Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Consult a dictionary transcribe the following words and practise their pro-nunciation: vaultlike dais atmosphere powder-magazine disorderliness pleasant-faced deliberately uncanny outrageously facetiousness armoury assembly subtly clever-looking impudently penalty congratulate fulsomely ordeal prefect execution.



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Под редакцией В.Д. Аракина

Москва, Владос, 1999




By James Hilton


James Hilton (1900— 1954) was born in England and educated at Cambridge where he wrote his first novel, "Catherine Herself". His first big success came with the publication of "Good-bye, Mr. Chips". It was dramatized and filmed. "Lost Horizon" published in 1933 was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. Some of his other books are: "We Are Not Alone" (1937), "Random Harvest" (1941), "Nothing So Strange" (1947), "Time and Time Again" (1953). A resident of the United States since 1935, he died in Long Beach, California.

(Kenneth Speed, B.A., a young Master at Millstead Boarding School for boys, was warned that the first night he takes prep1 he might be ragged2 as it was a sort of school tradition that they always tried to rag teachers that night.

Preparation for the whole school was held in Millstead Big Hall, a huge vault-like chamber in which desks were ranged in long rows and where Master in charge sat on high at a desk on a raised dais.)

Speed was very nervous as he took his seat on the dais at five to seven and watched the school straggling to their places. They came in quietly enough, but there was an atmosphere of subdued expectancy of which Speed was keenly conscious; the boys stared about them, grinned at each other, seemed as if they were waiting for something to happen. Nevertheless, at five past seven all was perfectly quiet and orderly, although it was obvious that little work was being done. Speed felt rather as if he were sitting on a powder-magazine, and there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break.

At about a quarter past seven a banging of desk-lids began at the far end of the hall.

He stood up and said, quietly, but in a voice that carried well: "I don't want to be hard on anybody, so I'd better warn you that I shall punish any disorderliness very severely."

There was some tittering, and for a moment or so he wondered if he had made a fool of himself.

Then he saw a bright, rather pleasant-faced boy in one of the back rows deliberately raise a desk-lid and drop it with a bang. Speed consulted the map of the desks that was in front of him and by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name to be Worsley. He wondered [13] how the name should be pronounced — whether the first syllable should rhyme with "purse" or with "horse". Instinct in him, that uncanny feeling for atmosphere, embarked him on an outrageously bold adventure, nothing less than a piece of facetiousness, the most dangerous weapon in a new Master's armoury, and the one most of all likely to recoil on himself. He stood up again and said: "Wawsley or Wurssley — however you call yourself — you have a hundred lines!"3

The whole assembly roared with laughter. That frightened him a little.' Supposing they did not stop laughing! He remembered an occasion at his own school when a class had ragged a certain Master very neatly and subtly by pretending to go off into hysterics of laughter at some trifling witticism of his.

When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hundred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk."

Again the assembly laughed, but there was no mistaking the respectfulness that underlay the merriment. And, as a matter of fact, the rest of the evening passed entirely without incident. After the others had gone, Worsley came up to the dais accompanied by the pleasant-faced boy who dropped the desk-lid. Worsley pleaded for the remission of his hundred lines, and the other boy supported him urging that it was he and not Worsley who had dropped the lid.

"And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pioneers."

They went away laughing.

That night Speed went into Clanwell's room for a chat before bedtime, and Clanwell congratulated him fulsomeTy on his successful passage of the ordeal.4 "As a matter of fact," Clanwell said, "I happen to know that they'd prepared a star benefit performance for
you but that you put them off, somehow, from the beginning. The
[14] prefects5 get to hear of these things and they tell me. Of course, I don't take any official notice of them. It doesn't matter to me what plans people make — it's when any are put into execution that I wake
up. Anyhow, you may be interested to know that the members of School House
6 subscribed over fifteen shillings to purchase fireworks which they were going to let off after the switches had been turned off! Alas for fond hopes ruined!"

Clanwell and Speed leaned back in their armchairs and roared with laughter.


1. to take prep: to be in charge of preparation of lessons in a regular period at school.

2. to rag {coll.): to play practical jokes on; treat roughly.

