English for Science


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

A future specialist is supposed to be able to develop the information he (she) has collected both in writing and in the form of public presentation. There are many forms of condensed writing, the principal ones are below: Annotation Summary Abstract Paper (including a synopsis, course or diploma paper).



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Кафедра иностранных языков естественных факультетов

Е.Г. Брунова, Н.В. Войтик

English for Science

(Методические рекомендации для студентов математических и естественнонаучных специальностей по аннотированию и реферированию текстов профессиональной направленности и по подготовке соответствующих устных публичных выступлений)


Тюменского государственного университета, 2001

English for Science (Методические рекомендации для студентов математических и естественнонаучных специальностей по аннотированию и реферированию текстов профессиональной направленности и по подготовке соответствующих устных публичных выступлений) / Е.Г. Брунова, Н.В. Войтик. Издательство Тюменского государственного университета, 2001. 55 с.

Данные методические рекомендации предназначены для второго этапа обучения английскому языку студентов математических и естественнонаучных специальностей и направлены на развитие навыков поиска информации, реферирования и аннотирования аутентичных иноязычных текстов в рамках выбранной специальности.

Методические рекомендации могут использоваться как для практических занятий по английскому языку на II курсе, так и для спецкурсов или факультативных занятий на III - V курсах, и состоят из вводного раздела и двух основных разделов, содержащих, в частности, методические указания по самостоятельной работе с традиционными и электронными библиотечными каталогами, а также с поисковыми службами сети Интернет.

Разделы первой части сопровождаются упражнениями по составлению аннотации, краткого реферата и другими рекомендациями, полезными для студентов.

Вторая часть методических рекомендаций направлена на развитие навыков и умений устного публичного выступления на английском языке по профессиональной тематике.

Приложения включают ключи к некоторым упражнениям, образец оформления титульного листа реферата, рекомендации по оформлению библиографии, краткий словник терминов и схему устного публичного выступления.

Печатается по решению кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов.

Рецензенты:   ОД Княгницкая, канд. социол. наук, доцент,

и.о.   зав.   кафедрой   иностранных   языков

факультета истории и политехнических наук.

ЕВ. Шушакова, ст. преподаватель кафедры

Иностранных языков естественных факультетов.

©Тюменский государственный университет, 2001

©Е.Г Брунова, Н.В. Войтик, 2001


A future specialist is supposed to be able to develop the information he (she) has collected both in writing and in the form of public presentation. There are many forms of condensed writing, the principal ones are below:

  •  Annotation
  •  Summary
  •  Abstract
  •  Paper (including a synopsis, course or diploma paper).

These recommendations will help you to work with information including the information from the WEB to write a summary of an article or a book, to arrange your references correctly and to prepare for the presentation of your paper in English.

Moreover, we hope you find some helpful hints here while preparing for the Annual Students' Scientific Conference held in our university.

In the process of your work you are advised to use the Step-by-Step Approach:

Step 1 - Getting Started - preparing for the assignment and getting ready to choose f topic

Step 2 - Discovering and Choosing a Topic - reading to become informed

Step 3 - Looking for and Forming a Focus - exploring your topic

Step 4 - Gathering Information - which clarifies and supports your focus

Step 5 - Preparing to Write - analysing and organising your information and forming a thesis statement

Step 6 - Writing the Paper - writing, revising and finalising

Step 7 - Presenting Your Paper before the Audience - public speech


Searching for information today is both easier and harder than it was when your only choice was the library and its massive card catalogue. More information is available than ever before, and you can access information from across the country or around the world. But finding what you want requires more skills on the part of the researcher, mainly because the human intermediaries - the reference librarian and the skilled cataloguer/indexer - are largely absent from cyberspace.

This means that you, the researcher, need to understand where information is most likely to be found, how it's organised and how to retrieve it effectively using computerised search tools. The reference librarian is an invaluable resource to help teach you and advise you, but won't be there when you're searching Yahoo at midnight on the weekend before your paper's due.

Unit 1, 2 have some resources to help you learn how to become a skilled researcher, both in the library and in cyberspace.

Unit 1. Learning to research In the library

Get to know your library

The resources available to you will vary a lot depending on whether you're using an academic library at a large university, a public library in a large (or small) community, or a high school library. Find out early in your research project what resources your library has, by visiting and taking a tour, if possible. Some college libraries offer an online tour of the library or a self-guided tour using handouts in addition to tours guided by librarians. Librarians are also skilled searchers, both of the library's catalogue and of online resources such as CD-ROM, online databases and the Internet

Learn how online library catalogues work

A library catalogue is a listing of all the items held by a particular library. A cataloguer examines the item (book, video, map, audio tape, CD, etc.) and decides how it will be described in the library's catalogue and under what subject it will be classified. When the item is entered into the library's online catalogue database, information is entered into different fields, which are then searchable by users. Most catalogues are searchable by author, title, subject and keyword.

Searching the catalogue by subject and keyword

The subject field of a catalogue record contains only the words or phrases used by the cataloguer when assigning a subject heading. If the library is using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), for example, the subject heading for a book about how playing football affects the players' bodies would probably be assigned the subject heading "Football -physiological aspects". Unless you type in that entire phrase as your search term, you won't find the book by searching the subject field.

The keyword field of a library catalogue generally searches several fields in the database record - the author, title, and description fields. The description is any information about the catalogued item which may have been entered by the cataloguer. This is not the full text of the book, nor is it an abstract (summary) of the book but rather a short paragraph containing information the cataloguer thought would be helpful to a user. This is not like searching for keywords in an indexed database like Alta Vista on the Internet, where every word in a document has been recorded.

For this reason, keyword searching alone could miss an item pertinent to your research project if the keyword you use was not included In the short paragraph written by the cataloguer It's best to use a combination of keyword searching and subject-field searching lo make a comprehensive search of the library catalogue.

Searching other libraries' catalogues

There are lots of library catalogues on the Internet - but so what? You can search the catalogue of a library in Timbuktu, but that doesn't get you the book. Remember that library catalogues do not have full text of books and documents but are just a database with descriptions of the library's holdings. There are a few, and will be more, actual online libraries where you can go to read or search full text documents. Just don't confuse these special resources with a library catalogue, which is very different.

Find out how to search for journals and newspapers at your library.

Bibliography surfing

Web surfing is finding an interesting Web page and then using the hyperlinks on that page to jump to other pages. If you find the first page interesting, chances are you'll also be interested in the pages the author has chosen to link to.

Librarians and researchers have been doing this for a long time, in the print medium. It's a valuable tool for identifying sources on your chosen topic.

What you do is using the bibliography provided at the end of an encyclopaedia article, journal article or book that you've found particularly pertinent to your topic and follow the bibliographic references much as you would hyperlinks on the Web. Since you're locating items which influenced the author of the original article and to which he or she referred, they're likely to be "on point" to your topic. Then use the bibliography at the end of those cited articles to find even more items, and so on. Consult the reference librarian for advice

Questions to Unit 1:

  1.  Now to know your library? b) How to search the catalogue? c) What is bibliography surfing

Unit 2. Learning to research on the Web

Cyberspace is not like your library

Librarians have a weird sense of humour. This is now an old joke: The Internet is like a library with no catalogue where all the books get up and move themselves every night... This was the state of the Internet up until 1995 or thereabouts.

