Reference Book in Academic Writing for Graduate Students


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Study the following pairs of sentences and check the one you think would be an appropriate and clear topic sentence for a paragraph. The first one is done for you. Underline the statement you think would make the best topic sentence of the paragraph. Improve the following topic sentences. Remember to limit your topic and controlling idea...



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The National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy

Reference Book


Academic Writing

for Graduate Students

Кyiv 2007

The National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy

Reference Book in Academic Writing for Graduate Students

Compilers: Bilozerova O., Briskina L., Kytayeva S., Mazin D., Fedoriv Ya., Shvydka H.

Національний університет „Києво-Могилянська Академія”

Посібник з академічного письма для студентів магістеріуму

Укладачі: Білозерова О., Бріскіна Л., Китаєва С., Мазін Д., Федорів Я., Швидка Г.

Навчальний посібник "Reference Book in Academic Writing for Graduate Students" призначений для студентів магістерських програм НаУКМА й зосереджений на стилістичних і структурних особливостях академічних текстів з урахуванням міжнародних вимог до англомовного наукового дискурсу. Кожен розділ посібника складається з теоретичних відомостей і практичних завдань відповідно до Програми курсу англійської мови для магістеріуму НаУКМА. Розрахований для використання під час аудиторної та самостійної роботи студентів. 


Будій З.І., канд. філол. наук, доцент, завідувач кафедри англійської філології Тернопільського національного педагогічного університету ім. Володимира Гнатюка

Василенко І.В., канд. філол. наук, доцент кафедри англійської мови Національного університету „Києво-Могилянська Академія”

Сєрякова І.І., канд. філол. наук, доцент кафедри граматики і історії англійської мови Київського національного лінгвістичного університету

© UKMA Київ 2007


[0.1] Academic Writing Style

[0.1.1] 1. The Differences between Spoken and Written Language


[] Exercise 1. Find the matches between more formal and common vocabulary.

[] A.

[] B.

[] C.

[] D.

[] Exercise 2. Match the following colloquial expressions with their formal equivalents:

[] Exercise 3. Edit the following text fragments according to the academic writing style:

[0.1.2] 2. Levels of Formality

[] Exercise 4. Organize the following sets of sentences in the order of formality as shown in the example above. The first one is done for you as a guide.

[] Exercise 5. Identify the inconsistency in levels of formality in the following text fragments and revise them.

[1] UNIT 2

[1.1] Paragraph Writing

[1.1.1] 1. Paragraph Structure

[] A Sample Paragraph


[] The Topic Sentence

[] PRACTICE: Topic Sentences

[] Exercise 1. Study the following pairs of sentences and check the one you think would be an appropriate and clear topic sentence for a paragraph. The first one is done for you.

[] Exercise 2. Underline the statement you think would make the best topic sentence of the paragraph.

[] Exercise 3. Improve the following topic sentences. Remember to limit your topic and controlling idea (be specific).

[] Exercise 4. Write a clear topic sentence about each of the topics. Remember, the topic sentence is a complete sentence. It must have a subject, a verb, and a controlling idea.

[1.1.2] 2. Unity. Coherence. Development

[] Three features of an effective paragraph

[] Organizing Patterns

[] Patterns of Paragraph Development



[] Paragraph Writing Evaluation Form

[2] UNIT 3

[2.1] Essay Writing

[2.1.1] 1. Organization of the Essay

[2.1.2] 2. The Introductory Paragraph

[] Practice: The Introductory Paragraph

[2.1.3] 3. The Concluding Paragraph

[] Practice: Concluding Sentences

[2.1.4] 4. Argumentative Essay

[] What is argument?

[] Formulating an arguable position

[] Formulating an argumentative thesis

[] Establishing credibility

[] Formulating support for the thesis

[] Formulating the counterarguments against the thesis


[2.1.5] 5. Argumentation Designs

[] Diagram I

[] Diagram II: Controlling Handguns – Pro and Con

[2.1.6] 6. The Writing Product

[] Content

[] Organization

[] Language

[] The Writing Process

[2.1.7] 7. Checklist of Essay

[] The Whole Essay

[] Paragraph

[] Sentence

[] Words

[2.1.8] 8. Sample Argumentative Essay

[] The predominant reason students perform better with

[] Practice. Revising the Essay

[] Heavy Traffic

[3] UNIT4

[3.1] Research Paper

[3.1.1] 1. What Is Research?

[3.1.2] 2. Steps in Writing a Research Paper

[] Note Taking

[] Bibliography

[3.1.3] 4. Paraphrase

[] A paraphrase is. . .

[] Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because. . .

[] Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

[] Some examples to compare

[] Practice. Write a paraphrase of each of the following passages.

[3.1.4] 5. Summary

[] Requirements for Summaries

[] Steps in Summarizing

[] A Sample Outline and Summary

[] The Outline

[] The Summary

[] Language Focus: The First Sentence in a Summary

[] Useful Phrases for Longer Summaries

[3.1.5] 6. Texts for Note-Taking, Paragraphing and Summarizing


[3.1.6] 7. Annotated Research Paper

[] Educating Kids at Home

[] Research Paper

[] Peer Editor’s Comments and Suggestions

[3.1.7] 8. Research Paper Abstracts


[4.1] Comparison of Punctuation Marks Usage in English and Ukrainian

[] Practice



[5.1.1] Index of MLA Style Features

[] Author/Page In-Text Citations

[] List of Works Cited

[] Books

[] Articles

[] CD-ROMs, Diskettes, and Tapes

[] Internet Sources

[] Other Sources

[5.1.2] Basic Features of MLA Style

[] Key Points

[] Two Basic Features of MLA Style

[] MLA author/page style for in-text citations

[] The MLA list of works cited


[] What to Do in the MLA List of Works Cited





[] Key Points

[] Citing Internet Sources


[6] Literature Used


Academic Writing Style

It should be noted that knowing about the process of essay writing and how to structure an essay is important; however, knowing about the appropriate style and conventions to use in your writing is equally significant. Academic writing is structured, formal and objective. Its language is often abstract and complex.

1. The Differences between Spoken and Written Language




Verbal and non-verbal


Verbal communication


Voice-based (intonation, loudness, tempo, rhythm, tone of voice, etc.)

Style-based (spatial organization, punctuation, syntax structure, word choice)


Situational (social context, attitudes)

Factual (communication of ideas)


Spontaneity and speed

Repeated reading and close analysis





1. Phrasal or prepositional verbs:

Research expenditures have gone up to $ 350 million. → have increased

2. Contractions:

The experiment won’t be over until the end of the year. → will not

3. Informal negative forms:

not…any → no
not…much → little
not…many → few
This approach does not promise many innovations. → few

4. Adverbs in the initial or final positions:

The result can be seen easily. → can be easily seen

5. Direct questions:

What should we do to improve the ecological situation? → We need to consider what we should do to improve the ecological situation.

6. “Run-on” expressions (“and so forth”, “etc.”):

These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD-players, etc.→ These semiconductors can be used in robots, CD-players, and other electronic devices.

7. Colloquial abbreviations and shortened words:

TV→ television,’ cause → because, fridge→ refrigerator.

8. Meaningless, vague, simplistic and/or weak words:

”very”, “really”, “pretty much”, “sort of”, “kind of”, “it is interesting to note”, “you know”, “well”, ”good”, “bad”, “thing”.

9. Addressing the reader directly, especially in more formal papers:

“as you know”, “as you can see”.

10. Personal pronouns (I, we), especially in more formal papers.

11. Conversational vocabulary (euphemisms, jargon, slang, clichés).

Compare the following two paragraphs: although the ideas expressed in the paragraphs are the same, one presents them in a much more formal, academic way.

Example 1

Example 2

Capital is a complex notion. There are many definitions of the word itself, and capital as applied in accounting can be viewed conceptually from a number of standpoints; that is, there is legal capital, financial capital and physical capital. The application of financial and physical concepts of capital is not straightforward as there are various permutations of these concepts applied in the business environment. . .
Capital is a difficult thing to understand. We can explain it in different ways, and in accounting we can look at it from different angles. Accountants talk about legal capital, financial capital and physical capital. How we apply financial and physical concepts of capital isn't easy because people in business use it differently. . .

Exercise 1. Find the matches between more formal and common vocabulary.

e.g., to appear (more formal) – to seem (common)


More Formal





















































































say no






























again and again




on and off








in the end




at first








at once





















laid back








































in charge









Exercise 2. Match the following colloquial expressions with their formal equivalents:

Colloquial Expression

Formal Alternative

  1.  a stumbling block
  1.  definitely
  1.  above board
  1.  intrinsic to
  1.  beyond a shadow of doubt
  1.  investigated alternatives
  1.  easier said than done
  1.  legitimate
  1.  explored every avenue
  1.  more difficult in practice
  1.  get through it
  1.  point of contention
  1.  got out of hand
  1.  reached an acceptable compromise
  1.  in recent years
  1.  recently
  1.  part and parcel
  1.  support through words but not through actions
  1.  pay lip service to
  1.  survive, penetrate
  1.  reached a happy medium
  1.  was no longer under control

Exercise 3. Edit the following text fragments according to the academic writing style:

  1.  If you fail the exam, you can’t enter the university.
    1.  The subjects didn’t have much difficulty with the task.
    2.  You can clearly see the difference between these two processes.
    3.  Nurses must take into consideration patients' dietary needs resulting from allergies, medication, medical conditions, and so on.
    4.  Public transport includes vehicles for public use on the roads, airways, waterways, etc.
    5.  These special tax laws have been enacted in six states: Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, etc.
    6.  A small bit of ammonium dichromate is added to the gelatin solution gradually.
    7.  OK, what are the causes of deformation? Many possibilities exist.
    8.  Industrial sites cause vast amounts of environmental pollution, so why do we still use them?
    9.  What is a team? A team can be one person but will usually end up including many more.

2. Levels of Formality

Academic writing is formal in style. It is not, however, possible to neatly divide English styles into 'formal' and 'informal' compartments. The relationship is more like a continuum with two extremes, as in this diagram:

For convenience, the continuum of formality can be cut up into various compartments in order to grade various texts and styles:

very informal

quite informal


quite formal

very formal

A large number of factors such as grammar, vocabulary, style, and punctuation contribute towards the 'tone' of a piece of writing.

Formality and informality are complex matters, but for general purposes the following scale of examples may be useful:

  1.  'This thing doesn't work right,' he told us.

very informal

  1.  He told us the thing didn't work right.

  1.  He told us that the machine wasn't/was not working or functioning properly.

  1.  We were informed that the machine was not functioning properly.

  1.  According to information received, the machine was defective.

very formal

Exercise 4. Organize the following sets of sentences in the order of formality as shown in the example above. The first one is done for you as a guide.


  1.  __ She told them later that she had not known about it while it was happening.
  2.  __ Her later verbal report indicated that at the time she was completely unaware of what was transpiring.
  3.  1. 'I didn't know about it while it was happening,' she told them later.
  4.  __ She informed them later verbally that she had not known about the event while it was taking place.
  5.  __ They were informed in her subsequent verbal report that she had had no knowledge whatever of the event at the time of its occurrence.


  1.  __ He asked whether she could come and pick the stuff up at his place.
  2.  __ He wondered if it was possible for her to come and collect the material at his house.
  3.  __ "Can you come and pick up the stuff at my place?" he asked her.
  4.  __ His request was that, if possible, she should collect the material at his place of residence.
  5.  __ She was asked if there was a possibility that she might collect the material at his house.


  1.  __ According to the astronomer, the name Capella refers to a star. 
  2.  __ "Capellas a star," said the astronomer.
  3.  __ The group was informed by the astronomer that the name Capella refers to a star.
  4.  __ The astronomer said that Capella is a star. 
  5.  __ The astronomer said Capeilas a star.


  1.  __ Chinese food is tasty. 
  2.  __ The cuisine of China appeals to most peoples taste buds.
  3.  __ Ones gustatory proclivities are very pleasantly stimulated by the traditional cuisine of China.
  4.  __ Chinese foods tasty.
  5.  __ Ones taste buds are stimulated very pleasantly by Chinese food.


  1.  __ The historian said: Hasan-e-Sabbah trained his assassins to kill his religious and political enemies.’
  2.  __ The assassins of mediaeval Persia were, according to the historian, trained by Hasan-e-Sabbah to kill his religious and political opponents.
  3.  __ The historian said that the assassins were trained by Hasan-e-Sabbah to kill his religious and political foes.
  4.  __ According to the historian, the members of the mediaeval Persian Sect of the Assassins were trained by their founder and leader, Hasan-e-Sabbah, to eliminate those who were religiously and politically opposed to him.
  5.  __ The members of the mediaeval Assassin Sect in Persia, according to the historian, were organized so as to facilitate the liquidation of all religious and political opposition to its founder and leader, Hasan-e-Sabbah.

Exercise 5. Identify the inconsistency in levels of formality in the following text fragments and revise them.

  1.  The question is, however, does the "Design School Model" provide a practical solution to the problem of how to formulate strategy?
  2.  The economist offered the business executives a lengthy explanation for the recent fluctuation in the stock market. But it was pretty obvious from their questions afterwards that they didn't get it.
  3.  To eliminate sexual harassment in the work place, companies should come up with clearly defined guidelines that help you figure out which actions to avoid. Merely telling people not to engage in sexual harassment doesn't do much to illustrate things to cut out. Therefore, to sensitize their personnel, some companies hold seminars in which employees who have complaints act out unpleasant or demeaning stuff directed at them by their bosses or fellow workers. Seeing such actions portrayed often helps the offender recognize how insulting some act was, even if the offending person didn't mean it like that. Discussions that get going later also help people realize how their actions affect those they work with, and further definitions or memos often aren't needed.


Paragraph Writing

1. Paragraph Structure

  1.  Topic sentence
  2.  Supporting sentences
    1.  First main supporting sentence
      1.  Supporting detail 1
        1.  Supporting detail 2
        2.  Supporting detail 3
    2.  Second main supporting sentence
      1.  Supporting detail 1
        1.  Supporting detail 2
        2.  Supporting detail 3
    3.  Third main supporting sentence
      1.  Supporting detail 1
      2.  Supporting detail 2
      3.  Supporting detail 3
  3.  Concluding sentence

A Sample Paragraph

History does seem to repeat itself, even in the way college students behave. In the 1840s students protested and acted in violent ways. Students at Yale, for example, objected to their mathematics course and burned their books in the streets. Some captured their tutor and kept him tied up all night, and others shot a cannon through tutor’s bedroom window. In the 1940s and 1950s students were a fun-loving, game-happy lot. They swallowed live goldfish, took part in dance marathons, and held contests to see how many people could crowd into phone booth. The more daring males broke into women’s rooms in “panty-raids,” then festooned their own rooms with the ill-gotten silks. Then, in the 1960s, students repeated the activities of the 1840s. They objected to their courses, littered the campuses with their books and papers, and locked teachers inside college buildings. They protested against all forms of social injustice, from war to the food in the cafeteria. The more violent threw rocks at the police, and a few planted bombs in college buildings. In the 1970s students repeated the fun and games of the forties and fifties. They held contests to see how many people could squeeze into a phone booth. They had dance marathons. The more daring ran naked across campuses, in a craze called “streaking”. The slightly less daring did their streaking with brown paper bags over their heads. Yes, history does seem to repeat itself, even in the sometimes violent and sometimes fun-and-games behavior of the students on college campuses.

Topic Sentence

History does seem to repeat itself, even in the way college students behave.

1. Main Point

In the 1840s students protested and acted in violent ways.

a. Supporting detail

Students at Yale, for example, objected to their mathematics course

b. Supporting detail

and burned their books in the streets.

c. Supporting detail

Some captured their tutor and

d. Supporting detail

kept him tied up all night, and

e. Supporting detail

others shot a cannon through tutor’s bedroom window.

2. Main Point

In the 1940s and 1950s students were a fun-loving, game-happy lot.

a. Supporting detail

They swallowed live goldfish,

b. Supporting detail

took part in dance marathons, and

c. Supporting detail

held contests to see how many people could crowd into a phone booth.

d. Supporting detail

The more daring males broke into women’s rooms in “panty-raids,”

e. Supporting detail

then festooned their own rooms with the ill-gotten silks.

3. Main Point

Then, in the 1960s, students repeated the activities of the 1840s.

a. Supporting detail

They objected to their courses,

b. Supporting detail

littered the campuses with their books and papers, and

c. Supporting detail

locked teachers inside college buildings.

d. Supporting detail

They protested against all forms of social injustice, from war to the food in the cafeteria.

e. Supporting detail

The more violent threw rocks at the police

f. Supporting detail

and a few planted bombs in college buildings.

4. Main Point

In the 1970s students repeated the the fun and games of the forties and fifties.

a. Supporting detail

They held contests to see how many people could squeeze into a phone booth.

b. Supporting detail

They had dance marathons.

c. Supporting detail

The more daring ran naked across campuses, in a craze called “streaking”. The slightly less daring did their streaking with brown paper bags over their heads.

Concluding Sentence

Yes, history does seem to repeat itself, even in the sometimes violent and sometimes fun-and-games behavior of the students on college campuses. 


  1.  A single-paragraph composition is based on a topic that is developed by examples, facts, or other specific information.
  2.  The paragraph should contain a sentence, called a topic sentence, in which the topic of the paragraph is clearly explained.
  3.  The topic should be explained, or developed, by major points and supporting details that are related to the topic.
  4.  The paragraph should contain enough specific major points and supporting details to explain, or develop, the topic.
  5.  The information included in the topic sentence, major points, and supporting details should be accurate.
  6.  When phrases or sentences of another person are used, the source (author and publication) should be cited.
  7.  The topic sentence should usually be placed at the beginning of the paragraph.
  8.  The major points and supporting details should be arranged in an order that is logical and related to the meaning.
  9.  The concluding information should be stated in the final sentences of the paragraph.

The Topic Sentence

The topic sentence is the most general statement of the paragraph. It is the key sentence because it names the subject and the controlling idea: the writer’s main idea, opinion, or feeling about that topic.

The topic sentence can come at the beginning or at the end of a paragraph. As a beginning writer, you should write your topic sentence as the first sentence of your paragraph for two reasons. First, it will tell the reader what you are going to say. Second, you can look back at the topic sentence often as you write the supporting sentences. It will help you stick to the subject as you write.

The topic sentence of your paragraph must also have a controlling idea. The controlling idea is the main point, opinion or feeling that you have about the subject, and it controls or limits what you will write about it in your paragraph.

PRACTICE: Topic Sentences

Exercise 1. Study the following pairs of sentences and check the one you think would be an appropriate and clear topic sentence for a paragraph. The first one is done for you.

