Physics. A Glimpse of Modern Physics
Physics is the science that deals with matter and energy and the relationships that exist between them. Physics is the most comprehensive of the natural sciences because it includes the behaviour of all kinds of matter – from the smallest particles to the largest galaxies.
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения иностранному языку в профессиональной сфере студентов 2-го курса физических направлений бакалавриата.
Основной целью пособия является подготовка студентов к практическому использованию английского языка в профессиональной деятельности, что предполагает формирование коммуникативной компетенции, необходимой для профессионального общения. Задачами пособия являются совершенствование навыков чтения литературы профессионального характера, развитие навыков устной и письменной речи. В пособии используется аутентичный материал научной проблематики в области физики, развивающий и совершенствующий уровень сформированности коммуникативной компетенции базового курса и формирующий иноязычную профессиональную коммуникативную компетенцию на втором образовательном уровне.
Пособие составлено в соответствии с содержанием рабочих программ «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере (английский)» для студентов направлений 011800.62 «Радиофизика», 011200.62 «Физика», 222900.62 «Нанотехнологии и микросистемная техника», 223200.62 «Техническая физика». Пособие построено с учетом требований Федерального интернет-экзамена по английскому языку для подготовки к аспектам «Чтение» и «Лексика». Пособие состоит из пяти разделов, приложения и библиографии. Разделы представлены текстами для чтения и рядом заданий, направленных на расширение запаса активной профессиональной лексики, на развитие умений поиска главной информации, анализа, составления краткого изложения (summary), умений обсуждать, высказывать свою точку зрения по темам, связанным с профессиональной деятельностью. В приложении даны советы по составлению краткого изложения и дополнительные тексты.
Unit 1. What is Physics?..................................................................................5
Unit 2. A Glimpse of Classical Physics…………………………………………11
Unit 3. A Glimpse of Modern Physics…………………………………………..31
Unit 4. Nanotechnology Around Us……………………………………………..56
Unit 5. Careers in Physics ……….………………………………………………64
Appendix 1. Summary…………………………………………………………….73
Appendix 2. Extra Texts ………………..………………………………………..75
UNIT 1. WHAT IS PHYSICS?
«We live, I think, in the century of science and,
perhaps, even in the century of physics».
accept (V) признавать, принимать accurate (Adj) точный, тщательный
alternate (Adj) чередующийся, запасной
attempt (N) попытка
behaviour (N) образ действия, поведение
branch (N) отрасль
branch off (V) отделяться
capacity (N) способность
comprehensive (Adj) всесторонний, полный
concept (N) понятие, идея
conservation (N) сохранение
deal with (V) иметь дело
determine (V) определять, устанавливать
discovery (N) открытие, обнаружение
electromagnetic (Adj) электромагнитный
energy (N) энергия
exist (V) существовать
extensively (Adv) в значительной степени, широко
gravitation (N) гравитация, сила тяжести
include (V) включать
interchangeable (Adj) взаимозаменяемый, равнозначный
law (N) научный закон, закономерность
matter (N) вещество
motion (N) движение
occupy (V) занимать
originate (V) происходить, возникать
particle (N) частица
physicist (N) физик
quantum (Adj) квантовый
radiation (N) радиация
relate (V) относиться, иметь отношение
relationship (N) взаимосвязь, взаимоотношение
relativity (N) относительность
science (N) наука
separate (Adj) отдельный
technique (N) метод, методика, способ
Albert Einstein ['albət 'aınstaın] Альберт Эйнштейн
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Read the text «What is Physics?» and entitle each paragraph of it.
What is Physics?
1) Physics is the science that deals with matter and energy and the relationships that exist between them. Physics is the most comprehensive of the natural sciences because it includes the behaviour of all kinds of matter from the smallest particles to the largest galaxies. The word «physics» originates from a Greek word meaning natural things. Physics was originally called natural philosophy and included all natural science. As a large amount of knowledge was collected on a particular subject within natural philosophy, that subject branched off and developed into a separate science.
2) The various laws of physics are attempts by physicists to explain the behaviour of nature in a simple and general way. Even the most accepted laws of physics, however, are subject to change. Nature's behaviour does not change, but techniques for determining its behaviour do change and become more accurate. At the beginning of the 20th century, the laws of physics were tested extensively and were found to be too narrow to explain many of the new discoveries. A new body of theories was started. The older body of laws is called classical physics; the new is called modern physics.
3) Classical physics is based primarily on the laws of motion and gravitation of Sir Isaac Newton and the theory of electromagnetic radiation of James Clerk Maxwell. In classical physics matter and energy are two separate concepts. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It exists in three basic forms. Plasma highly ionized gas has been called a fourth form. Energy is the capacity to move matter; as more commonly stated, it is the capacity to do work. Energy exists as mechanical energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, and nuclear energy. Some of the most important laws in classical physics are the conservation laws. Classical physics is usually divided into several branches, each of which deals with a group of related phenomena (mechanics, dynamics, hydromechanics, statics, optics, thermodynamics, acoustics, the study of electricity and magnetism).
4) Modern physics is based on the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and the quantum theory of Max Planck and others. Matter and energy are not separate concepts, but are alternate forms of each other. The theory of relativity states that matter and energy are interchangeable and that mass and time can vary. Quantum theory states that light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation behave as though they have a double nature. Sometimes they behave as waves; at other times they behave as particles. Small particles of matter also have a double, or wave-particle, nature. Modern physics is broken up into various fields of study (atomic physics, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, or particle physics, ultrasonics, solid-state physics, plasma physics).
Task 3. Choose the main idea of the text «What is Physics?».
Task 4. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 5. Choose the correct answer.
Task 6. Complete the sentences according to the text «What is Physics?» in your own words.
1. Physics is the science that … .
2. The various laws of physics are … .
3. Classical physics is … .
4. Modern physics is … .
Task 7. Summarize one of the paragraphs of the text.
(See Appendix 1).
Task 8. Enjoy the poem and say the names of the prominent scientists in physics mentioned in the poem.
Unified Field Theory by Tim Joseph
In the beginning there was Aristotle,
At objects at rest tended to remain at rest,
And objects in motion tended to come to rest,
And soon everything was at rest,
And God saw that it was boring.
Then God created Newton,
And objects at rest tended to remain at rest,
But objects in motion tended to remain in motion,
And energy was conserved and momentum was conserved and matter was conserved,
And God saw that it was conservative.
Then God created Einstein,
And everything was relative,
And fast things became short,
And straight things became curved,
And the universe was filled with inertial frames,
And God saw that it was relatively general, but some of it was especially relative.
Then God created Bohr,
And there was the principle,
And the principle was quantum,
And all things were quantified,
But some things were still relative,
And God saw that it was confusing.
Then God was going to create Ferguson,
And Ferguson would have unified,
And he would have fielded a theory,
And all would have been one,
But it was the seventh day,
And God rested,
And objects at rest tend to remain at rest.
UNIT 2. A GLIMPSE OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
«To cross the seas, to traverse the roads, and to work machinery by galvanism, or rather electro-magnetism, will certainly, if executed, be the most noble achievement ever performed by man».
accelerate (V) ускорять
attract (to) (V) притягивать
aurora (N) полярное сияние
charge (N) заряд
circuit (N) цепь, круг, цикл,
collide (V) сталкиваться
compose of (V) составлять
constituent (N) составная часть
continuum (N) сплошная среда
convert (V) трансформировать, преобразовывать
current (N) ток, поток, течение
due to благодаря, в результате, из-за
emit (V) испускать, выделять
excess (Adj) избыточный
field (N) поле
hemisphere (N) полушарие
influence (N) влияние
infrared (Adj) инфракрасный interaction (N) взаимодействие
lodestone (N) магнит
magnetic (Adj) магнитный
magnetosphere (N) магнитосфера
molecule (N) молекула
needle (N) стрелка (компаса)
permanent (Adj) постоянный
pole (N) полюс
property (N) свойство
radio wave (N) радиоволна
repel (V) отталкивать
reverse (V) менять
resultant (Adj) равнодействующий, получающийся в результате
span (V) охватывать
spectrum (N) спектр, диапазон
ultraviolet (Adj) ультрафиолетовый
vice versa наоборот, обратно, противоположно
wander (V) колебаться, отклоняться
X-rays (N) рентгеновские лучи
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
1. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above?
2. What is electricity? What is magnetism? Is there any connection between them? Are there examples of electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism around us?
Task 2. Scan the text «Magnetism in Nature» and match the information below with the numbers.
a) Ancient people were familiar with magnetite
b)The North Magnetic Pole doesnt correspond with the North Pole
c)The magnetic poles tend to vary daily
d)The South Magnetic Pole doesnt correspond with the South Pole
e)The magnetic poles sometimes reverse themselves
Magnetism in Nature
Most modern applications of magnetism use electromagnetism, which is created using electricity. However, there are several natural occurrences of magnetism.