The new joke is: The Internet is like a library with a thousand catalogues, none of which contains all the books and all of which classify the books in different categories-arid the books still move around every night. The problem now is not that of "finding anything" but finding a particular thing. When your search term in one of the popular search engines brings back 130,000 hits, you still wonder if the one thing you're looking for will be among them.

This can be an enormous problem when you're trying to do serious research on the Internet. Too much information is almost worse than too little, because it takes so much time to sort through it to see if there's anything useful. The rest of this section will give you some pointers to help you become an effective Internet researcher.

Get to know the reference sources on the Internet

Finding reference material on the Web can be a lot more difficult than walking into the Reference Room in your local library

The subject - classified Web directories described below will provide you with your main source of links to reference materials on the Web. In addition, many public and academic libraries, like the Internet Public Library, have put together lists of links to Web sites, categorised by subject. The difficulty is finding Web sites that contain the same kind of substantive content you'd find in a library.

Understand how search engines work

Search engines are software tools that allow a user to ask for a list of Web pages containing certain words or phrases from an automated search index. The automated search index is a database containing some or all of me words appearing on the Web pages that have been indexed. The search engines send out a software program known as a spider, crawler or robot. The spider follows hyperlinks from page to page around the Web, gathering and bringing information back to the search engine to be indexed.

Most search engines index all texts found on a Web page, except for words too common to index, such as "a, and, in, to, the" and so on. When a user submits a query, the search engine looks for Web pages containing the words, combinations, or phrases asked for by the user. Engines may be programmed to took for an exact match or a close match (for example, the plural of the word submitted by the user). They may rank the hits as to how close the match is to the words submitted by the user.

One important thing to remember about search engines is this: once the engine and the spider have been programmed, the process is totally automated. No human being examines the information returned by the spider to see what subject it might bs about or whether the words on the Web page adequately reflect the actual main point of the page.

Another important fact is that ail the search engines are different, fhey index differently and treat users' queries differently (how nice!). The purden is on the searcher to learn how to use the features of each search, engine.

Task 2.1. Read an excellent article about search engines:

Searching the Internet Part I: Sorne Sasid Considerations and Automated Search indexes in IhterNlC News, September 1998, by Jack Solock.


Bookmarks or favourites

Before you start a research session, make a new folder in your bookmarks or favourites area and set that folder as the one to receive new bookmark additions. You might name it with the current date, so you later can identify in which research session the bookmarks were made. Remember you can make a bookmark for a page you haven't yet visited by holding the mouse over the link and getting the popup menu (by either pressing the mouse button or right clicking, depending on what flavour. computer you have) to "Add bookmark" or "Add to favourites." Before you sign off your research session, go back and weed out any bookmarks which turned out to be uninteresting so you don't have a bunch of irrelevant material to deal with later. Later you can move these bookmarks around into different folders as you organise information for writing your paper-find out how to do that in your browser.

Printing from the browser

Sometimes you'll want to print information from a Web site. The main thing to remember is to make sure the Page Setup is set to print out the page title, URL, and the date. You'll be unable to use the material if you can't remember later where it came from.

"Saving as" a file

Know how to temporarily save the contents of a Web page as a file on your hard drive or a floppy disk and later open It In your browser by using the "tile open" feature. You can save the page you're currently viewing or one which is hyperlinked from that page, from the "File" menu of the popup menu accessed by the mouse held over the hyperlink.

Copying and pasting to a word processor

You can take quotes from Web pages by opening up a Word processing document and keeping it open while you use your browser. When you find text you want to save, drag the mouse over it and "copy" it, then open up your word processing document and "paste" II Be sure to also copy and paste the URL and page title, and to record the date, so you know where the information came from

Learn how search syntax works

Search syntax is a set of rules describing how users can query the database being searched. Sophisticated syntax makes for a better search, one where the items retrieved are mostly relevant to the searcher's need and important items are not missed. It allows a user to look for combinations of terms, exclude other terms, look for various forma of a word, include synonyms, search for phrases rather than single words. The main tools of search syntax are these:

Wildcards and truncation

This involves substituting symbols for certain letters of a word so that the search engine will retrieve items with any letter in that spot in the word. The syntax may allow a symbol in the middle of a word (wildcard) or only at the end of the word (truncation). This feature makes it easier to search for related word groups, like "woman" and "women" by using a wildcard such as "wom*n." Truncation can be useful to search for a group of words like "invest,   investor,   investors,   investing,   investment,   investments"   by submitting "invest*" rather than typing in all those terms separated by OR's. The   only   problem   is   that   "invest*"   will   also retrieve   "investigate, investigated, investigator, investigation, investigating." The trick, then is to' combine terms with an AND such as "invest*" AND "stock* or bond* or financ* or money" to try and narrow your retrieved set to the kind of documents you're looking for.

Phrase searching

Many concepts are represented by a phrase rather than a single word. In order to successfully search for a term like "library school" it's important that the search engine allows syntax for phrase searching. Otherwise, instead of getting documents about library schools you could be getting documents about school libraries or documents- where the word "library" and "school" both appear but have nothing to do with a library school.


When searching for proper names, search syntax that will distinguish capital from lower case letters will help narrow the search. In other cases, you would want to make sure the search engine isn't looking for a particular pattern of capitalisation, and many search engines let you choose which of these options to use.

Field searching

All database records are divided up into fields. Almost all search engines in CD-ROM or online library products and the more sophisticated Web search engines allow users to search for terms appearing in a particular field. This can help immensely when you're looking for a very specific item. Say that you're looking for a psychology paper by a professor from the University of Michigan and ail you remember about the paper is that it had something about Freud and Jung in its title. If you think it may be on the Web, you can do a search in Alta Vista, searching for "Freud" AND "Jung" and limit your search to the "umich.edu" domain, which gives you a pretty good chance of finding it, if it's there.

Make sure you know what content you're searching

The content of the database will affect your search strategy and the search syntax you use to retrieve documents.  Some of the different databases you'll encounter in your library and online research are:

Things you're not likely to find on the Web for free:

  •  encyclopaedias (the CD-ROM versions are selling too well)
  •  index and abstract services (very labour - intensive to produce but are essential to a scholarly researcher looking for journal articles and therefore very profitable to sell to libraries)
  •  books that are still under copyright
  •  full -text non-fiction books on scholarly topics
  •  most scholarly journal articles (this is changing)
  •  pre-1994 (pre-Web) magazine and newspaper articles (this may change)

If you look at the list of what's not on the Web, it covers about 90% of the contents of a college library's collection, both the reference and the circulating collection. It's apparent that researchers still have to spend a good portion of their research time in the library rather than on the Web.

Questions to Unit 2: 1. Do you agree with the opinion that too much information is almost worse? 2. How to print from the browser? 3, How does search syntax work? 4. What do wildcards and truncation mean? 5. What things are you hardly to find on the Web for free?

Unit 3. Writing a summary

What is a summary?

A summary is a short version of a reading; it is a condensed version of a piece.

Why is summary writing useful?

Teachers use summary writing to test your understanding of reading material.

Summary writing helps you comprehend information as you attempt to pull out just the essential information from a reading.

Key points to remember:

  •  Write a summary in your words, not the author's.
  •  Avoid using quotes in a summary. Paraphrase key ideas. (If you use three or more words in the same order as the author, you must place them in quotes).
  •  Include only the most important information.
  •  Avoid detailed information of actions or events.
  •  A summary is rarely longer than a page.

Organisation of a summary

The 100-word summary consists of three parts:

  •  Introduction
  •  Body
  •  Conclusion


The introduction of a summary is usually one paragraph long.