  1.  Snow skiing on the highest slopes requires skill. + 
  2.  Snow skiing is fun.

  1.  Exercise is healthful.
  2.  Jogging is beneficial for several reasons.

  1.  Camping is a great outdoor activity.
  2.  Camping requires a variety of special equipments.

  1.  The legal age for drinking should be twenty-one for several reasons.
  2.  Drinking is dangerous to your health.

  1.  Small cars are popular.
  2.  Driving a VW Rabbit is economical.

  1.  Hong Kong is an exciting city.
  2.  Hong Kong is a shopper‘s paradise.

  1.  The violence on television can affect children’s emotional security.
  2.  Watching television is waste of time.

  1.  Smoking is a bad habit.
  2.  It is difficult to quit smoking for three reasons.

Exercise 2. Underline the statement you think would make the best topic sentence of the paragraph.


a. My sister spends hours a day on the Internet.

b. The “Information Highway” is growing every year.

c. Most of what I read on the Internet bulletin boards is garbage.


a. Ice cream is a popular food.

b. I often eat ice cream as a snack.

c. Ice cream contains more chemical additives than almost any other food we eat.


a. The bicycle is the most energy-efficient form of transportation ever invented.

b. Someone stole my mountain bike by cutting the chain.

c. My cousin rides her bicycle all year round except January and February.


a. Medical drugs can be just as dangerous as street drugs.

b. I often take two aspirins when I’m getting cold.

c. Drugs sometimes have a negative effect on the human body,


a. Chainsaws make a great deal of noise.

b. The chainsaw is the most dangerous tool that can be operated without a permit.

c. All chainsaws now have a chain brake to reduce bucking.

Exercise 3. Improve the following topic sentences. Remember to limit your topic and controlling idea (be specific).

  1.  I like sports.
  1.  Safety is important.
  1.  Small cars are popular.
  1.  Exercising is good for everyone.
  1.  Money is important.

Exercise 4. Write a clear topic sentence about each of the topics. Remember, the topic sentence is a complete sentence. It must have a subject, a verb, and a controlling idea.

  1.  a car
  1.  a restaurant
  1.  English
  1.  my school or hometown
  1.  marriage
  1.  being single
  1.  a hobby

2. Unity. Coherence. Development

Three features of an effective paragraph


What they mean

How to achieve them


A paragraph focuses on just one main idea

State the main idea clearly in one sentence – topic sentence


all paragraph parts are closely related

Use transitional devices and the organizing logical patterns: chronological, spatial, general–to–specific, specific–to–general


The main idea must be developed through specifics

Use the following methods of development: illustration, narration, defining, classifying, comparing and contrast, causes and effects, problem and solution, argumentation

Organizing Patterns

Spatial order

The central part of (San Francisco) lies on a series of hills. The Embarcadero, a crescent-shaped boulevard, borders the edge of peninsula; from it, Market Street, the principal thoroughfare, runs diagonally to the southwest, bisecting the city. North of Market Street is the main commercial sections of the city, and to the south are the older sections and industrial areas. Attractions in the downtown section include the Transamerica Pyramid Building, Chinatown, the theater district along Geary Street, Coif Memorial Tower on Telegraph Hill, and Fisherman’s Wharf.

Chronological order

Columbus began a fourth voyage in May 1502. After a three-week crossing, he anchored off Santo Domingo, where a hurricane damaged his fleet. Columbus completed repairs on his vessels and sailed to Honduras. He then cruised along the coast of Central America for nearly six months in search of the elusive westward passage across the continent. In January 1503 he landed in Panama and established a settlement there. When his ships foundered near Jamaica in June 1503, Columbus sent to Espanola for help. Nearly a year passed before the stranded party was rescued. After returning to Spain, Columbus never sailed again.

General to specific

Hollywood has always been a magnet for talent. In the early years, starstruck hopefuls flocked there from all over the United States. With the coming of the sound in the late 1920s, there was a demand for actors who could speak, playwrights and journalists to write dialogue, and a new breed of theater-trained directors. Europeans began arriving in the early 1920s; the rise of Hitler turned that trickle into a flood.

Specific to general

He lives in a cramped house in the suburbs and spends too long each day on packed trains commuting to and from work. He states late at the office, and feels he must go out drinking with his colleagues to win promotion. He is not entitled too much holiday, and takes even less. The life of the sarariman, Japan’s devoted company employee, leaves little time for leisure or the family. But it has its benefits: a secure job, a comfortable retirement, perhaps even a cushy sinecure at one of his company’s suppliers. At least, that was the deal when he joined the company 20 years ago. Nowadays, sarariman is increasingly likely to find himself out on the streets.

Patterns of Paragraph Development


The number of workers in the U.S. film industry is quite small. The entire industry occupies only a few square kilometers around Los Angeles and comprises only eight major filmmaking studios. There are only three large talent agencies that represent artists in their business negotiations. There are fewer than 100 important actors, and fewer than 50 major film directors.


A proverb is a concise statement, in general use, expressing a shrewd perception about everyday life or a universally recognized truth. Most proverbs are rooted in folklore and have been preserved by oral tradition. Proverbs are succinct and often use simple rhyme (“A friend in need is a friend indeed”), irony (“Physician, heal thyself”), metaphor (“Still waters run deep”), and comparison or contrast (“Feed a cold and starve a fever”).


There has always been a division between the movie stars who embodied a single, sharply defined quality (Greta Garbo and Marilyn Monroe, Fred Astaire and Clint Eastwood) and those who were willing to appear heroic or unattractive, and to challenge the audience’s expectations in a search for dramatic truth. It is latter breed--Bette Davis and Katherine Hepburn, Spencer Tracy and Marlon Brando among them—who inspire the most talented of today’s stars.

Comparison and Contrast

Comparing China and India, both think their economies are going poorly, but the Indians are the more dissatisfied. Both think they will do better next year, with the Chinese much more optimistic. Both also think the world economy will recover next year, again with the Chinese rather more optimistic.

Cause and Effect

The immediate cause of the February Revolution was the collapse of the czarist regime under the strain of World War I. Russian industry lacked the capacity to arm, equip, and supply the millions of men who were sent into the war. Soldiers went hungry, and casualties were enormous. Goods became scarce, and by 1917 famine threatened the large cities. The czar, Emperor Nicholas II, ignored warnings of social and political unrest, and in February 1917 workers occupied the Winter Palace.


It is nearly four months since Hurricane Mitch swept through Honduras…Edgardo Serrato points to the river, a docile trickle of water in the distance. “That…” he says, then swings round and points to the top of his field, “got up to there.” He turns back and indicates the barren, stony landscape on either side of the river. “And that,” he says, “used to look like those,” pointing to a thick patch of trees downstream. Finally, he sweeps his hand across his field, the soil newly sown with beans, now covered with sand up to half a metre deep. “And this is what it left us.”


While censorship is dangerous to a free society, some of the concerned citizens who are in favour of censorship may have valid points when they object that children should not be exposed to television violence. Indeed, often there is too much violence on television. Perhaps the answer is for all networks to establish the same guidelines of self-censorship. If the networks were more responsible and tried to avoid material that is in poor taste, governmental officials, religious groups, and concerned parents might not feel the need to be involved in their decisions at all.

Exercise 5. Define the logical pattern and explain why it is appropriate in the following paragraphs.

Paragraph 1

Sometimes we bury or hide our undesirable emotions. We do this because we have been programmed to do this. By the time we are five years old, our parents have influenced us to be affectionate, tender, angry, or hateful. We moralize our emotions. We tell ourselves it is good to feel grateful, but bad to feel angry or jealous. So we suppress emotions we should release. We get into “value conflicts.” Boys and men are not supposed to cry or show fear. So some men attempt to bury their true feelings and create a false self-image.

Paragraph 2

In the U.S., the age-old problem of excessive drinking is taking a disturbing new turn and affecting new kinds of victims. On a New York subway train, a school-bound 15-year-old holds his books in one hand, a brown paper bag containing a beer bottle in the other. He takes a swing, then passes the bottle to a classmate. In a San Francisco suburb, several high school freshmen show up for class drunk every morning, will others sneak off for a nip or two of whiskey during the lunch recess. On the campuses, the beer bash is fashionable once again, and lowered drinking ages have made liquor the without the hassle.

Paragraph 3

Cocaine has a long history of use and misuse in the United States. At the turn of the century, dozens of nonprescription potions and cure-alls containing cocaine were sold. It was during this time that Coca-Cola was indeed the “real thing.” From 1886, when it was first concocted, until 1906 when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed, Coca-Cola contained cocaine (which has since been replaced with caffeine). In the 1930s, the popularity of cocaine declined when the cheaper synthetic amphetamines became available. This trend was reversed in the 1960s when a federal crackdown on amphetamine sales made this drug less available and more expensive. Today, cocaine is becoming one of the most widely abused illegal drugs.

Exercise 6. Define the methods used to develop the following paragraphs and explain why this method is appropriate.

Paragraph 1

Every society tries to produce a prevalent psychological type that will best serve its ends, and that type is always prone to certain emotional malfunctions. In early capitalism, which was the producing society, the ideal type was acquisitive, fanatically devoted to hard work and fiercely repressive of sex. The emotional malfunctions to which this type was liable were hysteria and obsession. Later capitalism, today’s capitalism, is a consuming society, and the psychological type it strives to create, in order to build up the largest possible markets., is shallow, easily swayed and characterized much more by self-infatuation than self-respect. The emotional malfunction of this type is narcissism.

Paragraph 2

Now, to be properly enjoyed, a walk in tour should be gone upon alone. If you go in a company, or even in pairs, it is no longer a walking tour in anything but name; it is something else and more in the nature of a picnic. A walking tour should be gone upon alone, because freedom is the essence; because you should be able to stop and go on, and follow this way and that, as the freak takes you; and because you must have your own pace, and neither trot alongside a champion walker, nor mince in time with a girl. And then you must be open to all impressions and let your thoughts take color from what you see. You should be as a pipe for any wind to play upon. “I cannot see the wit,” says Hazlitt, “of walking and talking at the same time. When I am in the country, I wish to vegetate like the country” – which is the gist of all that can be said upon the matter. There should be no cackle of voices at your elbow to jar on the meditative silence of the morning. And so long as a man is reasoning he cannot surrender himself to that fine intoxication that comes of much motion in the open air, that begins in a sort of dazzle and sluggishness of the brain, and ends in a peace that passes comprehension.

Paragraph 3

It is impossible for Mexicans to produce the humblest thing without form or design. A donkey wears a load of palm leaves arranged on the either flank in great green sunbursts. Merchants hang candles by their wicks to make patterns in both line and color. Market coconuts show white new moonstrips above the dark, fibrous mass. Serapes are thrown with just the right line over the shoulders of ragged peons, muffling them to the eyes. Merchants in the market will compose their tomatoes, oranges, red seeds and even peanuts into little geometric piles. Bundles of husks will be tied in a manner suitable for suspension in an artist’s studio. To the traveler from the north, used to the treatment of cold, dead produce as cold, dead produce, this is a matter of perpetual wonder and delight.

Paragraph 4

The most essential distinction between athletics and education lies in the institution’s own interest in the athlete as distinguished from its interest in its other students. Universities attract students in order to teach them what they do not already know; they recruit athletes only when they are already proficient. Students are educated for something which will be useful to them and to society after graduation; athletes are required to spend their time on activities the usefulness of which disappears upon graduation or soon thereafter. Universities exist to do what they can for students; athletes are required for what they can do for the universities. This makes the operation of the athletic program in which recruited players are used basically different from an educational interest of colleges and universities.

Paragraph 5

There are many differences between the way American parents raise their children and the way the parents raise children in Saudi Arabia. In the U.S., fathers and mothers are equally responsible for raising their children. Both parents teach the children, play with them, and discipline them equally. Moreover, U.S. parents treat their children like adults and expect them to become both responsible and independent at a very young age. Many children of seven or eight have outside jobs to earn money, and most U.S. teenagers have at least part-time jobs that make them financially independent. In contrast, in my country, Saudi Arabia, parents have separate roles in raising their children, and they are expected to provide for all of their children’s needs until the children become adults. For example, it is the father’s responsibility to earn enough money to support his family completely, and it is also his duty to make all family decisions. The mother, however, is responsible for the everyday care of the children, and she is also expected to give the children her love and guidance in all things. The result of these differences is that American children, who became adults in childhood, often behave like children when they are adults, but Saudi Arabian children, who have passed through all the stages of childhood, are ready to behave like adults when they reach maturity.



A. Listing:

1. Enumeration indicates a cataloguing of what is being said. Most enumerations belong to clearly defined sets:

first,… furthermore,… finally,…
one,… two,… three,…
first(ly),… second(ly),… third(ly),…, etc.
above all

} mark the end of an ascending order

last but not least

first and foremost

} mark the beginning of a descending order

first and most important(ly)

to begin/start with,… in the second place,… moreover,… and to conclude,… next,… then,… afterward,… lastly/finally,…

2. Addition to what has been previously indicated.

a) Reinforcement (includes confirmation):

what is more
in addition
above all
as well (as)

b) Equation (similarity with what has preceded):

in the same way

Note I.

not only…(but) also…

From the point of view of meaning these are often the negative equivalents of and. Neither leaves the series open for further additions, whereas nor concludes it.

Note II. The truth of a previous assertion may be confirmed or contradicted by:

in (actual) fact
in reality

B. Transition can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought:

with reference/respect/regard to
let us (now) turn to…
as for

} often used when discussing something briefly

as to

by the way

}indicate a digressionand an afterthought

come to think of it

Spoken language

talking/speaking of. . .(informal)
apropos (formal)

}to introduce a digression 

that reminds me…


A.. Reformulation to express in another way:

in other words
in that case
to put it (more) simply

B. Replacement to express an alternative to what has preceded:

better/worse (still)…
on other hand
the alternative is…
another possibility would be


A. Contrast with what has preceded:

on the contrary
by (way of) contrast
in comparison
(on the other hand)…on the other hand…

B. Concession indicates the unexpected, surprising nature of what is being said in view of what was said before:

in any case
(or) else
in spite of/despite that
after all
all the same
at any rate
at the same time
on the other hand
even if/though
for all that

C. Summation indicates a generalization or summing-up of what has preceded:

in conclusion
to conclude
to sum up briefly
in brief
to summarize

D. Apposition used to refer back to previous sentences or to parallel or related references:

i.e., that is, that’s to say
viz., namely
in other words
or, or rather, or better
as follows
e.g., for example, for instance, say, such as, including, included, especially, particularly, in particular, notably, chiefly, mainly, mostly (of)

E. Result expresses the consequence or result of what has been said before:

as a result/consequence
the result/consequence is/was…
because of this/that
for this/that reason

F. Inference indicates a deduction from what is implicit in the preceding sentence(s):

in other words
in that case
equivalent to a negative condition
if so/not…
that implies
the conclusion is


  1.  Topic Sentence
    1.  Does the topic sentence begin the paragraph?
    2.  Has the topic or subject been narrowed or limited?
    3.  Does the topic sentence express an opinion or idea about the topic?
  2.  Support
    1.  Are specific and concrete details used for support?
    2.  Is the support too general or vague?
    3.  Which of the following types of support are used:
      1.  Short examples?
      2.  Extended or narrative examples?
      3.  Explanations?
      4.  Statistics?
      5.  Statements by authorities? (quotes and
      6.  paraphrases)
      7.  Descriptions?
  3.  Unity
    1.  Which supporting sentences directly relate to the idea expressed in the topic sentence?
    2.  Which supporting sentences do not directly support the idea expressed in the topic sentence?
  4.  Coherence
    1.  Is there a logical order to the support?
    2.  Is repetition used to keep the reader focused?
    3.  Is the support relationship to the main idea sufficiently explained?
      1.  Using: Synonyms referring to key words;
      2.  Pronouns referring to key words;
      3.  Repeating actual key words or ideas;
    4.  Is the paragraph consistent in:
      1.  Person? (1st, 2nd or 3rd)
      2.  Number? (singular, plural)
      3.  Tense? (Present, Past, etc.)
    5.  Are combining devices used to tie points or sentences together?
      1.  Transition;
      2.  Coordination;
      3.  Subordination.

Paragraph Writing Evaluation Form

Peer Editor’s Comments and Suggestions


1. What is the best feature of this paragraph?

Paper Format

2. Is the format correct? Does it look like the model?

Organization and Content

3. Topic sentence: Is there a clear topic sentence? Does it have a controlling idea?

4. Supporting sentences: Is the main idea clear? Does the writer need to add more details to explain it?

5. Concluding sentence: Is there a concluding sentence? Does it begin with an appropriate end-of-paragraph signal?

6. Unity: Do all of the sentences support the topic sentence?

7. Coherence: Do the sentences flow smoothly? Are there any inconsistent pronouns? Are transition signals used?

Sentence Structure

8. Are there any unclear sentences? Can you suggest a way to improve them?

Grammar and Mechanics

9. Are there any errors in grammar and mechanics?


Essay Writing

1. Organization of the Essay



Topic Sentence

Introductory Paragraph

General Statements



(supporting sentences)




Supporting Sentences


Supporting Sentences


Supporting Sentences

Concluding Sentence

Concluding Paragraph


Final Thoughts

2. The Introductory Paragraph

The introduction is the first paragraph of the essay. It begins the essay and has two parts: general statements and the thesis statement.

General statements give the reader background information about the topic of the essay. They should be interesting enough to keep the reader’s attention.

The thesis statement introduces the main idea of the essay.

  •  It states the main topic of the essay.
  •  It may list the subtopics of the main topic.
  •  It may also mention the method of organization.
  •  It is the last sentence of the introduction.

Practice: The Introductory Paragraph

Read the following introductory paragraphs, in each of which the sentences are in incorrect order. Rewrite each paragraph, beginning with the most general statement first. Then add each sentence in correct order, from the next most general to the least general. Write the thesis statement last.

1. (1) Therefore, workaholics’ lifestyles can affect their families, social lives, and health. (2) In addition, workaholics may not spend enough time in leisure activities. (3) Nowadays, many men and women work in law, accounting, real estate, and business. (4) These people are serious about becoming successful; they work long hours during the week and even on weekends, so they are called “workaholics.”


2. (1) Therefore, anyone who wants to drive must carry a driver’s license. (2) It is divided into four steps: studying the traffic laws, taking the written test, learning to drive, and taking the driving test. (3) Getting a driver’s license is a complicated process. (4) Driving a car is a necessity in today’s busy society, and it is also a special privilege.


3. The Concluding Paragraph 

The conclusion is the last paragraph of the essay. It does three things.