3. You have a hundred lines: Copying text is a common penalty for misbehaviour in English and American schools.

4. ordeal: in early times, a method of deciding a person's guilt or innocence by his capacity to pass some test such as passing through fire, taking poison, putting his hand in boiling water, or fighting his accuser. It was thought that god would protect the innocent person (to submit to the ordeal by battle; ordeal by fire, etc.). Now it means any severe test of character or endurance, as to pass through a terrible ordeal. E.g. It was his turn to speak now, so he braced himself up for the ordeal.

5. prefects: in some English schools senior boys to whom a certain amount of authority is given.

6. House: (here) a boarding-house attached to and forming a portion of a public school. Also, the company of boys lodged in such a house. E.g. I'm as proud of the house as any one. I believe it's the best house in the school, out-and-out.


Vocabulary Notes

1. subdue vt 1) conquer; overcome; bring under control, as to subdue nature 2) soften; make quiet or less strong, e.g. The enemy fire was subdued. Lunch was somewhat of an ordeal, all the present being subdued by the preceding scene. He was unusually subdued that night. Also: subdued light, spirits, voices, etc.

2.  conscious a 1) aware, knowing, as to be conscious of pain, cold, etc., e.g. I'm conscious of my guilt (i.e. I know I've done wrong). The teacher should be conscious of any subtle change of atmosphere in his class (i.e. The teacher should feel and realize any change of atmosphere). She was far more politically conscious than her husband (i.e. She knew more about the political life and her estimation of it was more objective). 2) (of actions and feelings) realized by oneself, e.g. He spoke with conscious superiority (i.e. realizing that he was superior), -conscious (in compound words), as self-conscious, class-conscious, dress-conscious, etc., e.g. With a dress-conscious person clothes may become an obsession: he doesn't see even himself as an individual, but as a kind of tailor's dummy to hang the latest trophy on.

Note: Don't confuse conscious and conscientious, e.g. Being a most conscientious worker, she wondered how she should act in this kind of situation. Your paper is a truly conscientious piece of work.

3. grin vi/t 1) smile broadly and in such a way that the teeth can be seen (to express amusement, contempt or satisfaction), e.g. The boy grinned from ear to ear when I gave him the apple. He was grinning with delight, grin and bear it endure pain or trouble without complaint 2) express by grinning, e.g. He grinned his delight.

Grin n, e.g. There was a broad grin on his face. His sardonic grin aroused my anger.

4.  orderly a 1) well arranged; in good order; tidy, as an orderly room, e.g. The books were ranged alphabetically on the orderly shelves. 2) peaceful; well behaved, as an orderly crowd (election, assembly, etc.) 3) [mil. use) concerned with carrying out orders, as the orderly officer, the orderly room. Ant. disorderly, e.g. He was arrested for disorderly conduct. The disorderly crowd straggled in the direction of the Town Hall.

Orderliness n, e.g. She made a mental note of the perfect orderliness and discipline at the lesson. Ant. disorderliness n, e.g. Speed said he would punish any disorderliness very severely.

5. Outrageous a shocking; beyond all reasonable limits; very cruel, immoral, offensive or insulting, as outrageous behaviour, e.g. This outrageous remark was followed by shocked silence.

outrageously adv, e.g. The book was proclaimed to be outrageously indecent and banned in most countries.

outrage n 1) extreme violence; violent transgression of law or decency, as an act of outrage; never to be safe from outrage 2) {with [16] an ind. art.) a very wrong or cruel act of physical injury to another person's property, or to the person himself, or to his feelings, e.g. The dropping of bombs on women and children is an outrage against humanity. Coll. Just look at the hat she's wearing; it's an outrage!

Outrage vt treat violently; injure severely; treat with scorn, as to outrage public opinion (do smth. that everybody thinks wrong)

6. Neat a 1) clean and in good order, as a neat room, to keep smth. as neat as a pin 2) well-formed; pleasing in shape and appearance, e.g. She has a very neat figure. Your handwriting is very neat. 3) in good taste; simply and pleasantly arranged, as a neat dress 4) done with skill and care, as a neat piece of work 5) (of style, language, remarks) short and clever; witty and pointed, e.g. She gave a very neat answer. Detective stories are loved for their tidy problems and neat solution. 6) (use of wine and spirits) without water, as to drink brandy neat; neat juice (syrup)

Neatly adv, e.g. I realized that I had been very neatly put in my place.