What to include in the introduction t

  •  Title of the reading

If it is an article, essay, or short story place the title in quotes.  

If it is a book, underline the title.

  •  Name of the author
  •  Purpose of reading or overall point the writer is trying to get across

Body of a summary

The body of a summary is generally one to three paragraphs long, dependent on the length of the reading.

What to include in the body

Important points of reading, such as main ideas, facts, and examples.

Other secondary points that are relevant to key ideas. Include specific details as needed to get the author's points across.

Paraphrase the information while maintaining the author's tone and attitude as much as possible.


The conclusion of a summary is generally one paragraph long.

What to include in the conclusion

Conclude by presenting the author's final comments or by bringing up the main point of the reading. Add your personal opinion of the reading.

Checking your summary:

  •  Read it out loud closely.
  •  Do you have at least three paragraphs?
  •  Examine each part (introduction, Body, and Conclusion).
  •  Check spelling and style of your summary
  •  Make sure your information is accurate!
  •  Remember that a good summary must be precise and clear.

Is your summary good?

Have a friend who hasn't read the piece and read your summary to him.

Someone who has not read the piece should be able to get a clear picture of the ideas and the tone of {he actual writing from reading your summary.

Benefits of summary writing

Summary writing helps you understand and remember information, improves your writing skills. The more summaries you write, the better you will get at using language effectively.

Other benefits

Consider writing summaries for all your readings; it will help you "know what you know" and do better on mid-term and final exams.

Questions to Unit 3: 1) What is a summery? 2) What is a summery structure? 3) How can you check your summary? 4) What arc the benefits of summary writing?

Task 3.1. Without having read the story, try to figure out whether it is complete or not?

Summary of "I Won't Learn from You" (introduction, paragraph 1)

Herbert Kohl wrote a story about an experience that he had with a . student named Barry and the lesson he learned about not-learning and failing. The author started out by talking about his frustrations with students. They were intelligent but were not trying to learn. Kohl tried to figure out the reasons why these students were failures and lists all kinds of reasons.

(Body, paragraph 2)

One year, he got a new student in his class that nobody else wanted because he was difficult and uncooperative. All the teachers were afraid of Barry because of his size and behaviour. The students though really liked

Barry because he was a good athlete and storyteller. It seemed that Barry was smart, but he never did his homework. Kohl figured out that Barry didn't know how to read and decided to help him. He planned out a performance and tricked Barry into presenting by reading him the words first. The trick worked and Barry learned how to read.

(Conclusion, paragraph 3)

Kohl learned that choice and would play a very important role in learning, and that if Barry had chosen not to go along with his trick, he wouldn't have (earned how to read.

Task 3.2a. Read the article "What's Your Favourite Class?" for the purpose of writing a summary of the article:

What's your favourite class?

Most kids would say recess. Yet many schools are cutting back on unstructured schoolyard play.

By Anna Mulrine {Science & Ideas 5/1/00)

1. As the kindergarteners line up under the giant papier-mache puffer fish in their classroom at PS 87 in New York, they are bouncing like a batch of Slinkys ready to spring. Many have pre-recess rituals: Some balance backpacks on their heads, while others sing quietly to themselves. One child transforms her scrunchie into a crown, confident it's time for festivity, not practicalities.

2. Holding hands, the tiny pairs whoop and scatter as they are released into a simple blacktopped playground. Kaitlin, 6, a redhead in pedal pushers, grabs a piece of chalk and starts sketching a steam engine. "I don't draw animals," she says resolutely. Naji, 5, whispers secrets to a crew-cutted Moataz, 6, as they play on the slide. Bettina, 5, lies on her stomach admiring her necklace-a shell on a piece of purple yarn-until friends grab her ankles and turn her into a human wheelbarrow.

3. Recess has long been a schoolyard staple, a pageant of play replete with drama and intrigue, tears and reconciliation. But today, it's

disappearing for America's kids More than 40 percent of school districts across the country, including those in Atlanta and Chicago, have done away with recess or are considering it. Parents and educators aren't pleased-to say nothing of the children. "I think without recess," says Lily, a pragmatic 6-year-old hanging from monkey bars, "we'd be boring."

4. Which is precisely what early recess advocates were trying to avoid. Before the Revolutionary War, the right to play superseded even the right to bear arms. Recess was considered vital for emotional  and intellectual growth. When training for soldiers interfered with the games of schoolchildren on Boston Common, the kids protested to the governor-who promptly ordered the soldiers to back off. Freud believed play to be perfect time to act out dreams and fears. By the 1950s, three recesses a day were the norm.

5. But today, testing frenzy has overtaken time-honoured tradition. "It's this Puritan ethic that playing gets in the way of learning," says Anthony Pellegrini, professor of educational psychology at the University of Minnesota. The irony, he says, is that studies suggest the opposite-breaks actually help children learn.

6. In a nod to the need for physical activity, school districts like Philadelphia have created "socialised" recess in which play is highly structured.  But Rhonda Clements, an education professor at Hofstra University, notes that there's more to recess than getting a workout. It's a chance to practice social skills such as how to gracefully join a kickball game, comfort a sad friend, or tell a hurtful schoolmate to knock it off. Teachers should step in to stop incessant bullying, says Clements. But when adults are always around, as during socialised recess, children show a marked decrease in the ability to handle conflict en their own.

7. And in an era of overscheduled children shuttled from play dates to sports practice, with activities and even buddies chosen by well-meaning parents, recess is a rare chance to explore new friendships or simply follow a personal muse. Lily's mom seems to sense this as she watches her daughter slide down the fireman's pole at PS 87. "Something tells me," she says, "that I should reschedule her violin lesson."

Task 3.2b. Answer the questions. The correct answers to these questions will help you identify the essential elements that make up a summary.


1. Citation: Write a sentence that contains the information for a proper citation of "What's Your Favourite Class?"

2. Topic: What is the general subject matter or focus of "What's Your Favourite Cluss?"

3. Thesis: What is the major assertion that the author is making about the topic? Incorporate this into a clear one-sentence thesis statement.


4. Re-read Paragraph #4 of "What's Your Favourite Class?" Identify its main idea.

5. Re-read Paragraph #5 of "What's Your Favourite Class?" Identify the main idea.

6. Re-read Paragraph #6 of "What's Your Favourite Class?" Identify two key ideas in that paragraph.

7. Re-read Paragraph #7 of "Wnat's Your Favourite Class?" Identify the main idea.


8.Write a sentence where you agree or disagree with the author Give your reasons,

Task 3.2c. Write a three-paragraph summary of "What's Your Favourite Class?"

Task 3.3a. Read the article " No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks " for the purpose of writing a summary of the article:

No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks

By Thomas E. Weber (from The Wall Street Journal, May 5, 2000) The Love Virus came and conquered. So how bad was it? For many of us, things were already getting back to normal by the time we left the office Thursday.

1. OUR COMPUTERS were working fine, our important files were still there and the most obvious lingering effects were office jokes like "Did you get that e-mail I sent, ha ha?"

2. Now the experts are carefully dissecting this latest electronic pathogen and vaccinating our computers to protect them from relapses- They're also assessing the severity of the attack — including the possibility that users' passwords were compromised — and the difficulty of pulling off such a feat. Is the Love Virus worse than the denial-of-service attacks that shut down Yahoo! and other big sites back in February? Did it surpass last year's Melissa virus?