  •  It signals the end of the essay.
  •  It summarizes the main points.
  •  It leaves the reader with the writer’s final thoughts on the subject.

Concluding Sentences

To signal the end of an essay, use a conclusion transition signal such as in conclusion, in summary, or to summarize. Then, either summarize the main points of the essay or rewrite the thesis statement in different words.


Thesis statement:

In fact, television may be a bad influence on children for three main reasons.


In conclusion, if children watch too much television or watch the wrong programs, their personalities can be harmed. Furthermore, their progress in school can be affected.

Practice: Concluding Sentences

Read the following thesis statements. Circle the letter of the most appropriate concluding sentence. Notice that each concluding sentence begins with a transition signal.


1. My greatest problem in learning English is oral communication.

  1.  In conclusion, learning to read and write English is difficult.
    1.  In conclusion, because I do not speak English enough, my listening and speaking skills have not improved.
    2.  In conclusion, everyone should practice speaking English more.

2. Smoking is unhealthful because it can cause heart and lung disease; moreover, it is expensive.

  1.  In brief, buying cigarettes is a bad idea.
  2.  In conclusion, smoking affects your health, and it is also a waste of money.
  3.  Therefore, smoking is a bad habit.

3. In my opinion, college grades are necessary because they motivate students to do their homework and to attend classes regularly.

  1.  In conclusion, college grades are important.
  2.  In conclusion, students should be graded for their own good.
  3.  In conclusion, college grades are important because they cause students to be more serious and to try harder.

4. My major goals are getting a part-time job and mastering the use of the English language.

  1.  In conclusion, if I do not reach my goals, I will be unhappy.
  2.  In brief, finding a job and using English well are important to me.
  3.  In summary, my major goals are getting a part-time job and mastering the use of the English language.

5. London has excellent bus and subway systems.

  1.  In conclusion, the public transportation system in London provides reliable service at all times.
  2.  In conclusion, taking a bus in London is convenient.
  3.  In conclusion, taking public transportation is a good way to get around in London.

4. Argumentative Essay

What is argument?

Definitions from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd Edition:

  •  putting forth reasons for or against; debating;
  •  attempting to prove by reasoning; maintain or content;
  •  giving evidence of; indicate;
  •  persuading or influence (another), as by presenting reasons.

Formulating an arguable position

An arguable statement should:

  •  try to convince readers of something or to persuade them to do something;
  •  focus on a problem or question for which there is no easy or obvious answer;
  •  present a position about which others may reasonably have different opinions.

Formulating an argumentative thesis

An argumentative thesis is a particular type of thesis statement that has two parts:

  •  statement about what is (the arguable statement as done above);
  •  claim about what ought to be (what action should be taken in light of statement).

Establishing credibility

There are three ways to establish credibility

  •  demonstrating knowledge about the topic (ask how);
  •  establishing common ground with readers;
  •  demonstrating fairness to opposing points of view.

Formulating support for the thesis

You need not only present your opinion, but also support it with evidence.

  •  Using personal experience.
  •  Giving logical reasons to support your thesis
    •  giving examples and precedents;
    •  citing an authority or expert on the topic.
  •  Showing causes and effects.
  •  Using inductive and deductive reasoning.
  •  Giving emotional reasons to support your thesis
    •  using description;
    •  using concrete language;
    •  using figurative language (metaphors, similes, analogies).

Formulating the counterarguments against the thesis

When presenting counterarguments you should:

  •  Present at least two arguments against your point of view (counterarguments) with evidence.
  •  Answer these counterarguments with evidence.
  •  Avoid strong language (“This is a stupid idea”).


The classical system of argumentation
based on that of ancient Greek and Roman orators

The Introduction

  •  Gains reader’s attention (question, story, quotation).
  •  Establishes your qualifications to write about topic.
  •  Establishes common ground with readers.
  •  Demonstrates fairness.
  •  States thesis.

The Background (any necessary background information about the topic).

The Arguments

  •  Reasons in support of thesis (logical/emotional/ethical).
  •  Reasons presented in order of importance (most important first).

The Counterarguments

  •  Present alternative points of view.
  •  Notes reasons for/against these points of view.
  •  Shows why your view is better.

The Conclusion

  •  Summarize the argument.
  •  Elaborate on implications of the thesis (if we do this, then…).
  •  State what you want readers to think or do.
  •  Make a strong ethical or emotional appeal.

5. Argumentation Designs

Diagram I



Thesis: “This is so.”

“Of course, that is so, too.”

“But that is too high a price…

“And …


“…, and so forth.


Diagram II: Controlling Handguns – Pro and Con



Thesis: Possession of handguns should be controlled.

To be sure, self-protection is a natural right….

But pistols in homes kill many more relatives than intruders….

Of course, ownership by hunters and collectors is justified….

Large numbers of weapons in homes, however, give easy access to theft….

We concede that any restrictions invade privacy and freedom….

Nevertheless, the intrusion is no more restrictive than registering an automobile….

Indeed, all arguments about individual rights pale before the crime rate and the annual slaughter of individuals….

Besides, handguns kill thousands more in the United States than in any other country.

Therefore, controlling handguns is reasonable and necessary.

6. The Writing Product


  •  Does the essay have a main idea?
  •  Is the main idea developed and supported with examples, evidence?
  •  Are all the details in the essay relevant to the main idea?


  •  Is the main idea of the essay clearly started in a thesis statement?
  •  Does each paragraph contain only one main idea?
  •  Does each paragraph contain a topic sentence that clearly states the main idea?
  •  Is the main idea of each paragraph developed in an organized way?
  •  Are transition devices used to link sentences and paragraphs together?
  •  Does the conclusion summarize the main points made in the essay?


  •  Is the material taken from other sources correctly cited and used without plagiarism?
  •  Is the vocabulary appropriate for the topic?
  •  Do paragraphs contain a combination of simple and complex sentences?
  •  Are there any errors in grammar?
  •  Are there any errors in spelling and punctuation?

The Writing Process

1) Consider the purpose and audience

  •  Why are you writing this? (persuade readers to act, explain something, etc.)
  •  Who is going to read it? (what do they know, expect, do they agree with you, etc.)

2) Explore the topic

  •  Brainstorming
  •  Freewriting
  •  Clustering (do with “writing” as topic)
  •  Questioning (who, what, when, where, why, how?)

3) Develop a thesis statement (main idea)

  •  Include a topic (state the topic) and comment (make a point about the topic)
  •  Make it interesting, specific, and limited

4) Plan the essay

  •  Choose a pattern of organization for each paragraph
  •  Write out a plan (outline or list) for the essay

5) Write a first draft

  •  Write down your first ideas for the essay
  •  This may lead you to change your idea or organization plan
  •  It does not need to be a perfect, completed product at this point

6) Revise, edit and proofread

  •  Assess main ideas, organization, structure of paragraphs, variety of sentences, etc.
  •  Try and get feedback from others (teacher, other students)
  •  Proofread for spelling, punctuation, grammar

7. Checklist of Essay

The Whole Essay

  1.  Is the topic of the essay suitable for college writing and sufficiently narrow?
  2.  Does your thesis statement clearly communicate the topic and focus of the essay?
  3.  Does your thesis clearly reflect the purpose of the essay?
  4.  Does the essay reflect an awareness of its audience?
  5.  Does the essay take into account the special requirements – the assignment’s time limit, word limit, and other factors?
  6.  Does your essay have a logical organization pattern?
  7.  Is the tone of the essay suitable for its audience? Is an appropriate tone consistent throughout?
  8.  Is your thesis supported well by the main ideas of the paragraphs?
  9.  Do the paragraphs cover separate but related main ideas?
  10.  Have you covered all the material promised by your thesis statement?
  11.  Are the connections among the paragraphs clear?
  12.  Does your introduction lead into the thesis statement and the rest of the essay?
  13.  Does your conclusion provide a sense of completion?
  14.  Have you cut any material that goes off the topic?
  15.  Is the length of each paragraph in proportion to the whole essay and the length of the other paragraphs? (Remember that an introduction and conclusion are usually shorter than any of the body paragraphs in an essay.)
  16.  Does your essay have a title? Does it reflect the content of the essay, directly or indirectly?
  17.  Is your reasoning sound?
  18.  Does your essay avoid logical fallacies?


  1.  Does the introduction help your audience make the transition to the body of your essay?
  2.  Does each body paragraph express its main idea in a topic sentence as needed?
  3.  Are the main ideas – and topic sentences – clearly related to the thesis statement of the essay?
  4.  Are your body paragraphs developed? Is the development sufficient?
  5.  Does each body paragraph contain specific contain specific and concrete support for its main idea? Do the details provide examples, reasons, facts?
  6.  Are your facts, figures, and dates accurate?
  7.  Is each body paragraph arranged logically?
  8.  Does the conclusion give your reader a sense of completion?
  9.  Have you cut any material that goes off the topic?
  10.  Have you used necessary transition?
  11.  Do the paragraphs maintain coherence with pronouns, selective repetition, parallel structure?
  12.  Do you show relationships between paragraphs?


  1.  Are your sentences concise?
  2.  Have you eliminated sentence fragments?
  3.  Have you eliminated comma splices and fused sentence?
  4.  Have you eliminated confusing shifts?
  5.  Have you eliminated misplaced modifiers?
  6.  Have you eliminated dangling modifiers?
  7.  Have you eliminated mixed sentences?
  8.  Have you eliminated incomplete sentences?
  9.  Do your sentences express clear relationships among ideas?
  10.  Do you use coordination correctly?
  11.  Do you use subordination correctly?
  12.  Do your sentences avoid faulty parallelism?
  13.  Do you use parallelism as needed to help your sentences deliver their meaning?
  14.  Does your writing style reveal sensitivity to the need for variety and emphasis?
  15.  Do your sentences vary in length?
  16.  Does the structure of your sentences help convey the emphasis?


  1.  Have you used exact words?
  2.  Does your word choice reflect your intentions in denotation and connotation?

8. Sample Argumentative Essay

The predominant reason students perform better with

Multiple exams are that they improve their study habits.
Greater regularity in test taking means greater regularity in studying for tests. Students prone to cramming will be forced to open their textbooks more often, keeping them away from long, “kamikaze” nights of studying. Regularity prepares them for the “real world” where you rarely take on large tasks at long intervals. Several tests also improve study habits by reducing procrastination. An article about procrastination from the Journal of Counseling Psychology reports that “students view exams as difficult, important, and anxiety provoking.” These symptoms of anxiety leading to procrastination could be solved if individual test importance was lessened, reducing the stress associated with the perceived burden.
With multiple exams, this anxiety decrease will free students to perform better. Several, less important tests may appear as less of an obstacle, allowing the students to worry less, leaving them free to concentrate on their work without any emotional hindrances. It is proven that "the performance of test-anxious subjects varies inversely with evaluation stress." It would also be to the psychological benefit of students if they were not subjected to the emotional ups and downs of large exams where they are virtually worry-free one moment and ready to check into the psychiatric ward the next.
Lastly, with multiple exams, students can learn how to perform better on future tests in the class. Regular testing allows them to "practice" the information they learned, thereby improving future test scores. In just two exams, they are not able to learn the instructor's personal examination.

Practice. Revising the Essay

A. The following essay needs to be revised. It has some problems in each of its paragraphs. Refer to the Essay Checklist as you study the essay paragraph by paragraph.

Work with a partner or with a small group. One person in each group should write down the problems in each part of the essay as they are being discussed.

After the group discussion is completed, join in a class discussion to compare your findings with those of the other groups.

Heavy Traffic

The traffic problem is growing in most big cities. There are many overcrowded streets and freeways. Because there are too many cars and other vehicles. There are not enough parking facilities in the busy downtowns areas. However, the heavy traffic problem can be solved in three ways.
More rapid transit systems should be build between the cities and suburbs. Then, people who lives in the suburbs and works in the cities can get to their destinations quick and safely. By using rapid transit systems, commuters will leave their cars at home. This will reduce the number of cars on the freeways. And the streets in the busy downtown areas. Many people like to shop in the department stores in big cities. In Japan the metropolitan areas have excellent railway lines for commuting within the cities. There are also dependable subway systems to connect large city like Tokyo and Osaka.
Car pools are a good way to ease the heavy traffic during the commuter rush hours. A car pool is an arrangement by a group of car owners to take turns driving their car to work and other places. For example. If several people live near one another in the same suburb and work in a big city. Like Boston, Manhattan, or Los Angeles, they can form a car pool. They can take turns driving to the city and back. With more people using car pools. There will be fewer traffic jams and accidents. Public transportation systems within the cities must be improved. People who live in large cities should take buses and streetcars to go downtown. If they leave their cars at home. They can avoid the commuter rush. They can get to their destinations and return home much more quickly.
In conclusion, car pools are necessary.

B. Rewrite the essay above. Correct the organization, paragraphing, sentence structure, and grammar as necessary.


Research Paper

1. What Is Research?


  1.  Research is not mere information gathering.
  2.  Research is not mere transportation of facts from one location to another.
  3.  Research is not merely rummaging for information.


  1.  Although research projects vary in complexity and duration, research typically has six distinct characteristics:
  2.  Research originates with a question or problem.
  3.  Research requires a clear articulation of a goal.
  4.  Research follows a specific plan of procedure.
  5.  Research usually divides the principal problem into more manageable subproblems.
  6.  Research accepts certain critical assumptions.
  7.  Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to resolve the problem that initiated the research.

2. Steps in Writing a Research Paper

Generally, there are seven distinct steps requiring you to produce several hand-ins over an assigned period of time. With some variations, many instructors will more or less observe this schedule:


  1.  A topic must be selected that is complex enough to be researched from a variety of sources, but narrow enough to be covered in ten or so pages.
  2.  Exploratory scanning and in-depth reading must be done on the approved topic.
  3.  The information gathered must be recorded (usually on note cards) and assembled into a coherent sequence.
  4.  A thesis statement must be drafted, setting forth the major idea of your paper.
  5.  The paper must be outlined in its major.
  6.  The paper must be written in rough draft and the thesis argued, proved, or supported with the information uncovered from the sources. Borrowed ideas, data, and opinions must be acknowledged.
  7.  A bibliography must be prepared, listing all sources used in the paper. The final paper must be written.


  1.  Two acceptable topics, one of which will be approved by the instructor.
    A bibliography of all titles to be used in the paper.
  2.  Note cards, a thesis statement, and an outline. (Papers following the MLA format will require an abstract rather than an outline.)
  3.  A rough draft of the paper.
  4.  The final paper, complete with bibliography.

Here are two bibliographical cards made out correctly, one for a book, the other for an article in a magazine. On each side is an explanation of the entry on the card:

Author's name

Bibliographical Title (underlined)


Place of publ.


Dewey decimal


Lib. Of Congress

Riebel, John P.      1


Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey



Cal Poly     R 548

HF 5726 R52

Key Number

Call Number

Figure 1. A note card for a book

Date of publication?

Author's name

Bibliographical Title in quotes

Title of magazine

Vol. and No.

inclusive pages


Riebel, John P.      2


The American Salesman

Vol. 1, No. 9

May, 1956

pp. 50-61

Cal Poly

Key Number

(No call Number)

Figure 2. A note card for an article in a magazine

Note Taking

If your bibliographical cards are not numbered with a key number, then each time you take a note from any source, you will have to copy the complete bibliographical information given in the card in Figure 1, except, of course, the library and the call number. When dozens of notes are taken, this can become quite a chore.

If, however, you use a different key number for each bibliographical reference, then all you have to do when taking a note is to write in the upper right-hand corner the appropriate key number. That can save you a lot of writing.


The first thing to do after you have chosen your topic is to make a list or bibliography of information on your subject: books, manuals, pamphlets, articles, etc. You will find it far more satisfactory to make such a list on cards, 3 x 5, 4 x 6, or whatever size you wish, putting the following bibliographical information on the card, ONLY ONE ENTRY TO A CARD:

1. The author's name (if given)—last name first, first name, middle name. Since some books, manuals, booklets, and even articles do not use an author's name, then start with the title.

2. The title of the work. If the work is a separate publication (book, handbook, manual, booklet, dictionary, etc.), the title should be underlined once. This is the printer's cue to put these words in italic type. If the work is not a separate publication but an article in a journal or magazine, a chapter in a book, a section in a handbook, then put double quotation marks around the title. (See Figures 1 and 2 on the facing page.)

3. If the book has gone into several editions, indicate this in parentheses immediately following the underlined title.

For a book:

4. The name of the publisher.

5. The place of publication.

6. The date of duplication.

[Maybe, we should provide examples only in this section and above]?

For an article:

4. The title of the magazine or journal.

5. The volume and the number.

6. The date of the magazine.

The inclusive pages on which the article appeared.

In Figure 3 we have a note card that is a direct quotation from the source. Quotation marks are necessary. This is not true of the note card in Figure 4, because this is a paraphrase of the information between pages 40 and 57 of the source.


A direct quotation from this source


Routine Business Letters     1

"No matter what kind of letter you write, treat it as a unique opportunity to spend a few moments of your busy day with your customer, friend. Inquiries, replies, acknowledgements too often are considered
as merely 'routine'. This should not be!"


Key Number

Figure 3. A note card (quotation)


A paraphrase of

the information or

substance in this reference


Letter Planning      2

Successful business letters just don't happen—they are carefully planned according to this formula:

A I D C A + CSP = O. K. This means: Attract your

reader's favorable attention, arouse his Interest, make him Desire (want) to do what you ask. Convince him he ought to do it, and then you'll get the Action you want. Add a Central Selling Point and you'll have a successful letter—one that will get results.

pp. 40-57

Key Number

Figure 4. A note card (citation)

4. Paraphrase

A paraphrase is. . .

  •  your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form;
  •  one’s legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source;
  •  a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because. . .

  •  it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
  •  it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
  •  the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

  1.  Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
    1.  Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
    2.  Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
    3.  Check jour rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
    4.  Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
    5.  Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

Some examples to compare

Original passage 1

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and, as a result, they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. - Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

An acceptable summary:

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

A plagiarized version:

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

Here is a passage from a book on home schooling and an example of a paraphrase:

Original Passage 2

Bruner and the discovery theorists have also illuminated conditions that apparently pave the way for learning. It is significant that these conditions are unique to each learner, so unique, in fact, that in many cases classrooms cannot provide them. Bruner also contends that the more one discovers information in a great variety of circumstances, the more likely one is to develop the inner categories required to organize that information. Yet life at school, which is for the most part generic and predictable, daily keeps many children from the great variety of circumstances they need to learn well. –David Guterson, Family Matters: Why Homeschooling Makes Sense, p. 172.