Lodestone, or magnetite, was the first naturally occurring magnetic material to be discovered by man. Over 2,000 years ago, the Greeks, Romans, and Chinese all knew of lodestones and their magnetically attractive properties. Lodestones are composed of iron (chemical symbol Fe) and Oxygen (O) and have the composition Fe3O4. Lodestones are commonly found in nature, and have been found in large quantities in Scandinavia, South Africa, and the United States, as well as other places. Lodestones are among the strongest natural magnets, but they are relatively weak as compared to the synthetic magnets used in everyday life.
The strongest magnet on the Earth is actually the Earth itself! Although scientists are not absolutely certain of what causes the Earths magnetic field, they think it is caused by the liquid outer core of the Earth. This is mostly iron, and scientists believe it flows in currents; the motion of the molecules in these currents is theorized to create the Earths magnetic field. The Earths magnetic poles are not at the same places as the geographic poles. The North Magnetic Pole is actually in far northern Canada, about 800 miles from the North Pole, and the South Magnetic Pole is off the coast of Antarctica, about 1,600 miles from the geographic South Pole. The magnetic poles tend to wander a bit, sometimes as much as 50 miles in a day. This is due to the interaction of the Earth and the solar wind. In addition to the daily variations, the Earths magnetic poles sometimes reverse themselves, with the North Magnetic Pole becomes south and vice versa. When this happens, the Earths magnetic field changes direction (and the sale of compasses increases dramatically). This happens about every 500,000 years.
Speaking of compasses, why do compasses point north? The needle of a compass is actually a small permanent magnet. The «north» tip of the compass needle is the north pole of its magnet, and is attracted to the North Magnetic Pole. The north pole of the magnet should not be attracted to the North Magnetic Pole if both are north poles. Similar poles should repel each other, yet the north pole of the compass magnet does indeed point «north». In reality, what we call the North Magnetic Pole is actually the South Pole of the Earths magnetic field! Similarly, the so-called South Magnetic Pole is actually the North Pole.
The Earths magnetosphere is a region above the Earths surface containing charged particles that are affected by the Earths magnetic field. It plays an important role in one of natures most picturesque magnetic phenomena, the auroras. Sunspots emit a large number of high-energy charged particles, some of which make their way through the Earths magnetosphere. These articles create an overload of charged particles in the lower Van Allen belt, which is basically a belt of radiation trapped around the earth. These excess charged particles enter the atmosphere near the Earths magnetic poles and collide with gas molecules in the atmosphere. These collisions make the molecules emit energy in the form of visible light. This happens for many molecules; their resulting light display is an aurora. In the northern hemisphere this display is called the Aurora Borealis, or northern lights. The equivalent southern lights are called the Aurora Australis.
Naturally occurring magnets are not used much these days.
(From Electricity and magnetism by John D. Carpinelli)
Task 3. Read the text «Magnetism in Nature» again and decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 4. Choose the main idea of the text.
1. There are several natural occurrences of magnetism.
2. Lodestones are commonly found in nature.
3. The strongest magnet on the Earth is actually the Earth itself.
Task 5. Answer the questions about the text «Magnetism in Nature».
Task 6. Complete the summary with the major details of the text «Magnetism in Nature».
The text under the title «Magnetism in Nature» tells us about several examples of magnetism that appear in nature namely loadstones, Earths magnetic poles, magnetosphere and auroras. At the beginning of the text the author describes loadstones _________. Then the author passes on the Earths magnetic poles ________. After that the author gives a detailed description of magnetosphere and auroras ________. With the last statement the author concludes that ________.
Task 7. Skim the text «Electricity and Magnetism» and find which paragraphs contain the information on each of these topics.
a) The importance of electricity and magnetism
b) Electromagnetic radiation
c) The usage of electricity and magnetism
Electricity and Magnetism
1) Electricity and magnetism are two closely related and very important topics within the science of physics. We use electricity to power computers and to make motors go. Magnetism makes a compass point north and keeps notes stuck onto our refrigerators. Without electromagnetic radiation we would all be in the dark, for light is one of its many forms!
2) Electricity can exist as stationary charges, which we call static electricity, or it can be moving and flowing, in which case we refer to it as an electrical current. Subatomic particles, such as protons and electrons, possess minute electrical charges. In relatively recent times, humans have learned to harness the power of electricity. That power, and the many types of electrical circuits and devices we have invented, has radically transformed our world. Electricity plays many important roles in the natural world as well, where it generates powerful flashes of lightning and produces the signals that zip along our nerves.
3) Magnetism is electricity's close cousin. Some materials, such as iron, are attracted to magnets; while others, such as copper, ignore its influence. We describe the motion of objects influenced by magnets in terms of magnetic fields. We know that magnets have north and south poles, and that like poles repel one another while opposite poles attract.
4) Electricity and magnetism are really different faces of a single fundamental force. Accelerate a magnet and you will produce an electrical current; vary the flow of electricity and you will create a magnetic field. Varying electromagnetic fields give rise to electromagnetic radiation. This fast-moving energy comes in a continuum of forms known as the electromagnetic spectrum, which spans radio waves and microwaves to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light and on to powerful X-rays and gamma rays. When broken down into their constituents by spectroscopes, electromagnetic spectra reveal much about distant objects such as stars. We use our knowledge of this radiation to build telescopes for viewing the heavens, radios for communications, and X-ray machines for medical diagnoses.
5) Modern human society uses electricity and magnetism in innumerable ways. Generators in power plants convert moving steam into a flow of electrical current, which is converted back into mechanical energy when the current reaches a motor. A laser reads the pits on a compact disc, converting microscopic patterns into audible sounds when the resultant electrical signal reaches a speaker. Semiconductors in computers channel the flow of data contained in tiny electrical signals, sending information about electricity and magnetism (and many other topics) across the Internet to your desktop computer!
Task 8. Read the text «Electricity and Magnetism» again and find the English equivalents for the following words.
Статическое электричество, электрический ток, электрическая цепь, электромагнитное поле, шкала электромагнитных волн, рентгеновские лучи, преобразоваться обратно, полупроводники, электрический сигнал.
Task 9. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 10. Choose the main idea of the text.
Task 11. Choose the correct answer.
Task 12. Write the summary of the text «Electricity and Magnetism» using the map below.
Task 13. Make the written translation into Russian (1,500 characters).
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-known effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves.
Magnetism is a property of materials that respond to an applied magnetic field. Permanent magnets have persistent magnetic fields caused by ferromagnetism. That is the strongest and most familiar type of magnetism. However, all materials are influenced varyingly by the presence of a magnetic field. Some are attracted to a magnetic field; others are repulsed by a magnetic field.
Electromagnetism is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. In the electromagnetic theory these forces are explained using electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, the other three being the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation. Electromagnetism manifests as both electric fields and magnetic fields. Electric fields are the cause of several common phenomena, such as electric potential (such as the voltage of a battery) and electric current (such as the flow of electricity through a flashlight). Magnetic fields are the cause of the force associated with magnets. Both fields are simply different aspects of electromagnetism, and hence are intrinsically related. Thus, a changing electric field generates a magnetic field; conversely a changing magnetic field generates an electric field. This effect is called electromagnetic induction, and is the basis of operation for electrical generators, induction motors, and transformers.
Task 14. Webquest. Make a list of devices that use electromagnetism. Use the Internet and research one of these devices and be ready ro report back to the group.
«Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love».
acceleration (N) ускорение
analytic(al) (Adj) аналитический
calculate (V) вычислять
discard (V) отказываться
evidence (N) наглядность, доказательство, подтверждение
expand (V) расширять
find out (V) выяснять, понять
force (N) сила
formula (N) формулировка, формула; мн. formulae, formulas
gain (V) получать, приобретать
gravitational pull сила притяжения
hypothesis (N) гипотеза
impact (N) удар, толчок
intersect (V) пересекать
inversely (Adv) обратно пропорционально
point mass точечная масса
proportional (Adj) пропорциональный
rate (N) темп, скорость
release (V) отпускать
revise (V) проверять, пересматривать
square (N) квадрат
statement (N) утверждение
support (V) поддерживать
the Law of Universal Gravitation закон всемирного тяготения
the Theory of General Relativity
thoroughly (Adv) полностью, основательно, тщательно
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Skim the text «Is Gravity a Theory or a Law?» and find the key sentence in each paragraph. Underline the sentence with the main idea of the text.
Is Gravity a Theory or a Law?
1) Pick an object that will not break, dent the floor, cause a mess, or get either of us in trouble. Hold it out in front of you and release it. What happens? It falls, of course. The gravitational attraction between the Earth and the object pulls it towards the ground. But, when we make this experiment, should we be talking about the Law of Gravity or the Theory of Gravity? Actually, we should be talking about both. To understand why, we need to understand the scientific meaning of the words «law» and «theory».