3. It doesn't matter. Those incidents came and went too, and life went on. After each new attack on the Internet, the very backbone of the New Economy, it's only natural to wonder about the worst-case scenario. But the biggest threat is the cumulative effect of all these assaults, which are fast becoming almost routine. For those of us who rely on the Internet, it's like death by a thousand clicks.

4. By now the pattern is familiar. You arrive at work to find a warning notice posted on the door or handed to you by a security guard. Or maybe the office manager flags you down, cautioning you to avoid the dreaded virus.

5. Next the e-mail system goes down. Computer techs scurry through the office, performing arcane rituals on each PC. Finally someone gives the official all clear and everyone gets back to work.

"This is really just an annoyance," says a spokeswoman at Barnes & Noble, which shut down the e-mail system serving its headquarters –and more than 900 book stores across the U.S. for two hours. That story was repeated over and over, at company after company Catastrophe, no Inconvenience, absolutely. Now the Love Virus has joined Melissa in the ranks of Famous Web Maladies. But have you heard of the Dengue virus? Or Prettypark? Or Kakworm? 6. What does that add up to in dollars? Even the experts don't know for sure. "So you shut down the e-mail server for a day. How do you put a cost on that?" says Mikko Hypponen, a renowned virus expert at F-Secure in Espoo, Finland.

7. Here's what had to happen at a typical company to eradicate the virus. First, the system administrator needed to learn about the virus Since the Love Bug had already swept through Europe by the time offices opened in the U.S. Thursday, that wasn't a problem. Most of the big antivirus services used by corporations had already contacted their customers by phone or fax with an alert.

8. Then, to prevent the spread of the virus, most .system administrators either severed their computers' ties with the Internet or set up filters to screen out all messages with the subject line "ILOVEYOU." (This, presumably, did not prevent most important business correspondence from getting through.) With those measures in place, they could move on to downloading antivirus software updates and installing them, first on the e-mail servers, then on other critical file servers, and finally on individual users' PCs.

9. In other words, for all but the smallest companies it took at least one person the better part of a day to deal with the virus. Multiplied across all the companies linked to the Net, that's a lot of time indeed.

10. And it's only getting worse. Now the Love Virus has joined Melissa in the ranks of Famous Web Maladies But have you heard of the Dengue virus? Or Prettypark? Or Kakworm? All of them are floating around out there and are considered reasonably serious. It's the rare virus that wreaks sufficient havoc to penetrate the public consciousness.

11 Those most at risk are those who embrace the Internet to its fullest. Witness the impact Thursday in tiny Estonia, which has more Net connections per capita than any other Eastern European country. "About half the companies here took the afternoon off," says Juri Kaljundi, director of international development at CV-Online, an online resume company in Tallinn that escaped infection.

12. Ultimately, dealing with these annoyances is simply part of the overhead of being linked to the Internet, kind of the way having a telephone in your house brings with it calls from telemarketers. We'll just have to get used to it.

Task 3.3b. The correct answers to these questions will help you identify the essential elements that make up a summary:


What is the citation for "No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks"?

NB!: A citation should include the title of the article, its author, its source.


What is the topic of "No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks"?

NB!: The topic is the general subject matter or focus of the article. Summarise it in a short phrase.


What is the thesis of "No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks"? Write the thesis in your own words.

NBI: (a) The thesis consists of the author's major assertion about the topic, (b) In this article, the thesis is located in Paragraph #3. (c) After you have selected the thesis statement, re-state it in your own words.


Re-read Paragraphs #4-6. Summarise the troubles occurred after infecting by ILOVEYOU in no more than three sentences. Make an effort to use your own words.


Re-read Paragraphs #7-9 in which steps against the virus which should be taken by a system administrator are described. Using your own words, summarise these steps in a numbered list (e.g. (1).........;(2)........;(3).......;). Use no more than 2 sentences for each step.

Task 3.3c. Write a three-paragraph summary of "No catastrophe, but death by a thousand mouse clicks".

Task 3.4. Read the information letter about the International conference and do the tasks below:

  1.  Fill the Reply form.
  2.  Choose the Conference Topic.
  3.  Write your abstract according to the requirements.

COTTEIR ' 99  First International Conference

on Transport, Environment &

the information Revolution

Presented by CTC

14-16 September 1999

Bath, UK             


Many countries face similar problems of excessive demand on their transportation infrastructure with out dated, inefficient road and insufficient road and rail networks failing to meet the requirements of the users. The associated problems of congestion, pollution and traffic accidents have increased beyond acceptable levels, all of which have a tangible economic effect upon trade as well as upon the quality of life of most transportation network users- commuters, pedestrians, cyclists, travellers and drivers. Many see that there are two simple answers to the current problems

  •  Build greater networks- unfortunately, this answer is nether cost effective nor desirable as the relationship between capacity and travelling times is not one.
  •  Reduce the number of vehicles- the road vehicle, especially the car, has' become an intrinsic part of modern society in many countries. However, the socio-political forces acting against even minor restrictions in freedom cultivate great hostility in those affected.

Another solution is to improve the efficiency of present networks. This will not only reduce the pressure on planners and politicians for action, allowing them time to consider the long term alternatives, but will also enable future networks to be designed with high levels of efficiency in mind, a quality that must be exploited in all developments in order to achieve maximum economic viability.

The Conference and Technology Centre (CTC) is pleased to present its first International Conference on transportation issues. The Conference will provide an ideal opportunity to bring together exciting and novel ideas, state-of-the-art research and fundamental information to enable the challenging issues being faced to be discussed and fundamental information to enable the challenging issues being faced to be discussed and reviewed in depth. The result of such meeting can only be the focussing of research goals toward achievable and acceptable solutions to he growing public concern for the urban environment.

Call for Papers. An abstract of no more than 500 words (3 pages) should be submitted to the Conference Administrator before 15 February 1999. lease ensure that the abstract title, the author's affiliation and up to four keywords are included with each submission. All abstracts and subsequent final papers will be subject to review by the Conference Advisory Committee. Reviewed and accepted papers being presented at the Conference will be published in the Conference Proceedings.

For further information on this Conference please contact:

The Conference & Technology Centre, 2 Moorland Close, Dibden Purlieu, Hants, SO45 SSH, UK

Tel: 44(0) 1703 841551  Fax: 44(0) 1703 841478  Email:



Title__________________ Initials_________________Surname______________


Address ___________________________________________________

Telephone_______________________ Fax: ______________________

Email __________________________________

The Conference Topics Include:

The Future of Transport

  •  Automated Debiting Systems
  •  Vehicle Propulsion        
  •  Travel Time Predictions
  •  Vehicle Adaptebility
  •  Smart Vehicles - (Automation, Al, Neural Nets)

The Impact of the Information Age

  •  Road Crush Analysis
  •  The Role of Al in Traffic Management
  •  Neural Network Traffic Managers
  •  New Technologies
  •  Accident Analysis

Transport Management

  •  Traffic Signalling and Control Traffic Management and Co-ordination Travel Derrand Management (TDM) Public Transportation
  •  Infrastructure Development Sttategifcs
  •  Congestion and Incident Management
  •  Transportation System Modelling
  •  Road Transport Systems
  •  Rail Networks

Social Aspects

  •  Analysis of Driver Behaviour
  •  • Mobility Issues
  •  Road Safety Systems
  •  Travel Pattern Analysis
  •  Driver Stress

Environment and Economic issues

  •  Transportation Energy Costs     •
  •  The Economics of Transportation Planning
  •  Fuel Consumption
  •  Environment Impact Analysis in Transport Planning Studies
  •  Exhaust Gas Concerns - Emission Studies
  •  Traffic Noise   
  •  Vehicle Related Air Pollution
  •  Clean Fuels  

Infrastructure Planning

  •  Travel within the Community
  •  Future Transport Systems
  •  Future Transportation Systems
  •  The Waterways
  •  Regulation



Unit 1. Making your Presentation

NB!: There are three different stages in the completion of successful presentation: Preparation, giving your Presentation, Questions and Discussion.