According to Guterson (172), the "discovery theorists," particularly Bruner, have identified the conditions that allow learning to take place. Because these conditions are specific to each individual, many children are not able to learn in the classroom. According to Bruner, when people can explore information in different situations, they learn to classify and order what they discover. The general routine of the school day, however, does not provide children with the diverse activities and situations that would allow them to learn these skills.

Practice. Write a paraphrase of each of the following passages.

  1.  "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon (May 1990). 17.
  2.  The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and the law was a bad joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. They were the years when organized crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land, and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of the young. The flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else, America's break with the past. From Kathleen Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25.
  3.  Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.
  4.  Matisse is the best painter ever at putting the viewer at the scene. He is the most realistic of all modern artists, if you admit the feel of the breeze as necessary to a landscape and the smell of oranges as essential to a still life. "The Casbah Gate" depicts the well-known gateway Bab el Aassa, which pierces the southern wall of the city near the sultan's palace. With scrubby coats of ivory, aqua, blue, and rose delicately fenced by the liveliest gray outline in art history, Matisse gets the essence of a Tangier afternoon, including the subtle presence of the bowaab, the sentry who sits and surveys those who pass through the gate. From Peter Plagens, "Bright Lights." Newsweek (26 March 1990): 50.
  5.  While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it is unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building. From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.

5. Summary

A summary (Ukr. розширена анотація, sometimes реферат) is a shortened version of a text aimed at giving the most important information or ideas of the text. Summarizing is an important part of writing academic papers, which usually include extensive references to the work of others. At Ukrainian universities, writing summaries of professional and scientific texts in English is often an examination assignment. The development of summarizing skills is therefore important for those who wish to master English academic writing. We will consider here the rules for writing summaries of texts, which, however, may be extended to book summaries.


Requirements for Summaries

A good summary satisfies the following requirements:

1. It condenses the source text and offers a balanced coverage of the original. Avoid concentrating upon information from the first paragraph of the original text or exclusively focusing on interesting details.

2. It is written in the summary writer's own words.

3. It does not evaluate the source text and is written in a generally neutral manner.

4. The first sentence of the summary contains the name of the author of a summarized text, its title, and the main idea.

5. The summary uses enough supporting details and transition devices that show the logical relationship of the ideas.

6. It satisfies the requirements set to its length (which may be quite different; however, for a rather short text, the summary is usually between one-third and one-fourth of its length).

Steps in Summarizing

1. Skim the original text and think about the author's purpose and main idea of the text.

2. Try to divide the text into sections, or, if it has subheadings, think about the idea and important information that each section contains.

3. Now read the text again highlighting with a marker important information in each section or taking notes. You may also write an outline of the text.

4. Try to write a one-sentence summary of each section/part of the outline in your own words; avoid any evaluation or comments. Use the words and expressions synonymous to those used by the author of a summarized text.

5. Decide what key details may be added to support the main point of the text and write them down.

6. Write the first sentence of the summary with the name of the author of a summarized text, its title, and the main idea.

7. Add appropriate transition devices (logical connectors) to show the logical relationship of the ideas and to improve the flow of the summary.

8. Go through the process again making appropriate changes if necessary.

A Sample Outline and Summary


Allan Nevins and Henry Steele Commager

Part of the heritage that the colonies were to bequeath the young nation is evident at a glance. The fact of a common language, the English tongue, was of immeasurable value. It was one of the great binding elements which made a true nation possible. The long and steadily broadening experience with representative forms of government was another priceless part of the heritage. We may take it rather for granted until we remember that the French and Spanish colonies had nothing to show in representative self-government: the British alone permitted their colonists to erect popular assemblies and to create governments in which both electors and representatives had real political responsibility. The result was that British colonists were politically minded and politicallv experienced. The respect paid to essential civil rights was (another important element in the heritage, for the colonists had as firm a belief in freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly as did Britons at home. These rights were not completely secure, but they were cherished. The general spirit of religious toleration in the colonies, and the recognition that different sects could and should get on with entire amity, must be included in the roster) Every' faith was protected under the British flag; despite the traditional fear of Catholicism in England. Parliament was even charged by some colonials after 1763 with showing excessive favor to that religion.
(Equally valuable) was the spirit of racial toleration, for people of different blood—English, Irish, German, Huguenot, Dutch, Swedish—mingled and intermarried with little thought of any difference.
And we should certainly mention the strong spirit of individual enterprise which manifested itself in the colonies, an individualism always noteworthy in Britain herself, but which was now heightened under the pressure of life in a rich but wild and difficult land. The British never permitted such monopolies within the colonies as had crushed individual effort in the French and Spanish dominions. Enterprise irrepressibly responded to opportunity. (Taken together, these parts of the colonial heritage were a treasure worth far more than shiploads of gold or acres of diamonds.)
Two basically American ideas had also taken root during the colonial period. One was the idea of democracy, in the sense that all men are entitled to a rough equality of opportunity. It was to gain opportunity for themselves and still more for their children that a host of settlers had come .to the New World. They hoped to establish a society in which every man should not only have a chance, but a good chance; in which he might rise from the bottom to the very top of the ladder. This demand for equality of opportunity was to bring about increasing changes in the social structure of America, breaking down all sorts of special privileges. It was to effect marked changes in education and intellectual life, making America the most common-schooled" nation in the world. It was to produce great political changes, giving the ordinary man a more direct control of government. (Altogether, it was to be a mighty engine for the betterment of the masses.)
The other basic idea was the sense that a special destiny awaited the American people and that they had before them a career such as no other nation was likely to achieve. This general wealth, the energy of the people, and the atmosphere of freedom which enveloped both imparted to Americans a fresh and buoyant optimism and an aggressive self-confidence. The idea of a peculiarly fortunate destiny was to be one of the main forces in the swift expansion of the American people across the continent. It was sometimes to have evil effects; that is, it was to lead Americans to rely all too easily on Providence when they should have been taking painful thought to meet their difficulties—it was to make them complacent when they should have been self-critical. But, along with the idea of democracy, it was on the whole to give American life a freshness, breadth, and cheerfulness, that were matched nowhere else. The new land was a land of promise, of hope, of steadily widening horizons.

The Pocket History of the United States, pp. 53-55. Copyright 1951, 1956, 1966 by Allan Nevins and Henry Steele Commager.

The Outline

From this marked reading selection, the following outline may be made

The Colonial Heritage

I. Parts of the heritage

A. A common language

B. Representative government

C. Respect for civil rights

D. Religious toleration

E. Racial toleration

F. The spirit of individual enterprise

II. Two basically American ideas

A. Idea of democracy—equal opportunity

1. Social changes

2. Educational changes

3. Political changes

B. Sense of special destiny

1. Evil effects

2. Good effects

The Summary

Now we are ready for the summary. The following summary has been reduced to half the original length. Parentheses have been placed around supporting details for main points, many of which can be omitted if a shorter summary is desired.
The heritage that the colonies left to the new nation can be quickly seen. Very valuable was the fact of a common language, English (which acted as a unifying element). Another priceless part of the heritage was the experience with representative forms of government. (The British colonies, unlike the French and Spanish colonies, were permitted to have governments that gave political experience to both the representatives and the people who elected them.)
Another important element in the heritage was the respect paid to civil rights. (The colonists believed strongly in freedom of speech, of the press, and of assembly.) In addition the colonists believed in religious toleration. (Every faith was protected in the British colonies.) Racial toleration also was part of the heritage. (People of all races mixed and intermarried.)
We must also include in the heritage the spirit of individual enterprise which developed in the rich but wild land. (The monopolies that had discouraged individual effort in the French and Spanish colonies were not permitted in the British colonies, and so the British colonists could take great advantage of the opportunities that were open to them.)
During the colonial period, two basic American ideas also began to develop. The first (or One) was the idea of democracy, which granted to everyone the same opportunity to get ahead. The demand for equality brought about many social, educational and political changes. (Or, more fully: The demand for equality brought about many social changes by breaking down special privileges. It also produced educational changes by offering the most education provided by any country in the world. In addition, it produced political changes by giving its citizens more responsibility in government.)
The other (or The second) basic idea was the sense of special destiny, (The wealth of the country, the energy of the people, the atmosphere of freedom gave them a feeling of optimism and strong self-confidence.) This feeling of special destiny sometimes had bad effects. (There were times when the American people trusted m fate when they should have tried harder to face their difficulties.) On the whole, however, those two basic ideas gave the Americans a sense of freshness, cheerfulness and hope that could be found nowhere else.

The following language focus provides some additional suggestions on how to begin your summary.

Language Focus: The First Sentence in a Summary

Most summaries begin with a sentence containing two elements: the source and the main idea. Notice the use of the present tense in the last three examples.


In Anthony Tyson's article "Mapping Dark Matter with Gravitational Lenses,” … (main idea).

According to Yvonne Boskin in her article "Blue Whale Population May Be Increasing off California," … (main idea).

Young and Song's 1991 paper on fluoridation discusses … (main topic).

Author Peter Bernstein in his book Capital Ideas
that …(main idea),

Marcia Barinaga, in her article "Is There a Female Style in Science?"
argues maintains
that …(main idea).

Useful Phrases for Longer Summaries

In longer summaries, it is advisable to remind a reader that you are summarizing. For this purpose, you may use the following patterns also adding some logical connectors (such as further, also, in addition, furthermore, moreover, etc.) and using, if necessary, other reporting verbs (see Unit 4, p. 81).

In the third chapter of the book, the author (or his name) presents . . .
The author (or his name) (also) argues/believes/claims/describes/
explains/states that. . .
The author continues/goes on to say . . .
The author (further) states that . . .
The author (or his name) concludes that . . .

In longer summaries, the author's name is usually mentioned at least three times—at the beginning, the middle, and the end. Although some
reporting verbs have an evaluative meaning, they are used in summaries.

6. Texts for Note-Taking, Paragraphing and Summarizing

Text 1


By John Greenlees
Overseas student numbers in Japan have soared by 32 per cent in just one year, the ministry of education has revealed. There are now 41,000 foreign students at higher education institutions in the country. The new figures from the ministry (Monbusho) indicate steady progress towards the government's target of 100,000 foreign students studying in Japan by the end of the decade. They include students undertaking specialised courses at vocational schools as well as those attending junior colleges, universities and graduate schools. The number of foreign students enrolled for university degree and postgraduate courses now stands at 16,177 and 12,383 respectively. The University of Tokyo, the country's highest ranked university, and Waseda University, one of the country's top private schools, are the two most popular destinations. One thousand one hundred and sixty-one foreign students are studying at the University of Tokyo and 1,061 foreign students are studying at Waseda University. The Monbusho's survey shows that 91 per cent of Japan's foreign students are from the nearby Asian countries of China, South Korea and Taiwan. The contingent of 18,063 Chinese students represents the largest national group, accounting for 44 per cent of Japan's total intake of foreign students.
Only 1,180 of Japan's growing number of foreign students are from the United States, a number that the Monbusho would like to see increase. It is also keen to attract more students from the United Kingdom and other European states.
Most of Japan's foreign students are paying their own tuition fees. Only 4,961 students are receiving scholarships from the Japanese government and 1,026 students are sponsored by their own governments. The most popular courses are related to economics, business and finance, followed by engineering and industrial design. Record numbers of foreign scientists are also being recruited by Japanese research laboratories to compensate for the shortfall in Japanese graduates interested in taking up careers in science. The lure of higher wages and more attractive working conditions is encouraging many of Japan's best graduates to take up posts in the business sector. University research is proving an unpopular career option. Low wages, and poor promotion prospects, have discouraged many science graduates from considering careers in academia. Susumu Tonegawa, one of the few Japanese scientists to be awarded a Nobel prize, has repeatedly criticised the inflexible career structures in Japanese research laboratories. In universities, he says, young scientists spend most of their time as assistant researchers running errands for their professors. Careers in science are also associated with long hours in poor working conditions. "Science lacks appeal for Japan's affluent, and increasingly leisure-oriented, young people," says lecturer Noboru Oda.
In spite of efforts to popularise science in the nation's schools, many high school graduates entering higher education are rejecting places in science faculties and opting for courses in the arts and social sciences.

Text 2


By Boffin and Joe Public
Susan Young meets a scientist dedicated to overcoming people's awe--and fear–-of science.
THE trouble with scientific education in this country, says Professor John Durant, is that it is geared to producing future researchers and academic high-flyers. What it does not do is produce school-leavers who are scientifically literate, possessing the basic tools of understanding. 'Most people in this country can read and write, and the reason is because universal education instills the principles into most children. If we are going to have a scientifically literate population — people who can find their way around the world of science in a reasonably competent way — then first and foremost it's the responsibility of schools to 'instill the basics,' he says. "The notion of literacy is very relevant. Reading and writing is an enormous asset, but we don't describe someone as literate if they are just deeply familiar with a particular book like Tom Sawyer.' It is something which concerns Durant: indeed, it is his life's work. As Assistant Director of the Science Museum and Imperial College's Professor in the Public Understanding of Science, his job for the past three years has been to work out exactly why there is such an enormous gulf between what tabloids still refer to as boffins' and their readers.
The paradox is that in an increasingly technological age we need to be more aware of science - but instead, many people are baffled by it. Few owners of such common place kitchen gadgets as microwaves can explain how they work, and ignorance breeds fear - such as that described by one woman interviewed by Durant who wondered if she shouldn't cook the family meals wearing a lead apron.
One of Durant's surveys, which compared basic scientific knowledge on both sides of the Atlantic, found just 31 per cent of Britons and 43 per cent of Americans knew electrons are smaller than atoms. Almost a third of Britons and almost a quarter of Americans believe antibiotics kill viruses as well as bacteria - despite a far higher interest in matters medical rather than other branches of science among both groups. Although statistically the average scores of both groups turned out to be similar - 9.26 correct answers out of 15 for the British and 10.02 for the Americans - detailed results were more worrying. The survey, published in 1989, discovered that 34 Britons gave two or fewer correct answers, against only three Americans - and this on a quiz that included what the authors described as 'morale-boosting' questions such as 'the centre of the earth is very hot'.-At the other end of the scale, 91 Americans but only 11 Britons got top marks.
But Durant does not think rote-leaning of yet more scientific 'facts' in schools is the answer. 'The world is a fast-changing place and even people who have stayed at school until 18 will find their knowledge is out of date by the time they are 28. Ten years is a long time in science. The media, museums and so on all play a part in keeping people up to date, but they need the basic grounding. 'School should be a foundation. I think the problem we have still got with the education system in general in this country is that it is geared to the principle of training an elite who are going to become highly skilled or perhaps even professional scientists. 'Compare it with the teaching of music, for instance, and you would be giving all schoolchildren the training of concert violinists. An education designed for maximum benefit would be for the understanding of music - musical appreciation, if you like.' What Durant would like to see children given is a greater understanding of what science is really like, how it works and how it affects everyday life - 'whether eggs contain salmonella or are safe to eat, what happened at Chernobyl and so on'.

Text 3

Below is an excerpt from the article "The keys to a civil society—diversity, tolerance, respect, consensus" by Damon Anderson. While reading, check your knowledge of the underlined words and expressions consulting a dictionary
if necessary. Write a summary of the text following all steps in the summarizing process. Then compare your summary with the text of your classroom partner and ask him/her to evaluate it according to the requirements for summaries listed


As we have read about or experienced in our own lives, the advances in technology and transportation are creating a more mobile and global community. The global economy is building a new network of relationships between people and countries. People from all walks of life and all cultures are connecting with each other on a daily basis. For example, 148 million people worldwide are communicating across borders via the Internet. With the changes in populations due to the effects of climate, disease, and violent conflicts, as well as the changes in life expectancy, traditional institutions and the world's labor force are evolving. Such barriers as those between the young and the old, male and female, and prejudices against individual groups such as the physically impaired are increasingly being challenged.
Because of these changes and the growing globalization, diversity is an issue that pervades every society. It is something that has impact on every person and so it is an issue that needs to be addressed. The most common subjects related to diversity center around race, color, gender, religion, and economic status. Many other related subjects are also often considered such as education, language, physical abilities, age, and culture. Diversity even relates to more specific subjects such as personal preferences. . . .
Throughout history, peoples and societies generally tended toward a more homogeneous approach in their development and were often afraid of or prejudiced against differences. Standards and norms were established according to the beliefs of the dominant group(s) or culture(s). National identities used to be developed on the principle of sameness—sameness of ethnic origin, sameness of language, sameness of religion, and so on. Laws were created to exclude or even punish certain differences. Groups and societies saw anyone (or group) that was different as being automatically suspect and often inferior. Civil wars and world wars have been fought over issues relating to diversity.
With the quickly expanding concept and realization of more interrelated communities, nations and societies have begun to focus more on the variety that diversity brings. It is becoming more evident that differences can add value and quality. For example, Western medicine is beginning to accept such Eastern alternatives as acupuncture. . . . And breaking the age discrimination barrier, U.S. astronaut and Senator John Glenn made his second voyage into space at the age of 77 in order to conduct various experiments related to age. Today's generations are beginning to look for or build common threads around which differences can exist in harmony and the values in the differences can he shared. The concept of sameness is being replaced with unity. . . .
This change in view, however, is not coming easily to the world, Many
long-standing prejudices and practices counter to diversity still exist n all societies. Education is one of the keys to diminishing the prejudices against diversity. Awareness is the first step in the process. Helping students to become aware of the diversity around them and to recognize the value in that diversity is key to building a strong civil society.


Original I

In the phase of incipient population decline, the conditions for advancement alter significantly. The inner-directed person is able to see industrial and commercial possibilities and to work with the zeal and ruthlessness required by expanding frontiers in the phase of transitional growth of population. Societies in the phase of incipient population decline, on the other hand, need neither such zeal nor such independence. Business, government, the professions, become heavily bureaucratized, as we see most strikingly, for instance, in France. Such societies increasingly turn to the remaining refractory components of the industrial process: the men who run the machines. Social mobility under these conditions continues to exist. But it depends less on what one is and what one does than on what others think of one—and how competent one is in manipulating others and being oneself manipulated. . . .
David Riesman—The Lonely Crowd

Sample I

As the number of people in a society decreases and as it becomes increasingly more industrialized, the productivity and internal character values of individuals become less important than their ability to interact with and manage or use and be used by other people in a newly bureaucratic social environment.

1. Sample I could best be described as an

  1.  unacceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  2.  acceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  3.  unacceptable summary of Original I.
  4.  acceptable summary of Original I.

Sample II

When a society decreases in numbers of people, a change takes place in
the rules that govern their chance at upward mobility. At first "inner-
directed" (operating from an internalized set of values) individuals
struggle to realize the financial goals that open horizons have suggested to them. But when there are fewer people, there is less room for such rugged individualism.

