by heart.

English

Russian

  1.  Many men, many minds.
  1.  Курочка по зёрнышку клюёт.
  1.  Many a little makes a mickle.
  1.  Злые языки, что меч острый.
  1.  Many a true word is spoken in jest.
  1.  В каждой шутке есть доля правды.
  1.  Many words cut more than swords.
  1.  Тише едешь – дальше будешь.
  1.  Many a fine dish has nothing on it.
  1.  У семи нянек дитя без глазу.
  1.  Many commanders sink the ship.
  1.  Сколько человек ни имеет, ему всё мало.
  1.  Many hands make light work.
  1.  Сколько голов, столько умов.
  1.  Much of a muchness
  1.  Малая искра, да великий пламень родит.
  1.  Much will have more.
  1.  Дружно не грузно, а врозь хоть брось.
  1.  Little and often fill the purse.
  1.  По капельке – море, по былинке – стог.
  1.  Little by little and bit by bit.
  1.  Внешность обманчива.
  1.  Little chips light great fires.
  1.  Одного поля ягода.

Exercise 5. Ask questions beginning with How many or How much.

1. I’ve got some newspapers. 2. There are some photos here. 3. I’ve got some stamps. 4. I’m sure she has some money. 5. She’s got some mistakes in her test. 6. She’s got some letters from her friend lately. 7. There are some English books in the library. 8. There isn’t enough bread at home. 9. Will you buy some coffee on the way home? 10.1 want some cheese on my sandwich.

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with many, much, a lot, a lot of.

l. Do you drink … tea? 2. I’ve got ... English books at home. 3. There isn’t ... milk in the refrigerator. 4. It costs … money to travel around the world. 5. I haven’t got … time now. 6. How ... foreign languages can you speak? 7. They didn’t ask me … questions. 8. There was ... food at the party but I didn’t eat … . 9. We saw ... interesting things in the museum. 10. Ask George, he knows ... about history. 11. We went on a holiday that didn’t cost ... . 12. There aren’t … old buildings in this town.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions using little, a little, few, a few. 

l. Have you got any money to spend? 2. Do you like any sugar with your coffee? 3. Did he ask you any questions? 4. Have we got any milk at home? 5. Does your friend speak English? 6. Do you know many people here? 7. Would you like some soup? 8. Does she make many mistakes? 9. Do you write many letters as a rule? 10. Are there many warm days in November? 11. Is there much rain in summer? 12. Is there much snow in winter? 13. Is there much time before the lesson begins? 14. Are there many hotels in our town?

Exercise 8. Put in little, a little, few, a few in the following sentences.

1. There was ... food in the refrigerator, it was nearly empty. 2. When did you see Sara? - … days ago. 3. He is lazy. He does … work. 4. They are not rich, but they’ve got ... money. 5. Last night I went to the restaurant with … friends. 6. I can’t decide now. I need ... time to think about it. 7. He isn’t famous. Very … people have heard about him.

Exercise 9. Rewrite the following sentences using few, a few, little, a little, very little.

Model: There isn’t much water left in the bottle. - There is very little water left in the bottle.

1. There is some, but not much, water in the bottle. 2. I haven’t got many English books at home. 3. She has a small number of books. 4. A small number of the children went for a walk. 5. Not many Russian people speak Spanish. 6. She doesn’t spend much money on her clothes. 7. Will you have some more coffee? 8. We haven’t got many friends here. 9. I don’t have much time for watching TV now. 10. I’d like some more ice cream. 11. I’ll buy some more of these cakes.

Exercise 10. Translate into English. Mind the use of quantifiers.

1. Сколько ящиков готово к отгрузке? 2. Вы едите много фруктов? 3. Сколько вы заплатили за ваш галстук? 4. У вас много работы сегодня? 5. Вы ведь читали много книг по этой проблеме? 6. Он много прочитал книг по-английски. 7 Я не могу пойти с вами в кино, так как у меня много дел по дому. 8. Поспешите! У нас мало времени. 9. Я потратил много денег на книги. Но немного у меня осталось. 10. Многое написано на эту тему. 11. Я получил от него немало полезных сведений о жизни за рубежом. 12. У меня не очень много друзей. Но я всегда могу на них положиться. 13. Вы сделали очень мало ошибок в сочинении. 14. Вчера было холодно и ветрено, поэтому в парке было мало детей. 15. В этой библиотеке мало французских книг.

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL 

MODULE V

Task 1. Insert few, little, a few, a little.

1. My mother and I are planning to go to the country for … days. (Dreiser) 2. It was a cold, windy evening and there were … people in the park. 3. … words that I have to add to what I have written, are soon penned. (Dickens) 4. We needn’t take a porter. We have ... luggage. 5. When you’ve wanted something very badly and it comes at last, it is somehow ... frightening. (Maugham) 6. ... I have to say can be said in ... minutes. 7. I am commonly a man of ... words. (Dickens) 8. One morning, when Rose was alone in the breakfast-parlour, Harry Maylie entered; and, with some hesitation, begged permission to speak with her for ... moments. (Dickens) 9. What ... light there was came from one small window. (Priestley) 10. He paused, wishing he had not mentioned that fact. It was a slip of the tongue, one of ... he ever made, due to the peculiar pressure of the situation. (Dreiser) 11. Oh, I know there’s no danger, but I’m ... frightened all the same. (Greene) 12. Well, for instance, why don’t you tell me about your sister? She always sounds fascinating, from ... I hear, but I’ve no real idea what she’s like. (Hansford Johnson) 13. The old man replied that there were ... few grown persons as trustworthy or as careful as she [Nell]. (Dickens) 14. Harriet closed her coat quickly and walked ... faster. (Shaw) 15. We can’t disguise from ourselves that there’s ... hope. (Greene) 16. He accepted willingly my invitation to remain for ... days in my apartment. (Maugham) 17. I seem to have forgotten ... I ever knew. (Conan Doyle) 18. He tried to orient himself by the stars; but it was a cloudy night and ... stars that were visible did not announce any constellation that he could recognize. (Murdoch) 19. Carrie expostulated, begged, was very angry, even wept ... , and then suddenly capitulated. (Buck) 20. Lufkin’s tastes were austere. He spent ... on himself. (Snow) 21. I see very ... women; but those are women of rank. (James) 22. Mary offered to lend ... she had. (E. Bronte) 23. I’ve travelled ... , but not enough. (Hansford Johnson) 24. Surely, during ... hours he might pass in the cottage it would be easy for her to keep out of his way. (Marryat) 25. She respected him mightily but gave him very ... thought. (Buck) 26. When the winter came he suffered a good deal from cold and hunger, and often had to go to bed without any supper but ... dried pears or some hard nuts. (Wilde) 27. He was one of ... men of science who never terrified me, probably because he never behaved like a doctor. (Lee)

Task 2. Read and literally translate. Insert articles where necessary.

1. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in a position to do anything for him; another was afraid; ... third was calculating eagerly to drive a hard bargain; ... fourth was too deliberate, anxious to have much time. (Dreiser) 2. Two people would have to hold the chair, and ... third would help him up on it, and ... fourth would hand him a nail, and ... fifth would pass him up the hammer. (Jerome K. Jerome) 3. Professor Earle Fox ignored for ... second time a buzzing signal from the secretary in the adjoining office. (Wilson) 4. One evening little Hans was sitting by his fireside when a loud rap came at the door. At first he thought it was merely the storm. But ... second rap came, then ... third. (Wilde) 5. Mr. Pickwick was perfectly aware that a tree is a very dangerous neighbour in a thunderstorm. He had a tree on his right, a tree on his left, ... third before him, and ... fourth behind. (Dickens) 6. Take care, Caroline. I’ve proposed twice now. I shall not propose ... third time. (Maugham)

REVISION

MODULE V

Exercise 1. Read the following dates.

  1.   1901, 1046, 1534, 1941, 1812, 843 ВС, 2003.
  2.   July 12, January 1, December 25, October 14.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with cardinal or ordinal numerals.  

1. ... books, ... book (5). 2. ... days, ... of April (12). 3……sentences, sentence ... (12). 4. Exercise ... , ... exercise (4). 5 ……years, ... year (8). 6. Room ... , ... room (20). 7. ... girl, ... girl (1). 8. ... weeks, ... week (3). 9. …..-storey house, ... floor (2). 10. Page ….., ... page (22).

Exercise 3. Write the following dates in English.

12 января  1993 г.; 23 марта 1998 г.; 31 марта 2000 г.; 25 мая 1999 г.; 22 сентября 2002 г.; 20 августа 1950 г.; 21 декабря 1995 г.; 11 октября 2003 г.

Exercise 4. Translate the following into English.