The term Presentation can cover a range of different activities in a range of different settings. It may be a major political speech to millions of people, a sales presentation, or a talk by a colleague on a subject of interest. The aim of Presentation is a clear communication of information to an audience by a presenter. A good presenter has thought about the following questions: Who is the audience? What is the subject and aims of my presentation? What are the main points? What structure and order will these points have? What visual aids will I use? And what questions might I be asked?

Task 1.1. The following is a list of different steps that people go through when preparing a presentation. Read the steps (1 to 8) and decide in what order they could be done.

  1.  Prepare the visual aids.
  2.  Research the topic.
  3.  Practice giving the presentation to an audience - time how long it takes.
  4.  Decide on the main points of the presentation.
  5.  Put the main points into a logical and connected order.       
  6.  Make notes to refer to in the presentation.
  7.  Decide on the structure of the presentation - Introduction, Body (the main points) and Conclusion.
  8.  Change the presentation in the light of suggestions.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

Task 1.2. Make a list of ail resources you can use to research the topic. Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

NB!: After you have researched your topic decide on how many main points you think you need in a presentation? It's not a good idea to include all the information you've researched or limit your presentation to one main point. A clear presentation which is easy for the audience to follow usually includes about main points which the speaker wants to make. There is usually a logical sequence which is suggested by the topic. Almost all presenters use notes to refer during the presentation. Nobody can remember all the points that they want to make, that's why a good set of notes will also help you to be less nervous.

Task 1.3. Look at the following main points about the production of orange juice and put them in the logical order for presentation.

  1.   transfer to the shops;
  2.   the growing and harvesting of the oranges;
  3.   sale;
  4.   juice extraction in the factory;
  5.   bottling;
  6.   transport to factory.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

NB!: Besides the use of visual aids to illustrate the points and ideas you want your audience to understand will help to reinforce the message, understanding, attract and hold the audience's attention.

Visual aids

Task 1.4. What aids can be used to illustrate presentations? Make a list of possible visual aids would include.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

Notes to presenters

  1.  Try to use landscape format where possible which is similar to the human vision. Avoid vertical slides and transparencies.
  2.  Use color wherever possible.
  3.  Put your organization's name (University's name) at the bottom corners of each slide and maybe your own name.

4. The first, should should have the name of your presentation, your name and possibly the conference name and date.

  1.  Do not use too many equations. The audience can always read them in the paper if necessary.
  2.  Have between 3-5 points per slide. More than 5 is too many and you should use a second slide.
  3.  Allow 2-3 minutes per slide and remember. To pause so the audience can read the whole slide. Do not block part of the slide or transparency (i.e. by standing in front of the projector or by design (if you wish to present parts of it later on),

8. Remember that a picture or graph is very informative. Check beforehand that your visual aids are of good quality and that they can be read from a distance.

9. Turn the slide and overhead projectors off if they are not being used for your presentation.

10     Use the pointer as much as possible and always try to face the audience as much as possible.

 Creating a good impression

What you say is as important as the way you look in front of the audience. You would not be human if you were not nervous before a presentation, take deep breathes, smile and start.

Task 1,5. Which of these do you think gives an audience a good Impression.

looking at your shoes;

laughing all the time;

turning your back on the audience,

keeping   eye   contact   with   members   of   the audiences;

having your notes in the wrong order,

looking out of the. window;

swaying from side to side

hands in your pockets;

a bored look;

a smile;


apologizing all the time;

talking to all the audience not just your friends;

sitting down;

speaking with enthusiasm.

Check your answers with those tn Appendix 1.

NB1 Nates to Presenters

• You must be able to get attention

You must be able to hold attention.

You must be clear.

You must support your ideas with proof.

You must use appropriate language.

You must give your listener a chance to respond.

You must be able to access your effectiveness accurately.

Suggestions for Delivering Your Speeches

Your speech is more than just the words you use. How you say something is just as important as what you say.

Make your language natural and comprehensive for the audience:

1. Under no circumstances should you read your paper. Even if English is not your first language it is always a mistake to read.

2  Be sure that you keep to the schedule and always allow 3-5 minutes for questions and discussions.

  1.  Practice your speech in front of a full-length mirror, this gives you opportunity to monitor your eye contact and other aspens of delivery previously discussed.

4. Tape record yourself while rehearsing As you play back the recording of your speech, be sure to listen for errors in content and delivery. Write down any corrections and work on improving them during your next practice session.

5. Practice your speech in front of a friend or family members. Pretend that you are actually delivering your speech in front of your classmates Ask your "audience" to comment on various aspects of your delivery.

Unit 2. Organising Information in your Presentation

NB!: You have already decided on the title and the purpose of your presentation, you know who your audience is going to be, you have completed the research and decided on the main points that you wish to make. It is now time to plan exactly what you are going to say.

The well thought out presentation will have the following overall structure:

Introduction --- Main Points --- Conclusion --- Questions

Task 2.1. The following is a list of the steps which you should include in your introduction. Look at the list and re-write it in the correct order.

  1.  State your first main point.
  2.  State the purpose of your presentation.
  3.  Introduce yourself.
  4.  Greet the audience.
  5.  State how your presentation is to be structured.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

Task 2.2a, Read the phrases and decide if they are Greetings or Introductions.

I would like to introduce myself to those who don't know me, I am...

Good morning, everyone...

I’m pleased that so many of you were able to make it this morning…

I would like to welcome you to my talk today…

Let me introduce myself; My name is...

Thank you all for coming...

It is good to see you all here today …

May I first introduce myself, I am...

My name is ... from...

Task 2.2b. Read the phrases and decide if they are stating the purpose of your presentation or how your presentation is to be structured.

• Today I am going talk about…

I  The subject of this presentation is…

My topic today is going to be...

I will start by arguing that...

This presentation will consider...

Secondly I am going to explain...

Lastly, I want to show...

My third point is that...

NBI: Organizing information

A paragraph is a group of related sentences that develop an idea. In nearly every paragraph, there is one idea that is more important than all the others. The main idea of the paragraph is usually found at the beginning.

Sample paragraph 1:

All computers, whether large or small, have the same basic capabilities. They have circuits for performing' arithmetic operations. They all have a way of communicating with the person(s) using them. They also have circuits for making decisions.

All main idea sentences have a topic and say something about the topic. In some of your reading, finding main ideas may serve your needs but, in much I of your studying, you need to understand details. It is sometimes more difficult to understand details than main ideas. You will find it helpful if you think of details as growing out of the main idea.

A major detail often has minor details growing out of it. These minor details tell more about a major detail, just as major details tell more about a main idea. In studying, you often find a paragraph that has many small details that you must understand and remember. Breaking up a paragraph of this kind into its three components: the main idea, major details, and minor details will help you to understand and remember what it is about.