Word Discrimination: neat, tidy, trim, spick-and-span.

Neat suggests cleanliness, simplicity and a certain orderliness or precision which sometimes becomes the chief implication of the word. In neat person the adjective describes the personal appearance: dress, hairdo. The general effect is that of cleanliness, well-fitting clothes. In tidy person the adjective refers to the person in the habit of putting things in their proper places and of keeping eyerything around him clean and orderly. Tidy implies habitual neatness, e.g. We liked his tidy habits. He always kept his room tidy (i.e. all the things in the room were in their proper places). Cf. neat room where neat gives the suggestion of cleanliness and pleasing effect. Trim adds the implication of smartness, often of smugness or compactness, as a trim ship (cabin, maid-servant, etc.) Also: trim clothes, trim figure, etc. Spick-and-span stresses the brightness and freshness of that which is new (or made to look like new), as spick-and-span white shoes, e.g. Her mother keeps her spick-and-span every moment of the day. The kitchen was spick-and-span. Ant. disorderly, confused, messy, slovenly.

7. Witticism n a witty remark: a jest, e.g. I was feverishly searching my mind for some witticism that might make her smile.

Wit n 1) (sing, or pi.) intelligence; understanding; mental power; quickness of mind, e.g. He hadn't the wit(s) (hadn't wit enough) to know what to do in the emergency. He has quick (slow) wits, out of one's wits mad; greatly upset or frightened, e.g. He was out of his wits [17] when he saw the house was on fire, at one's wits' end not knowing what to do or say; quite at a loss, e.g. He gave her a questioning glance but she was at her wits' end too. to collect one's wits gather together, recover control of one's thoughts, e.g. He tried to collect his wits before saying anything, to live by one's wits live by clever but haphazard methods, not always honest, e.g. But there were many who declassed by hard social conditions, never worked and lived by
their wits,
to have (keep) one's wits about one be quick to see what is happening, alert and ready to act, e.g. The kid has his wits about him, he will get out of the mess all right. 2) clever and humorous expression of ideas; liveliness of spirit, e.g. Our teacher (or teacher's conversation) is full of wit.

Witty a clever and amusing; full of, or marked by wit, as a witty person (remark). Ant. dull, stupid.

8.  Impudent a not showing respect; being rude on purpose and in a shameless way, e.g. What an impudent rascal he is! What an impudent accusation!

Impudently adv, e.g. When charged with the crime of the broken window the boy grinned impudently and said nothing.

Impudence n being impudent, impudent words and actions, e.g. None of your impudence! (i.e. Don't be so impudent!) He had the impudence to say that I was telling lies! His impudence knew no bounds.

9. Benefit n 1) help; advantage; profit; improvement, e.g. Did you get much benefit from your holiday? (Did it do you good?) The book wasn't of much benefit to me (didn't help me very much). The money was used for the benefit of (in order to help) the population after
the disaster. What benefit would it be to the nation?
benefit performance (concert, etc.) a performance (at a theatre), a concert, etc., when the money is for the benefit of some special cause 2) (often in the pi.) an act of kindness; a favour; an advantage, e.g. He should
have been grateful for the benefits he received from his relatives.

Benefit vt/i help or be helped; give or receive benefit, e.g. The sea air will benefit you. He benefited by the medicine the doctor gave him.

Word Combinations and Phrases

to carry well (voice, music, etc.)  (to have) a feeling for atmosphere

to be hard on smb. (coll.)                 to roar with laughter [18]

to make a fool of oneself (coll.)  to pass entirely without incident

to consult smth. (a map, a dictio-            (bookish)

nary, the time-table, etc.)            to put smb. off (coll.)

to take (official) notice of smth.

(or smb.)