1. Я родился 31 декабря, так что это двойной праздник для меня. 2. Ум хорошо, а два лучше. 3. Конференц-зал находится на четвертом этаже. 4. Школа №1236 находится на 15-й Парковой улице. 5. Дело номер 587 слушается в шестой комнате. 6. Седьмая часть прибыли этой фирмы идет на благотворительность. 7. — Как насчет второй чашечки кофе? — Спасибо, одной достаточно. 8. Он сделал вторую, третью попытку, и лишь четвертая увенчалась успехом. 9. У них большая семья. Вторая машина не помешала бы. 10. В гараже две машины. Одна папина, а вторая моего старшего брата. 11. Александр окончил школу в 2001 году. 12. Кто говорит, что третий лишний? Наоборот, бог троицу любит. 13. Сейчас я перечитываю «Тысячу и одну ночь». 14. Население этого города — семь миллионов человек. 15. Первая любовь не забывается. 16. Они встретились на премьере. 17. Давай устроим чай на двоих, хорошо? 18. Книгами А. Кристи зачитываются миллионы. 19. Многим нравятся фильмы шестидесятых. 20. Ему было где-то ближе к пятидесяти. 21. Мои друзья живут на Третьей улице Строителей. 22. Дети пробрались через изгородь на четвереньках. 23. Вода покрывает четыре пятых земной поверхности. 24. В Ватикане 11 500 комнат. 25. В республике Сан-Марино живет всего 20 000 жителей.

Exercise 5. Translate the following into English.

1. Очень многие старики живут одиноко. 2. У него слишком много работы сегодня. 3. На следующей неделе у него будет меньше работы? 4. Боюсь, что не смогу сделать много, у меня очень мало времени. 5. Он положил в чай много сахара и налил совсем мало молока. Мне очень понравился этот его чай. 6. В нашем классе много девочек, но совсем мало мальчиков. 7. Если вы уделите мне немного времени, у меня есть несколько предложений. 8. Он так старался помочь, что делал больше вреда, чем пользы. 9. Ты пропустил несколько занятий и очень мало продвигаешься в учебе. 10. Здесь меньше деревьев, чем в парке. 11. Они проводят очень много времени вместе. 12. Эта машина потребляет меньше горючего (fuel). 13. У него куча денег, но очень мало друзей. 14. Он требовал массу внимания. 15. Не хотите ли несколько яблок? 16. Очень немного людей могут жить на такие небольшие деньги. 17. Она всегда покупает массу продуктов перед Днем Благодарения.

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE V

Choose the right form

1. Did you read ... English books at school?

A some

B many

C much

D none

2. I’ve made ... mistakes now than I made last time.

A few

B a few

C fewer

D less

3. Put ... sugar into your tea.

A some

B any

C none

D not any

4. Do you like ... milk with your tea?

A any

B some

C many

D a few

5. She spoke to ... person at the party.

A few

B a few

C every

D many

6. I hope I’ve got ... mistakes in my test today.

A little

B less

C fewer

D fewest

7. This time she has ... mistakes in her test.

A little

B less

C fewer

D fewest

8. I have ... time, I can wait.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

9. Would you mind waiting ... minutes?

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

10. My friends tell me that professors are people who think a lot, but say ... .

A little

B some

C a few

D few

11. You won’t be a good teacher. You’ve got … patience with children.  

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

12. She doesn’t speak much Russian. Only … words.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

13. Would you like some tea? Yes, but only … .

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

14. I was born on (25) of January, 1997.

A the twenty-fifth of January, ninety-seven

B the twenty-fifth of January, nineteen ninety-seven

C the twenty-five of January, nineteen ninety-seven

D the twentieth-fifth of January, nineteen ninety-seventh

15. I have only … books on this subject.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

16. We’ve only got ... time, we may miss the train.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

17. We didn’t have any money but you had … .

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

18. This city doesn’t have a lot of sights so … tourists come here.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

19. He has earned so ... money that he has decided to help the poor.

A much

B little

C few

D many

20. Helen had to pay extra at the airport because she had too ... luggage.

A much

B little

C few

D many

21. I don’t go swimming very ... nowadays.

A much

B a little

C few

D many

22. The government is going to provide ... houses for homeless people.

A much

B more

C most

D least

23. I suppose people are spending now ... money than they used to.

A much

B more

C many

D fewer

24. Was it exciting buying a car? - Well, it was a bit of a problem because I didn’t have ... money to spend.

A much

B most

C many

D few

25. ... marriages end in divorce these days.

A many

B much

C few

D a few

26. I’m ... interested in languages than in mathematics.

A little

B less

C few

D a few

27. I think he was lonely because he had ... friends and none of his neighbours ever spoke to him.

A few

B a few

C many

D much

28. I think that we are not making as ... profit as we should do.

A much

B many

C little

D few

29. There are … of tourists visiting our town in summer.

A many

B a lot

C few

D little

30. His theory is very difficult: very … people can understand it.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

31. There was … traffic so the journey didn’t take very long.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

32. Have you ever been to Spain? - Yes, I’ve been there … times.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

33. She is very busy today. She has … free time.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

34. Much was heard of the book but only ... could read it.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

35. There isn’t … space in the room. It’s stuffed with furniture.

A many

B much

C few

D little

36. They got flat (15) on (5) floor in that house.

Afifteen, the fifth

B fifteenth, fifth

C the fifteenth, five

D the fifteenth, the fifth

37. ... people go to the cinema these days. They prefer to see films at home.

A fewer

B less

C little

D the least

38. ... action happens, but the subtle quality of the ... events and, more crucially, the characters’ feelings about them form the essence of the story.

A Few, few

B Little, little

C Few, little

D Little, few

39. Only ... nations in the world export diamonds with South Africa and Russia the biggest importers, while others are far behind them.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

40. He set ... to one side, disassociating himself from what was going forward, watching the others running calmly.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

41. It took him … more years to surpass many outstanding masters in composition as well.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

42. Find exercise (9) and correct (2) sentence.

A the ninth, two

B nine, the second

C ninth, two

D the ninth, the second

43. I’ve got … friends, so I’m not lonely.

A little

B a little

C few

D a few

TOTAL: 43 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749483&tab=3

  http://www.native-english.ru/exercises/someany 

MODULE VI

THE PRONOUNS

TYPES OF THE PRONOUNS

The pronoun is a part of speech which points out subjects and their qualities without naming them. In modern English all pronouns can be classified into the following groups: personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns, negative pronouns, defining pronouns, reciprocal pronouns, interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, conjunctive pronouns.

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns have the grammatical categories of person, case, number and (in the third person singular) gender.

The personal pronouns have two cases: the nominative case (I, he, she, it, we, you, they) and the objective case (me, him, her, it, us, you, them)

The personal pronouns have two numbers: singular (I, he, she, it) and plural (we, they). The second-person pronoun you is both singular and plural.

The pronouns of the third person singular he, she, it distinguish gender. He is used to refer to male beings (man, uncle, boy), she is used to refer to female beings (woman, mother, girl), it is used to refer to inanimate things (house, tree, cup).

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns have the same grammatical categories of person, number and gender as personal pronouns. They have two forms: dependent form (my, his, her, its, our, your, their) and absolute form (mine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs). The dependent form is used when the possessive pronoun comes before the noun; the absolute form is used when the pronoun doesn’t modify any noun:

This is my book. The book is mine.

Possessive pronouns are used in English with reference to parts of the body, personal belongings. In this case they are not translated into Russian:

She opened her eyes. -  Она открыла глаза.

Reflexive and emphatic pronouns

Reflexive and emphatic pronouns have the categories of person, number and gender in the third person singular.

Singular

Plural

1st person

myself

ourselves

2nd person

yourself

Yourselves

3rd person

himself

herself

itself

Themselves

Reflexive pronouns correspond to the Russian reflexive verb with the suffix ся:

They enjoyed themselves at the party. – Они повеселились на вечеринке.

In modern English reflexive pronouns are not generally used with the verbs to wash, to dress, to bathe, to shave, to hide, to behave:

Do you like to bathe in the sea?

But the pronouns are used in the imperative sentences:

Wash yourself, you’re so dirty!

Emphatic pronouns correspond to the Russian pronoun сам, сама, сами:

He himself disliked the idea. – Ему самому не нравилась эта идея.

Emphatic pronouns are placed after the subject or at the end of the sentence if they modify the subject, and if they modify an object they’re placed after it:

I’ll do it myself.

They themselves went there.

They know much about his books but don’t know him himself.

The Russian pronoun «себя» doesn’t always have a corresponding pronoun in English, because of the difference in grammatical constructions and the meanings of the verbs:

Она чувствует себя плохо. – She feels bad. (‘feels bad’ is a compound nominal predicate where ‘feel’ is a link verb that cannot have an object).

Она ведёт себя как ребёнок. – She behaves like a child. (the meaning of the verb ‘to behave’ does not require reflexive pronouns).

Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. The pronoun each other generally implies two persons, one another refers to more than two persons. They have two cases: the common case and the possessive case:

Now they hate each other. They often quarrelled with one another. They looked into each other’s face.

Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are this, that, such, (the) same. The pronouns this and that have two numbers: this – these, that – those.