2) In the language of science, the word «law» describes an analytic statement. It gives us a formula that tells us what things will do. For example, Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation tells us that «Every point mass attracts every single point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses». We can use Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation to calculate how strong the gravitational pull is between the Earth and the object you dropped, which would let us calculate its acceleration as it falls, how long it will take to hit the ground, how fast it would be going at impact, how much energy it will take to pick it up again, etc.
3) While the law lets us calculate quite a bit about what happens, notice that it does not tell us anything about why it happens. That is what theories are for. In the language of science, the word «theory» is used to describe an explanation of why and how things happen. For gravity, we use Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to explain why things fall. A theory starts as one or more hypotheses, untested ideas about why something happens. For example, we might propose a hypothesis that the object that you released fell because it was pulled by the Earth's magnetic field. Once we started testing, it would not take long to find out that my hypothesis was not supported by the evidence. Non-magnetic objects fall at the same rate as magnetic objects. Because it was not supported by the evidence, our hypothesis does not gain the status of being a theory. To become a scientific theory, an idea must be thoroughly tested, and must be an accurate and predictive description of the natural world.
4) While laws rarely change, theories change frequently as new evidence is discovered. Instead of being discarded due to new evidence, theories are often revised to include the new evidence in their explanation. The Theory of General Relativity has adapted as new technologies and new evidence have expanded our view of the universe. So, when we are scientifically discussing gravity, we can talk about the law that describes the attraction between two objects, and we can also talk about the theory that describes why the objects attract each other.
Task 3. Read the text «Is Gravity a Theory or a Law?» and decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 4. Answer the questions about the text.
Task 5. Fill in the map below and write the summary of the text «Is Gravity a Theory or a Law? ».
a) Should we be talking about the Law of Gravity or the Theory of Gravity?
b) The meaning of the word «law»
c) The explanation of gravity as the law and as the theory
d) The scientific meaning of the word «theory»
Task 6. Enjoy the jokes.
Teacher : When you throw something up.. Where will it go next?
Someone shouted: Down!
Johnny: Nooo.. It goes side first.
Johnny: It should be Up-Side-Down!
Student: «Yes sir, if he had been sitting in class looking at books like us, he wouldn't have discovered anything».
«Music is the arithmetic of sounds as optics is the geometry of light».
aid (V) помогать
application (N) применение
broaden (V) расширять
data processing обработка данных
detector (N) прибор для обнаружения, детектор, индикатор
carrier (N) носитель
coherent (Adj) связанный, последовательный
concern (V) заниматься, интересоваться
expound (V) объяснять, разъяснять
extend (V) расширять
extensively (Adv) в значительной степени, широко
genesis (N) происхождение, возникновение
image aberration погрешность изображения
information content объем информации
in relation to по отношению к
involve (V) касаться, затрагивать, включать в себя
lens (N) линза
photographic plate фотопластина
procedure (N) процедур, процесс, алгоритм
propagation (N) распространение
receiver (N) приемник, получатель
resurgence (N) возрождение, восстановление
vision (N) образ, изображение (на экране)
ultimate (Adj) основной, окончательный
undergo (V) подвергаться, испытывать, переносить
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Skim the text and choose the best title of it.
Optics is the science concerned with the genesis and propagation of light, the changes that it undergoes and produces, and other phenomena closely associated with it.
There are two major branches of optics, physical and geometrical. Physical optics deals primarily with the nature and properties of light itself. Geometrical optics has to do with the principles that govern the image-forming properties of lenses, mirrors, and other devices that make use of light. It also includes optical data processing, which involves the manipulation of the information content of an image formed by coherent optical systems.
Originally, the term «optics» was used only in relation to the eye and vision. Later, as lenses and other devices for aiding vision began to be developed, these were naturally called optical instruments, and the meaning of the term «optics» eventually became broadened to cover any application of light, even though the ultimate receiver is not the eye but a physical detector, such as a photographic plate or a television camera.
In the 20th century optical methods came to be applied extensively to regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum not visible to the eye, such as X-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, and microwave radio waves, and to this extent these regions are now often included in the general field of optics.
(From Britannica Online Encyclopedia)
Task 3. Read the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words.
Изображение, распространение, видимый, свойство формирования изображения, по отношению к, длина, применение, количество информации, погрешность изображения, фотопластина, оптические методы, геометрическая оптика, переносить.
Task 4. Match the words with the similar meaning.
Task 5. Choose the correct words.
Task 6. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 7. Choose the correct answer.
Task 8. Fill in the map below and write the summary of the text.
Task 9. Read the text «The Optical Image», fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate it into Russian.
The Optical Image
An optical image may be regarded as the apparent reproduction of an object by a lens or mirror system, employing light as a _(1)_. An entire _(2)_ is generally produced simultaneously, as by the lens in a camera, but images may also be generated sequentially _ (3)_, as in a television system or in the radio transmission of pictures across long distances in space. Nevertheless, the final _(4)_ of all images is invariably the human eye, and, whatever means is used to transmit and control the light, the final _(5)_ must either be produced simultaneously or scanned so _(6)_ that the observers persistence of vision will give him the mental impression of a complete image covering a finite field of view. For this to be effective the image must be repeated (as in motion pictures) or scanned (as in television) at least 40 times a second to eliminate _(7)_ or any appearance of intermittency.
Task 10. Make the written translation into Russian ( 2,200 characters).
To the ancients, the processes of image formation were full of mystery. Indeed, for a long time there was a great discussion as to whether, in vision, something moved from the object to the eye or whether something reached out from the eye to the object. By the beginning of the 17th century, however, it was known that rays of light travel in straight lines, and in 1604 Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer, published a book on optics in which he postulated that an extended object could be regarded as a multitude of separate points, each point emitting rays of light in all directions. Some of these rays would enter a lens, by which they would be bent around and made to converge to a point, the «image» of the object point whence the rays originated. The lens of the eye was not different from other lenses, and it formed an image of external objects on the retina, producing the sensation of vision. There are two main types of image to be considered: real and virtual. A real image is formed outside the system, where the emerging rays actually cross; such an image can be caught on a screen or piece of film and is the kind of image formed by a slide projector or in a camera. A virtual image, on the other hand, is formed inside an instrument at the point where diverging rays would cross if they were extended backward into the instrument. Such an image is formed in a microscope or telescope and can be seen by looking into the eyepiece.
Optics had progressed rapidly by the early years of the 19th century. Lenses of moderately good quality were being made for telescopes and microscopes, and in 1841 the great mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss published his classical book on geometrical optics. In it he expounded the concept of the focal length and cardinal points of a lens system and developed formulas for calculating the position and size of the image formed by a lens of given focal length. Between 1852 and 1856 Gausss theory was extended to the calculation of the five principal aberrations of a lens, thus laying the foundation for the formal procedures of lens design that were used for the next 100 years. Since about 1960, however, lens design has been almost entirely computerized, and the old methods of designing lenses by hand on a desk calculator are rapidly disappearing.
By the end of the 19th century numerous other workers had entered the field of geometrical optics, notably an English physicist, Lord Rayleigh, and a German physicist, Ernst Karl Abbe. Since 1940 there has been a great resurgence in optics on the basis of information and communication theory, which is treated at length below.
UNIT 3. A GLIMPSE OF MODERN PHYSICS
If quantum mechanics hasn't profoundly shocked you,
you haven't understood it yet».
Niels Bohr 5
accompany (V) сопровождать
advanced (Adj) передовой, прогрессивный, продвинутый
align (V) выравнивать, выстраивать в линию
amplify light усилить свет
angular momentum кинетический момент, момент количества движения, момент импульса
beam (syn. ray) (N) луч
bind (bound) (V) связывать
blade (N) лопасть, крыло
branch out (V) разветвляться collaborator (N) соавтор
defence (N) защита, оборона
depart from (V) отклоняться, отходить, отказываться
derive (V) выводить, получать
discrete (Adj) дискретный
display (N) представление, шоу duality (N) двойственность emerge (V) появляться
evaluate (V) оценивать
frequency (N) частота
identify (V) опознавать, распознавать
in a fraction of a second в доле секунды
in terms of в терминах, на языке, на основе, исходя из
liquid (N) жидкость
measure (V) измерять, мерить
melt (V) плавить, растапливать, растворять
microscopic scale микроскопический масштаб
nuclear missile ядерная ракета precise (Adj) точный, определённый
probability amplitude амплитуда вероятности
quantize (V) квантовать
quantum (N) квант, фотон
realm (N) область, сфера (царство науки)
semiconductor (N) полупроводник
speculation (N) размышление
single-spot welding одноточечная сварка
speculative (Adj) теоретический, созерцательный
solid (Adj) твердый
steel (N) сталь
the string theory теория струн
surfacing (N) выделка поверхности (чего-л.)
target (N) цель, мишень
tissue (N) ткань, материя
treat (V) лечить
turbine (N) турбина
unify (V) унифицировать
vaporize (V) испарять, испаряться, распылять
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Scan the text «Quantum Mechanics» and find the names of the scientists who formulated the quantum theory.