2. Sample II could best be described as an

  1.  unacceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  2.  acceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  3.  unacceptable summary of Original I.
  4.  acceptable summary of Original I.

Sample III

In times of population decline, conditions for advancement change. The inner-directed person can see financial possibilities and works hard, with the necessary zeal and ruthlessness demanded by expanding horizons in the transitional phase. In the next phase, the population has declined and society doesn't need these qualities.

3. Sample III could best be described as an

  1.  unacceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  2.  acceptable paraphrase of the first part of Original I.
  3.  unacceptable summary of Original I.
  4.  acceptable summary of Original I.

4. Because Reisman first originated the concept of "inner-directed" individuals

Sample I rightly avoids using the term.

Sample II rightly uses the term.

Sample III rightly uses the term.

The term cannot be used in paraphrase or summary.

5. The first sentence in both Sample II and Sample III suggest the same idea, but the word choice

  1.  in III is too similar to Original I.
  2.  in II is too similar to Original I.
  3.  in II is better because it is more concise.
  4.  in III is better because it is more concise.

6. The sentence structure of Original I is

  1.  too complex to paraphrase completely.
  2.  most closely echoed in Sample I.
  3.  most closely echoed in Sample II.
  4.  most closely echoed in Sample III.

Original II

"Over the carnage rose prophetic a voice," wrote Walt Whitman, catching the spirit of that great moment. "Affection shall solve the problems of freedom yet." Could his prophecy have been fulfilled . . . ? It certainly might have been, had things been left to the fighting officers and men. Commissioners appointed by Lee and Grant to arrange practical details of the surrender had no difficulty reaching an agreement. Grant not only rushed rations to the half-starved Confederates but allowed them free transportation home on government ships and railways. As General Gordon, one of the commissioners, said, courtesy and even deference was shown to the defeated officers; everyone looked forward to "a liberal, generous, magnanimous policy" toward the South. A Confederate cannoneer, who had expected to be "paraded through Northern cities for the benefit of jeering crowds" (as had been done to Union prisoners in Richmond), was relieved to learn that he could go home. There was good-humored chaffing between officers of both sides. General Meade, who had superbly commanded the Army of the Potomac through this last campaign, rode out to meet the Confederate commander, doffed his cap (the old-fashioned array salute) , and said, "Good morning, General." Lee remarked, "What are you doing with all that gray in your beard?" To which Meade replied, "You have to answer for most of it!"
Samuel Eliot Morison—The Oxford History of the-American People.

Sample IV

Whitman's prophecy —"Affection shall solve the problems of freedom." — might have been fulfilled, had things been left to the fighting officers and men. There had been no difficulty in reaching agreement about the practical details of the surrender. Courtesy and deference were shown to the defeated officers. Food was rushed to the half-starved soldiers and they were sent home for free on government ships and railways. One such Confederate soldier was relieved to learn that he could go home when he had expected to be paraded through Northern cities for the benefit of jeering crowds.

7. The use that Sample IV makes of Original II can be considered as

  1.  clearly plagiarism.
  2.  an acceptable summary of it.
  3.  an acceptable paraphrase of it.
  4.  to need no documentation since the facts are general knowledge.

Sample V

When Whitman wrote "Affection shall solve the problems of freedom yet," he caught the spirit of the moment. There had been no difficulties in reaching a surrender agreement and the Confederates had been treated with courtesy and deference. And, as Samuel Eliot Morison points out, if solving the problem of freedom had been left up to the fighting officers and men, there would have been no problem with the rebels returning to the Union. (Morison .700) For example, food was rushed to the half-starved Confederates and they were allowed free transportation home on government ships and railways.

8. The use that Sample IV makes of Original II can be considered

  1.  adequately documented.
  2.  plagiarism of facts.
  3.  plagiarism of phrasing and wording.
  4.  adequate interweaving of writer's own words with source.

Sample VI

The future of the South at the end of the Civil War was at a turning point. Lincoln had promised a conciliatory attitude in his famous "bind up the nation's wounds" speech. Grant's gentlemanly acts of respect and compassion to Lee and his army at Appomatox are also legend. But would such feelings overcome the bitterness on both sides at the horrible losses they had suffered. Apparently it could have ". . . had things been left to the fighting officers and men." (Morison 700) Morison gives several examples of the generosity, compassion and even "good humored chaffing" between the two sides. (700)

9. The use that Sample VI makes of Original II can be considered

  1.  adequately documented.
  2.  plagiarism of facts.
  3.  plagiarism of phrasing and wording.
  4.  an acceptable paraphrase of it.

10. In Sample VI, the quote by Lincoln

  1.  also needs documentation of source.
  2.  is common knowledge, but needs the attribution.
  3.  is personal knowledge.
  4.  should have been paraphrased instead of quoted.

7. Annotated Research Paper 

Works-cited list begins on a new page, one inch top margin

Title centered

Double-space throughout

Entries in alphabetical order by authors' last names

Entry begins flush with left margin

Subsequent lines indent five spaces

Angle brackets enclose the URL

Period after author, after title, and at end of entry

Cristina Dinh

Professor Cooper

English XXX

5 November 1999

Educating Kids at Home

Every morning, Mary Jane, who is nine, doesn't have to worry about gulping down her cereal so she can be on time for school. School for Mary Jane is literally right at hat doorstep.
In this era of growing concerns about the quality of public education, increasing numbers of parents across the United States are choosing to educate their children at home. These parents believe they can do a better job teaching their children than their local schools can. Home schooling, as this practice is known, has become a national trend over the past twenty years. Patricia Lines, a senior research associate at the U.S. Department of Education, estimates that in 1970 the nationwide number of hose-schooled children was 15,000. By the 1990-91 school year, she estimates that the number rose to between 250,000 and 350,000 (5). From I9S6 to 1969, the number of home-schooled children in Oregon almost doubled, from 2,671 to 4,578 (Graves BS). Home-school advocates believe that the numbers may even be greater: many home schoolers don't have official notice of what they are doing because they are still afraid of government interference.
What is home schooling, and who are the parents choosing to teach their children at home? David Guterson, a high-school teacher whose own — children are home schooled, defines home schooling as "the attempt to gain an education outside of institutions" (5) . Home-schooled children spend the majority of the conventional school day learning in or near their homes rather than in traditional schools; parents or guardians are the prime educators. Cindy Connolly notes that parents teach their children the same subjects--math, science, music, history, and language arts -- that are taught in public schools but vary the vay they teach these subjects. Some home-schooling parents create structured plans for their children, while others prefer looser environments (E2). While home schoolers are a diverse group--libertarians, conservatives. Christian fundamentalists--most say they home school for one of two reasons: they are concerned about the way children are taught in public schools or they are concerned about exposing their children to secular education that may — contradict their religious beliefs (Guterson 5-6) The first group generally believes that children need individual attention and the opportunity to learn at their own pace in order to learn well. This group says that one teacher in a classroom of twenty to thirty children (the size of typical public-school classes) cannot give this kind of attention. These parents believe they can give their children greater enrichment and more specialized instruction than public schools can provide. At home, parents can work one-on-one with each child and be flexible about time, allowing their children to pursue their interests at earlier ages. Many of these parents, like home-schooler Peter Bergson, believe that home schooling provides more of an opportunity to continue the natural learning process that's in evidence in all children. [In school,] you change the learning process from self-directed to other-directed, from the child asking questions to the teacher asking questions You shut down areas of potential interests (qtd. in Kohn 22)
The second, and larger, group, those who home school their children for religious reasons, accounts for about 90 percent of all home schoolers, according to the Home School Legal Defense Association and the National Association of State Boards of Education (Kohn 22). This group is made up predominantly of Christian fundamentalists but also includes Buddhists, Jews, and black Muslims.
What causes underlie the increasing number of parents in both groups choosing to home school their children? One cause for this trend can be traced back to the 1960s, when many people began criticizing traditional schools. Various types of "alternative schools" were created, and some parents began teaching their children at hose (Friedlander 20) the public educational system has continued to have problems, parents have seen academic and social standards get lover. They mention several reasons for their disappointment with public schools and for their decision to home school. A lack of founding, for example, leaves children without new textbooks. One day a mother found out her sons were reading books that they read from the year before Monday CI1). Many schools also cannot afford to buy laboratory equipment and other teaching materials. At my own high school, the chemistry teacher told me that most of the lab equipment we used came from a research firm he worked for. In a 1988 Gallup poll, lack of proper financial support ranked third on the list of the problems in public schools: poor curriculum and poor standards ranked fifth on the list (Gallup and Elam 34). Parents also cite overcrowding as a reason for taking their kids out of school. Faced with a large group of children, a teacher can't satisfy the needs of all the students. Thus, a teacher ends up gearing lessons to the students in the middle level. so children at both ends miss out. Gifted children and those with learning disabilities particularly suffer in this situation. At home, parents of these children say they can tailor the material and the pace for each child. Studies show that home-schooling methods seem to work well in preparing children academically. For example, in 1989, 74 percent of Oregon's home-schooled kids scored above the fiftieth percentile, and 22 percent above the ninetieth percentile, on standardized tests (Graves B9).
In addition, home-schooling parents claim that their children are more well-rounded than those in school. Because they don't have to sit in classrooms all day, home-schooled kids can pursue their own projects, often combining crafts or technical skills with academic subjects. Home schoolers participate in outside activities such as 4-H competitions, field trips with other children's parties, gym activities, Christian pageants, and Boy Scouts or Girl Scouts (Shenk D6). Some school districts even invite home-schooled children to participate in sports and to use libraries and computer facilities (Guterson 186). A school district near Seattle trains home-schooling families in computer skills, giving these access to the resources of the Internet (Hawkins 58).
Many home-schooling parents believe that these activities provide the social opportunities kids need without exposing their children to the peer pressure they would have to deal with in school. Occasionally, peer values can be good; often however, students in today's schools face many negative peer pressures. For example, many kids think that drinking and using drugs are cool. When I was in high school, my friends would tell me a few drinks wouldn't hurt or affect driving. If I had listened to them, I wouldn't be alive today. Four of my friends were killed under the influence of alcohol. In 1975, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 65 percent of high school seniors answered "yes" when asked if they had ever used" marijuana: in 1981, the number rose to 60 percent a 13 percent increase over six years (Hawley K3). In 1986, 1987 and 1988 Gallup polls use of drugs ranked first among the problems in public schools and the number of students who use drugs was increasing (Gallup and Elam 34) Another reason many parents decide to home school their kids is that they are concerned for their children's safety. In addition to fears that peer pressure might push their children into using drugs, many parents fear drug related violence in and near public schools. There are stories practically every week about drug-related violence in schools-even in elementary schools. Home schooling parents say they want to protect their children from dangerous environments. As Sam Ailis notes about home-schooling parents, "There are no drugs in their bathrooms or switchblades in the hallways" (86)
The major cause of the growing home-schooling trend is Christian fundamentalist dissatisfaction with "godless" public schools. Marilee Mayberry, a professor of sociology at the University of Nevada states in a 1987 survey that 65 percent of Oregon parents who choose home schooling do so because they feel that public schools lack Christian values (Graves B9). Kohn notes that Growing without schooling, a secular home-schooling newsletter started by education critic John Holt, has 5000 subscribers, whereas The Parent Educator and Family Report a newsletter put out by Raymond Moore, a Christian home school advocate and researcher has 300 000 subscribers (22). Luanne Shackelford and Susan White, two Christian home-schooling mothers, claim that because schools expose children to peer pressure, perverts. secular textbooks, values clarification, TV, pornography, rock music, bad movies [. . .] Home schooling seems to be the best plan to achieve our goal [ to raise good Christians]" (160). Moore claims that children in public schools are more likely to "turn away from their home values and rely on their peers for values" (qtd. in Kilgore 24). Moore believes that home-schooled kids are less vulnerable to peer pressure because they gain a positive sense of self-worth fostered by their parents.
In addition, those who cite the lack of "Christian values" are concerned about the textbooks used in public schools. For example, Kohn notes that Moore talks of parents who are "sick and tired of the teaching of evolution in the schools as a cut-and-dried fact, along with other evidence of so-called secular humanism" (21). such as textbooks that contain material that contradicts Christian beliefs. Moreover, parents worry that schools decay their children's moral values. In particular, some Christian fundamentalist parents object to sex education in schools, saying that it encourages children to become sexually active early. challenging values taught at home. They see the family as the core and believe that the best place . to instill family values is within the family. These Christian home-schooling parents want to provide their children not only with academic knowledge but also with a moral grounding consistent with their religious beliefs.
Other home-schooling parents object to a perceived government-mandated value system that they believe attempts to override the values, not necessarily religious in nature of individual families. Home schooling, for these parents, is a way of resisting what John Gatto describes as unwarranted intrusion by the federal government into personal concerns.
Armed with their convictions, home-schooling parents, such as those who belong to the Christian Home School Legal Defense Association, have fought in court and lobbied for legislation that allows them the option of home schooling, In the 1970s, most states had compulsory attendance laws that made it difficult, if not illegal, to keep school-age children home from school. By 1993, thirty-two states permitted home schooling, ten allowed it with certain restrictions, and eight insisted that the home school be a legal private school (Guterson 91). Because of their efforts, Mary Jane can start her school day without leaving the house.


Allis, Sam. "Schooling Kids at Home." Time 22 Oct. 1990: 84-85.

Connolly, Cindy. "Teen-agers See Advantages to Attending School at Home." Omaha World Herald 18 Sept. 1990: 32. NewsBank: Education 1990: fiche 106, grids E1-E3.

Friedlander, Tom. "A Decade of Home Schooling." The Home School Reader. Ed. Mark and Helen Hegener. Tonasket: Home Education, 1988.

Gallup, Alec M.., and Stanley M. Elam. "The 20th Annual Gallup Poll: Of the Public toward the' Public Schools." Phi Delta Kappan Sept. 1988: 34. Gatto, John Taylor. "The Nine Assumptions of Modern Schooling." The Education Liberator. 30 May 1996. 19 Oct. 1999 <http://www.sepschool.org>.

Graves, Bill. "Home School: Enrollment Increases in Oregon. Nation." Oregonian 4 Nov. 1990: Dl. NewsBank: Education 199 0; fiche 135. grids B8-B9.

Guterson, David. Family Matters: Why Homeschooling Makes Sense. San Diego: Harcourt, 1992.

Hawkins, Dana. "Homeschool Battles: Clashes Grow as Some in the Movement Seek Access to Public Schools." – U.S. News & World Report 12 Feb. 1996: 57-58.

Hawley, Richard A. "Schoolchildren and Drugs: The Fancy That Has Not Passed." Phi Delta Kappan May 1987: K1-K3.

Kilgore, Peter. "Profile of Families Who Home School in Maine." 1987. 1-47. ERIC ED 295 280. Kohn, Alfie. "Home schooling." Atlantic Apr. 1988: 20-25.

Lines, Patricia. Estimating the Home School. Education Population. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Education, 1991.

Monday, Susan McAtee. "In-House Education." San Antonio Light 18 Mar. 1990: NewsBank: Education 1990: fiche 27, grids Cll. C13.

Shackelford, Luanne, and Susan White. A Survivor's Guide to Home Schooling. Westchester: Crossway. 1988.

Shenk, Dan. "Parents Find Home – Schooling Has Special Rewards." Elkhart Truth 20 Mar. 1988: NewsBank: Education 1988: fiche 41., grid D6.

Research Paper

Peer Editor’s Comments and Suggestions

  1.  General Impression.
  2.  Actuality
  3.  Relevance to readers
  4.  Credibility.
  5.  Paper Format.
  6.  Content.
  7.  Fluency
  8.  Distinct main idea
  9.  RENNS
  10.  Organization.
  11.  Clear thesis statement
  12.  Effective introduction
  13.  One main idea in each paragraph
  14.  Paragraph structure
  15.  Transitions
  16.  Conclusion
  17.  Language.
  18.  Level of formality
  19.  Vocabulary
  20.  Concise sentences
  21.  Mechanics
  22.  Punctuation
  23.  Documentation.
  24.  Quality of sources
  25.  Quantity of sources
  26.  Relevance to MLA Style
  27.  Some advice.

 8. Research Paper Abstracts

A research paper (or journal) abstract is a short account of a research paper placed before it. In contrast to the abstracts, which appear in abstracting journals, the research article abstract is written by the author of a paper. The "relatives" of the journal abstract are: the summary, the conference abstract, and the synopsis—a shorter version of a document that usually mirrors the organization of the full text.

[From Yakhontova, …]

The journal abstract performs a number of important functions. It:

  •  serves as a short version of the paper, which provides the most important information;
  •  helps, therefore, the potential audience to decide whether to read the whole article or not;
  •  prepares the reader for reading a full text by giving an idea of what to expect;
  •  serves as a reference after the paper has been read.

Nowadays, abstracts are widely used in electronic storage and retrieval systems and by on-line information services. Their role in dissemination and circulation of written research products is further increasing in the information age.

The journal abstract has certain textual and linguistic characteristics. It:

  •  consists of a single paragraph;
  •  contains 4-10 full sentences;
  •  tends to avoid the first person and to use impersonal active constructions (e.g., "This research shows . . . ") or passive voice (e.g., "The data were analyzed . . .");
  •  rarely uses negative sentences;
  •  uses meеa-еext (e.g., "This paper investigates . . .");
  •   avoids using acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols (unless they are defined in the abstract itself);
  •   does not cite by number or refer by number to anything from the
    text of the paper.

The most frequent tense used in abstracts is the present tense. It is used to state facts, describe methods, make comparisons, and give results, The past tense is preferred when reference is made to the author's own experiments, calculations, observations, etc.

Journal abstracts are often divided into informative and indicative abstracts. The informative abstract includes main findings and various specifics such as measurements or quantities. This type of abstract often accompanies research reports and looks itself like a report in miniature,

Indicative abstracts indicate the subject of a paper. They provide a brief description without going into a detailed account. The abstracts of this type often accompany lengthy texts or theoretical papers. The combination of both types of journal abstracts, however, also exists.

The structure for the English journal abstract, as suggested by Mauro B. dos Santos (1996), includes the following moves:

  1.  Situating the research (e.g., by stating current knowledge in the field
    or a research problem).
  2.  Presenting the research (e.g., by indicating its main purpose or main
  3.  Describing its methodology.
  4.  Summarizing the results.
  5.  Discussing the research (by drawing conclusions and/or giving recommendations).

However, the rhetorical structure of journal abstracts may vary depending upon a research subject, field of investigation, and type of a paper.

Task 1. Read the three abstracts with identified moves and answer the questions that follow.