This is used to point at what is nearer in time or space; that points at what is father away in time and space. Both of them can point to things, persons, or situations:

This was my old dear car again.

Do you remember that?

The pronoun such points to a certain quality in things, persons, or situations:

I like such little towns as this.

He could not love her. Such was everyone’s verdict.

The pronoun same is always used with the definite article:

That day was the same as before.

Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.

The pronoun who has the category of case: the nominative case is who, the objective case is whom. Who refers to people:

Who is going to come today?

What refers to things but it may be applied to persons when one asks about their occupation:

What did you say?

What is she? – She is a painter.

Which corresponds to the Russian «который из», it сап refer to persons or things:

Which of these men is your husband?

Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns (who, whose, which, that,) introduce attributive clauses.

Who is used to refer to human beings and animals:

That is the man who has saved your child.

Whose is mainly used to refer to people and animals but it may be applied to things:

Then the man whose face I still could not see began to sing.

The village whose roofs were seen in the distance was N.

Which is used to refer to both things and animals:

I took the letter which was on the window sill.

That is mainly used in reference to animals and things but it may be used to refer to people:

On one side was a low wall that separated it from the street.

The girl that we met yesterday is my sister.

Conjunctive pronouns

Conjunctive pronouns (who, what, which, whose) introduce subject clauses, object clauses and predicative clauses:

Who did this will be sorry about it. (subject clause)

I know who did it. (object clause)

That’s exactly what you’ve got. (predicative clause)

Defining pronouns

Defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, either, both, other, another.

All is a generalising pronoun, it takes a group of things or persons as a whole:

All were present. All night long she sat by the window. I haven’t read all the book.

Both points out two persons, things, notions mentioned before:

You can study French or you can study German or cut them both out and study Spanish.

Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything refer to all the members of the group of persons, things or notions mentioned before. When used as subjects, each, everybody, everyone, everything take a verb in the singular:

She looked in every corner, but couldn’t find anything.

Each of them keeps silent.

He went into the dining-room, there was everybody.

The pronouns everybody and everyone have two cases: the common case and the possessive case:

Everyone’s success depended on him.

Either has two meanings: a) each of the two; b) one or the other:

Either of these will do. – Любой из них подойдёт.

The pronoun other has two numbers: singular – other; plural – others. It has two cases: the common case and the possessive case (other’s, others’).

Other has the meaning «другой из двух предметов или лиц» in this case it is always used with the definite article:

Then he gave me his other hand.

Another has two meanings: a) a different one; b) an additional one:

I don’t like this dress, show me another. She asked me a question, then another.

Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are: some, any, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, something, anything, one.

The pronouns somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, one have two cases: the common case and the possessive case.

Some is mainly used in the affirmative sentences while any is used in negative and interrogative sentences and conditional clauses.

Some used with plural count nouns has the meaning of «несколько, некоторые»:

I have a lot of flowers in my garden, some flowers are sweet-scented.

Some used with singular count nouns is translated into Russian as «какой-то, какой-нибудь»:

Tell me some interesting story.

Some used with non-count nouns has the meaning of «немного, некоторое количество»:

There is some milk in the bottle.

Some is used in special and general questions expressing request or proposal:

Do you want some water? Would you like to see some of my pictures?

Some is used in interrogative sentences if an affirmative answer is expected:

Are you waiting for some friend? – Yes.

Any used with plural count nouns is translated as «какие-то, какие-нибудь»:

Are there any children in the park?

Any used with non-count nouns has the meaning of «сколько-нибудь»:

Is there any water in the kettle?

Any can be used in the affirmative sentences. In this case it has the meaning of любой»:

I can read any English book in the original.

The pronoun one indicates people in general:

One never knows what may happen. – Никогда не знаешь, что может случиться.

Negative pronouns

Negative pronouns are: no, none, nothing, nobody, no one, neither.

Unlike Russian, in sentences with negative pronouns no other negative words can be used:

I told him nothing. – Я ему ничего не сказал.

Only two negative pronouns have the category of case: nobody – nobody’s, no one – no one’s.

No and none refer to all nouns denoting both persons and things, nothing refers to things, nobody, no one refer to persons only.

The pronoun neither refers to two persons or things, when it’s used as subject, the predicate verb is in the singular:

Neither was present.

None refers to many people and agrees with the predicate verb in the plural:

None were present at the meeting.

The pronoun no is used only before nouns:

No trees could be seen.

The pronouns nobody, no one, nothing require a verb in the singular:

Nothing is important here. Nobody was looking at her.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Use the appropriate personal pronouns:

1. ... say there’s been a great earthquake in the Pacific. 2. If ... see a giraffe once a year ... remains a spectacle; if ... see ... daily ... becomes part of the scenery. 3. «Mary’s married now», said Mrs Scott. «... was in the ‘Times’». 4. The «Friedrich Weber» was a freighter (грузовое судно) sailing from Hamburg to Colombo. ... also carried passengers. 5. There was a lot of noise all around now, and amongst could hear a plane flying unusually low. 6. Pat soon made ... clear that ... did not want to stay there long. 7. I got my hat and beat ... . 8. He is dreadfully ugly. ... must not start when ... see ... , or ... will put ... off. ... doesn’t like ... to feel sorry for ... . 9. We were climbing a steep hill and the car throbbed as if ... were going to expire. 10. … was cold to sit on the terrace, pretending that ... was really a summer evening. 11. «Our aim is to keep Italy out of the war until ... is strong enough to come in on our side», said the colonel. 12. Poor old England! I don’t suppose I shall ever see ... again.

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of the possessive pronoun.

1. She put out  ... hand and took out  ... (her, hers; my, mine). (Hemingway) 2. «Let me see your passports», I gave him and Catherine got  ...  out of  ...  handbag (my, mine; her, hers; her, hers). (Hemingway) 3. Mind  ...  own business and Ill mind ... (your, yours; my, mine). (Lindsay) 4. Ditcher put his hand gently on to calm her (her, hers). (Shaw) 5. The next voice to speak up was not the Lieutenant’s but  ...  (my, mine). (Salinger) 6. That, at least, is my opinion of him; and I see it is not very far removed from ...  (your, yours). (Dickens) 7.  ...  was not a marriage that could last (their, theirs). (Bellow) 8. ... nerves are as bad as  ...  (your, yours; my, mine). (Greene) 9. His eyes were as bright as  ...  (her, hers). (Snow) 10. After all, this is  ...  home just as much as  ...  (your, yours; my, mine). (Maugham) 11. «Go with Lucy», said Mrs Bretton. «I would rather keep  ...  seat». Willingly would I have kept  ...  also, but Graham’s desire must take precedence of my own; I accompanied him (my, mine; my, mine). (Ch. Bronte) 12. His own hand shook as he accepted a rose or two from … and thanked her (her, hers). (Dickens)

Exercise 3. Choose between a possessive pronoun and the definite article.

1. She got to ... feet and began to brush off ... dress. 2. Mr Black gave ... wife a leather bag for ... birthday. 3. Don’t show this letter to ... brother. 4. There was a cold wind blowing, so I put on ... heavy coat. 5. He took me by ... hand and led out of the room. 6. His father touched him on ... arm. 7. He took the child into ... arms. 8. What have you done to ... face? 9. He patted Jack heartily on ... shoulder. 10. He bent ... head low. 11. She slapped him on ... cheek. 12. It’s going to rain. I’d better take ... raincoat. 13. She put ... glass back on the table. 14. He crossed ... legs. 15. He was wounded in ... leg. 16. He buttoned up ... coat. 17. He caught me by ... sleeve.

Exercise 4. Use the appropriate form of possessive pronouns.

The man next door has been busy cutting the grass in (he) garden. 2. He put (he) hand in (she). 3. «This foolish wife of (he) thinks I’m a great artist», said he. 4. Very well, Mother, I’ll have (I) hair cut this afternoon. 5. Then he stopped and pointed and said: «Those are peas». I said, «We’ve got some peas, too». «I expect (you) are bigger than (our)», he said politely. 6. Edwin said, «Dear Mary, we all felt with you. (you) distress was (we)». 7. We can do (we) shopping before lunch. 8. There’s a ghastly article of (he) about it in this evening’s paper. 9. She folded the letter and replaced it in (it) envelope. 10. The children had had (they) tea. Kate was late for (she) as usual, Mary and Paul were having (they). 11. This demand of (they) is quite ridiculous. 12. She makes all (she) clothes herself. 13. This book is (I). There is (I) name on it.

Exercise 5. Point out the reflexive pronouns and define their function.