Sample paragraph 2:

it is the incredible speed of computers, along with their memory capacity, which makes them so useful and valuable. Computers can solve problems in a fraction of the time it takes men. For this reason, businesses use them to keep their accounts, and airline, railway, and bus companies use them to control ticket sales. As for memory, modem computers can store information with high accuracy and reliability. A computer can put data into its memory and retrieve It again in a few millionths of a second. It also has a storage capacity for as many as a million items

If you were to organize this paragraph into its three components, it would look like below:

Main idea

It is the incredible speed of computers, along with their memory

capacity, which makes them so useful and valuable.

Computers can solve

Modern computers

Major  details

problems much faster than

can store information



with high accuracy

and reliability.




It also has

use them to



a     storage


use them to

can put



keep of

data into its

for as many

ticket sales.


track  as  a

Minor details



retrieve it


again in a


mil Months

Of of of a


In making a block diagram you don't have to write every word in the main idea sentence or in each of the detail sentences.

Task 2.3. Practice finding the main idea, major details, and minors by completing the block diagram after reading the following paragraph:

The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry. There are three steps involved in the process; input, correction, and output. First, the computer numbers each story, counts words, end gives a listing of the length of each story. Then, a page is made up, adveitisements are placed in, the copy is shifted or deleted, end corrections are made. Finally, the computer hyphenates words, end the result of all this is a newspaper page.



The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry

Main idea            

Major details  

Minor details  

Task 2.4. Practice finding the main idea, major details, and minors by completing the diagram after reading the following paragraph..

Railway companies use large computer systems to control ticket reservations and to give immediate information on the status of their trains. The computer system is connected by private telephone lines to terminals in major train stations, and ticket reservations for customers are made through these phone lines. The passenger's name, type of accommodation, and the train schedule is put into the computer's memory. On a typical day, a railway's computer system gets thousands of telephone calls about reservations, space on other railways, and requests for arrivals and departures. A big advantage of the railway computer ticket reservation system is its rapidity because a cancelled booking can be sold anywhere in the system just a few seconds later. Railway computer systems are not used for reservations alone. They are used for a variety of other jobs including train  schedules,  planning,   freight and cargo  loading,   meal .

. Mam idea

Major details

Minor details

Terminals for ticket reservation

Thousands of

calls for


space, arrivals,

and departures

NBI: The conclusion and the last part of your presentation is as important as the introduction. Firstly, it gives you


chance to tell the audience again your main points; It is there fore a chance to summarise for the audience. Secondly, the conclusion is the chance for the audience to participate and to respond to the ideas that you have put across. Which of the following phrases you think could be used to introduce your conclusion to the audience?

Task 2.6. Look at the following phrases and decide which of them you think could be used to Introduce your conclusion to the audience?

  1.  In conclusion then I'd like to go over my main points...
  2.  To sum up, J have explained 6 main ideas …
  3.  Summing up then I'll just reiterate my main points...
  4.  To end this presentation then I shall just repeat the main ideas...
  5.  To conclude this talk I'd just tike to emphasise main points again...

Task 2.8. Look at this conclusion to a presentation and put the sentences into the correct order.

1........my third point was that nuclear power is more economic to produce in the long term. 2………I started by arguing that the traditional fuels were running out yet the supplies of uranium should last for another 5000 years. 3.......... my presentation has outlined what I see as the four main advantages in the production and use of nuclear power. 4.......... thank you for your attention, are there any questions. 5......... lastly, I showed how safe the production of nuclear power is. 6 secondly I explained how the use of nuclear power was less damaging to our environment than fossil fuels.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1

NB!: The last sentence of your presentation then should invite the audience to ask you questions.

Task 2.7. Here are some ways of inviting questions from your audience. Which do you think that you could use?

1) That's it. Any questions?

2) Thank you all for your attention, are there any questions?

3) That concludes my talk, are there any questions?

4) That's all I wish to say, thanks for listening, and I'd be happy to answer any questions.

5) That is the end of my presentation I should be grateful for your ideas, comments and reactions. I thank you for your attention.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.


It is important when reading to recognize and understand the relationship in which sentences and groups of sentences combine to present information. This information may be linked by means of a connective word or marker.

Making a list, for example when enumerating, and giving instructions indicates a cataloguing of what is being said It is important to note that most enumerations belong to clearly defined sets The following table is a list of the markers that can be used to show the order in which things are to be said.

1,2,3, etc.

one, two, three, etc.

first(ly), second(ly), third place

another, next, then, furthermore, afterwards,


lastly/finally, to begin/start with, and to conclude

first and foremost   } mark the beginning

first and most important(ly)    } of a descending


above all       } mark the end of

last but not least  } an ascending order

NB!: There are many ways of showing sequential relationships. Those given in the table above are not the only ones, they are the most common ones used in listing or enumerating. The –ly forms are usually used when listing.

Sample paragraphs:

More and more police departments are now using sophisticated devices to help control the increasing crime rate. Some of these devices are: firstly, a computer terminal inside a police vehicle to answer an officer's questions, secondly, a computer-controlled display unit for displaying fingerprints, and thirdly educational systems for police officers such as terminals, enabling them to verify changes in laws, rules, and regulations:

The computer memory of many law enforcement systems соntains all kinds of information. First and foremost, it has data on stolen items such as cars, license plates, and property. Second, it has information on missing persons and wanted fugitives. Last but not least, it contains information on political extremist groups and their activities.

Computers have certainly revolutionized police work by providing access to millions of items of information with the least possible delay and speeding up the process of apprehending suspicious-looking characters.

Task 2.8. Complete the following paragraph about the various steps in the creation of a database by filling in the blanks with appropriate listing markers.

When you are creating a new database, you must 1______decide how many fields you will need in your database. 2 ______, you will have to provide up to five items of information about each field. 3______, each field needs to have a name. 4______, the field type has to be defined. Character, numeric, date, and logical are some common types. 5 ______choice to be made is the width of the field. However, some fields, such as date, have present default values. The 6______step is to set the number of decimal places if the field is numeric. 7_______, you will have to indicate whether the field is to be indexed or not.

Check your answers with those in Appendix 1.

Task 2.9, Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with appropriate listing markers.

Computers can do wonders, but they can waste a lot of money unless careful consideration goes into buying them. Businessmen and women thinking of buying a computer system should 1 ______admit they know very little about computers. 2________, they must realize that the computer sales people don't always know how their business works. 3_______, it is essential that buyers should get outside advice, no necessarily from consultants but from other executives who have had recent experience in buying a computer system. 4.________they should try to see systems similar to ones under consideration in operation. Because their operations will have differences that must be accommodated, they should. 5. _____find out what would be involved in upgrading a system. 6.______important thing to know before buying a computer is the financial situation of the supplier because computer companies come and go and not all are financially stable. 7______, the prospective buyer should demand that every detail be covered in writing, including hardware and software if they are supplied by different companies. There's nothing wrong with computers themselves, it's how and why they are used that can cause problems.

Giving examples

When the main aim of a text is to inform the reader about a subject, the writer will often use examples, either to explain a point or to illustrate an idea or argument. When giving examples, it is important to differentiate between the idea itself and the illustration of the idea.

Some expressions for introducing examples are shown in the table below.

For example (e.g.)

Examples of

Shown by

For instance

Instances of


An example (of this)

Cases of


As an example

Illustrations of


Such as

Exemplified by

A second/third example


Illustrated by




Sample 1. Office workers use many computer applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, and databases.

Sample 2. Computers have made radical changes in preparing income tax returns. For example, in some countries you can now send your income tax return on disk.