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text One and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pro-

vaultlike, dais, atmosphere, powder-magazine, disorderliness, pleasant-faced, deliberately, uncanny, outrageously, facetiousness, armoury, assembly, subtly, clever-looking, impudently, penalty, congratulate, fulsomely, ordeal, prefect, execution

3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to assimilation and
the linking "r":

on the dais, watched the school straggling to their places; but there was an atmosphere of subdued expectancy; the boys stared about them; at the far end of the hall; consulted the map; by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name; when the laughter subsided; in the front row but one; again the assembly laughed; who dropped the desk-lid; but that you put them off; and they tell me; in their armchairs

4. Read the passage beginning with "Speed was very nervous..." till "...he was eager for the storm to break"; concentrate your attention on weak forms and the rhythm.

5. While reading the following dialogues mind the intonation of the stimuli and responses and convey proper attitudes according to the author's directions given in the text:

A. When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hundred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk." [19]

В. "And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pioneers.''

They went away laughing.

6. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a) Comment upon the choice of words in:

watched the school straggling to their places (why not "walking, coming"?); the boys stared about them (why not "looked"?); there was some tittering (why not "laughter" ?); the whole assembly roared with laughter (why not "the whole school laughed"?)

b)  Explain:

there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break: I don't want to be hard on anybody; a class had ragged a certain Master; you put them off

c) What stylistic devices are used in the sentences beginning with "Speed felt rather as if..." and "Instinct in him..."? Explain their purpose and effect. Comment on the fitness of the comparisons.

d) Indicate the use of formal (learned) words and colloguialisms. Explain their purpose.

e) What words and phrases give atmosphere to the description? Select descriptive details that contribute to the realism of the fragment.

f) Point out the climax of the episode. Give reasons for your choice.

g)  Do you think that there are sentences where the author is over-emphatic? Select them and criticize or justify the emphasis.

7. Copy out from Text One the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases and translate them into Russian.

8.  Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Our life in the house followed a quiet pattern. 2. The scheme was soon put into operation. 3. She turned sharply to meet his glance. Suddenly she felt a pang of pity. No, she could not be cruel to him. 4. It was hard to tell where you stood with Eddy and I was careful not to become a laughing-stock for his pals. 5. He was arrested by her face immediately, so gentle it looked in the crowd. 6. He looked up in the telephone-directory but there was no telephone listed under his name. 7. When the white figure emerged at the window, there was a spooky silence, but in a moment we recognized George and burst into laughter. 8. He tried to get rid of me
with more promises but I wouldn't surrender. 9. She evidently felt ill at ease and spoke very quietly but everything she said could be heard distinctly. 10. Nothing happened in the morning, but when the good news came, the next hour was a succession of hand-shakes
and laughing comments.

9. Compose short situations in dialogue form for each of the given word combinations and phrases. Mind their stylistic peculiarities. Use proper intonation means in the stimuli and responses.

10. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations
and phrases:

1. Обстоятельства помешали им привести свой план в исполнение. 2. Учитель говорил тихим голосом, но его было хорошо слышно. 3. Сказав это, он понял, что поставил себя в глупое положение. 4. Услышав эту шутку, все разразились громким смехом. 5. Какое расстояние отсюда до города? — Я не знаю. Посмотри по карте. 6. После этого весь судебный процесс проходил без единого происшествия. 7. Спид знал, что молодой учитель должен с самого начала утвердить свой авторитет (to gain a firm standing), и поэтому он сразу поставил мальчиков на место, когда они стали плохо вести себя. 8. Она отделалась от него шуткой (with a jest). 9. Я не хочу, чтобы ты поставил себя в глупое положение. 10. Герберт не обращал внимания на то, что она говорила. 11. Все знали, что Фэти пользуется шпаргалками, но никто не обращал на это внимания. 12. Не будь с ней так сурова, она не виновата. 13. Узнав о случившемся, отец сурово обошелся с сыном.