1. Much more than most politicians Gave knew himself. (Snow) 2. Meanwhile, he paraded himself gloriously before this young man. (Priestley) 3. Of course, I myself used to be very wealthy. (Clark) 4. He was not doubting the logic, he realized suddenly; what he was doubting was himself. (Jones) 5. Still, he must be thankful that she had been too young to do anything in that war itself. (Galsworthy) 6. Simon calmed himself with an effort. (Sheckley) 7. But you might remember that one respects oneself more afterwards – if one pays one’s way. (Galsworthy) 8. Miss Adele Gerry opened the door herself. (Shaw) 9. He sunned himself in Chanton’s admiring gaze. (Priestley) 10. What was the use even of loving, if love itself had to yield to death? (Galsworthy) 11. This is where we wash ourselves, Eliza, and where I am going to wash you. (Shaw) 12. Gevaert cleared his throat and addressed himself to me. (Clark) 13. They blamed themselves for this unlucky marriage. (Hardy) 14. The theatre manager himself came to shake hands with them. (Priestley) 15. I have made myself perfectly pleasant here. (Shaw) 16. Several times he reminded himself that he had not rung up Shuckleworth yet. (Priestley) 17. He could talk races with Hurstwood, tell interesting incidents concerning himself. (Dreiser) 18. I want to be kept in constant touch with his progress myself. (Clark) 19. Anne’s terror of being discovered in London or its neighbourhood, whenever they ventured to walk out, had gradually communicated itself to Mrs. Clements. (Collins) 20. Soames added: «Well, I hope, you’ll both enjoy yourselves». (Galsworthy) 21. Cave might have concealed from others, but not from himself, that he profoundly envied Roger. (Snow)

Exercise 6. Supply some or any.

1. She had  ...  children of her own family in her house, and ... children of other people. (Dickens) 2. I don’t want  ...  money. (Hemingway) 3. He sat there, like ... unhappy little animal. (Galsworthy) 4. A few had gone beyond the gate.  ...  were shouting hoarsely, and waving. (Heym) 5. «Do you want  ...  water?» - «No, I don’t want  ...  water». (Maltz) 6. The wounded were coming into the post,  ...  were carried on stretchers,  ...  were walking and  ...  were brought on the backs of men that came across the field. (Hemingway) 7. In the town there were … new hospitals. (Hemingway) 8. Well, if you want to know, I have no money and never had ... . (Shaw) 9. «Couldn’t you find tomato sauce, Barto?» – «There wasn’t ...», Aymo said. (Hemingway) 10. Don’t let us have  ...  nonsense about this job. (Shaw) 

Exercise 7. Supply somebody or anybody, someone or anyone.

1. You are  ...  now, and don’t let  ...  forget it. (Priestley) 2. How can  ...  who has travelled so much be so appallingly juvenile, he wondered? (Murdoch) 3. In a town of a sensible size you had a good chance of meeting  ...  you were looking for. (Priestley) 4. He was wearing a dinner-jacket, unlike  ...  at the supper-party. (Snow) 5. «You’ve no business to say such a thing!» she exclaimed. «Why not?  ...  can see it». (Galsworthy) 6. There was a light tap on the door. And  ...  came in. (Priestley) 7. Once upon a time Clennam had sat at that table taking no heed of  ...  but Flora. (Dickens) 8. Here was  ...  to remember, to think about. (Priestley) 9. «Look here», I said to Hunter at last, «have you shown that picture to  ...  ?» (Murdoch) 10. There is  ...   nice, anyway, who likes being out instead of in that stuffy drawing-room, playing bridge and talking, talking. (Galsworthy)

Exercise 8. Supply something or anything.

1. The word Germans was ... to be frightened at. We did not want to have ... to do with the Germans. (Hemingway) 2. But I can’t do ... for him. (Galsworthy) 3. He was a rather small man, but there was ... naturally commanding about him. (Priestley) 4. Everyone said he could turn ... into money. (Saroyan) 5. I do not know what I expected to see, but I did not see ... except the fields and the bare mulberry trees and the rain falling. (Hemingway) 6. ... is wrong somewhere. (Hemingway) 7. She looked at me with violence, with ... like hate. (Snow) 8. The room was far more splendid than ... Little Dorrit had ever imagined, and would have been splendid and costly in someone’s eyes. (Dickens) 9. I can bear ... but that. (Galsworthy) 10. When he read those books ... happened to him. (Galsworthy) 11. It was ... he didn’t want to remember. (Cusack) 12. Even when she talks nonsense in that slightly affected way she seems to be saying valuable. (Aldington)

Exercise 9. Supply self-pronouns where possible.

1. We enjoyed ... at the dance. 2. She had made ... very unpopular. 3. Why is she sitting all by ... in the dark? 4. Jessica looked at ... in the long mirror. 5. I liked having lodgings of my own, where I could be by … . 6. I closed the door behind ... .7. Every man is important to ... at one time or another. 8. All day the children were beside ... from excitement. 9. The young leaves unfolded to their utmost and the fields generously spread ... on either hand. 10. He was amiability ... . 11. I found ... doing nearly all the talking. 12. I ... married early, and nothing good came of it.

Exercise 10. Use one of the demonstrative pronouns.

1. ... is a cooking apple, ... an eating one. 2. She gave the ... answer as before. 3. My services, ... as they are, are at your disposal. 4. What do you want me to do with ... ? 5. His mental level at the time of his death was ... of a four-year-old child. 6. He dined there only on Sundays, and not every Sunday at ... . 7. Do you see ... bushes on the other side of the river? 8. Well, ...’s exactly what I did. 9. Don’t be in ... a hurry. 10. He continued to frequent the ... cafe as when he had stayed at the hotel. 11. I believe you but there are ... who wouldn’t. 12. … is what I thought last year. 13.... is life. 14. I can’t find all the books you asked me for. I put ... I found on your desk. 15. … is what I want you to do. 16. I have divided the books into two piles. ... are to be kept. ... are to be sold. 17. I have had ... a busy morning. 18. My seat was next to ... of John’s mother. 19. He can’t be more than three or four years older than you, if ... . 20. «One can’t compare Chopin’s waltzes with ... of today», she said.

Exercise 11. Supply some, any or no.

1. If you have ... news, call me back. 2. She helped me borrow ... more money. 3. There is hardly ... place in this house where we can talk alone. 4. ... boy at the school had ever taken a scholarship to the university. 5. It meant real hardship to my mother unless I earned ... money at once. 6. My mother hoped that perhaps the school had ... funds to give me a grant. 7. It was unlikely that ... of the guests would take particular notice of it. 8. They understood each other without ... words. 9. «Let’s go back home. It’s already late». – «I’d rather stay out a little longer». – «I suppose we’ve got to go home ... time». 10. There isn’t ... boot-polish in this tin. 11. You have ... fine flowers in your garden. 12. Go and ask him for ... more paper. I haven’t ... in my desk. 13. Later we had ... tea. 14. He wants ... more pudding. You can take it away. 15. There are ... matches left. We must buy ... . 16. I wouldn’t go to his concert. He is ... pianist. 17. ... time ago I read his story in a magazine. 18. I don’t think there is ... milk left in the jug. 19. … student can answer the question.

Exercise 12. Supply one of the compounds with some-, any- or no-.

l. At the party you’ll see ... you haven’t met yet. 2. Will there be ... at the club so early? 3. I’m not going to see him because I have ... important to report. 4. I was late. I found ... in the house. 5. I am expecting ... at twelve o’clock. 6. I think there’s ... wrong with my watch. 7. Is there ... at home? 8. The doorbell rang but there was ... there. 9. I know ... at all. 10. Otherwise there was hardly ... to occupy him. 11. «Why don’t they do ... about Annie?» 12. Mr Scot cried out … hearing that his friend had got promoted. 13. … can become a member of the club by paying a subscription. 14. When we get there it may be too late to do ... . 15. ... has been here before us. 16. «Why don’t you say ... ?» he demanded. 17. In the winter he lived without doing ... . 18. He wondered if he would ever again share ...’s emotion. 19. This is my affair and ... else’s. 20. Sometimes he would sit silent and abstracted, taking no notice of ... . 21. … is better than ... in a situation like this. 22. Can’t you do ... by yourself now? 23. I took care to ask him ... about his own doings. 24. Will you bring ... with you or will you come alone? 25. … has any right to interfere in this matter. 26. If ... delays you, you must let me know. 27. It was clear that ... had happened. 28. … at the airport could tell me ... about the Trianon hotel. 29. It’s a cave. I’d like to find out if there’s ... left inside. 30. He looked at my pictures and he didn’t say ... . 31. Her parents are ... much, you know. I’m afraid you will be disappointed. 32. But in any case, what can ... do? 33. ... had heard a rumour that he led a «wild» life.

Exercise 13. Use the pronoun one in the proper form and, if necessary, with the required article.

1. ... man’s meat is another man’s poison. 2. His parents never appeared in the parish church except on special occasions. 3. Mr Evans’ funeral was such ... . 4. They are six in the family. ... you saw are David and Tommy. 5. Brown’s old car is much better than our new ... . 6. There are woolen gloves and leather ... in the crate. 7. It is the most natural thing to start talking to someone who knows nothing whatever about ... and who is never likely to cross ... way again. 8. He was rather pale, and the expression on his face was ... I had never seen before. 9. «Which girl is Jean?» – « ... in the green dress». 10. «What has happened to all the brushes?» – «I saw ... on the table in the hall». 11. Such ... as you want is very rarely seen.