Sample З. Students can make good use of computer technology at school. Essay writing, for instance, can be done using a word-processing program.

NB!:  Sometimes  the  markers follow the  example,  separated  by commas, as in 3 above.

Task 2.10. The list below is made up of five groups of words, consisting of five main categories and examples of each category. Find the word groups and then write sentences to show the relationship between the groups of words. Use a different marker for each sentence. One has been done for you.





output device





network configuration



programming language






input device

Model: Ring, bus, and star are all examples of network configurations.

Task 2.11. Read the following sentences. Circle the marker and underline the main idea for which the example is given.

Networks  also  allow  users  in  one  locality to  share  expensive resources, such as printers and disk-systems.

  1.  There are a  handful  of clipboard computers  now on  the  market, including GRIDPad, which is sold in the US.
  2.  The PC passes the query, written in a special language (e.g. Structured Query Language - SQL), to the mainframe, which then parses the query, returning to the user only the data requested.
  3.  Here's an example of a simple virus, the Lehigh virus

4. If you use a shared PC or a PC that has public access, such as one in a college PC lab or a library, be very careful about putting floppies into that PC's drives without a write-protect tab.

Task 2.12. Not all texts present examples explicitly, in some cases, markers are not used, Read the paragraph below. Find the main ides and define the examples of that idea.

The widespread availability of computers has in all probability; changed the world for ever. The microchip technology which made the PC possible has put chips not only into computers, but also into washing- machines and cars. Some books may never be published in paper form, but may only be made available as part of public databases. Networks of computers are already being used to make information available on a world-wide scale.

Cause end effect

Understanding the different ways of expressing the relationship between the causes and the effects of an action is very important when you are reading English. This cause-effect relationship is commonly used in texts about computing.

Before we look at some of the ways of expressing cause and effect, note carefully this important distinction.

We can mention the cause before the effect.

Sample 1:  (cause)  (effect)

Dust often causes the recording condition of disks to deteriorate.

We can mention the effect before the cause.

Sample 2:   (effect) (cause)

Deterioration in the recording condition of disks is often due to dust.

There are many different ways of expressing cause end effect.

Verbs linking cause and effect: '

Result, cause, produce, result in, allow, result from, prevent, bring about,, enable

Sample  1.   The  introduction  of computer technology brought about

significant changes in office routines, (cause effect)

Sample 2. Computers can create artificial objects in tneir memories. This allows developers to test product design without actually creating a real prototype. (cause effect)

Sample 3. The extensive use of computers in schools is resulting in a new generation of computer-literate students. (cause effect)

Sample 4. The problems were caused by the volume of network traffic. (effect cause)

Connectives introducing cause:

Due to, as the/a result of, since, because, in response to, as.

Sample 1. Early computers developed quickly as a result of their use in military applicatons. (effectcause)

Sample 2. Teachers must rethink their roles as computer technology is creating a revolution in the classroom, (effect cause)

Sample 3. Because off-the-shelf programs do not always fit a company's needs, software often has to be specially developed, (effect  cause)

Connectives introducing result:

with the result that, so that, thus, therefore, consequently, hence, for this reason, thereby. Sample 1. Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks, thereby leaving us with more time for interesting,  creative work. (cause effect)

Sample 2. Carpel tunnel syndrome is a serious medical condition. For this reason, computer users should be careful of their posture and take frequent breaks. (cause effect)

Sample 3. When using an online database service, you must pay for the time you use. Consequently, you should have a good idea of what you want before you log on. (cause effect)

NB!: Another way of showing causal relationship is by introducing the; cause with V. Both the cause clause and the effect clause verbs are in the present tense.

Sample 1. If your company has a LAN. you can share the use of a printer with your colleagues, (cause effect)

Sample 2. It is easy to transport your data to another location if it is stored on a disk, (effect cause)

Task 2.13. Read the following sentences and define the part which expresses the cause.

  1.  Because a modem can be used for inter-computer communication, many people can now do their office work on their computer at home and transfer the files to a computer at the office.
  2.  Many people do not explore new software because they are comfortable with what they already have.
  3.  When robots malfunction, it is usually due to mistakes in the programming or the design.
  4.  Laser printers can be quite expensive and are therefore often shared through networks.

5. Voice-recognition systems are becoming more sophisticated. Thus keyboards may be unnecessary in the future.

Task 2.14. Read the following sentences and define the part which expresses the effect/result.

  1.  Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks from our lives, thereby leaving us with more time for interesting and creative work.
  2.  Because there are many different types of printers, you must analize your needs before making a purchase.
  3.  Since anyone can consult your files on a computer, it is a good idea to protect sensitive files with a password.
  4.  Fax boards are available to plug Into your computer, so you do not have to buy a fax machine.
  5.  Computers have been reduced in both size and cost as a result of advances in design and technology.

Task 2.15. Read them again and find the marker showing a cause-effect relationship and define the part of the sentence that expresses the cause.

  1.  By 1980, IBM decided there was a market for 250,000 PCs, (so they set up a special team to develop the first IBM PC.
  2.  Because of these and so many other different judgements, there can be no absolute.
  3.  Global communication and computer networks will become more and more  a  part  of  professional  and  personal Jives' as  the  price  of microcomputers and network access drops.
  4.  One of the features of a computer virus that separates it from other kinds of computer program is that It replicates itself, so that it can spread - to other computers.
  5.  Lehigh is waiting to infect other unsuspecting computers if you boot from one of those four infected floppies.
  6.  As they became more proficient on the computer, some showed gains in their overall self-confidence, as well.
  7.  Robots are better at this task, not because they are faster or cheaper than humans, but because they work in a place where humans cannot.
  8.  This automatic accuracy is particularly valuable in this kind of industry
    because locating and fixing mistakes is costly

9. Artificial worlds are being built up in a computer memory so that people can walk through at will, look around, and even touch objects.

Making predictions

A prediction is a statement about a particular subject in which we say what we think will happen in the future.  Predictions are not always absolute, but can be expressed with different levels of certainty, according to the context in which they are made.

Certainty can be expressed by:

will (definitely, certainly), certain, sure, without a doubt, without question   

Probability can be expressed by:

probable,   probably, • likely,   most/highly   probable,   most   probably, most/highly likely

Possibility can be expressed by:

may (not), might (not), can, could possible, possibly, perhaps

Improbability can be expressed by:

improbable, unlikely doubtful, questionable, probably not, most/highly improbable/unlikely, most/highly doubtful/questionable, most probably not

Impossibility can be expressed by:

Present or future


Cannot, could not

Could not

Not possible, impossible

Not possible, impossible

There expressions are used in sentences in different ways:


  1.  Notebook computers will definitely be cheaper next year.
  2.  It is (highly) probable/likely that notebook computers will definitely be cheaper next year
  3.  Notebook computers may/might be cheaper next year
  4.  Perhaps notebook computers will be cheaper next year.
  5.  It is unlikely/doubtful that notebook computers will be cheaper next year.
  6.  Notebook computers will most probably not be cheaper next year.
  7.  Notebook computers will definitely not be cheaper next year.
  8.  It is impossible that notebook computers will be cheaper next year.

N.B. Sometimes, predictions are made subject to certain conditions. In such cases, sentences typically have two parts: the if-clause and the main clause.


  1.  If the price of notebooks fall next year, I will buy one.
  2.  If the system crashes, we will lose all our latest data.