Quantum mechanics (QM also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. QM provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behaviour and interactions of energy and matter.
In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviours are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e. very low or very high) energies or temperatures. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts (Latin quanta), and not in a continuous way. For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the waveparticle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects.
The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function called the wave function provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle.
The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. At around the same time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) first came to be widely accepted as the scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. The early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli and their collaborators, and the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of the 20th century physics and other disciplines, such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much 19th century physics has been re-evaluated as the «classical limit» of quantum mechanics, and its more advanced developments in terms of the quantum field theory, the string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories. (From www.bbc.co.uk )
Task 3. Read the text «Quantum Mechanics» again and find the English equivalents for the following words.
Взаимосвязь; кинетический (вращательный) момент; частица; соответственно; амплитуда положения; многозначительно; выводить, устанавливать происхождение; квантовая физика; разветвляться; соавтор; корпускулярная теория света; постоянная Планка; переоценивать; в терминах.
Task 4. Match the words with the definitions.
1. depart from a. to tie a number of things together, to unite people
2. advance b. to take something offered, agree with something
3. accept c. to become known, to come out of something
4. bind d. not to use usual way of doing something, refuse
5. speculation from something
6. emerge e. progress in science, technology, human knowledge
7. duality f. separate
8. discrete g. consideration or discussion why something has happened
h. the fact that something has two aspects or parts
Task 5. Change the words in bold with the words of the similar meaning given in the box.
Task 6. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 7. Answer the questions about the text «Quantum Mechanics».
Task 8. Write the summary of the text «Quantum Mechanics» using the major details below.
1. The definition of QM.
2. The subject of the study.
3. The development of QM and scientists who advanced it.
Task 9. Make the written translation into Russian (1,500 characters).
Quantum physics deals with the behaviour of the smallest things in our universe: subatomic particles. It is a new science, only coming into its own in the early part of the 20th century, when physicists began questioning why they couldn't explain certain radiation effects. One of those pioneering thinkers, Max Planck, used the term «quanta» for the tiny particles of energy he was studying, hence the term «quantum physics». Planck said the amount of energy contained in an electron is not arbitrary, but is a multiple of a standard «quantum» of energy. One of the first practical uses of this knowledge led to the invention of the transistor.
Unlike the inflexible laws of standard physics, the rules of quantum physics seem made to be broken. Just when scientists think they have one aspect of their study of matter and energy figured out, a new twist emerges to remind them how unpredictable their field is. Still, they are able to harness, if not totally understand, their findings to develop new technologies that sometimes can only be called fantastic.
In the future, quantum mechanics may help keep military secrets secure and protect your bank account information from online thieves. Scientists are working on quantum computers that can execute jobs far beyond the capabilities of today's machines. Broken into subatomic particles, items might be transported from one location to another in the blink of an eye. And, perhaps most intriguing of all, quantum physics may lead us to discover just what the universe is made of and what or who did the making.
Task 10. Read the text «Lasers», fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate it into Russian.
Lasers (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) are _(1)_ which amplify light and produce beams of light which are very intense, directional, and pure in colour. Based on the laser medium used, lasers are generally classified as _(2)_ state, gas, semiconductor, or liquid.
When lasers were invented in 1960, some people thought they could be used as «death rays». In the 1980s, the United States experimented with lasers as a _(3)_ against nuclear missiles. Nowadays, they are used to _(4)_ targets. But apart from military uses, they have many applications in engineering, communications, medicine, and the arts.
In engineering, powerful laser _(5)_ can be focused on a small area. These beams can heat, melt, or vaporize material in a very precise way. They can be used for drilling diamonds, cutting complex shapes in materials from plastics to steel, for spot welding and for surfacing techniques, such as hardening aircraft engine turbine blades. Laser beams can also be used to _(6)_ and align structures.
Lasers are ideal for communications in space. Laser light can carry many more information _(7)_ than microwaves because of its high frequency. In addition, it can travel long distances without _(8)_ signal strength. Lasers can also be used for information recording and reading. Compact discs are read by lasers.
In medicine, laser beams can treat damaged _(9)_ in a fraction of a second without harming healthy tissue. They can be used in very precise eye operations.
In the arts, lasers can provide fantastic displays of light. Pop concerts are often _(10)_ by laser displays.
devices measure tissue channels
defence accompanied solid beams
Task 11. Answer the question about the text «Lasers».
Task 12. Webquest. Make a list of practical applications of quantum mechanics. Use the Internet and choose one of these applications and be ready ro report back to the group.
MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC PHYSICS
«Give me matter, and I will construct a world out of it!».
atom (N) атом
bounce off (V) отскакивать
break away (V) отделяться (от чего-либо)
claim (V) заявлять, утверждать
come up with (V) предлагать
consist of (V) состоять из
define (V) определять
gluon (N) глюон (переносчик взаимодействия между кварками)
electron (N) электрон
leap (N) прыжок, скачок
molecule (N) молекула
neutron (N) нейтрон
nucleus (N) ядро атома;
overcome (V) преодолеть, побороть
proton (N) протон
prove (V) доказывать, подтверждать
proven (Adj) доказанный
quark (N) кварк (фундаментальная частица)
revolve (V) вращаться, вертеться
rotate (V) вращаться, чередоваться
search for (V) искать
spin (V) крутиться, вертеться
speed up (V) ускорять
substance (N) вещество
sufficient (Adj) достаточный
theory (N) теория
the solar system model модель солнечной системы
the Uncertainty Principle принцип неопределенности
tiny (Adj) очень маленький
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Read the text «Theories of Matter» and say what theories explain the structure of matter.
Theories of Matter
Matter is defined as the substance of objects that also takes up space and has mass. But matter also has various characteristics, so ancient scientists searched for a universal explanation for appearance, properties and behaviour of matter. One theory that explained some of the properties of matter is the Molecular Theory of Matter. This was followed by the Atomic Theory of Matter. There are still theories being developed that try to explain the true structure of matter in even more detail.
The original Molecular Theory of Matter stated that all matter consists of tiny particles called molecules. These particles are constantly moving and bouncing off each other like billiard balls. The Molecular Theory of Matter is also called the Kinetic Theory of Matter, because of the constant movement of the molecules. The motion of molecules is responsible for the phenomenon of heat. In other words, the faster the molecules are moving, the higher the temperature. When the molecules speed up or the material is heated sufficiently, the kinetic energy overcome the molecular attraction and the substance changes its state from a solid to a liquid. Likewise, when the kinetic energy of the molecules increases further, the material can change from a liquid to a gaseous state.
Molecules can be broken into smaller particles called atoms. The Atomic Theory of Matter states that all matter consists of extremely small particles called atoms. It was originally thought that atoms were the smallest possible particles, but that has since been proven incorrect. Atoms consist of even smaller particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons. A combination of protons and neutrons combine to form the nucleus of an atom. A popular model or picture of an atom that explains many of its properties and features is the solar system model of the atom. This model is also called the Bohr Model, named after Neils Bohr, who came up with the idea. It states that electrons rotate around the nucleus, similar to the planets revolving around the sun. The Atomic Theory explains electricity. When electrons break away from their nuclei, their motion results in electricity.
Since the Atomic Theory was formulated, many new particles have been discovered. The new theories concerning these particles and predicted particles attempts to explain every phenomena in physics. This is also called the Universal Theory of Matter. Also, there have been discovered that the proton and neutron themselves are made of even smaller particles, called quarks. These particles are then held together by particles called gluons. Finally, there is a theory that these sub-atomic particles are not particles at all, but really vibrating strings. The Quantum Theory of Matter states that at the very small sub-atomic distances, matter does not travel in continuous motion. Instead, it jumps from position to position in discrete or quantum leaps. This theory also states that particles spin in very discrete motion. The Uncertainty Principle states that with small particles, you cannot tell exactly where the particle and how fast it is going at the same time. The newest theory is that matter consists of tiny strings of material, instead of round balls. The String Theory seems to explain many phenomena for both large systems and at the quantum level. But many scientists claim that it is simply a mathematical exercise, since it cannot be proven or disproven.
(From Theories of Matter by Ron Kurtus)
Task 3. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 4. Choose the main idea of the text «Theories of Matter».
Task 5. Choose the correct answer.
Task 6. Answer the question about the text «Theories of Matter».