Exercise 14. Choose between no one and none.

1. ... tried to teach her anything. 2. ... of us is perfect; we all make mistakes. 3. ... of us knew how ill she was. 4. I’m sure you heard it from Mary, ... else could tell you that. 5. ... had anything to gain by his death. 6. I wanted some more coffee but there was ... left. 7. ... of them knows his duty yet. 8. We had ... to give us accurate information, let alone advice. 9. Philip slowly mounted the stairs. ... of his family was yet up. 10. I looked around the room, expecting to see piles of books; ... were visible. 11. … of us knows how much he has suffered. 12. Since ... had an answer to his question, silence fell in the room. 13. He asked for food but his mother said there was ... .14. … of the new men have been able to pass the test. 15. Of all the girls he phoned ... were at home. 16. During that time he saw ... who could tell him what had gone wrong. 17. ... of us were sure of the facts. 18. «Where are the apples?» – «There are ... .» 19. A hundred yards or so from the cottage stood a brick house that looked unfinished. ... in the party gave it a second thought.

Exercise 15. Choose between all and a compound with every-.

1. I shall want to hear ... they say. 2. She took the initiative and herself spoke to ... she knew. 3. He couldn’t help noticing how well dressed ... was. 4. I want ... to be happy. 5. Then, to ...’s surprise, she married someone quite undistinguished. ... who have studied this issue have come to the same conclusion. 6. She believed that ... was watching her. 8. ... of his friends had offered him his help. 9. Soon ... were asleep. 10. The lady laughed immoderately at ... that was said to her. 11. … has been taken away that could be removed. 12. ... felt indignant when he began hitting the boy with his stick.

Exercise 16. Choose between all, every and each.

1. I have ... book he has ever written. 2. He shouted her name twice, ... time banging his fist on the table. 3. He had been brought up by a mother who had taught him that ... pleasure must be paid for. 4. They did not talk much about what ... feared most. 5. ... trunks must be labeled before being deposited in the left-luggage office. 6. He has ... right to know who you are going to marry. 7. That’s the sort of job ... boys like doing. 8. They broke into little groups; ... had his own wonderful story to tell. 9. ... the people were cheering loudly. 10. Before he left the classroom he gave ... boy a task. 11. She had something to say on ... subject. 12. … the money was spent. 13. ... the family were present. 14. And I had to sit out there with ... eye on me. 15. He has ... chance to win. 16. He looked at ... of us in turn. 17. Hugh had ... advantage of education. 18. I’d like you to make ... effort to obtain ... the data we spoke about. 19. Frank’s wasn’t a bad place. The tables had yellow tops which Frank wiped after ... customer. 20. Almost ... boys like sport. 21. The doctor took his gloves out, and pulled one on his left hand, concentrating on ... fold in the leather. 22. The actor could make you hear ... word in the last row of the gallery.

Exercise 17. Use the pronoun other in the proper form and with the required article.

1. I think the first thing to do is to have ... talk with your sister. 2. It was not a large garden, but it was long and narrow. John and I walked right to ... end of it in silence. 3. I talked to a lot of people. Some said that in the same circumstances they would do as they had done before. ... told me that if they had known what it would come to they wouldn’t have ever done it. 4. Then I read the novels of George Meredith one after ... . 5. ... day I made an epigram. I hope you’ll like it. 6. They were going to get punished, one way or ... . 7. The bar was kept by two very nice girls, one was American and ... English. 8. ... people have told me the same thing. 9. That night Kate was gay and could make ... laugh. 10. He was always somewhat indifferent to the feelings of ... . 11. Well, I met him in the club ... night. 12. I made few friends in those days, for I was occupied with ... things. 13. Without ... word he started up the car. 14. He sat in ... arm-chair at the opposite side of the fire-place. 15. The servant opened the door and ushered in ... visitor. 16. Young men and young women would greet me on their way to or from the tennis court. Some found more to say to me than 17.The houses on ... side of the river were built out of gray stone. 18. Some people refused to take the advertisements and walked away and ... dropped them on the grass. 19. Why are you alone? Where are ...? 20. Would you like ... cup of tea?

Exercise 18. Use both, either or neither.

We drove along a wide road with ditches and trees on ... side. 2. Ed and I were ... very big men. 3. He invited us ... , but I knew he felt it irregular; he did not want ... of us at a family party. 4. The verandah stretched on ... side of me. 5. The first apple pie of the season was on the table and a large dish of purple grapes. Muriel was too angry to touch ... . 6. I could hear them ... , but saw ... . 7. Cords were drawn on ... side of the picture gallery on days when the public were admitted. 8. These are ... very gloomy rooms. I’m afraid ... will suit me. 9. ... his legs were broken in the accident. 10. «Which of the two newspapers would you like?» – «Oh, ... will do». 11. She had brown shining hair which hung down on ... side of her face. 12. «What are you going to have, orange juice or Coke?» – « ... . I’m not thirsty». 13. «Tell ... your mother and father that I’m expecting them tonight». – «I’m afraid I won’t see ... of them today». 14. «Which job are you going to take?» – «I’m afraid ... ». 15. She can play with the tennis racket in ... hand. 16. By that time ... his sisters had got married. 17. There were trees on ... bank. 18. You can borrow ... of my two cameras. 19. Nick and Tom are ... my friends. But ... is in the town now. They are ... in the Navy. 20. «What have you written, a short story or an essay?» – «I’m afraid it doesn’t come within ... description». 21. « ... the jars, the big one and the small one, are empty. You can take ... of them». – «I’m afraid ... will do». 22. «She’s … very ill or has gone away». – «What can one do about it in ... case?»

Exercise 19. Use interrogative or conjunctive pronouns.

1. They had brought few books with them ... she hadn’t read. 2. You’re one of the few people ... I’d like to know better. 3. « ... of the two of them is right?» he asked me. 4. I don’t honestly see ... I can do about it. 5. That is the worst news ... we’ve ever had from you. 6. He was compared with everyone ... had ever written a successful travel book and the accents of ... were certainly to be caught in his own works. 7. ... do we call the sea between England and France? 8. I told him everything ... was relevant. 9. ... I saw was a solid-looking brick house. 10. ... pronoun is always written with a capital letter? 11. In this room there was a small grate, on the mantelshelf of ... she had arranged two vases of flowers. 12. Looking at him she wondered ... sort of small boy he had been. 13. ... cost more money, ready-made clothes or tailor-made clothes? 14. All ... they would tell me was that Uncle Nick was ill. 15 … did he say? 16. There had grown between them an understanding ... required no, words. 17. … other things did you buy? 18. Now ... you see all the family together tell me ... you think of us. 19. «I have never been given any of Granny’s things». – « ... about her watch?» 20. It is for you to decide ... is to speak to the chief. 21. They’re a family that would quarrel about ... way a doorknob turns. 22. … quality do you admire in a man? 23. He is the man ... car I noticed in the square. 24. Take these books to your brother and ask him ... are his. 25. Here you ask for «the German», every one will know ... you mean. 26. I didn’t tell her ... it was all about. 27. He examined the official records to find out in ... name the house and plot were registered. 28. They explained ... they wanted. 29. I was sure that ... he said about the girl was true. 30. Later that afternoon Phil went to San Fernando, where he soon found the house in ... the Klement family was said to live. 31. They asked a young woman ... the street was called. 32. Then they were asked ... company they represented and ... sort of factory they intended to put up in the area. 33. Tell me ... daughter you’re going to take along with you and ... is staying behind.

TASKS FOR SELF-CONTROL

MODULE VI

Task 1. Point out the pronouns in the following sentences and define the class each belongs to.

1. There’s nothing for any of us to do. (Snow) 2. Both these people were resolved to treat Mr Polly very well, and to help his exceptional incompetence in every possible way. (Wells) 3. Tom presented himself before Aunt Polly, who was sitting by an open window in a pleasant rearward apartment, which was bed-room, breakfast-room, dining-room, and library combined. (Twain) 4. Such were the reflections of Felix before the brass tablet. (Galsworthy) 5. It was the sort of solemn warning that a sanguine man gives to others, because he ought to give it to himself. (Snow) 6. Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful. (Aldington) 7. What we need is a higher and purer political morality. (Dreiser) 8. She hesitated a moment, and then sat down beside me, and laid her hand on mine. (Dickens) 9. The uniform had been cut for a stouter person than myself, but one, fortunately, of approximately the same height. (Clark) 10. «I didn’t know anything about it», cried Charlie indignantly. «I came to see you about something else». (Priestley) 11. What about this coal strike? Will it ruin the country as the papers say? Isn’t it a foolish thing on both sides? (Galsworthy) 12. She sat in a state of irresponsible exaltation, watching him, with that strange passive cruelty which is natural and proper in her sex and age. (Wells) 13. None of us except Collingwood knew what the Prime Minister thought of Roger or his policy. (Snow) 14. There were some aviators in the compartment who did not think much of me. (Hemingway) 15. Then a guarded voice said, «Who goes there?» (Twain) 16. Husbands and wives never listen when they talk to each other, only when the other is talking to somebody else. (Fowler) 17. Let me tell you something. (Priestley) 18. There was at least one person in the world who knew that he was alive and attached some importance to the fact. (Saroyan) 19. What are you talking about? (Snow) 20. I can only say what I think. (Hemingway) 21. He seemed to get prouder and prouder over each item of his own deficiency. (Leacock) 22. We said good-bye to one another and arranged to meet in the autumn. (Maugham) 23. What was it in this girl that reminded turn of that one with whom he had lived but two years, and mourned fifteen? (Galsworthy)

Task 2. Point out conjunctive, relative, and interrogative pronouns.