(A) Presenting the research Treating a printed circuit board (PCB) as a thin flexible rectangular plate, we evaluate its dynamic response to periodic shock loads applied to the support contour. The effect of the load periodicity on the amplitudes, accelerations, and stresses is analyzed for transient and steady-state damped linear vibrations, as well as for steady-state undamped nonlinear vibrations, Summarizing the results It is shown that the transient nonresonant linear response can exceed the steady-state response by up to two times, and that the linear approach can be misleading in the case of a nondeformable support contour and intense loading. Discussing the research The obtained results can be of help when evaluating the accelerations, experienced by surface mounted electronic components and devices, and the dynamic stresses in a PCB of the given type, dimensions, and support conditions.

(B) Discussing the research A crucial event in the historical evolution of scientific English was the birth of the scientific journal. This event and its early rhetorical consequences have been well described in recent research. In contrast, few details are known concerning subsequent developments in scientific writing from the eighteenth century onward. Presenting the research In this paper, the changing language and rhetoric of medical research reporting over the last 250 years are characterized and the underlying causes of these changes investigated. Describing it's metodology Research articles from the Edinburgh Medical Journal, the oldest continuing medical journal in English, constitute the corpus in this study. Sampling took place at seven intervals between 1735 and 1985, with two types of data analysis being performed—rhetorical text analysis focusing on the broad genre characteristics of articles; and linguistic analysis of these articles registrar features using Biber's system of text analysis.

Summarizing the results Results indicate that the linguistic rhetorical evolution of medical research writing can be accounted for on the basis of the changing epistemological norms of medical knowledge, the growth of a professional medical community, and the periodic redefinition of medicine vis-a-vis the non-medical sciences.

Task 2. Sequence the jumbled parts of this abstract from the field of anthropology.

(A) This paper argues that this assumption obscures the multiple dimensions along which core/periphery distinctions can be measured and ignores the possibility of mutual influence and interdependence among interacting societies at all size and complexity levels. This confusion is particularly evident in the study of Southeastern Mesoamerica (adjoining portions of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador), usually viewed as peripheral to lowland Maya core states during the late Classic period (A.D. 600-950).

(B) The essay concludes with an overview of late Classic lowland Maya/non-Maya interactions in the Southeast and some general suggestions for future research.

(C) Archeoiogical investigations on the margins of "high civilization" have traditionally been guided by the assumption that polities in such zones were peripheral to core states.

(D) In an attempt to advance the study of polities bordering complex and extensive sociopolitical systems, a general model is outlined which sets out to identify the different dimensions of peripherality and specify the conditions under which various sorts of core/ periphery relations are likely to develop. Late Classic political, economic, demographic, and cultural patterns from the Naco Valley, northwestern Honduras, are then examined to determine how this area was linked to lowland Maya core states (represented here by Copan and Quirigua) and what effects the societies had on indigenous developments.

Task 3. Below is the shortened abstract of a research paper in the field of legal studies. Put the verbs in parentheses into appropriate tense forms.

This paper (to provide) a study of the use of law to invoke and protect the interests of poorest consumers of the privatized water industry. It (to focus) upon the introduction of pre-payment devices and the legal action to prevent their use. The context of the study (to lie) in the privatization of water industry in 1989 . . . . The claims which (to surround) the application of the policy (to be) familiar: private ownership produced efficiency, effective management, and attentiveness to customers' needs . . . . This article (to find) the claim to be false. It (to consider) the social engineering role of law in attempting to protect the interests of poorest consumers . . . . It (to conclude) by suggesting that not only is access to the law differentiated by power and resources, but that compliance with it is also mediated by the same inequality.


Comparison of Punctuation Marks Usage in English and Ukrainian




1 .The end of a sentence:

It is raining.

Іде дощ.

2. Abbreviations and acronyms:

B.C., Mrs., Dr., Mr., Ms.,a.m., p.m., etc.

ХХ ст., 2005 р. н.е.

літ. студія – літстудія

Not all abbreviations are followed by a period: the U.S.A. or the USA; UNESCO, WHO, UNO, NATO.


3. In money expressed in decimal system and in mathematics:


decimal fractions: 1/4 = 0.25

one thousand = 1,000

24 грн. 75 коп.

1/4 = 0,25

1 000

4. In both languages the period is not used after headings, titles, headlines, signboards.


1. The end of a direct question (interrogative sentence):

What is it?

Що це?

2. A doubtful date or fact:

Socrates (470?-399 B.C.)

Сократ (470?-399 до не.)

3. In Ukrainian the question mark in parentheses (?), (??) or (?!) applied to a citation shows irony or doubt in originality.

4. A question mark is not usually used after a polite request put in the form of a question:

Will you hold the door, please.

Чи не були б Ви ласкаві притримати двері?

Never put a question mark after an indirect question.


1. The end of the exclamatory sentence, after statements or words expressing strong feelings, after words of politeness or interjections:

They are looking for you!



Thank you!

Oh God!

Вони тебе розшукують!




О Боже!

2. The exclamation point in parentheses (!), (!!) after or in the middle of a citation is used to attract attention:

The exclamation point in parentheses (!) is used to attract attention and sometimes to express irony or surprise:

Savonarola was praised for the kindness (!) of his judgments.

Савонаролу восхвалялц за м'якість (!) його вироків.

3. In Ukrainian, the exclamation point can be used with emotional interrupters set off with a pair of dashes in order to emphasize the effect of some words.

4. In Ukrainian, formal writing, a greeting and a direct address end with the exclamation point.


1. The mark of omission (indication that part of a direct quotation has been left out).

"So was it when my life began . . . so be it when I shall grow old . . . . "

"…а по-друге, – закінчила Лариса, – хочу випустити новий альбом".

2. All the dots are separated with spaces. If the words left out are at the end of a sentence, a fourth dot is added for the period:

In Ukrainian, the dots for ellipsis are not separated with spaces, and at the end of a sentence the fourth dot is not added.

3. In Ukrainian, the ellipsis is used for stylistic effect:

a) to express suddenness after a pause: 

Він справді заслаб. . . від страху. (М.Коцюбинський)

b) for the effect of the fragmentary character or non-finality of discourse:

Я. . . я спокійніша. . . Ти не звертай уваги. . . так, трохи нерви. . . (М. Коцюбинський)


1. Between two independent clauses:

The athletes who were training for the championship were running six miles every day; they were also eating a special diet.

Шелестить пожовкле листя по діброві; гуляють хмари; сонце спить; ніде не чутно людської мови (Т.Шевченко).

2.Two independent clauses may be joined by a comma and a conjunction. However, if there are other commas in the sentence, the comma is replaced by a semicolon:

The athletes who were training for the championship were running six miles a day, but I was not.

The athletes who were training for the championship were running six miles a day, lifting weights, and eating a special diet; but I was not.

Щойно полуниця відходить, а вже буріють вишні, шовковиця сиплеться, а там зажовтіють абрикоси; буває, так наспіє полуниці, що жінкам невправка з нею, тоді оголошують загальну мобілізацію. . .



1. Introduces (a list of) explanation:

She bought some items at her bookstore: a notebook, two pens, and some typing paper.

Він врахував все: і що скаже він, і те, як його сприйме аудіторія, і навіть думку самого Миколи Петровича.

2. In a book title, a colon separates the title from the subtitle:

Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide.

Теорія і практика перекладу: Підручник.

3. A colon introduces a long quotation separated from the rest of the text:

In Ukrainian, a colon introduces any quotation:

William Shakespeare wrote about nature:

"My heart leaps up when I behold

A rainbow in the sky:

So was it when my life began . . . ."

Петро нарешті вимовив: "Я впевнений, що це правда".

4. In English a colon is never used immediately after a verb or a preposition.


1. In English a dash should not be used in the most formal writing, unless it is a direct quotation.

2. In English, a dash is not separated from the adjacent words with spaces:

But ideas–that is, opinions backed with genuine reasoning–are extremely difficult to develop. (Wayne Booth)

In Ukrainian, a dash is separated from the adjacent words with spaces:

І враз – заглушаючи всю метушню і гвалт – по квартирі розляглися широкі і повнозвучні акорди рояля (Ю.Смолич).

3. In informal writing a dash can replace a colon, and a pair of dashes can replace a pair of commas or parentheses.

4. A dash or a pair of dashes is put to set off a long interrupter that already has commas in it.

But ideas– that is, opinions backed with genuine reasoning–are extremely difficult to develop.

5. Only in Ukrainian a dash can be used to substitute the linking verb in the complex nominal predicate.

6. Only in Ukrainian dashes are used to set off the author's words in direct speech or to mark each new cue in a dialogue.


1. Quotation marks are used to set off the exact words of a speaker or to show material quoted from writing.

After the murder of the old king in Shakespeare's MACBETH, Lady Macbeth imagines there is blood on her hand and cries, "Out, damned spot!"

Михайло Коцюбинський… в новелі «Intermezzo» писав: «Сонце! Я вдячний тобі. Ти сієш у мою душу золотий заспів – хто знає, що вийде з того насіння. Може, вогні?» (Н.Калениченко)

2. Closing quotation marks follow the period or comma: Winston Churchill said, "To jaw-jaw is always better than to war-war."

Closing quotation marks precede the period or comma: «Все буде добре», – сказала мені Наталка.

3. Quotation marks are used for each new cue in a dialogue:

"What shall I call you? Your name?" Andrews whispered rapidly, as with a high squeak the latch of the door rose.

"Elizabeth," she said. "Elizabeth." – Graham Greene, The Man Within.

Cues of a dialogue are marked with the dashes:

Пробачте, це ви Василь Романович?

– Я. А ти ж хто будеш?

А я Таня. Дочка лісника. Ми ось тут недалеко живемо (І. Цюпа).

3. For inner quoted words or passages within larger quotations, single quotation marks are used: At the beginning of the class, the teacher asked, "Where does Thoreau speak of 'quiet desperation,' and what does he mean by this phrase?"

Single quotation marks are not used.

3. Quotation marks enclose titles of works that are not published separately: articles, stories, poems, chapters in a book.

Titles, when mentioned in other works, are normally enclosed in quotation marks.

4. Quotation marks are not used for the title of your own paper on that paper or on its title page.

5. Both opening and closing quotation marks are put above the text.

Opening quotation marks are put below the handwritten text.


1. In English, parentheses set off interpolated material that is regarded as dispensable but still useful or does not fit into the flow of the text but is still relevant: The Constitution provided that states be equally represented in the Senate, but that the House of Representatives be elected on the basis of population. (Slaves were counted as three-fifths of a person.)

Subtitles, explanation, additional information, introductory elements, stage direction, emotional notes are written in parentheses:

Мар'яна (до Олексія). Чого ж ти чекаєш, любий?

Parentheses are used to enclose numerals or letters introducing the items of a horizontal list:

Motherhood is in trouble, and it ought to be. A rude question is long overdue: Who needs it? The answer used to be (1) society and (2) women. –Betty Rollin.

При складанні розрахункових схем допускається застосування одного з двох методів: ( 1) безпосереднє математичне моделювання; (2) - замкнуті рішення та емпіричні формули.

Parentheses are used to enclose numerals clarifying or confirming a spelled-out number. The law permits individuals to give no more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) to any one candidate in a campaign.

Parentheses are used to enclose a spelled-out number clarifying or confirming numerals:

Банківська гарантія або порука, 2500 (дві тисячі п'ятсот) грн.

2. The brackets introduce an explanation, a clarifying detail, comment, or correction of your own into direct quotation.

"When we last see Lady Macbeth [in the sleepwalking scene], she is obviously distraught."

«Подеколи вона [кома] не виходить за свої межі і тоді має певний закінчений смисл».

In technical writing, the brackets show a number in the reference list:

The references to the literature used shall be given in body text, e.g. [1, 23].

Посилання на використану літературу наводяться в тексті, наприклад, [1, 23].

3. In English, do not use brackets when inserting comments into your own writing. Use parentheses or dashes.




1. Commas That Separate

Independent clauses

Independent clauses are joined by coordinate conjunctions, particularly but and for, in order to emphasize the contrast:

The mixing noise dominates the spectrum, but the background noise peaks at a high frequency.

The comma may be omitted:

when the independent clauses are short and closely related: Each performance of an experiment is called a trial and its result is called an outcome.

when the independent parts of a compound sentence have a notional element in common; when they are closely related and joined with conjunction i (й), та (= і): На хвилину раптом стихли голоси і спинилися тіні (Л.Смілянський).

The comma alone should be avoided between two independent clauses (the comma splice):

The beams have rotted: they can no longer support the roof.

[or] The beams have rotted, so they can no longer support the roof. [or] Since the beams have rotted, they can no longer support the roof.

The comma between two independent clauses can be used alone:

Під вікном ростуть банани,
Шелестять високі пальми,
Мирти, фіги і платани (Кримський).

Introductory phrases and clauses

A comma is used to separate an introductory phrase or clause from the main clause: If the variable t is actually time, then f is frequency.

In Ukrainian, a comma is always used to separate parts of a complex sentence that are introduced with a conjunction or adverb.

Elements of series

Commas are required to separate series of three or more elements: The flight navigation system also provides altitude, roll, pitch, yaw, and ground speed.

Commas are required to separate series of homogeneous elements: Під вікнами насадила Ганна бузку, любистку, півників та півонії (Нечуй-Левицький).

NOTE: A comma before the conjunction in a series is necessary to prevent misreading.

The comma before the conjunction in a series is omitted.

Coordinate adjectives

Separate by commas only those consecutive adjectives that are coordinate, that is if (1) they can be linked by and and (2) they independently modify the substantive:

The delta function has a long, controversial history. (long and controversial)

Дивом див було, що те пискляве, рожеве, безпомічне — то і є людина (Гончар).

Elliptical constructions

When clauses in a sentence contain repeated elements, the omission of these elements is indicated by a comma: Wind speed is obtained from antenna brightness temperature; rain rate, from the brightness temperature difference at two frequencies; and wind vector, from radar cross section.

In Ukrainian, the omitted elements are indicated with a dash.

Direct quotations and questions

Direct quotations and questions are separated from the rest of the sentence with either commas or colons. A colon is used to introduce a long or formal quotation.

In reference 6, he states, "Thermal neutron fluxes up to 1020 might be required." The obvious question is, how good is this estimate?

The comma can only be used after direct speech.

NOTE: The dash is never used with direct speech in English.

2. Commas That Enclose

A comma that encloses requires another comma on the other side of the enclosed element; it can also be a colon, semicolon, period, question mark, or exclamation mark.

Nonrestrictive modifiers

A nonrestrictive element does not affect the meaning of the basic sentence; it could be removed from the sentence without altering meaning. Nonrestrictive elements must be enclosed by commas:

The second integral, being the integral of an odd function over even limits, is zero.

Майже всі твори видатного художника, включаючи етюди, були представлені на цій виставці.

• When an internal adverbial clause precedes the clause that it modifies, do not place a comma before it unless it is clearly nonrestrictive:

Wrong: Recombination rate is larger than quenching rate, and, after lasing is achieved, both are smaller than photo-break dissociation rate. 

Correct: Recombination rate is larger than quenching rate, and after lasing is achieved, both are smaller than photo-break dissociation rate.


Words or phrases in apposition are enclosed by commas unless the appositive is restrictive.

Restrictive: The noble gas argon was chosen for the lasant gas.

Дивився [Юрко] на завчасно постарілого батька, і йому стало жаль його.

Nonrestrictive: Argon, the lightest noble gas that will lase, was chosen for the lasant gas.

Дивився [Юрко] на батька, і йому стало жаль його, завчасно постарілого, спрацьованого (Харчук).

• The appositional or always requires enclosure:

The concept of a laser powered directly by nuclear energy, or a direct nuclear-pumped laser, came into existence shortly after discovery of the laser.

Орфографію, або правопис, повинен знати кожен.

Nonrestrictive Interrupting elements:

• Interruptive words or phrases

For 33-mm-diameter particles, for example, partial loss of laminar flow is predicted for large number densities.

Я буду у вас сьогодні, мабуть, увечері.

• Parenthetical phrase

Auxiliary meteorological data used herein, such as vorticity, have been computed from NMC isobaric height fields.

А в хлібороба, звісна річ, роботи як води, від снігу до снігу (Федорів).

• Rhetorical adverb

The time between independent measurements cannot be reliably estimated; it can be assumed, however, to lie between 20 and 120 minutes.

У нижчеподаній статті я, звичайно, не охоплюю всіх проблем розвитку української мови (М. Рильський).

• Antithetical elements

In winter, clouds near the tropopause are associated with negative vorticity, not with positive vorticity as most meteorologists are accustomed to believing.

«Пора співати про любов, а не про політику».

3. Conventional Uses of the Comma

• Dates: The study was conducted from January 15, 1975, to February 1, 1979, aboard commercial airliners.

A comma does not usually separate the year from a day of a month.

But The study was conducted from January 1975 to February 1979 aboard commercial airliners.

• Geographical names and addresses

The computer program is available from COSMIC, 112 Barrow Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Адреса редакції: проспект Глушкова 2, корпус 6, Київ, 03680, Україна.

• Specifying phrases

This conclusion was drawn from data in Volume II, page 157, of reference 16.

Для прискіпливих можу вказати ще й номер тому та сторінки: 39-й том, стор. 24-25.

• Degrees, titles, affiliations, etc.

Members of the committee consisted of J. J. Deluisi, Ph.D., NOAA Environmental Research Laboratory; J. P. Friend III, Drexel University; and M. P. McCormick, chairman, NASA Langley Research Center.

Георгій Почепцов, доктор філологічних наук, професор, завідувач кафедри міжнародних комунікацій і зв’язків з громадськістю Інституту міжнародних відносин Київського національного університету ім. Т.Шевченка.

• Names: Refer to the report by J. J. Deluisi, Jr., and James P. Friend III: Deluisi, J. J., Jr.; and Friend, James P., III: Listing of Multi-Spectral dots.

In Ukrainian, commas are not usually used in names.

• Numbers

The comma is used to separate thousands in numbers of five or more digits.

In Ukraine the comma indicates the decimal point.

Correct: There were 88,000 data points, 2500 of which had to be discarded.

Possible: There were 88 000 data points, 2500 of which had to be discarded.


Put in semicolons, colons, dashes, quotation marks, Italics (use an underline), and parentheses where ever they are needed in the following sentences.