Task 7. Write the summary of the text «Theories of Matter» using the major details below.
Task 8. Make the written translation into Russian (2,200 characters).
Everything is made up of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Anything that is material is made of matter in fact both words come from the same Latin root meaning «stuff». Matter is made up of molecules, and molecules are made up of atoms.
About 2400 years ago, a Greek philosopher named Democritus (460-370 B.C.) thought a lot about what things were made of. One day while slicing an apple, he wondered how small he could slice it. He figured that everything that could be touched could be divided again and again until there was a piece left that was so small it couldnt be cut. It turns out that he had the right idea, and that smallest piece we now know as the atom. The word atom comes from an ancient Greek word that means «uncuttable». Democritus could not see an atom (as we can today), but he had figured out something very important. His atom is what we talk about today as an element. In the mid-17th century, scientists began to prove the existence of specific elements, or pure substances that couldnt be «cut» into other pieces. This led scientists to discover the elements and atoms that make up all matter. At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists found that Democritus atom actually could be cut into smaller pieces, called sub-atomic particles.
The parts of the atom are nucleus, electron, proton and neutron. The nucleus is at the center of the atom. It is made up of protons and neutrons. Moving around outside of the nucleus are the electrons. In 1915 a scientist named Niels Bohr proposed a model of the atom that illustrates the atomic structure, called the planetary model or the Bohr model. Proton comes from the Greek word for «first». Protons have a positive charge. Typically, positively charged particles would repel each other, but they are held together in the nucleus with a force called the strong atomic force. This is the strongest force in the universe. The other part of the nucleus is the neutron. Neutrons are about the same size as protons. The word «neutron» comes from the Latin word for «neutral». The neutron has no charge it is neutral. The third particle of an atom is the electron. Electrons are much smaller than the protons or the neutrons (almost 2000 times smaller). It is easy to illustrate them orbiting around the nucleus using the Bohr model, although they actually move in a cloud. Electrons are negative. Protons and neutrons are both composed of other particles called quarks and gluons. Protons contain two «up» quarks and one «down» quark while neutrons contain one «up» quark and two «down» quarks. The gluons are responsible for binding the quarks to one another. (From www.wikipedia.org)
THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY
« When you are courting a nice girl an hour seems like a second. When you sit on a red-hot cinder a second seems like an hour. That's relativity».
according to в соответствии с, согласно
advance (N) успех, достижение
contradictory (N) противоречащий
contraction (N) сокращение
consequence (N) следствие, вывод, заключение
curve (V) гнуть, изгибать; (N) кривая
curvature (N) кривизна, изгиб, искривление
disagree (V) не совпадать, расходиться
encompass (V) окружать, заключать
equation (N) уравнение, равенство
exert (V) приводить в действие, оказывать давление, влиять
expand (V) расширять
inertial (Adj) инерционный
incompatible (Adj) - несовместимый
increase (V) увеличиваться
instead of вместо, взамен
observer (N) наблюдатель
postulate (N) аксиома, постулат
precess (V) предварять, предшествовать
propose (V) предлагать, предполагать
regardless of не обращая внимание, не взирая на
shape (N) форма, образ, модель
slow down (V) замедлять
source (N) источник
space (V) пространство, расстояние (между двумя объектами)
suck up (V) всасывать, поглощать
the Special Theory of Relativity специальная теория относительности
the General Theory of Relativity общая теория относительности
time dilation растяжение времени
transmutable (Adj) изменяемый, превращаемый
uniform (Adj) равномерный, постоянный
upshot (N) развязка, результат
vacuum (N) безвоздушное пространство, пустота
well (N) колодец, скважина
with respect to что касается
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Scan the text «The Theory of Relativity» and match the information below with the years.
a) Introducing the Special Theory of Relativity by Einstein
b) The period of Einsteins life
c) Developing the General Theory of Relativity
The Theory of Relativity
The Theory of Relativity, proposed by the Jewish physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) in the early part of the 20th century, is one of the most significant scientific advances of our time. The Theory of Relativity, or simply relativity, generally encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: Special Relativity and General Relativity.
Special Relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Einstein's 1905 paper «On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies». Special Relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics: The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (principle of relativity). The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the light.
Some of the consequences of Special Relativity are:
- Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion.
- Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's «stationary» clock.
- Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer.
- Massenergy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable.
- Maximum speed is finite: No physical object, message or field line can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum.
General Relativity is the Theory of Gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 19071915. The development of General Relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical. The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion; an object in free fall is falling because that is how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics. This is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so. To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed that spacetime is curved. In 1915, he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass, energy, and momentum within it.
Some of the consequences of general relativity are:
- Clocks run more slowly in deeper gravitational wells. This is called gravitational time dilation.
- Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars).
- Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field.
- Rotating masses «drag along» the spacetime around them; a phenomenon termed «frame-dragging».
- The Universe is expanding, and the far parts of it are moving away from us faster than the speed of light.
Task 3. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text «The Theory of Relativity».
Task 4. Choose the correct answer.
Task 5. Choose the main idea of the text «The Theory of Relativity».
Task 6. Read the story «Einstein Vacation to Mexico».
Einstein Vacation to Mexico
Albert Einstein was just about finished his work on the Theory of Special Relativity, when he decided to take a break and go on vacation to Mexico. So he hopped on a plane and headed to Acapulco. Each day, late in the afternoon, sporting dark sunglasses, he walked in the white Mexican sand and breathed in the fresh Pacific sea air.
On the last day, he paused during his stroll to sit down on a bench and watch the Sun set. When the large orange ball was just disappearing, a last beam of light seemed to radiate toward him. The event brought him back to thinking about his physics work. «What symbol should I use for the speed of light?» he asked himself. The problem was that nearly every Greek letter had been taken for some other purpose.
Just then, a beautiful Mexican woman passed by. Albert Einstein just had to say something to her. Almost out of desperation, he asked as he lowered his dark sunglasses, «Do you not zink zat zee speed of light is zery fast?» The woman smiled at Einstein (which, by the way, made his heart sink) and replied, «Si». And do you know the end of the story?7
Task 7. Think of the end of the story «Einstein Vacation to Mexico» and act the story out.
«As far as the radio waves part of the spectrum, we can do these adequately from the ground because the atmosphere is basically transparent to our radio waves».
available (Adj) доступный
axis (N) ось, осевая линия
band (N) диапазон волн, полоса частот
boundary (N) граница
broadcast (V) транслировать, передавать (по радио)
clockwise direction направление по часовой стрелке
configuration (N) конфигурация, расположение
congest (V) перегружать, переполнять
congestion (N) перегрузка (каналов связи)
devise (V) разрабатывать, изобретать
digital (Adj) цифровой
dish (N) параболическая антенна, тарелка
frequency (N) частота
fusilli pasta фузи́лли (итал. fusilli
маленькие спиральки) разновидность лапши
generate (V) вырабатывать
GHz (N) сокр. от Giga Hertz гигагерц
implement (V) внедрять, обеспечить выполнение
infinite (Adj) бесконечный, бесчисленный
lighthouse (N) маяк
orbital angular momentum орбитальный (угловой) момент
multiplexing (Adj) мультиплексирование, многократная передача
perspective (N) проекция
phase (N) фаза
pick up (V) ловить, принимать (сигнал)
satellite (N) спутник
solve the problem решить проблему
solution (N) решение
state (N) режим, положение
three-dimensional (Adj) трехмерный, объемный
transmit (V) передавать
twist (V) поворот, кручение, вращающий момент
wavelength (N) длина волны
wireless (Adj) беспроводной;
(N) радиосвязь, радиостанция
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Scan the text « Pasta-shaped Radio Waves Beamed across Venice» and match the information below with numbers.
a) A distance from a lighthouse to a satellite dish on a balcony
b) Channels obtained in the same frequency band using multiplexing
c) The band in which two twisted radio waves were transmitted
d) Channels generated with one frequency band using five orbital angular momentum states, including untwisted waves
Pasta-shaped Radio Waves Beamed across Venice
A group of Italian and Swedish researchers appears to have solved the problem of radio congestion by cleverly twisting radio waves into the shape of fusilli pasta, allowing a potentially infinite number of channels to be broadcast and received. Furthermore, the researchers have demonstrated this in real-life conditions by beaming two twisted radio waves across the waters of Venice.
As the world continues to adapt in the digital age, the introduction of new mobile smartphones, wireless Internet and digital TVs means the number of radio frequency bands available to broadcast information gets smaller and smaller. «You just have to try sending a text message at midnight on New Years Eve to realise how congested the bands are», said the lead author Dr Fabrizio Tamburini. The researchers, from the University of Padova, Italy, and the Angstrom Laboratory, Sweden, devised a solution to this by manipulating waves so that they can hold more than one channel of information.