1. She was heartily sick of London fog and cold and soot and messy open fires which fill the room with dust but don’t warm it. (Aldington) 2. «Who is that girl with yellow hair and dark eyes», he asked. (Galsworthy) 3. You see, Hushabye, you are what women consider a good-looking man. (Shaw) 4. Who could tell what his son’s circumstances really were? (Galsworthy) 5. You don’t want to do anything that you’ll be sorry for. (Dreiser) 6. A man is mostly what you want to see in him. (Heym) 7. What do you expect me to believe? (Snow) 8. She rises with an air of one who waits and is almost at the end of her patience. (Shaw) 9. It was evident, indeed, that she wished me to drop the subject, which I did accordingly. (Ch. Bronte) 10. Several times their eyes accidentally met, and then there poured into hers such a flood of feeling as she had never experienced. (Dreiser) 11. Would she go with them or stay here and write to William. Which, which should it be? (Mansfield) 12. He mentioned things in the play which she most approved of, things which swayed her deeply. (Dreiser) 13. I do so wonder what Jolyon’s boy is like. (Galsworthy) 14. What hurt him most was the fact that he was being pursued as a thief. (Dreiser)

Task 3. Translate into English.

1. Почему некоторые студенты делают намного больше ошибок, чем другие? 2. Заходите как-нибудь на следующей неделе, и мы обсудим еще несколько таких вопросов. 3. Методы обучения родному языку несколько отличаются от методов обучения другим языкам. 4. Если захочешь застать их дома, приходи в любой день после 6. 5. Кто-нибудь из ваших студентов уже сдал экзамен? 6. В это время всегда кто-нибудь дома, если только не случится что-то непредвиденное. 7. Все участники конференции получили отдельные приглашения. 8. Это были самые счастливые мои годы. Я хорошо помню каждый свой день. 9. У меня, к сожалению, нет такой книги, но есть много других. 10. Не могли бы вы мне дать какие-нибудь книги на эту тему? – К сожалению, у нас нет никаких книг на эту тему. 11. В комнате пахнет дымом. Здесь кто-то курил? 12. После меня пришло еще несколько гостей, каждый из них принес цветы. 13. На пляже было многом народу: одни купались, другие загорали. 14. Несколько человек ушли, остальные решили остаться. 15. Он был слишком осторожен, чтобы с кем-либо об этом говорить. 16. Какой из этих двух словарей лучше? – Каждый хорош по-своему, один не хуже другого.

Task 4. Translate into English.

1. Так мы провели полчаса, расписывая друг другу наши болезни. Я изложил Джорджу и Уильяму Гаррису, как я себя чувствую, просыпаясь по утрам, а Уильям Гаррис рассказал нам, как он себя чувствует, ложась спать, а Джордж, стоя на коврике перед камином, с редкой выразительностью и подлинным актерским мастерством представил нам, как он себя чувствует ночью. (J.K. Jerome)

2. Он сам - мой шурин - вернулся поездом. Он объяснил, что Северо-Западная железная дорога достаточно полезна для его здоровья. (J.K. Jerome)

3. Другой мой знакомый отправился в недельную прогулку вдоль побережья. Перед отплытием к нему подошел стюард и спросил, будет ли он расплачиваться за каждый обед отдельно или сразу оплатит стол за все дни. (J.K. Jerome)

4. «Неужели никто во всем доме не знает, где мой пиджак? Честное слово, в жизни не встречал такого сборища ротозеев! Вас тут шестеро - и вы не можете найти пиджак, который я снял всего пять минут назад! Ну и ну!» Тут он встает со стула, замечает, что сидел на пиджаке, и провозглашает: «Ладно, хватит вам суетиться! Я сам его нашел. Нечего было и связываться с вами, я с тем же успехом мог бы поручить поиски нашему коту». (J.K. Jerome)

REVISION

MODULE VI

Exercise 1. Translate into English, mind personal and possessive pronouns.

1. - Это его часы? - Да, его. А эти - мои. 2. - Чьи это дети? - Наши. Они играют со своими друзьями. 3. - Ты сделал это для меня? - Нет, для него. 4. Это моя комната, а та - Бориса. Моя больше, чем его. 5. Почитай, пожалуйста, эту информацию. Она поможет тебе. 6. Ее родители очень приятные люди. Ты их знаешь? 7. Моя кошка любит играть со своим хвостом. 8. Это ее фотография? Дай ее мне. 9. Где мои очки? Я не могу их найти. 10. Познакомься с моими друзьями. Их зовут Лена и Алексей. 11. Наша семья любит ездить в Крым. Мы любим его природу. 12. - Он останется с нами на выходные? - Поговори с ним об этом. 13. Никогда не обсуждай свои личные проблемы на работе. 14. Помой руки и иди с нами обедать. 15. Слушай советы, но не всегда им следуй. 16. Моя дочь не любит больших животных. 17. - Цветы очень красивые. Ты их видел? - Нет, а кто их принес? 18. Тим предложил им пригласить нас на их свадьбу. 19. Эти деньги его. Дай их ему и поблагодари его. 20. Я не интересуюсь компьютерными играми. Я их не люблю. 21. Это крокодил. Его зубы очень острые. 22. Я дал ему мою визитку, а он мне свою. 23. Есть удивительные новости. Ты слышал о них? 24. Где моя пижама? Я не могу без нее заснуть. 25. - Вы позвонили в полицию? - Да, они уже едут сюда на своей машине.

Exercise 2. Translate into English, mind personal and possessive pronouns.

А. 1. Он засунул руку в карман и достал из него бумажник. 2. Он открыл глаза и увидел незнакомую комнату. 3. Мои вещи уже в отеле, а твои? – Мои еще на вокзале. 4. Джон дома? – Нет, он еще на работе? 5. Чьи это журналы? – Мои. 6. Это не моя папка. Моя белая. 7. Ваше платье красивое, но и ее мне тоже нравится. 8. Интересно, где он покупает свою одежду? 9. Она всегда ищет свои очки. 10. Он вошел в свой кабинет: большую светлую комнату. 11. Она взяла письмо, отложила его в сторону, а потом вновь положила его на место. 12. Все свои свитера она связала сама.

В. 1. А где Федор? – Он у тети. 2. Эта его тетушка подарила ему щенка на день рожденья. 3. Разве вам не нравится этот его новый рассказ? 4. Не доверяйте этим его честным голубым глазам. 5. Не следуйте этим его мудрым советам. 6. Теперь он никогда не ходит на прогулку без этой своей ужасной собаки. 7. Это подарок одного из моих друзей. 8. Она взглянула на него безразличным холодным взглядом. 9. Куда ты обычно ходишь обедать? – В Макдоналдс. 10. Твоя одежда в химчистке? – Нет, она в прачечной. 11. Его ролики дороже твоих. 12. Потом мы обменялись адресами: он дал мне свой, а я ему – свой. 13. Что-то случилось с твоим утюгом, воспользуйся моим. 14. Эта его глупая подружка считает себя великим музыкантом.

Exercise 3. Translate into English, mind demonstrative pronouns.

1. - Кто это? - Это наш новый начальник. - Что это? - Это его новая машина. 2. Это моя комната, а та - Джона. 3. - Эти часы ваши? - Нет, это часы моего брата. 4. Посмотри на ту картину. Что ты на ней видишь? 5. - Сколько стоит эта куртка? - Она не очень дорогая. 6. Возьми то пирожное, оно с шоколадом. 7. О чем эта книга? 8. Чей вот тот стул? Я могу его взять? 9. Эта одежда мала для него. 10. Эти ножницы не острые, возьмите их. 11. Видишь тот дом? Я живу в нем. 12. - Ты знаешь тех людей? - Нет. 13. Которая сумка твоя: та или эта? 14. Эта музыка такая грустная! 15. Эти письма для него. 16. Какие фотографии вам больше нравятся: те или эти?

Exercise 4. Translate into English, mind indefinite pronouns.