  1.  The men in question Harold Keene, Jim Peterson, and Gerald Greene deserve awards.
  2.  The instructor asked when Plato wrote The Republic?
  3.  Several countries participated in the airlift Italy, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg.
  4.  Dr Arn will lecture on Plato at 7:30 pm.
  5.  If current biological determinism in the study of human intelligence rests upon no new facts actually no facts at all, then why has it become so popular of late?
  6.  Only one course was open to us surrender, said the ex-major, and we did.
  7.  When the child was rescued, the crowd called "Hooray."
  8.  Judge Carswell later to be nominated for the Supreme Court had ruled against civil rights.
  9.  The earthquake of October 9 1871 whose epicenter was near Wilmington Delaware delivered what for this area was the most intense earth shock in historical times.
  10.  In last week's New Yorker, one of my favorite magazines I enjoyed reading Leland's article How Not to Go Camping.
  11.  I was in New Orleans when Louisiana seceded from the Union January 26 1861 and I started north the next day.
  12.  Yes, Jim said, I'll be home by ten.
  13.  She lost her father William Thomas Bishop eight months after her birth on February 8 1911 in Worcester Massachusetts.
  14.  There was only one thing to do study till dawn.
  15.  The entrepreneur individualistic, restless, with vision, guile and courage has been the economists' only hero.
  16.  The new assembly plant cost $7 525 000 by the time it was completed.
  17.  Montaigne wrote the following A wise man never loses anything, if he has himself.
  18.  Children have never been very good at listening to their elders but they have never failed to imitate them.
  19.  The following are the primary colors red, blue, and yellow.
  20.  Our friend from Oregon visited our family recently however he left early for he wanted to travel throughout New England.
  21.  Arriving on the 8 10 plane were Liz Brooks, my old roommate her husband and Tim, their son.
  22.  When the teacher commented that her spelling was poor, Lynn replied All the members of my family are poor spellers. Why not me?
  23.  The children, who were playing innocently in the park, saw the accident, however, they were too frightened to relate the details of the mishap.
  24.  He used the phrase you know so often that I finally said No, I don't know.
  25.  George Washington was born in 1732 in Virginia he was raised on a farm established by his great-grandfather.
  26.  The automobile dealer handled three makes of cars Volkswagens, Porsches, and Mercedes Benz.
  27.  Our fire escapes were densely inhabited by mops short lines of washed socks geranium plants boxes of seltzer bottles and occasional dramatic scenes.
  28.  Though Phil said he would arrive on the 9 19 flight, he came instead on the 10 36 flight.
  29.  Whoever thought said Helen that Jack would be elected class president?
  30.  Nothing is more essential to intelligent profitable reading than sensitivity to connotation.
  31.  In baseball a show boat is a man who shows off.
  32.  She had no confidence in books written in English paid almost nothing for them and sold them for a small and quick profit.
  33.  The minister quoted Isaiah 5 21 in last Sunday's sermon.
  34.  Under the circumstances, only an intelligent discreet and experienced official should be assigned to the case.
  35.  There was a very interesting article entitled The New Rage for Folk Singing in last Sunday's New York Times newspaper.
  36.  In my senior year in theological seminary I engaged in the exciting reading of various theological theories. -Martin Luther King Jr.
  37.  Whoever is elected secretary of the club Ashley, or Chandra, or Aisha must be prepared to do a great deal of work, said Jumita, the previous secretary.
  38.  At the arterial end of a capillary, blood pressure is greater than osmotic pressure therefore, water leaves the capillary along with oxygen and nutrients that diffuse from the capillary.
  39.  Darwin's On the Origin of Species 1859 caused a great controversy when it appeared.
  40.  The Fifth Amendment is of course, a wise section of the Constitution you cannot be forced to incriminate yourself.



Index of MLA Style Features

Author/Page In-Text Citations

A. One author introduced in your text

B. Author not introduced in your text

C. More than one author

D. Author with more than one work cited

E. Work in edited anthology

F. Work cited indirectly in another source

G. Reference to whole work

H. Work only one page long

I. No author named

J. Electronic and Internet sources

K. Other nonprint sources

L. Organization or corporation as author

M. Two authors with same name

N. Multivolume work

O. More than one work in citation

P. Personal communication or interview

Q. Classic literature and poetry

R. Bible

List of Works Cited


  1.  One author
  2.  Two or more authors
  3.  Book with editor
  4.  Author and editor
  5.  One work in an anthology (original or reprinted)
  6.  More than one work in an anthology, cross-referenced,
  7.  Reference book
  8.  No author named
  9.  Organization or corporation as author
  10.  Translation
  11.  Multivolume work
  12.  Book in series
  13.  Publisher and imprint
  14.  Foreword, preface, introduction, or afterword
  15.  Republished book
  16.  Book not in first edition
  17.  Title including a title
  18.  Government publication,
  19.  Dissertation


  1.  Scholarly journal, continuously paged throughout volume
  2.  Scholarly journal, paged by issue
  3.  Magazine or newspaper
  4.  Article that skips pages
  5.  Review
  6.  25.Unsigned editorial or article
  7.  Letter to the editor
  8.  Abstract in an abstracts journal
  9.  Article on microform

CD-ROMs, Diskettes, and Tapes

  1.  Updated CD-ROM material with a print source
  2.  Material from a single-issue CD-ROM
  3.  Electronic medium not known

Internet Sources

  1.  Online book or part of book
  2.  Article in a reference database
  3.  Work from a subscription service
  4.  Article in an online journal,
  5.  Article in an online magazine
  6.  Article in an online newspaper
  7.  Online review, editorial, abstract, or letter
  8.  Scholarly project
  9.  Professional site
  10.  Linked site
  11.  Personal Web page
  12.  Online posting on a discussion list
  13.  Forwarded online posting
  14.  Synchronous communication
  15.  Personal e-mail message
  16.  Other electronic sources

Other Sources

  1.  Letter, personal communication, or interview
  2.  Published or broadcast interview
  3.  Map or chart
  4.  Film or video
  5.  Television or radio program
  6.  Sound recording
  7.  Live performance
  8.  Work of art
  9.  Cartoon
  10.  Advertisement

You need to document the sources of your information, not only in research papers but also in shorter essays in which you mention just a few books, articles, or other sources to illustrate a point or support your case.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style for the humanities is recommended in Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed. (New York: MLA, 1999) and on the MLA Web site, <http://www.mla.org>.

Basic Features of MLA Style

Key Points

Two Basic Features of MLA Style

1. In the text of your paper include the following information each time you cite a source:

the last name(s) of the author (or authors);

the page number(s) where the information is located in a print source. However, do not include the abbreviation "p." (or "pp.") or the word page (or pages).

2. At the end of your paper, include a list, alphabetized by authors' last names, of all the sources you refer to in the paper. Begin the list on a new page and title it "Works Cited"

NOTE: Use endnotes (at the end of the paper) or footnotes (at the bottom of each page or at the end of each chapter) only for supplementary comments and information, not for regular source citations.1 Number information notes consecutively in your text with a raised (superscript) numeral as in the previous sentence. Indent the first line of each numbered note. The following doublespaced endnote example corresponds to the superscript number above:

MLA author/page style for in-text citations

A. One author, introduced in your text  The first time you mention an author in your text, give his or her full name and, in the same sentence, a brief statement about credentials. (Thereafter, use the author's last name.) For a print source, at the end of your text sentence, give only the page number(s) in parentheses, followed by the sentence period. Cite inclusive page numbers as follows: 35-36; 257-58; 100-01; 305-06; 299-300.

The sociologist Ruth Sidel's interviews with young women provide examples of what Sidel sees as an "impossible dream" (19). 

When a quotation includes a question mark or an exclamation point, also include a period after the citation:

Mrs. Bridge wonders, "Is my daughter mine?" (Connell 135).

B. Author not introduced in your text   If you do not mention the author while introducing the reference, include the author's last name in the parentheses before the page number, with no comma between them.

Many young women, from all races and classes, have taken on the idea of the American Dream, however difficult it might be for them to achieve it (Sidel 19-20).

C. More than one author   For a work with two or three authors, include all the names, either in your text sentence or in parentheses.

(Lakoff and Johnson 42)
(Hare, Moran, and Koepke 226-28)

For a work with four or more authors, use only the first author's name followed by "et al." (The Latin words et alii mean "and others .")

Researchers have established a link between success at work and the pleasure derived from community service (Bellah et al. 196-99).

D. Author with more than one work cited  Include the author and title of the work in your text sentence.

Alice Walker, in her book In Search of Our
Mothers' Gardens , describes learning about
Flannery O'Connor (43-59).

Alternatively, include in your parenthetical reference the author's last name, followed by a comma, an abbreviated form of the title, and the page number.

O'Connor's house still stands and is looked after by a caretaker (Walker, In Search 57).

E. Work in an edited anthology   Cite the author of the included or reprinted work (not the editor of the anthology) and the page number in the anthology. See 10c, items 5 and 6, for examples of the entry in a works cited list.

Des Pres asserts that "heroism is not necessarily a romantic notion" (20).

F. Work cited indirectly in another source  Use "qtd. in" (for "quoted in") at the beginning of your parenthetical citation, followed by the last name of the author of the source in which you find the reference (the indirect source) and the page number. List the indirect source in your list of works cited. With the following example, Smith would be included in the list of works cited, not Britton.

The words we use simply appear, as James Britton says, "at the point of utterance" (qtd. in Smith 108).

G. Reference to the whole work and not to one specific page  Use the author's name alone.

Diaries tell us about people's everyday lives and the worlds they create (Mallon).

H. Work only one page long  If an article is only one page long, cite the author's name alone; include the page number in your works cited list.

I. No author named  To refer to the work in your text sentence, give the complete title. Use a short title to refer to the work mentioned in parentheses.

According to The Far East and Australasia 1996 , the Buddhist calendar is the official calendar in Sri Lanka (38).
The Buddhist calendar is the official calendar in Sri Lanka (Far East 38).

J. Electronic and Internet sources  Electronic database material and Internet sources, which appear on a screen, have no stable page numbers that apply across systems or when printed. If your source as it appears on the screen includes no text divisions, numbered pages, or numbered paragraphs, simply provide the author's name.

Science writer Stephen Hart describes how researchers Edward Taub and Thomas Ebert conclude that practicing music "remaps the brain." With no page number to indicate the end of your citation, though, you must be careful to define where your citation ends and your own commentary takes over. See 9.

If possible, locate material by the internal headings of the source (for example, introduction, chapter, section). Give paragraph numbers only if they are supplied in the source, abbreviated to "par." or "pars." and then include the total number of numbered paragraphs in your works cited list.

Kay also discusses powerless rulers and argues that the world of King Edward II is presented "as an admonitory negative example for the present" (par. 3).

K. Other nonprint sources  For radio or TV programs, interviews, films, computer software, recordings, and other nonprint sources, include only the title or author (or, in some cases, the interviewer, interviewee, director, per-former, or producer, and so on, corresponding to the first element of the information you provide in the entry in your list of works cited).

The director suggests that dying is not necessarily a depressing subject for a play (Jones).

L. Work produced by a business or corporation  Give the complete name of the organization in your text or a shortened form in parentheses.

The College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) assures students that the test "reflects the type of work you will do when you get to college" (4).

Students are assured that the tasks on the test closely resemble the tasks they will have to perform in college (College Board 4).

M. Tivo authors with the same last name  Include each author's first initial, or the whole first name if the authors' initials are the same.

A writer can be seen as both "author" and "secretary" and the two roles can be seen as competitive (F. Smith 19).

N. Multivolume work   Indicate the volume number, followed by a colon, a space, and the page number. List the number of volumes in your works cited list. (See 10c, item 11.)

Barr and Feigenbaum note that "the concept of translation from one language to another by machine is older than the computer itself" (1: 233).

O. More than one work in one citation  Include all the citations, separated with semicolons. Avoid making the list too long.

The links between a name and ancestry have occupied many writers and researchers (Waters 65; Antin 188).

P. Personal communication such as a letter, an interview, e-mail, or a conversation  In your text, give the name of the person you communicated with. In your works cited list, list the type of communication after the author or title. (See 10c, item 46.)

According to George Kane, Director of ZDNet University, online courses are often less expensive than courses in actual classrooms. Q. Classic works of literature and poetry Include information so readers may locate material in whatever edition they are using.

For a Novel  Give the chapter number as well as the page number in the edition you used; (104; ch. 3).

For a Poem   Give line numbers, not page numbers: (lines 62-73). Subsequent line references can omit the word lines. Include up to three lines of poetry in your text, separated by a slash with a space on each side ( / ). For four or more lines of poetry, begin on a new line and indent the whole passage ten spaces from the left, double-spaced and with no quotation marks.

For Classic Poems, such as the Iliad  Give the book or part, followed by line numbers, not page numbers: (8.21-25).

For a Verse Play  Give act, scene, and line numbers, using ara-bicnumerals: (Tjsmpest 4.1.156-58).

R. The Bible   Give book, chapter, and verse(s) in your text—Genesis 27.29—or abbreviate the book in a parenthetical citation (Gen. 27.29). Do not underline the title of a book in the Bible. Include an entry in your works cited list only if you do not use the King James Version as your source.

The MLA list of works cited

The references you make in your text to sources are very brief—usually only the author's last name and a page number—to allow the readers to continue reading without interruption. For complete information about the source, your readers can use your brief in-text citation as a guide to the full bibliographical reference in the list of works cited at the end of your paper.


What to Do in the MLA List of Works Cited

  1.  List only works you have actually cited in the text of your paper. Do not number the entries.
  2.  Begin the list on a new numbered page after the last page of the paper or any endnotes. Center the heading (Works Cited) without quotation marks, underlining, or a period.
  3.  List works alphabetically by author's last name. List works with no stated author by the first main word of each entry .
  4.  Begin each entry with the author's name, last name first (or the corporate name or the title of the work if no author is stated). Omit titles ("Dr.") or degrees, but include a suffix like "Jr." or a Roman numeral, as in "Patterson, Peter, III." Give names of authors after the first in normal order.
  5.  If you include several works by one author, list them alphabetically by title and give the author's name only in the first entry. For all other entries, use three hyphens followed by a period; see the example on page 65.
  6.  Indent all lines of each entry, except the first, one-half inch (or five spaces). A word processor can provide these "hanging indents." Double-space throughout. For online documents, use no indentation at all. HTML does not support hanging indents well. Instead, follow each bibliographical entry with a line space.
  7.  Separate the main parts of each entry—author, title, publishing information—with a period, followed by one space.
  8.  Capitalize all words in titles of books and articles except a, an, the, coordinating conjunctions such as and and but, to in an infinitive, and prepositions (such as in, to, for, with, without, against) unless they begin or end the title or subtitle.
  9.  Underline the titles of books and the names of journal and magazines. Use italics instead if your instructor approves and if your printer makes a clear distinction from regular type. Use italics for titles in all Web publications.
  10.  Give inclusive page numbers for articles and sections of books, but do not use "p." ("pp.") or the word page (or pages) before page numbers in any reference. For page citations over 100 and sharing the first number, use only the last two digits for the second number (for instance, 683-89, but 798-805). For an unpaginated work, write "n. pag."


1. Book with one author   On the title page of the book and on the copyright page, you will find the necessary information for an entry. Use the most recent copyright date and list only the first city on the title page. Use a shortened form of the publisher's name; usually one word is sufficient: Houghton, not Houghton Mifflin; Basic, not Basic Books. For university presses, use the abbreviations "U" and "P" with no periods.

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

2. Book with two or more authors  Separate the names with commas. Reverse the order of only the first author's name.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980.

With four or more authors, either list all the names or use only the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

Bellah, Robert N., et al. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: U of California P, 1985.

3. Book with editor or editors  Include the abbreviation "ed." or "eds."

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., ed. Classic Slave Narratives. New York: NAL, 1987.

With four or more editors, use the name of only the first, followed by a comma and "et al."

4. Author and editor  When an editor has prepared an author's work for publication, list the book under the author's name(s) if you cite the author's work. Then, in your listing, include the name(s) of the editor or editors after the title, introduced by "Ed." ("edited by") for one or more editors.

Bishop, Elizabeth. One Art: Letters. Ed. Robert Giroux. New York: Farrar, 1994.

If you cite a section written by the editor, such as a chapter introduction or a note, list the source under the name of the editor.

Giroux, Robert, ed. One Art: Letters. By Elizabeth Bishop. New York: Farrar, 1994.

5. One work in an anthology (original or reprinted) For a work included in an anthology, first list the author and title of the included work. Follow this with the title of the anthology, the name of the editor(s), publication information (place, publisher, date) for the anthology, and then the pages in the anthology covered by the work you refer to.

Des Pres, Terrence. "Poetry and Politics." The Writer in Our World. Ed. Reginald Gibbons. Boston: Atlantic Monthly, 1986. 17-29.

If the work in the anthology is a reprint of a previously published scholarly article, supply the complete information for both the original publication and the reprint in the anthology.

Raimes, Ann. "Out of the Woods: Emerging Traditions in the Teaching of Writing." ' TESOL Quarterly 25 (1991): 407-30. Rpt. in Writing in a Second Language . Ed. Bruce Leeds. New York: Longman, 1996. 10-26.

6. More than one work in an anthology, cross- referenced  If you refer to more than one work from the same anthology, list the anthology separately, and list each essay with a cross-reference to the anthology.

Des Pres, Terrence. "Poetry and Politics." Gibbons 17-29.
Gibbons, Reginald, ed. The Writer in Our World. Boston: Atlantic Monthly, 1986.
Walcott, Derek. "A Colonial's-Eye View of America." Gibbons 73-77.

7. Reference book   For a well-known reference book, give only the edition number and the year of publication. When articles in an encyclopedia are arranged alphabetically, omit page numbers.

"Multiculturalism." Columbia Encyclopedia. 5th ed. 1993.

8. Book with no author named  Put the title first. Do not consider the words A, An, and The in alphabetizing the entries. The following entry would be alphabetized under C.

The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.

9. Book written by a business organization or corporation  Alphabetize by the name of the corporate author. If the publisher is the same as the author, include the name again as publisher.

College Entrance Examination Board. Articulation and Achievement: Connecting Standards, Performance, and Assessment in Foreign Language . New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1996.

10. Translated book  After the title, include "Trans." followed by the name of the translator, not in inverted order.

Grass, Giinter. Novemberland: Selected Poems, 1956-1993 . Trans. Michael Hamburger. San Diego: Harcourt, 1996.

11. Multivolume work  If you refer to more than one volume of a mulfivolume work, give the number of volumes ("vols.") after the title.

Barr, Avon, and Edward A. Feigenbaum'. The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. 4 vols. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1981-86.

If you refer to only one volume, limit the information in the entry to that one volume.

Richardson, John. A Life of Picasso. Vol. 1. New York: Random House, 1991.

12. Book in a series  Give the name of the series after the book title.

Connor, Ulla. Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-Cultural Aspects of Second Language Writing. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series. New York: Cambridge UP, 1996.