A wave can twist about its axis a certain number of times in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction, meaning there are several configurations that it can adopt. «In a three-dimensional perspective, this phase twist looks like a fusillli-pasta-shaped beam. Each of these twisted beams can be independently generated, propagated and detected even in the very same frequency band, behaving as independent communication channels», Tamburini continued. To demonstrate this, the researchers transmitted two twisted radio waves, in the 2.4 GHz band, over a distance of 442 metres from a lighthouse on San Georgio Island to a satellite dish on a balcony of Palazzo Ducale on the mainland of Venice, where it was able to pick up the two separate channels.
Within reasonable economic boundaries, one can think about using five orbital angular momentum states, from 5 (counter-clockwise) up to 5 (clockwise), including untwisted waves. In this instance, we can have 11 channels in one frequency band. «It is possible to use multiplexing, like in digital TV, on each of these to implement even more channels on the same states, which means one could obtain 55 channels in the same frequency band», said Tamburini. In addition to increasing the quantity of information being passed around our planet, this new discovery could also help lend an insight into objects far out in our galaxy. Black holes, for example, are constantly rotating and as waves pass them, they are forced to twist in line with the black hole.
Task 3. Read the text again and decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text.
Task 4. Choose the correct answer.
Task 5. Choose the correct words.
Task 6. Complete the sentences according to the text «Pasta-shaped Radio Waves Beamed across Venice» in your own words.
1. A group of Italian and Swedish researchers … .
2. A solution to the congested bands is … .
3. A wave can twist … .
4. It is possible to obtain… .
Task 7. Write a summary of the text «Pasta-shaped Radio Waves Beamed across Venice».
UNIT 4. NANOTECHNOLOGY AROUND US
«In thinking about nanotechnology today, what's most important is understanding where it leads, what nanotechnology will look like after we reach the assembler breakthrough».
K. Eric Drexler9
absorb (V) поглощать
altitude (N) высота над уровнем моря, pl. возвышенность, высокая местность
benefit (N) выгода, преимущество
bump (N) изгиб, выпуклость
cell (N) клетка
challenge (N) сложная задача, проблема
constructive (Adj) конструктивный, созидательный
consumption (N) потребление
contaminate (V) загрязнять
destructive (Adj) деструктивный, ослабляющий
dimension (N) измерение, величина
enhance (V) усилить, улучшить
evolve (V) обнаруживать,
filament (N) волокно, нить
hexagonal (Adj) шестиугольный
hollow (Adj) пустой, полый
interference (N) интерференция
выделять (тепло), издавать (звук)
multilayer (Adj) многослойный
nanoscale (N) наноразмерный
nanometer (N) миллимикрон, нанометр, нм
nanostructure (N) наноструктура
nanotechnology (N) нанотехнология
pattern (N) образец, рисунок
reflectance (N) коэффициент отражения, отражательная способность
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Read the text and say the examples of nanostructures in nature.
Nanostructures in Nature
Nanostructures objects with nanometer scale features are not new nor were they first created by man. There are many examples of nanostructures in nature in the way that plants and animals have evolved.
On the surface of a butterflys wings are multilayer nanoscale patterns. These structures filter light and reflect mostly one wavelength, so we see a single bright colour. For instance the wings of the male Morpho Rhetenor appear bright blue. But the wing material is not, in fact, blue; it just appears blue because of particular nanostructures on the surface. The nanostructures on the butterflys wings are about the same size as the wavelength of visible light and because of the multiple layers in these structures optical interferences are created. There is constructive interference for a given wavelength (around 450nm for the Morpho Rhetenor) and destructive interferences for the other wavelengths, so we see a very bright blue colour. In the laboratory, many scientific instruments use this same phenomena to analyze the colour of light.
A moths eye has very small bumps on its surface. They have a hexagonal shape and are a few hundred nanometers tall and apart. Because these patterns are smaller than the wavelength of visible light (350-800nm), the eye surface has a very low reflectance for the visible light so the moths eye can absorb more light. The moth can see much better than humans in dim or dark conditions because these nanostructures absorb light very efficiently. In the lab, scientists have used similar man-made nanostructures to enhance the absorption of infra-red light (heat) in a type of power source (a thermo-voltaic cell) to make them more efficient!
The edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale) is an alpine flower which lives at high altitudes, up to 3000m / 10,000 ft, where UV radiation is strong. The flowers are covered with thin hollow filaments that have nanoscale structures (100-200nm) on their periphery. They will absorb ultraviolet light, which wavelength is around the same dimension as the filaments, but reflect all visible light. This explains the white colour of the flower. Because the layer of filaments absorbs UV light, it also protects the flowers cells from possible damage due to this high-energy radiation.
Task 3. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text «Nanostructures in Nature».
Task 4. Choose the correct answer.
Task 5. Fill in the map below and write the summary of the text «Nanostructures in Nature».
Task 6. Read the text «What is Nanotechnology?», fill in the gaps using the words below, and translate it into Russian.
What is Nanotechnology?
In its original sense, nanotechnology _(1)_ to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, highly advanced products.
When Eric Drexler popularized the word «_(2)_ » in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of _(3)_, a few nanometers wide motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a _(4)_. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction.
Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular _(5)_. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to _(6)_ the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology.
Nanotechnology is the science and technology of small things in particular things that are less than 100 _(7)_ in size. One nanometer is 10-9 meters or about 3 atoms long. For comparison, a human hair is about 60-80,000 nanometers wide.
There are many different views of precisely what is included in nanotechnology. In general, however, most agree that three things are important: Small size, measured in 100s of nanometers or less; Unique properties because of the small _(8)_; Control the structure and composition on the nm scale in order to control the properties.
Nanotechnology is often referred to as a general-purpose technology. Thats because in its mature form it will have significant _(9)_ on almost all industries and all areas of society. It offers better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.
Many are predicting that nanotechnology is the next technical _(10)_ and products resulting from it will affect all areas of our economy and lifestyle. It is estimated that by 2015 this exciting field will need 7 million _(11)_ worldwide.
Task 7. Make the written translation into Russian (2,100 characters).
Solving problems with nanotechnology
One of the most pressing of these problems, in the face of dwindling global oil and gas reserves, is the search to find better ways to supply the world population with energy and with the least impact to our planet. It is becoming ever more apparent that we will only be able to do this by making better use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind. Nanotechnology is helping to bring about this transformational leap to a new era of sustainable energy. For example, it enables photovoltaic cells to be built in new ways and with better materials so that they may be produced more cheaply and generate electricity from the suns light more efficiently. Batteries play a key role in sustainable energy, and here too, nanotechnology is enabling breakthroughs in performance and energy density, particularly in lithium ion batteries for electric and hybrid cars as well as hydrogen storage units. Finally, nanotechnology can help us find important new ways to conserve energy, such as with optimized insulation materials.
Alongside the search for sustainable energy, another great global challenge has been making more and more headlines as it becomes ever more acute in many parts of the world: the thirst for clean water. Nanotechnology is providing innovative new solutions with optimized filters which can remove chemicals and carcinogens from water with unprecedented efficiency. While water supply is one of our most pressing issues, nanotechnology also opens new and cost-effective opportunities to keep our air and soil clean as well. For example, catalytic converters optimized with the help of nanotechnology mean more efficient processes in the chemical industries which produce less waste, and nanostructured membranes can more efficiently filter pollutants from air.
Around the world, the need for better, cheaper healthcare has become critical. Nanotechnology is playing an increasingly important role in overcoming this global challenge. Around the world, medical researchers are working on nanoparticles for drug delivery which can deliver powerful medications to exactly where they are needed in the body, such as the site of a tumor or infection. This means that these medications can act more effectively and with fewer side effects in the rest of the body. Nanoparticles have also enabled a totally new approach to cancer treatment; by injecting a magnetic nanoparticle fluid directly into the tumor and applying an external electromagnetic field, the tumor may be destroyed by heating it from the inside out.
Task 8. Match the application with nanotechnology development. Where is nanotechnology used?
a) Finding a lower-cost source of household energy for the nations future. Converting sunlight into electric current. (the present cost of electricity produced by solar cells is four times greater than electricity produced by nuclear or fossil fuels).
b) Planes, trains, and automobiles lighter, faster, and more fuel-efﬁcient and constructed of lighter, stronger materials.
c) Handling medical procedures by nanomachines that rebuild arteries, rebuild bones, and reinforce bones. New ideas to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer in the future (nanoshells to target cancer cells).
Food and Agriculture
d) Performance fuel cells for use in automobiles, portable consumer electronics (laptop computers, cell phones, and digital cameras). A fuel cell (an energy conversion device and alternative to batteries that converts energy from a chemical reaction into electricity and heat). Environmentally friendly.
e) Creating new means of detecting air pollutants, and cleaning polluted waste streams and groundwater.
f) Llab-on-a-chip technology (a portable handheld device containing a simple computer chip that can diagnose and monitor the medical conditions of a patient).
g) Providing safer, cheaper, and more sustainable food products. Using less water and chemicals in the preparation and production of food products.