When the if-clause comes second, there is no comma between the two clauses. Examples:

  1.  I will buy a notebook if the price of notebooks fall next year.
  2.  We will lose all our latest data if the system crashes.

As with the simple predictions listed above, it is possible to express different levels of certainty about the likelihood of the condition (in the if-clause) by changing the tense of the verbs from the future and present forms to the more 'remote' past and conditional forms.


  1.  If the price of notebooks falls next year, I will buy one. (The speaker thinks it is possible that the price of notebooks will fall next year; and, if it does; he will buy one.)
  2.  If the price of notebooks fell next year, I would buy one. (The speaker thinks it is unlikely that the price of notebooks will fall next year but, if it does, he will buy one.)

3. If the system crashes, we will lose all our latest data. (The speaker thinks it is possible that the system will crash and, if it does, we will lose all our data.)

  1.  If the system crashed, we would lose all our latest data. (The speaker thinks it is unlikely that the system will crash but, if it did, we would lose all our data.)
  2.  The first form, as in sentences 1 and 3 - [(lf+ present) + will] - is known as the first conditional. The second form, as in sentences.2 and 4 - [(lf+ past) + would] - is known as the second conditional.


  1.  Keith Boeckar, P. Charles Brown. Computing - Oxford  University Press, 1996. -212 pp.
  2.  Schwartz K.L. Info Search// URL: http://www.ipl.org. 1997.
  3.  Sinclair R. How-To Write a Synopsis. - NY: 1998. - 202 pp.
  4.  Drott C, Thury E. Reaching Across the Curriculum// URL: htta://www.ipl.org. 1997.


Part II

Unit i.

Task 1.1: 2); 7); 4); 5); 1); 6); 3); 8).

Task 1.2.: As regards the sources of information, the most commonly used are: media (newspapers, magazines, radio, TV), libraries, reference books, general reading, experts, Internet.

Task 1,3.: 2); 6); 4); 5); 1);3),

Task 1.4.: whiteboard; video; flip chart; tape; real things; samples; handouts.

Task 1.5.:

keeping eye contact with members of the audiences;

a smile;

talking to ail the audience not just your friends;

speaking with enthusiasm.

Unit 2

Task 2.1,: 4); 3); 2); 5); 1).

Task 2.6.: 3); 2); 6); 1); 5); 4).

Task 2.7: All, except maybe for the first orte, could be used to ask for questions.

Task 2.8.: 1) Firstly; 2} Secondly; 3)Then; 4) Moreover; 5) Another; 6) next; 7). Lastly.


Tyumen State University

Foreign Languages Department for Science


Submitted by:      S. Ivanov,

gr. 394

Supervisor;         A G. Petrova,

Senior Lecturer

Tyumen     2001



Qrder of references in the list

All references should be given in the alphabetical order of authors surnames, first in the Cyrillic alphabet (if any), then in the Latin one.

Mind the correct punctuation!:

Sample 1:

Corbalis M., Beale I. The psychology of left and right-Hillsdale, 1976-230 pp.

• AUTHOR CODE (Corbalis M., Beale I.) -Author code means the author's surname and initials. If there are more than two authors, it is allowed to mention only one author adding ei al. - и др.)


PAPER NAME (The psychology of left and right)




CITY OF PUBLICATION (Hillsdale) Standard abbreviations are allowed, e.g. NY (New York) or M. (Москва)




point (.)

DASN (-)



For articles published in a collection or a journal:

Sample 2

Haugen E.'The semantics of Icelandic orientation // Word. — 1957 —v.13- No 3.- PP. 447-459.

  •  AUTHOR CODE (Haugen  E.) -Author code means the author's surname and initials. If there are more than two authors, it is allowed to mention only one author adding et al.- и др.)
  •  SPACE
  •  PAPER NAME (The semantics of Icelandic orientation)
  •  SPACE

.   DOUBLE 8LA8H (//)

NAME OF A COLLECTION OR JOURNAL (Word) - Standard abbreviations are allowed, e.g. NG (National  Geographic) or ВЯ (Вопросы языкознания)



DASH (-)




DASH (-)



. DASH (-)





PAGES (P, 447-459)


Sample 3. A hook by one author (Cyrillic)

Петренко В Ф. Психосемантика сознания- М., 1988.-207с.

Sample 4. A Collection of articles (Cyrillic)

Современная литературная критика,-М.: Наука, 1977.-271 pp.

Sample 5. An article from a book (Cyrillic)

Иванов Вяч. Bc.  Об  одном  типе  архаичных  знаков  искусства  и пиктографии// Ранние формы искусства.- М.: Искусство, 1972 - С.105-147.

Sample 6. An article from a journal (Cyrillic)

Арутюнова Н.Д. Аномалии и язык ( К проблеме языковой картины мира)//Вопросы языкознания.-1987 - №3.-С.3-19.

Sample 7. An article from an encyclopaedia (Cyrillic)

Лузин Н.Н. Функция // БСЭ. 1 изд., 1947., T.14, C.348

Sample 8. A book by one author (Latin)

Lyons J. Semantics.- Cambridge, 1977, v.1,2.

Sample 9. A Collection of articles (Latin)

Right and Left.- Chicago, 1973.-400 pp.

Sample 10. An article from a book (Latin)

King M. On the Proper Place of Semantics in Machine Translation // Language and Artificial Intelligence.-Amsterdam, 1987.- P.283-302.

Sample 11. An article from a journal or newspaper (Latin)

Gates P. et al. Lexicons.- Machine Translation.- Dortrecht, 1989. - N 1  -P.76-81.

Sample 12. A Web reference

Landow G. Hypertextual Derrida, Postructuralist Nelson. URL: http:// muse.jhu.edu/press/books/orderinfo.html

See the detailed instructions for Citing Electronic Sources in Purdue

University Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Files/110.html)



Abstract   Тезисы

Alphabetical catalogue  Алфавитный каталог

Annotation  Аннотация

Author code  Авторский код (фамилии и инициалы автора)

Bibliographic reference  Библиографическая ссылка

Bibliography surfing  «плавание по каталогу» (от ссылки к ссылке)

Body (of a summary)  Основная часть (изложения)

Bookmark  Закладка

Conclusion (of a summary) Заключение (изложения)

Copyright  Авторское право

Course paper (project)  Курсовая работа (курсовой проект)

Diploma paper (project) Дипломная работа (дипломный проект)^

et al. (Lat. et altera)  и др.

Favourites  "Избранное"

Field searching   Поиск по темам ( в Интернет)

Folder  Папка

Hyperlink  Гиперссылка

Introduction (of a summary) Введение (изложения)

Keyword   Ключевое слово

NB! (Lat. nota bene 

"note well")   Обратите внимание!

Query   Запрос

Paper  Научный труд

Phrase searching  Поиск по словосочетаниям (например, library school)

Presentation    Презентация, публичное выступление

Reply form    Бланк заявки (на конференцию)

Search engine   Поисковая служба (в Интернет)

Search syntax    Синтаксис поиска

Subject catalogue   Тематический каталог

Summary    Изложение, аннотация

Synopsis   Реферат

Title (in a reply form) Обращение (в заявке на конференцию, т.е. как необходимо обращаться в ответе на заявку, возможные варианты: Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr./Prof.)


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) унифицированный локатор ресурсов

Visual aids    демонстрационные средства(при презентации)

Web surfing   «плавание» в Интернет (от ссылки к ссылке )

Wildcard   специальный символ (например *)



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