A. 1. Кто-то пришел. Ты кого-то ждешь? 2. Врач что-то написал на бумаге и дал ее мне. 3. Посмотри, кто-то забыл сумку на столе. 4. Он бизнесмен. У него нет свободного времени. 5. Вы должны гулять в любую погоду. 6. На небе нет звезд, только луна. 7. Любой учитель знает, что самое трудное - ставить оценки. 8. - Что-нибудь случилось? - Ничего. 9. - У вас дома есть цветы? - Да, есть. 10. Слишком поздно. Ничего нельзя сделать. 11. Миша, ты вчера выучил какие-нибудь английские слова? 12. Когда он болен, он ничего не может есть. 13. - В зале есть свободные места? - Есть. 14. Любой девушке хочется выйти замуж. 15. Было что-то странное в этом человеке. 16. Ничто не заставит меня работать по выходным. 17. У меня нет чая. А у тебя есть? 18. - Сегодня кто-нибудь звонил? - Никто. 19. Некоторые люди не придерживаются никаких правил. 20. Любой, кто хочет получить приз, должен принять участие в игре. 21. - Хотите салат? - Нет, спасибо. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, немного сока. 22. В этой игре нет ничего трудного. 23. Сегодня есть что-нибудь интересное в газетах?

B. 1. К счастью, у меня есть несколько друзей, которые мне помогут. 2. К несчастью, у мен я мало друзей. 3. Ты мало работаешь. Поработай немного. 4. Он немногословный человек. Он может сказать все в нескольких словах. 5. В этом году мало снега. Но в лесу все еще есть немного снега. 6. Нам нужно несколько долларов и немного удачи. 7. Сегодня на ней мало косметики и украшений. 8. Мне нужно несколько минут, чтобы приготовить немного кофе. 9. Верблюдам нужно мало воды. Им достаточно выпить немного воды раз в месяц. 10. Между отцом и сыном было мало понимания. 11. Этому ребенку нужно немного любви и поддержки. 12. У мальчика дефекты речи, и мало кто понимает его. 13. У Марины есть небольшой прогресс. Она теперь делает мало ошибок. 14. Мало кто может быть счастлив без любви. 15. У мен я есть несколько проблем и слишком мало времени, чтобы решить их. 16. Ты мало мне помогаешь. Не мог бы ты немного помочь мне сегодня? 17. У нас есть немного масла, но мало сыра. 18. Ты мало думаешь. Подумай немного, прежде чем ответить. 19. Давай поговорим немного, возможно мы сможем принять несколько решений.

Exercise 5. Translate into English, mind reflexive and emphatic pronouns.

1. Я порезалась, и мне так себя жаль. 2. У нее нет начальника. Она работает на себя. 3. Вы когда-нибудь разговариваете сами с собой? Многие люди разговаривают сами с собой. 4. Мы должны верить в себя. 5. Перед каждым матчем Андрей желает себе удачи. 6. Мне пришлось ущипнуть себя, чтобы поверить, что это правда. 7. Больная пока не может позаботиться о себе. 8. Не жалейте их, они сами справятся со своими проблемами. 9. А не представитесь ли вы, молодой человек? 10. Он не должен винить себя за это происшествие. Он лично сделал все возможное. 11. Будь осторожнее, ты можешь ушибиться. 12. Ты не можешь гордиться собой. Ты должна сказать сама себе, что ты совершенно не права. 13. Пожелай себе удачи перед экзаменом.

Exercise 6. Translate into English, mind reflexive and emphatic pronouns.

1. Они поцеловались и расстались. 2. Он не виделся с нею уже две недели и сильно соскучился. 3. Он отказался от чая. 4. Мэри уже спускается. 5. Поезд уже отправляется. 6. Каждое утро она просыпается в семь часов. 7. Поезжай, а после увидимся. 8. Чашка разбилась на кусочки. 9. Он разорился в один день. 10. Она умывалась, пудрила лицо и одевалась к завтраку. 11. Он посвятил себя музыке. 2. Никто не должен обманывать самого себя. 3. Устраивайтесь поудобнее и угощайтесь пирогом. 4. Он видит себя центром вселенной. 5. Я уговорила себя помочь им. 6. Болезнь распространяется очень быстро. 7. Я очутился один в совершенно незнакомом городе. 8. А теперь, дорогая, укладывайся спать. 9. Петр защищался как только мог. 10. Десять маленьких негритят отправились обедать. Один проспал, другой подавился, третий повесился. 11. Соберись, ты же мужчина! 12. Позаботьтесь о себе! 13. Она живет одна (сама по себе). 14. Джон сделал работу самостоятельно. 15. Он сам мне все рассказал. 16. Сам композитор дирижировал оркестром. 17. История повторяется.

Exercise 7. Translate into English, mind interrogative, relative and conjunctive pronouns.

1. Кто из вас знает ответ? 2. Кто хочет помочь ему? 3. Чьи слова вы все время повторяете? 4. О чем вы говорите? 5. Я знаю все, что вы собираетесь сказать. 6. Кого вы надеетесь там встретить? 7. Он уже видел фильм, о котором вы говорите. 8. Мужчина, с которым вы вчера познакомились, – мой брат. 9. Что он сказал ей тогда останется секретом. 10. Они так никому и не рассказали, что они там обнаружили. 11. Никто не знал, чьи это были слова. 12. Мы не знакомы с человеком, чью фотографию вы нам показываете. 13. Мы не могли решить, кто из нас пойдет первым. 14. Проблема в том, кто сможет выполнить это поручение. 15. Сделайте то, о чем вас просят. 16. Вы добьетесь того, о чем мечтаете. 17. То, что вы говорите – неправда. 18. Художник, чьи картины здесь выставляют, очень популярен. 19. Какой трудный язык! Как ты смог его выучить? 20. Какие интересные новости она рассказывает! 21. Я написал сочинение, которое является нашим заданием на сегодня. 22. Чей это мотоцикл, который стоит у обочины? 23. Мужчина, который тренирует футбольную команду, – мой дядя. 24. Она не узнала женщину, которая вошла в ее кабинет. 25. Как интересен его рассказ! Как это ни странно, но это правда.

Exercise 8. Translate into English, mind defining, negative and reciprocal pronouns.

1. Робин и Фрэнк – друзья. Они оба приехали в этот город учиться. 2. – Какая из этих двух книг тебе нравятся. – Они мне нравятся обе. 3. На днях я встретил друга, которого не видел уже тысячу лет. 4. Мы стояли на берегу реки и едва видели другой берег. 5. Я уже сделала 10 упражнений. Мне делать другие? 6. – Вы знаете кого-нибудь из них? – Да, я знаю обоих. – А я не знаю ни одного из них. 7. Он не любит ни хоккей, ни футбол. Есть ли какая-нибудь спортивная игра, которую он любит? 8. Какую из этих маек мне купить тебе? – Любую. Они обе красивые. Выбери на свой вкус. 9. Ни одна из этих газет не стоит этих денег. 10. Вы сделали только одно упражнение, а где другое? 11. Я не люблю сильно сладкий чай. – Я тоже. 12. Мне не нравится эта идея. А какой-нибудь другой совет вы можете мне дать? 13. Она выделяется своим талантом среди всех остальных студентов. 14. Это хорошее предложение, но могут быть и другие. 15. Никто из присутствующих не смог возразить. 16. Поезда туда не ходят, вам придется добираться туда как-нибудь другим способом. 17. С одной стороны, приятно оказаться за городом в такой солнечный день, но с другой стороны, так не хочется там учить уроки. 18. Торт такой вкусный! Я не могу отказаться от еще одной порции. 19. Они посмотрели друг на друга и рассмеялись. 20. Эти студенты всегда помогают друг другу. 21. Эти две девушки очень дружны и всегда все рассказывают друг другу. 22. Они невзлюбили друг друга с первого взгляда. 23. Они входили в комнату друг за другом. 24. Бывшие одноклассники всегда рады видеть друг друга. 25. Они улыбались друг другу и о чем-то тихо разговаривали. 26. Мы (я, Джордж и Гаррис) скорбно улыбнулись друг другу и сказали, что, пожалуй, попробуем что-нибудь проглотить.

PROGRESS TEST

MODULE VI

Choose the right form

1. He closed one eye, but … eye looked at me with a strange expression as if he wanted to advise me of … but was forbidden to say … .

A another, something, something

B other, anything, anything

C the other, something, anything

D the another, anything, something

2. They covered … three miles and came to a point where they couldn’t see … vegetation: … was covered with snow.

A other, any, all

B another, any, everything

C the other, no, each

D others, __, the whole

3. He set … to one side, disassociating … from what was going forward, watching … running calmly.

A little, __, the others

B a little, himself, another

C a little, himself, the others

D little, __, the other

4. When I met her, … her parents had perished and she was dependent upon … . She did not want … help and lived on … own.

A either, her, anybody, her

B any of, hers, somebody’s, hers

C both, herself, anybody’s, her

D both of, oneself, everybody, oneself

5. … of them quite knew what she meant, but … was sure that she could not bring … to do it.