Task 9. Discuss the questions.
Task 10. Enjoy the joke.
1) - Excuse me, where is the Nanotechnology department?
- You just trod on it!
Task 11. Webquest. Use the Intrnet and find the information about modern investigations in «nanoscience» and be ready ro report back to the group.
UNIT 5. CAREERS IN PHYSICS
«Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work».
advancement (N) продвижение
analytical (Adj) аналитический
appointment (N) назначение (на должность)
approximately (Adv) приблизительно
area (N) область, сфера деятельности
aspire (V) стремиться
bachelors degree степень бакалавра
department (N) факультет
doctorate (N) степень доктора; работа над докторской диссертацией
field (N) сфера деятельности
inquisitive (Adj) любознательный
masters degree степень магистра
mind (N) ум, разум, мышление
offer (V) предлагать
permanent (Adj) постоянный
Ph.D. degree степень кандидата наук
position (N) должность
problem-solving (Adj) способность решать проблему
proposal (N) предложение, проект, план
prospective (Adj) перспективный
qualify (V) подготавливать, квалифицировать
receive (V) получать
require (V) требовать
research (N) исследование
research paper исследовательская работа
rigorous (Adj) строгий, точный, напряженный
skill (N) навык
specialize in (V) специализироваться
training (N) обучение, подготовка
trait (N) черта (характера)
ultimately (Adv) в конце концов
Task 1. Discuss with a partner.
Task 2. Read the text «Education and training» and define the main idea of the text.
Education and Training
A Ph.D. degree in physics or closely related fields is typically required for basic research, independent research in industry, faculty positions, and advancement to managerial positions. This prepares students for a career in research through rigorous training in theory, methodology, and mathematics. Most physicists specialize in a subfield during graduate school and continue working in that area afterwards.
Additional experience and training in a postdoctoral, although not required, is important for physicists aspiring to permanent positions in basic research in universities and government laboratories. Many physics Ph.D. holders ultimately teach at the college or university level.
Masters degree holders usually do not qualify for basic research positions, but may qualify for many kinds of jobs requiring a physics background, including positions in manufacturing and applied research and development.
Those with bachelors degrees in physics are rarely qualified to fill positions in research or in teaching at the college level. They are, however, usually qualified to work as technicians or research assistants in engineering-related areas, in software development and other scientific fields, or in setting up computer networks and sophisticated laboratory equipment. Increasingly, some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry or take on nontraditional physics roles, often in computer science, such as systems analysts or database administrators. Some become science teachers in secondary schools.
Mathematical ability, problem-solving and analytical skills, an inquisitive mind, imagination, and initiative are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics. Prospective physicists who hope to work in industrial laboratories applying physics knowledge to practical problems should broaden their educational background to include courses outside of physics, such as economics, information technology, and business management. Good oral and written communication skills also are important because many physicists work as part of a team, write research papers or proposals, or have contact with clients or customers with nonphysics backgrounds.
Task 3. Decide if the statements are true, false or not mentioned in the text «Education and Training».
Task 4. Answer the questions about the text «Education and Training».
Task 5. Study the information about career sectors in physics in the table below. What is/are the most interesting for you. Why?
Career Sector In Physics
Electronic, Biomedical, Mechanical, Computer, Civil, Chemical, Environmental, Instrumentation
Law, Administration, Business, Journalism, Museums, Sports, Accounting, Marketing, Art, Science Communication
Industry, Government, Military
Noise Control, Pollution Control, Conservation, Radiation Protection, Environmental Monitoring
Technical books, Journals, Software
Telecommunications, Television, Image Analysis, Video Recording, Photography, Laser Technology
Radiation Oncology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Medicine, Diagnostic Instrumentation
Graphics/Software Design, Peripherals, Modelling, Artificial Intelligence, Data Processing, Programming, Computer Games
Construction, Food, Chemical, Aerospace, Engineering Agriculture, Consumer Products, Energy, Fuel, Metallurgical, Semiconductors, Textile&Clothing, Transportation, Computers, Electrical, Laser Technology, Materials
Colleges, Universities, Technical Schools, High Schools, Elementary and Middle Schools
Universities, Technical Schools, National Laboratories, Industrial and Private Laboratories
Space and Earth Sciences
Astronomy, Space Technology, Geophysics, Geology, Atmospheric Sciences, Energy and Resources, Ocean Sciences
Task 6. Match the following professions given in the box with the description of the job profiles.
Solar Energy Physicist Mechanical Engineer TV producer
Sound Engineer Satellite Engineer Computer Games Designer
A. «I'm now a professor at University and I really enjoy the balance between research and teaching. Lecturing is particularly rewarding, especially when students I have taught to overtake my own knowledge», says David.
B. After her degree, Jess studied a PhD in solar energy. «I really care about the environment and I knew that I wanted to work in renewable energy».
C. «There's a lot of physics in sound engineering, from the acoustics to radio waves». Tony got into sound engineering whilst at university. «A few friends formed a band. The drummer was doing physics with me, the singer was doing medicine, and the keyboard player was doing law. I started mixing the sound for them».
D. Maggie leads a team of scientists and engineers that make custom-built instruments for satellites. She builds space-telescopes that improve our understanding of the universe and work on satellites that help monitor climate change.
E. Naomi became interested in engineering during her GCSEs. «I did some work experience at British Aerospace. It's very hard to understand what an engineer does without seeing it for yourself. It's very hands on; you're always producing something or making something».
F. Stuart finds his background in physics useful when making TV programmes. «I could never understand why people don't find physics interesting; physics is about how everything around you works», says Stuart, who makes TV documentaries. Stuart studied electronics at university before moving into TV production.
G. «Dark matter makes up more of the universe than normal matter (which is what we're made from) but beyond that we don't really know what it is. We do know that it's useful though, as it surrounds our galaxy and holds it together», says Catherine.
H. «It's not just that you need to understand physics to predict the weather; all the technology, from the rocket that launches a weather satellite into orbit, to the telemetry that collates millions of weather observations uses physics», says Heather.
I. «Modern games rely on a piece of software called a physics-engine, this computer code governs how objects move and interact in a computer game. The rules of physics need to be programmed into a game and our physics-based animation engine has been used in lots of different games like Star Wars», says Chris.
J. «I am helping to improve the laser optics of the km-size laser antennas that are designed to catch and measure the gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes and exploding stars. Measuring these vibrations in space-time is very difficult and weve not yet succeeded, so I am trying to make our detectors even more sensitive», says Andreas.
Task 7. Prepare your own presentation on the following topics:
My plans for the future.
My future profession.
My dream job.
Careers in physics.
Task 8. Portfolio: Imagine you are producing a poster to help local students choose a career in the field of physics. Write a short description of five jobs. Add pictures and titles. Present your leaflets to the group.
Task 9. Act the situation below.
You are at a conference. You recognize someone you met at a conference two years ago. Introduce yourself and make small talk. Use your role card to prepare for the conversation.
I can name/find the following/a lot of/ a few reasons to study physics ... .
I suppose/consider/think/suggest/imagine that … .
Physics is useful/helpful/comprehensive/productive because … .
Physics opens the door to many career options. That's why/therefore/however … .
Not taking physics closes the door to more career options because … .
This is one aspect that scares off many students.
But it is precisely one of the most/least important reasons why you should/should not study physics.
You just need to learn enough to have a basis for your future learning and professional growth.
Physics is like a whole other language.
Physics is a difficult course for me because … .
There's a whole lot of math.
It makes me think critically about things that don't make sense. For example, …. .
It crosses over into subjects such as history, astronomy, biology, chemistry, literature, English, art and geology.
As a career, physics covers many specialized fields - from acoustics, astronomy, and astrophysics to medical physics, geophysics, and vacuum sciences.
Physics offers a variety of work activities a lab supervisor/researcher/ technician/teacher/manager… Etc.
Task 10. Enjoy the joke.
You Might Be a Physicist if …
Appendix 1. Summary.
A summary is a short, concise method of stating the main idea and significant supporting (major) details of a reading selection or textbook chapter.
Should include: the main idea of the selection; the most essential supporting details or explanations; only the information you have read; objective and factual information from the reading; ¼ the length of the original essay; your own words and the use of paraphrasing.
Should not include: your opinion; what you think the author should have said; copied material or a string of quotes from the selection.
Writing a summary:
Useful Phrases for Summary Writing
Текст (статья) под заголовком «___» связан с/имеет дело с/рассказывает нам о/текст о … .
В начале текста автор описывает/подробно останавливается на/объясняет/ указывает/характеризует/
Статья начинается с описания/анализа/обзора/
автора о … .