11. Answer the following questions:

1. What was Speed conscious of when he took his seat on the dais? How did the boys behave? 2. What was the first breach of discipline during the prep? 3. Do you think Speed's reaction to the breach of discipline was correct? 4. Was he conscious of the risks he ran? What
does the author call his act? 5. What did Speed remember when the assembly was roaring with laughter? 6. In what way did Speed put off the mischief-makers? Do you think the way he dealt with the situation was correct? 7. What did Speed learn in the evening? 8. What would
you do if you were in similar conditions? Would you do the same?

12. Ask each other questions covering the text. Mind the intonation of interrogative sentences to convey proper attitudes.


a) Do you think the boys liked Speed's answer? Who do you think warned him? etc.

b) When was it that tittering began? How was it that Speed won the respect of the boys?

13. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

14. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. Subduing a wilful child is not an easy task. 2. Both Hope and the Professor were rather subdued, not guite their customary selves. 3. In the large dimness of the hall they sat together, for three hours very conscious of each other. 4. I've never suspected you to be so dress-conscious. 5. Largs gave hem one of his infreguent but disarming grins, which suddenly turned him into an over-size small boy out for a lark. 6. Mamma is smiling with all her might. In fact Mr. Newcome says ... "that woman grins like a Cheshire cat." 7.1 paid attention to the orderly placing of furniture in the room. 8. Mrs. Ernest Weldon wandered about the orderly living-room, giving it some of those little feminine touches. 9. He was a man of unusually conscientious, industrious and orderly mind, with little imagination. 10. He thought of it as he contemplated the small orderliness of the cabin against the window background of such frantic natural scenery. 11. He came mincing forward, almost swooned at the sight of so many staring faces but bravely recovered himself, and then began hissing at them like an outraged serpent. 12. And as Lady Foxfield stepped back a pace and appeared to swell up with outraged dignity, Bessy grabbed half a dozen balls of wool and hurled them straight at her. 13. The pictures on the walls of the room were an outrageous challenge to good taste. 14. The fascist invaders committed numerous
outrages on the territories they occupied.

B. 1. The words may have been the usual conventional stuff, but they neatly fitted a fine marching tune. 2. He gave the egg a neat rap on the table and peeled it scrupulously. 3. He was neat in his dress; he went to work in quiet grey trousers, a black coat and a bowler hat. 4. Her coat was pretty old, but neat as a new pin. 5. But he would have worried more about all this if he had not been so busy worrying about how to keep his senses, his wits and his manhood intact on the back of that infernal motorcycle. 6. "I have here the figures of the annual expenditure of the company in wages." — "Keep 'em. Don't want figures. No use addling our wits with a lot of nonsensical figures." 7. Throughout all this my lord was like a cold, kind spectator with his wits about him. 8. Nick possessed that ability sometimes found in an
unemployed slumdweller
to live precariously by his wits. 9. During the whole of this time Scrooge had acted like a man our of his wits. 10. He was a man with little wit in conversation. 11. There was a celebratory dinner at which Speed accompanied songs and made a nervously witty speech and was vociferously applauded. 12. As Candover's conduct was especially noisy and impudent and calculated to lead to a serious breach of the peace, he was taken into custody by Sergeant Pegswood. 13. He spoke impudently and it steered the conversation around to the dangerous point. 14. "He will be found," said the Professor calmly. "And when you find him, perhaps you had better keep him." — "If you mean what I think you mean," replied Daisy tartly, "then you've got a sauce." — "A sauce?" The Professor looked almost startled. "How can I have a sauce?" — "I mean — a nerve, a cheek —" — "Impudence, eh? A-curious idiom. I must remember it for America." — "You needn't, 'cos the slang's all different there." 15. "Fact is, an Afghan or an Afridi or somebody ran off with one of our buses,* and there was the very devil to pay afterwards, as you can imagine. Most impudent thing I ever heard of." 16. I didn't think it would benefit you if you argued with Williston. 17. Who benefits by the death of Simpson? 18. Anthony lit a cigarette and braced himself for the ordeal. He wondered what benefit this affair would be to everybody. 19. The traditional suspect of a detective story is a
person who
benefits by the death of the murdered man.