A Nobody, all, her

B Somebody, every, oneself

C No one, each, __

D None, everybody, herself

6. I phoned her … day, but she refused to tell me … .

A another, something

B another, anything

C the other, something

D the other, anything

7. She gave him a cold stare and told him … sharp words. He was taken aback at this behaviour of … .

A quite a few, hers

B such a few, her

C so few, herself

D too few, her

8. Ann and Pete were trying their best, but … of them was helpful. They made … attempts but … was in vain.

A none, other a few, all

B neither, another few, everything

C nobody, the other few, all

D no one, another a few, everything

9. It was clear he was hungry. He ate a considerable amount of fried meat … quicker than … and asked for … helping.

A much, others, other

B far, the others, another

C a lot, the other, the others

D more, anothers, an another

10. She goes to Cyprus … summer, … of them can assure you of it. Shall I send you … details?

A each, every, some

B either, all, any

C every, everybody, any

D every, each, some

11. It is so noisy that … can hear … . If … keeps talking, he will leave the room.

A none, anything, somebody

B nobody, something, anybody

C somebody, nothing, somebody

D no one, anything, anybody

12. There are three towers in the fortress, one with a big clock, … are decorated with glazed tiles. … of them remained intact.

A others, None

B the others, No

C the others, None

D others, Neither

13. Why are you afraid to ask for help? … of them will be glad to solve your little problem, especially Jack. He is goodness … .

A Everybody, himself

B Each, itself

C Every, itself

D Each, himself

14. When I say nothing, … I mean nothing, … I mean … I can’t talk about.

A neither, nor, anything

B both, and, something

C either, or, something

D either, and, anything

15. I tried to concentrate … , but as I felt … cold I could think only of a warm room with a fireplace and an armchair in front of it where I can settle … .

A myself, myself, myself

B __, myself, myself

C myself, __, __

D __, __, myself

16. Colonies were … used as sources of raw materials …. as markets for products of the home country.

A either, and

B neither, or

C either, or

D either, nor

17. They stood on … side of the bed looking at the sleeping boy. His left hand was in plaster, … clasped a toy.

A each, other

B either, the other

C every, another

D either, other

18. … twenty years and you’ll have forgotten all about it.

A Another

B The other

C Other

D The others

19. It refers to the ways ancient Greeks spoke, worshipped, understood the nature of the physical world … , organized their governments, made … livings, entertained … , and related to … who were not Greek.

A themselves, them, themselves, the others

B itself, their, itself, others

C itself, their, themselves, others

D themselves, themselves, the other

20. One of the reasons why so few people are to be found who seem sensible and pleasant in conversation is that almost … is thinking about what he wants to say … rather than about answering clearly what is being said to him.

A everybody, himself

B anybody, __

C nobody, himself

D everyone, themselves

21. It is more shameful to distrust … friends than to be deceived by … .

A their, theirs

B one’s, them

C his, themselves

D our, ourselves

22. … action happens, but the subtle quality of the … events and, more crucially, the characters’ feelings about … , form the essence of the story.

A Few, few, themselves

B Little, little, them

C Few, little, its

D Little, few, them

23. The loads imposed on a building are classified as … «dead» or «live». Dead loads include the weight of the building … and … major items of fixed equipment.

A both, itself, each

B both, __, every  

C either, itself, all

D either, oneself, any

24. Identification is proof of identity: … , especially a card or document, to prove that … is who he or she claims to be.

A everything, everybody

B something, somebody

C anything, anybody

D something, anybody

25. She learnt both classics and philosophy, but knows … of them well. Though she can speak on … subject in general.

A none, any

B nothing, some

C neither, either

D either, neither

26. … is waiting for the signal. … two minutes and the match will begin. … players are anxious to win.

A Everybody, Another, Every

B Anybody, Some, All

C Everybody, Another, All the

D All, Other, Each

27. He was pleased with … because … of them noticed … .

A him, nobody, anything

B himself, any, nothing

C them, no one, nothing

D himself, none, anything

28. … husband … wife were responsible for the religious development of their  household members.

A Either, or

B Neither, nor

C Both, and

D Every, and

29. He is diligence … . But he forgets one thing: the difference between a good worker and a bad worker is that one works with his heart and … with his hands.

A himself, the other

B  , another

C itself, the other

D himself, others

30. He thought … over and came to the conclusion that it was not in … bad.

A it, himself

B it’s, itself

C its, oneself

D it, itself

31. You and I may now consider … as tete-a-tete; Sir Nicolas won’t be much in our way. He hears and sees … but … .

A yourselves, anything, his

B ourselves, nothing, himself

C us, something, himself

D ourselves, somewhere, him

32. In the early part of the Modern English period the vocabulary was enlarged by the widespread use of one part of speech for … and by increased borrowings from … languages.

A the other, others

B another, other

C other ones, another

D others, another

33. I don’t want to harm … unless they harm me. I’d rather live … .

A somebody, by myself

B nobody, myself

C somebody, myself

D anybody, by myself

34. He seemed to be dissatisfied, so we asked him if there was … that we could do for him.

A something farther

B anything far

C anything further

D something further

35. … evening I found a photo of … taken shortly after I came to live at Warley.

A Another, me

B Other, mine

C The other, myself

D The other, mine

36. The room was full of the bubble and squeak of conversation. … could hear … that … said.

A Nobody, anything, no one

B Anybody, nothing, anybody

C Somebody, nothing, nobody

D Nobody, anything, anybody

37. Mrs. Brown was a teacher who brought out the best in her students - but their own best, not … copied best.

A anybody else

B anybody else’s

C anybody’s else

D somebody’s else

38. … scissors, owing to the special warning of Mother’s, … kept out of John’s reach.

A This, were

B Those, is

C These, were

D That, is

39. You had better have a slice of ham or an egg, or … with your tea.

A nothing

B anything

C something

D everything

40. Without saying … to her, he began looking for a flat near her … house.

A anything, parents

B something, parents’

C something, parents

D anything, parents’

TOTAL: 40 MARKS

WEB SUPPORT: http://www.incampus.ru/campus.aspx?id=10749483&tab=3

MODULE VII

THE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

THE ADJECTIVES. DEGREES OF COMPARISON

The adjective is a word expressing a quality of a substance.

I. According to their way of nomination adjectives fall into two groups: relative and qualitative. 

Relative adjectives describe properties of a substance through relation to materials (wooden, leathern), place (European, Italian), time (daily, weekly), relationship (friendly).

Qualitative adjectives denote properties of a substance directly (great, cold). That is why only qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison.

II. There are three grades of comparison: positive, comparative and superlative.

The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of quality.

The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of quality. The superlative is generally used with the definite article.

III. All the qualitative adjectives can be subdivided into one-syllable, two-syllable, poly-syllable (long adjectives) and irregular ones.

1. One-syllable adjectives normally form comparatives and superlatives by the inflexion –er, -est (synthetical way): 

tall –  taller – (the) tallest.

2. Some two-syllable adjectives ending in –y, -ow, -er, -le, - et are similar:

narrow – narrower –( the) narrowest              happy – happier – (the) happiest

quiet – quieter – (the) quietest                         simple – simpler – (the) simplest

complete – completer – (the) completest         clever – cleverer – (the) cleverest.

Other two-syllable adjectives, have more and  most (analytical way): 

stupid – more stupid - (the) most stupid.

With many two-syllable adjectives (e.g. polite, common), -er /-est and more / most are both possible. With others (including adjectives ending in -ing, -ed, -ful and -less), only more/most is possible:

boring – more boring – (the) most boring

careful – more careful – (the) most careful

tired – more tired – (the) most tired.

In general, the structure with more / most is becoming more common. To find out the normal comparative/ superlative for a particular two-syllable adjective, check in a good dictionary.

3. Polysyllable adjectives.

a) Polysyllable adjectives have three or more syllables and form their degrees of comparison by means of more and most (analytical way):

intelligent             more intelligent          most intelligent

practical              more practical     most practical

beautiful              more beautiful             most beautiful.

b) Words like unhappy (the opposites of two-syllable adjectives ending in -y) are an exception: they can have forms in -er and –est:

unhappy       unhappier / more unhappy       unhappiest / most unhappy

untidy          untidier / more untidy      untidiest / most untidy.

c) Some compound adjectives like good-looking or well-known have two possible comparatives and superlatives:

good-looking          better-looking                  best-looking

                            оr   more good-looking         most good-looking

well-known            better-known                   best-known

                 or   more well-known            most well-known.

4. Some adjectives have irregular forms of degrees of comparison.

a) Irregular comparison:

  •  good – better – (the) best;
  •  bad – worse – (the) worst;
  •  little – less – (the) least;
  •  many, much – more – (the) most.

b) Double forms of irregular comparison: 

              farther – (the) farthest (about distance= дальний, дальнейший))

  •    far

                    further – (the) furthest (about distance, abstract notions and in figurative use =      дальнейший, последующий; самый дальний)