Затем (после этого) автор переходит к /продолжает рассказывать о/дает детальный анализ (описание) … .
Кроме того, более того … .
В заключении (в конце статьи) автор подчеркивает/критикует/делает вывод, что … .
анализом … .
Вкратце/суммируя … .
Appendix 2. Extra Texts
Text 1. Nanolayers Make a Coating of Many Colours
Researchers at Harvard University in the US have made a new type of optical coating that appears to change colour when its thickness is varied by just a few nanometres. The film, which is less than 20 nm thick, could be used to customize the colour of metal surfaces a phenomenon that could not only be exploited to make pretty jewellery, but also a host of technologically advanced devices, including ultrathin light detectors and filters, displays, modulators and even solar cells.
Conventional dielectric optical coatings, which are a key component of almost every optical device, are typically made of layers of transparent (or «lossless») material, with each layer being at least a quarter wavelength of light in thickness. The new ultrathin optical coatings made by Federico Capasso's team are different in that they comprise nanometre-thick, and nearly opaque, highly light-absorbing dielectric materials, such as semiconductors. The researchers have shown, for example, that adding a 7 nm layer of germanium to the surface of a gold sample changes its colour from gold to pink. Adding another 4 nm layer makes it violet, and another 4 nm turns the coating dark blue (4 nm is less than 15 atoms thick).
The effect is similar to what we see when there is a thin film of oil of the road on a wet day and we see many different colours, explains Capasso. The colours appear thanks to interfering light waves as they pass through the oil into the water below and then are reflected back up. Some wavelengths of incident and reflected light constructively interfere with one another and are «boosted», while others destructively interfere and are absorbed.
Text 2. Prototype «Mott Transistor» Developed
Researchers in Japan have unveiled a prototype of a «Mott transistor». If implemented commercially, such a transistor could offer significant advantages over current designs in energy efficiency and switching speed.
As transistors are the basis of modern electronics, scientists are continually seeking ways to improve and enhance them. Transistors used for switching in modern computers are based on the field effect. In such transistors, a voltage applied between the gate and drain electrodes increases the conductivity of a semiconductor, allowing electricity to flow between the source and drain electrodes. A transistor should ideally carry as little current as possible when there is no voltage between the gate and drain (the off state) and as much as possible when gate voltage is present (the on state). A low off current is important for energy efficiency, while a large on current is important because it allows circuits to run faster.
An ideal transistor would be a total insulator in the off state and a perfect conductor in the on state. Therefore, an important measure of the quality of a transistor is the ratio of the on current to the off current. However, with a standard field-effect transistor (FET), this change in conductivity is influenced by only a thin layer close to where the current flows between gate and drain. This limits the ratio of on current to off current that can be achieved.
Scientists have suggested that it might be possible to improve this ratio by exploiting Mott insulators in transistors. Mott insulators are materials that should behave as metals according to conventional band theories but that act as insulators under certain conditions owing to quantum-mechanical correlations between neighbouring electrons. For reasons that are complex and not entirely understood, however, sudden phase transitions can be induced between the insulating state and the metallic state. Among other things, this metalinsulator transition can be induced by an electric field. While the gate voltage in an ordinary transistor simply modulates the resistance of a semiconductor, the gate voltage in a Mott transistor could turn an insulator into a metal.
Various research groups have tried to produce Mott transistors in the past, but they have failed to generate the electric fields needed to induce the metalinsulator transition at the surface of the Mott insulator. Now, scientists from the RIKEN Advance Science Institute in Wako, Japan, have covered the surface of the vanadium-dioxide Mott insulator with a drop of ionic liquid. When a small gate voltage was applied to the ionic liquid, this generated a huge electric field at the surface of the Mott insulator, inducing it to change to the metallic state. Best of all, unlike in a standard transistor, the phase transition and so the change in conductivity occurred not just at the surface, but also throughout the entire bulk of the material. The researchers are not entirely clear why this is the case, but they suspect that the electric field at the surface of the Mott insulator induces a phase transition in a thin layer near the surface, and that this introduces energy to the lattice of the material, thereby triggering a kind of cascade effect with the phase boundary propagating into the material like a wave.
Text 3. Putting a New Twist on Optical Communications
If the lacklustre speed of your Internet connection is getting you down, help could soon arrive from the orbital angular momentum of light. That is because an international team of researchers has developed a prototype system that uses this previously unexploited property of electromagnetic radiation to boost the amount of information that can be transmitted using a given amount of bandwidth. Although the test transmission was done across just a few metres in a vacuum, the technology developed in this proof-of-principle application could find wider application in optical telecommunications.
The rate at which data can be transmitted using electromagnetic radiation is normally limited by how much of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum is used a quantity referred to as the bandwidth of the system. However, electromagnetic radiation has other degrees of freedom in addition to frequency and researchers are keen to use these to develop multiplexing schemes that boost the amount of data that can be sent over a link. For example, photons have an intrinsic spin angular momentum that manifests itself in the polarization of light. This property has already been used to increase data transmission rates one stream of data is transmitted using photons with vertical polarization, for example, and another stream using photons with horizontal polarization.
It turns out that light can also carry orbital angular momentum. This is a result of the phase fronts of the waves rotating relative to their direction of propagation to create a pattern resembling a corkscrew. Whereas spin angular momentum can take only two values, orbital angular momentum can, in principle, take an infinite number of values. This could, in theory, allow a large number of data channels to be created using a finite amount of bandwidth.
This orbital angular momentum was first considered as a possible means of quantum communication in 2001 by the Austrian quantum physicist Anton Zeilinger. The idea that classical information could also be encoded in the orbital-angular-momentum states of photons was then demonstrated in 2004 by Miles Padgett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow in the UK. However, while Padgett's group proved that the principle could work, there was much to be done to produce a practical system.
The challenge has been taken up by Alan Willner and team at the University of Southern California, who, together with colleagues elsewhere in the US and in Israel, are the first to use orbital-angular-momentum states for multiplexing. Each data stream is encoded in the usual way using a series of on/off laser pulses. Then, separate streams of data are given a different orbital angular momentum before the beams are combined and transmitted. Finally, the different streams are separated in a process called «demultiplexing».
The different orbital-angular-momentum states are orthogonal, which means that there is no «crosstalk» between the beams. As a bonus, since quantum mechanics allows you to know both the orbital and the spin angular momentum of a photon at the same time, the researchers managed to perform both polarization multiplexing and orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing on their beams of light. This doubled the number of states available and allowed the transmission to reach terabit speeds.
«What impresses me most about the research is that it goes beyond a proof of principle to the point where the researchers' results show meaningful amounts of speed», comments Padgett. «It's not just 'let me prove the basic physics they're also putting in place lots of the supporting technology that would be needed in practice to build a runnable system».
1 Polykarp Kusch (Jan 26, 1911 March 20, 1993) a German-American physicist, the Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron (1955).
2 Alfred Smee, (Jun 18, 1818 - Jan 11, 1877) an English electro-metallurgist and chemist who invented the Smee battery.
3 Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 April 18, 1955) a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity.
4 Claude Debussy (Aug 22, 1862 March 25, 1918) a French composer.
5 Niels Bohr (Oct 7, 1885 Nov18, 1962) a Danish physicist, made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics (1922).
6 Immanuel Kant (Apr 22, 1724 - Feb 12, 1804) a German philosopher.
7 (Explanation: the symbol for speed of light is c).
8 Claude Nicollier (born 2 September 1944 ) the first astronaut from Switzerland, and has flown on four Space Shuttle missions.
9 Kim Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology.
10 Aristotle (384 BC 322 BС) a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
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Electricity and magnetism are closely related and important
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Electrical current and magnetic fields cause electromagnetic radiation
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Electricity and magnetism can be used differently in the society
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|Данное пособие подготовлено в рамках работ по проекту «Научно-образовательный центр Физика твердотельных наноструктур Нижегородского государственного университета им. Н.И.Лобачевского» Российско-американской программы «Фундаментальные исследования и высшее образование».|
|67990.||Розвиток освіти в Іспанії||164.5 KB|
|Перші школи в Іспанії як і в ін. школи для бідних а також ряд шкіл і колегіумів при інститутах створених педагогамигуманістами. Працюючим були доступні лише початкові школи але їх не вистачало. Незважаючи на те відповідно до конституції 1931 і закону 1933 школи релігійних організацій...|
|67991.||Навчання в Росії в 11-14 століттях||116.5 KB|
|Історичні зведення про російські школи убогі. Аж до XVІІ століття, коли святитель Дмитрій Ростовський влаштував перші народні школи. Істотно те, що характер народної освіти в Руській державі споконвічно складається як церковний і сімейний. Церковним було мистецтво, зачинателем якого став...|