15. Translate the following sentences to revise the different meanings of the
words "order" and "disorder".

a) Translate into Russian:

1. He is under orders to start for India next week. 2. The general drew up his troops in order. 3. You may get these books by money order. 4. He has always been distinguished by intellectual ability of high order. 5. The disorders in the city detained him long. 6. I've come
to see you in order that you may be sure everything is all right. 7. He went on throwing open doors, and peeping in. Everything was in apple-pie order, ready for immediate occupation. 8. The hotel-maid called for orders.

b) Translate into English:

1. Председатель призвал его к порядку. 2. Он дал указание немедленно приступить к работе. 3. По приказу судьи его вывели из зала. 4. Мы разложили книги по степени их важности. 5. Все эти товары в полном порядке. 6. Он остановился в дверях, чтобы рассмотреть всех получше. 7. Машина испортилась, но они думали, что шофер нарочно тянет время (to play for time). 8. После налета грабителей комната была в большом беспорядке. 9. Вражеские войска в беспорядке отступали. 10. Ее одежда и волосы были в беспорядке.

16. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary
and the patterns of the lesson:

1. Спид отчетливо сознавал, что такой шаг опасен, но решил рискнуть. 2. Ему удалось установить тишину, но в классе чувствовалось сдержанное волнение. 3. Он отлично справляется со своей работой. Это очень добросовестный, опытный рабочий. 4. Увидев, что все в полном порядке, он выразил улыбкой свое одобрение. 5. Несмотря на шум во время перемены, мы услышали их приглушенные голоса за стеной. 6. Она так устала, что даже не почувствовала боли. 7. Что ты там ухмыляешься? Иди и помоги нам. 8. Я не могу простить ему его наглости. Я хочу, чтобы он немедленно уехал. 9. Не было сомнения, что за его широкой улыбкой скрывалась обида. Я поняла, что его задели ее слова. 10. Речь Спида на прощальном обеде так и искрилась остроумными шутками. 11. Его откровенная усмешка вызвала у всех возмущение. 12. Когда он собрался с мыслями, он понял, что дети хотели подшутить над ним. 13. Это был спокойный, методичный человек, лет 50. 14. Она совершенно растерялась и не знала, как поступить в этой сложной обстановке. 15. Урок был хорошо организован, и учительнице удалось овладеть вниманием учеников с самого начала. 16. Его непринужденность и остроумие создавали ту приятную обстановку взаимопонимания, которая необходима в любом обществе. 17. Он был арестован за нарушение общественного порядка. 18. Как он остроумен! Обратите внимание на его точные ответы и быструю реакцию. 19. Его наглость и возмутительное поведение вызвали всеобщий гнев. 20. На ней было скромное, но изящное платье, и комната ее была
тоже аккуратной и говорила о вкусе хозяйки. 21. После Нюрнбергского процесса были преданы гласности многие преступления против человечества, совершенные нацистами. 22. Все это сделано ради вас. 23. А что, если его остроумие не поможет, и атмосфера скуки так и сохранится до конца вечера? 24. Статья не принесла никому никакой пользы. 25. Отделавшись от мальчиков шуткой, он прошел через испытание успешно, хотя отчетливо сознавал, что это был не лучший выход из положения. 26. Все деньги от благотворительного концерта были отданы в помощь пострадавшим от землетрясения. 27. Помогло ли вам новое лекарство? 28. Письмо было написано аккуратным женским почерком, и мы сразу догадались, кто его написал.

17. Write a one-page precis of Text One.

18. Give a summary of Text One.

19. Relate the incident that took place during the preps at Millstead from the point of view of:

a) Speed who tells it to his colleague Clanwell in a facetious way; convey proper attitudes by using adequate intonation means;

b) one of the boys who took part in the ragging of the new teacher; the boy is excited and somewhat frightened; use proper intonation means;

c) Clanwell whose attitude to the whole incident is disapproving.

20. Write an entry in Speed's imaginary diary describing the episode.

21. Reread Text One to answer the following questions on its style.

a) How is the atmosphere of uneasiness and suspense created and maintained?
Comment on, and illustrate, the methods used for heightening the emotion. What
is the author's aim?

b) What are the outstanding qualities of the language of the extract?

c)  Does the extract appeal to you? If so, why? If not, give well-founded criticism.