13. Book published under a publisher's imprint  State the names of both the imprint (the publisher within a larger publishing enterprise) and the larger publishing house, separated by a hyphen.

Krakauer, Jon. Into the Wild. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1997.

14. Foreword, preface, introduction, or afterword   List the name of the author of the book element cited, followed by the name of the element, with no quotation marks. Give the title of the work; then use By to introduce the name of the author(s) of the book (first name first). After the publication information, give inclusive page numbers for the book element cited.

Hemenway, Robert. Introduction. Dust Tracks on a Road: An Autobiography. By Zora Neale Hurston. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1984. ix-xxxix.

15. Republished book  Give the original date of publication after the title and the reprint date at the end.

Walker, Alice. The Color Purple. 1982. New York: Pocket, 1985.

16. Book not in first edition  Give edition number (erf.) after title.

Raimes, Ann. Keys for Writers. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton, 1999.

17. Book title including a title  Do not underline a book title included in the title you list. (However, if the title of a short work, such as a poem or short story, is included, enclose it in quotation marks.)

Hays, Kevin J., ed. The Critical Response to Herman Melville's Moby Dick. Westport: Greenwood, 1994.

18. Government publication  If no author is named, begin the entry with the name of the federal, state, or local government, followed by the agency. "GPO" stands for "Government Printing Office."

United States. Department of Labor. Women's Bureau. Earnings Differences between Men and Women . Washington: GPO, 1993.

19. Dissertation  For an unpublished dissertation, follow the title (in quotation marks) with "Diss." and the university and date.

Hidalgo, Stephen Paul. "Vietnam War Poetry: A Genre of Witness." Diss. U of Notre Dame, 1995.

Cite a published dissertation as you would a book, with place of publication, publisher, and date, but also include dissertation information after the title (for example, "Diss. U of California, 1998.").

If the dissertation is published by University Microfilms International (UMI), underline the title and include "Ann Arbor: UMI," the date, and the order number at the end of the entry.

Diaz-Greenberg, Rosario. The Emergence of Voice in Latino High School Students . Diss. U of San Francisco. 1996. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1996. 9611612.

If you cite an abstract published in Dissertation Abstracts International, give the relevant volume number and page number.

Hidalgo, Stephen Paul. "Vietnam War Poetry: A Genre of Witness." Diss. U of Notre Dame, 1995. DAI 56 (1995): 0931A.


The conventions for listing articles differ, according to the type of publication in which they appear: newspapers, popular magazines, or scholarly journals. In all cases, omit from your citation any introductory A, An, or The in the name of a newspaper, magazine, or scholarly journal.


20. Article in a scholarly journal, continuously paged throughout volume  For journal volumes with continuous pagination (for example, the first issue ends with page 174 and the next issue begins with page 175), give only the volume number and year.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number (Year): Page(s).

21. Article in a scholarly journal, paged by issue  Include the issue number after the volume number, sepa rated by a period.

Bell, John. "Puppets and Performing Objects in The Twentieth Century." Performing Arts Journal 56.2 (1997): 29-46.

22. Article in a magazine or newspaper  Give the complete date (day, month, and year, in that order, with no commas between them) for a newspaper and weekly or bi weekly magazine. For a monthly or bimonthly magazine, give only the month and year (item 23 example). In either case, do not include volume and issue numbers. If the arti cle is on only one page, give that page number. If the article covers two or more consecutive pages, list inclusive page numbers after any section number.

Poniatowska, Elena. "No More Fiesta of Bullets." Nation 28 July 1997: 23-24.
Johnson, George. "Of Mice and Elephants: A Matter of Scale." New York Times 12 Jan. 1999: Fl.

23. Article that skips pages  When an article does not appear on consecutive pages (the one by Greenwald begins on page 94, runs to 105, and then skips to page 144), give only the first page number followed by a plus sign.

Greenwald, Jeff. "Thinking Big." Wired Aug. 1997: 94+.

24. Revieiv Begin with the name of the author and the title of the review article, if these are available. After "Rev. of" provide the title and author of the work reviewed and publication information for the review.

Conover, Ted. "Flower Power." Rev. of The Orchid Thief , by Susan Orlean. New York Times Book Review 3 Jan. 1999: 9-10.

25. Unsigned editorial or article  Begin with the title. For an editorial, include the word Editorial after the title. In alphabetizing, ignore any initial A, An, or The.

 "An Overdue Day in New Hampshire." Editorial. Boston Globe . 13 Jan. 1999: A18.

26. Letter to the editor  After the name of the author, write "Letter" or "Reply to letter of. . . " with the name of the writer of the original letter.

Hecht, Jeff. Letter. Boston Globe . 11 Jan. 1999: A14.

27. Abstract in an abstracts journal  Provide exact in formation for the original work and add information about your source for the abstract: the title of the abstract journal, volume number, year, and item number or page number. (For dissertation abstracts, see item 19.) Van Dyke, Jan. "Gender and Success in the

American Dance World." Women's Studies International Forum 19 (1996): 535-43. Studies on Women Abstracts 15 (1997): item 97W/081.

28. Article on microform (microfilm and microfiche)  Provide as much print publication information as is available along with the name of the microfilm or microfiche and any identifying features. Savage, David.

"Indecency on Internet Faces High Court Test." Los Angeles Times 16 Mar. 1997. Newsbank: Law (1997): fiche 34, grid A6.


Be sure to record the dates when the material was published or updated electronically.

29. Material from a CD-ROM or other portable medium, regularly updated, with a print source  Citations should include the medium of the electronic publication (CD-ROM), the name of the vendor that made the material available on CD-ROM, and publications dates for the version used, if relevant.

Begin with the author's name, the title of the work, and whatever print publication information is available. Then include the name of the database (underlined), the type of medium (CD-ROM, diskette, or magnetic tape), the name of the producer or distributor, and the electronic publication date.

"Marriage." Encyclopedia Judaica. CD-ROM. Vers. 1.0. Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia, 1997.

30. A single-issue, nonperiodical database publication  Cite material from a CD-ROM, diskette, or magnetic tape published as a single edition (that is, with no regular updat ing) in the same way you cite a book, but after the title add the medium of publication and any version or release number.

Keats, John. "To Autumn." Columbia Granger's World of Poetry. CD-ROM. Rel. 3.0. New York: Columbia UP, 1999.

31. Electronic source medium not known  If you do not know whether the material is on the library's hard drive or on CD-ROM, use the word Electronic for the medium, and give the name and sponsor of the network, followed by your date of access.

"Renaissance." 1996. Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Electronic. ColumbiaNet. Columbia U. 9 Jan. 1998.


The Web changes fast. For updated information on citing Internet sources, refer to the MLA Web site (<http://www.mla.org>) and the Keys for Writers site (<http://www.hmco .com/college>; click on English and then on Keys), where you will also find a template you can print or download to use to record the details of each source you find.

NOTE: If your instructor wants you to use Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor's style for Internet citations, also known as ACW style (Alliance for Computers and Writing), consult The Columbia Guide to Online Style (New York: Columbia UP, 1998); also refer to <http://www.columbia.edu.cu.cup .cgos>.

Key Points

Citing Internet Sources

1. Give enough information in a citation so that readers can follow the same path you took and will find the exact same source. Because such searching requires exact details, record as much of the following information as you can find:

  •  name of author, editor, or translator
  •  title of work
  •  any print publication information, including source and date, along with whatever information is available about page numbers in the print source: the range (5-15) or the number of pages (12pp) (see also item 5, following)
  •  title of online site, such as the title of an online journal, a scholarly project, a database, a professional Web site, a personal site (all underlined), or the name of a discussion list or forum or subscription service (not underlined)
  •  any version number or access number of material posted, or volume and issue number of an online journal
  •  date when online material was posted or updated
  •  name of the sponsor of the site, such as a library or university
  •  date when you access the source
  •  complete electronic address (URL) or subscription service keywords

2. Give the date you access the material as the last date in your source reference, immediately before the URL or keywords. Two dates often appear next to each other in a source reference, as in items 36 and 37: The first tells when the work was posted or updated electronically; the second gives the date you find the material.

3. Treat FTP and telnet addresses in the same way as Web addresses.

4. Break a URL for a new line only after a slash. Never insert a hyphen in a Web address (a URL) and never split a protocol (e.g., http://) across lines. Always enclose a URL in angle brackets.

5. Include in your citation the page numbers for any print version of the source, but for the electronic version, include page or paragraph numbers of the on-screen version only if they are indicated on the screen. Usually they are not, and the page numbers of your print-out of the source will not necessarily correspond to other print- outs. When no page or paragraph information for the online version appears on the screen, include no page or paragraph numbers in your list of references.

6. Request permission to use any graphics or e-mail postings you include in your paper.

Author. "Title of Web Page." Title of the Site. Editor. Date and/or Version Number. Name of Sponsoring Institution. Date of Access <URL>.

32. Online book or part of book  Give whatever is available of the following: author, name of part, title of book, editor or translator (if applicable), print publication information, electronic publication information and date, date of access, and complete electronic address (URL).

Sherman, Chris. "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About URL." SearchEngineWatch. Ed. Danny Sullivan. 24 Aug. 2004. 4 Sept. 2004 <http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/article.php/3398511>.

33. Article in a reference database  Include the title of the database, any version number, and the sponsor of the site.

"Bloomsbury group." Britannica Online . Vers . 98.2 Apr. 1998. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 7 Jan. 1999 <http://www.eb.com: 180>.

34. Work obtained from an online subscription service Libraries subscribe to large information services such as infotrac, Ebsco Host, and Lexis-Nexis that provide abstracts and full texts of thousands of articles. Provide any print publication information, including the length (in pages) of the print version. If a URL is given, cite full details, including the same of the service, date of access, and the URL.

Borch, Brian J., and Mark J. Smith. "Pedestrian Movement and the Downtown Enclosed Shopping Center." Journal of the American Planning Association 59.1 (Winter 1993) : 12pp. Infotrac SearchBank: Expanded Academic ASAP. 11 Jan. 1999 <http://www.searchbank.com/searchbank>.

If the service provides a direct link without giving a URL, give the name of the subscription service, date of access, and any keywords used to access the source.

"Parthenon." The Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. 1994. America Online. 9 Jan. 1999. Keywords: Reference/ Encyclopedias/Columbia Concise.

If a library subscribes to a service but does not provide a URL, give the name of the library after the service and before the date of access.

35. Article in an online journal or newsletter  Give the author, title of article, title of journal, volume and issue numbers, and date of issue. Include the total number of paragraphs only if paragraphs are numbered in the source, as they are for the example that follows. End with date of ac cess and electronic address.

Kay, Dennis. "Marlowe, Edward II, and the Cult of Elizabeth." Early Modern Literary Studies 3.2 (Sept. 1997): 30 pars. 9 Jan. 1999 <http://www.humanities.ualberta.ca/ emls/03-2/kaymarl.html>.

36. Article in an online magazine

Benfey, Christopher. "Values, Shmalues: Don't Mistake Pieter de Hooch for a Stodgy Moralist." Slate 6 Jan. 1999. 7 Jan. 1999 <http://www.slate.com/Art/99-01-06/ Art.asp>.

37. Article in an online newspaper

Raebel, Joanna. "Personal Paths to Security." Los Angelgs Times 5 Jan. 19 99. 8 Jan. 1999 <http://www.latimes.com/HOME/BUSINESS/WALLSTCA/t000001014.l.html>.

38. Review, editorial, abstract, or letter in an online publication  After author and title, state the type of text: Letter, Editorial, Abstract, or Rev. of. . . by. . . . Continue with details of the electronic source.

39. Scholarly project

Perseus Project. Ed. Gregory Crane. 25 Nov. 1997. Tufts U. 10 Jan. 1999 <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu>.

40. Professional site

MLA on the Web. 8 Jan. 1999. Modern Language Association of America. 12 Jan. 1999 <http://www.mla.org>.

41. Linked site  If you connect to one site from another, include "Lkd." (linked from) after the details of the source you cite, followed by the title of the document you originally accessed (in italics or underlined), along with any additional details necessary for linking. Follow this with the date of access and the URL.

Hansen, Randall S. "Indispensable Writing Resources." 15 Oct. 1998. Lkd. Keys for Writers. 2 Jan. 1999 <http://www.hmco.com/hmco/college/english/ raimes/frames/mlinkfrm.htm>.

42. Personal Web page  If the personal Web page has a title, supply it, underlined. Otherwise, use the designation Home page.

Kuechler, Manfred. 29 Nov. 1998. Home page. 8 Jan. 1999 <http://maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/ socio/faculty/kuech.html>.

43. Online posting on a discussion list (listserv), bulletin board service (BBS), Usenet, or. Hyperneivs  Give the author's name, title of document (as written in the subject line), the words Online posting, and the date of posting. Follow this with the name of the forum, date of access, and URL or e-mail address. For a Usenet news group, give the name of the group, beginning with the prefix news:

Corso, Cristin. "Alternative Currents in South American Drawing." Online posting. 13 Jan. 1998. LatinoLink Bulletin Board. 8 Jan. 1999 <>.
Wolff, Donald. "Comma Rules." Online posting. 17 Nov. 1998. Writing Program Administration. 20 Nov. 1998 <WPA-L @ASUVM.INRE.ASU.EDU>.
Hollmann, Annette C. "Re: Prestained Standards for Western Blotting." Online posting. 7 Jan. 1999. 11 Jan. 1999 <news:bionet.cellbiol>.

44. Forwarded online posting  To cite a forwarded document in an online posting, include author, title, and date, followed by Fwd. by and the name of the person forwarding the document. End with Online posting, the date of the forwarding, the name of the discussion group, date of access, and address of the discussion list.

Laurence, Pat. "WAC Resolution." 8 Jan. 1999. Fwd. by Carolyn Kirkpatrick. Online posting. 8 Jan. 1999. WID-TALK: A CUNY Interdisciplinary Conversation about Writing. 10 Jan. 1999 <WID-TALK@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU>.

45. Synchronous communication  When citing a source from a MUD (multiuser domain) or a MOO (multi user domain, object-oriented), give the name of the person speaking or posting information, the type of event, title, date, forum, date of access, and telnet address or, preferably, a URL for archived material.

Delker, Natalie. Vertical file. "Cyborg Bibliography." Nov. 1997. LinguaMOO. 9 Jan. 1998 <http://lingua.utdallas.edu .-7000/4125>.

46. Personal e-mail message  Describe the type of message after the title (if available) or after the author's name.

Kane, George. "Writing handbooks." E-mail to the author. 13 Jan. 1999.

47. Other electronic sources  Identify online inter views, maps, charts, film clips, sound recordings, works of art, cartoons, and advertisements as you would sources that are not online (see items 49-57); then add electronic publication information, date of access, and the URL. For online transcripts of television and radio programs, include the word Transcript after the date of broadcast.


48. Letter, personal communication, or interview  Identify the type of communication (e.g., personal inter view) after the author's name.

Rogan, Helen. Letter to the author. 3 Feb. 1999. Gingold, Alfred. Telephone interview. 10 May 1999.

Cite a published letter the same way as a work in an anthology. Include the page numbers for the letter.

Bishop, Elizabeth. "To Robert Lowell." 26 Nov. 1951. One Art: Letters. Ed. Robert Giroux. New York: Farrar, 1994. 224-26.

49. Published or broadcast interview   For print, radio, or TV interviews that have no title, include the word Interview after the name of the person interviewed, followed by the bibliographical information for the source.

Griffith, Melanie. Interview. Charlie Rose. PBS. WNET, New York. 14 Jan. 1999.

50. Map or chart   Underline the title of the map or chart, and include the designation after the title.

Auyercjne/Limousin. Map. Paris: Michelin, 1996.

51. Film or video   List the title, director, performers, and other pertinent information. End with the name of the distributor and the year of distribution.

A civil Action. Dir. Steven Zaillian. Perf. John Travolta and Robert Duvall. Touchstone Pictures and Paramount, 1998.

52. Television or radio program  Give the title of the program; pertinent information about performers, writer, producer, moderator, or director; the network; and the local station and date of broadcast.

Mystery! "Cadfael 4: The Potter's Field." With Derek Jacobi. PBS. WNET, New York. 21 Jan. 1999.

53. Sound recording  List the composer or author, the title of the work, the names of the artists, the production company, and the date. If the medium is not a compact disc, indicate "Audiocassette," "Audiotape," or "LP" before the name of the production company.

Scarlatti, Doir.enico. Keyboard Sonatas . Andras Schiff, piano. London, 1989.
Walker, Alice. Interview with Kay Bonetti. Audiocassette. Columbia: American Audio Prose Library, 1981.

54. Live performance  Give the title of the play, the author, pertinent information about the director and perform ers, the theater, the location, and the date of performance. If you are citing an individual's role in the work, begin your citation with the person's name.

Wit. By Margaret Edson. Dir. Derek Anson Jones. Perf. Kathleen Chalfant. Union Square Theater, New York. 12 Jan. 1999.
Jones, Derek Anson, dir. Wit. By Margaret Edson. Perf. Kathleen Chalfant. Union Square Theater, New York. 12 Jan. 1999.

55. Work of art  List the name of the artist, the title of the work, and the museum or gallery and its location.

Johns, Jasper. Racing Thoughts . Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.

56. Cartoon   Include the label Cartoon. Follow this with the usual information about the source and give the page number on which the cartoon appears.

Chast, Roz. "1998: A Look Back." Cartoon. New Yorker 7 and 14 Dec. 1998: 140-43.

57. Advertisement   Give the name of the product or company, followed by the word Advertisement and publication information. If a page is not numbered, write "n. pag."

Viagra. Advertisement. Time 11 Jan. 1999: n. pag.

Literature Used

  1.  Axelrod R.B. and Cooper Ch.R. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 788 p.
  2.  Baker Sh. The practical Stylist. 6th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. 290p.
  3.  Conrad R. Process & Practice. 5th ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1997. 252 p.
  4.  Jordan R. R. Academic Writing Course. Edinburg: Longman, 1996. 144p.
  5.  Maclin A. Reference Guide to English: a Handbook of English as a Second Language. Washington: s. n., 1996. 405 p.
  6.  Swales M. J. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills. Ann Arbor: the University of Michigan press, 1997. 252 p.
  7.  Trzeciak J. and Mackay S.E. Study Skills for Academic Writing: Student's Book. New York: Phoenix ELT, 1994. 120 p.
  8.  Яхонтова Т.В. Основи англомовного наукового письма: навчальний посібник для студентів, аспірантів і науковців. Львів: ПАІС, 2003.218 с.

1 However, both MLA and The Chicago Manual of Style describe alternative systems of citation that do use footnotes or endnotes.


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