By Somerset Maugham

W. Somerset Maugham, a famous English writer, was born in 1874 in Paris. He received his medical degree, but he never practiced medicine; the ambition to write dominated his entire life. In 1897 "Liza of Lambeth", Maugham's first novel, appeared. It had no success. For the next ten years Maugham wrote and starved. He turned out a steady stream of plays and novels none of which excited much attention. His luck changed in 1907. In that year "Lady Frederic", a comedy of manners, was produced in London. It had a bright, fashionable success. By and by, Maugham became internationally celebrated; his plays were performed all over the world. Now independent and well able to enjoy life Maugham began to travel. He came to know Europe thoroughly and spent long periods in the United States, the South Seas and China. His favorite country was Spain ("The Land of the Blessed Virgin" and "Don Fernando"). In 1915 Maugham published a novel that had been in preparation for many years. Called "Of Human Bondage" it was received by critics with great respect. Over the years, it has become a modern classic. Many popular successes followed its publication: "Ashenden", "Moon and Sixpence", "Cakes and Ale", etc. He died in 1965.

I have always been convinced that if a woman once made up her mind to marry a man nothing but instant flight could save him. Not always that; for once a friend of mine., seeing the inevitable loom menacingly before him, took ship from a certain port (with a toothbrush for all his luggage, so conscious was he of his danger and the necessity for immediate action) and spent a year travelling round the world; but when, thinking himself safe (women are fickle, he said, and in twelve months she will have forgotten all about me), he landed at the selfsame port the first person he saw gaily waving to him from the quay was the little lady from whom he had fled4. I have only once known a man who in such circumstances managed to extricate himself. His name was Roger Charing. He was no longer young when he fell in love with Ruth Barlow and he had had sufficient experience to make him careful; but Ruth Barlow had я gift (or should I call it a, quality?) that renders most men defenseless, and it was this that dispossessed Roger of his common sense, his prudence and his worldy wisdom. He went down like a row of ninebins.1 This was the gift of pathos. Mrs. Barlow, for she was twice a widow, had splendid dark eyes and they were the most moving I ever saw; they seemed to be ever on the point of filling with tears; they suggested that the world was too much for her, and you felt that, poor dear, her sufferings had been more than anyone should be asked to bear. If, like Roger Charing, you were a strong, hefty fellow with plenty of money, it was almost inevitable that you should say to yourself: I must stand between the hazards of life and this helpless little thing, or, how wonderful it would be to take the sadness out of those big and lovely eyes! I gathered from Roger that everyone had treated Mrs. Barlow very badly. She was apparently one of those unfortunate persons with whom nothing by any chance goes right. If she married a husband he beat her; if she employed a broker he cheated her; if she engaged a cook she drank. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die.

When Roger told me that he had at last persuaded her to marry him, I wished him joy.

"I hope you'll be good friends," he said. "She's a little afraid of you, you know; she thinks you're callous.

"Upon my word I don't know why she should think that."

"You do like her, don't you?"

"Very much."

"She's had a rotten time, poor dear. 1 feel so dreadfully sorry for her."

"Yes," I said.

I couldn't say less. I knew she was stupid and I thought she was scheming. My own belief was that she was as hard as nails.

The first time I met her we had played bridge together and when she was my partner she twice trumped my best card. I behaved like an angel, but I confess that I thought if the tears were going to well up into anybody1 s eyes they should have been mine rather than hers. And when, having by the end of the evening lost a good deal of money to me, she said she would send me a cheque and never did, I could not but think that I and not she should have worn a pathetic .expression when next we met.

Roger introduced her to his friends. He gave her lovely jewels. He took her here, there, and everywhere. Their marriage was announced for the immediate future. Roger was very happy. He was committing a good action and at the same time doing something he had very much a mind to. It is an uncommon situation and it is not surprising if he was a trifle more pleased with himself than was altogether becoming.

Then, on a sudden, he fell out of love. I do not know why. It could hardly have been that he grew tired of her conversation, for she had never had any conversation. Perhaps it was merely that this pathetic [42] look of hers ceased to wring his heart-strings. His eyes were opened and he was once more the shrewd man of the world he had been. He became acutely conscious that Ruth Barlow had made up her mind to marry him and he swore a solemn oath that nothing would induce him to marry Ruth Barlow. But he was in a quandary. Now that he was in possession of his senses he saw with clearness the sort of woman he had to deal with and he was aware that, ii he asked her to release him, she would (in her appealing way) assess her wounded feelings at an immoderately high figure.3 Besides, it is always awkward for a man to jilt a woman. People are apt to think he has behaved badly.

Roger kept his own counsel. He gave neither byword nor gesture an indication that his feelings towards Ruth Barlow had changed. He remained attentive to all her wishes; he took her to dine at restaurants, they went to the play together, he sent her flowers; he was sympathetic and charming. They had made up their minds that they would be married as soon as they found a house that suited them, for he lived in chambers and she in furnished rooms; and they set about looking at desirable residences. The agents sent Roger orders to view and he took Ruth to see a number of houses. It was very hard to find anything that was guite satisfactory. Roger applied to more agents. They visited house after house. They went over them thoroughly, examining them from the cellars in the basement to the attics under the roof. Sometimes they were too large and sometimes they were too small, sometimes they were too far from the centre of things and sometimes they were too close; sometimes they were too expensive and sometimes they wanted too many repairs; sometimes they were too stuffy and sometimes they were too airy; sometimes they were too dark and sometimes they were too bleak. Roger always found a fault that made the house unsuitable. Of course he was hard to please; he could not bear to ask his dear Ruth to live in any but the perfect house, and the perfect house wanted finding. House-hunting is a tiring and a tiresome business and presently Ruth began to grow peevish. Roger begged her to have patience; somewhere, surely, existed the very house they were looking for, and it only needed a little perseverance and they would find it. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. Ruth was exhausted and more than once lost her temper.

"If you don't find a house soon," she said, "I shall have to reconsider my position. Why, if you go on like this we shan't be married for years." 

"Don't say that," he answered. "I beseech you to have patience. I've just received some entirely new lists from agents I've only just heard of. There must be at least sixty houses on them."

They set out on the chase again. They looked at more houses and more houses. For two years they looked at houses. Ruth grew silent and scornful: her pathetic, beautiful eyes acquired an expression that was almost sullen. There are limits to human endurance. Mrs. Barlow had the patience of an angel, but at last she revolted.

"Do you want to marry me or do you not?" she asked him.

There was an unaccustomed hardness in her voice, but it did not affect the gentleness of his reply.

"Of course I do. We'll be married the very moment we find a house. By the way I've just heard of something that might suit us."

"I don't feel well enough to look at any more houses just yet."

"Poor dear, I was afraid you were looking rather tired."

Ruth Barlow took to her bed. She would not see Roger and he had to content himself with calling at her lodgings to enquire and sending her flowers. He was as ever assiduous and gallant. Every day he wrote and told her that he had heard of another house for them to look at. A week passed and then he received the following letter:


I do not think you really love me. I have found someone who is anxious to take care of me and I am going to be married to him today.


He sent back his reply by special messenger:


Your news shatters me. 1 shall never get over the blow, but of course your happiness must be my first consideration. 1 send you herewith seven orders to view; they arrived by this morning's post and lam quite sure you will find among them a house that will exactly suit you.



1. He went down like a row of ninepins, (fig.) here: He was defeated at once and surrendered without resisting.

2. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die: There was never anything dear to her that she wouldn't lose. "A little lamb" is [44] somebody that one loves dearly; an allusion to the well-known nursery rhyme:

Mary had a little lamb.

Its fleece was white as snow,

And everywhere that Mary went,

The lamb was sure to go.

3. She would assess her wounded feelings at an immoderately high figure: she would make him pay much for jilting her.


Vocabulary Notes

1. hazard n a chance, risk or danger, as a life full of hazards; the hazards of one's life; at all hazards at all risks; whatever dangers there may be, e.g. You should do it at all hazards, to take hazards to run risks, e.g. He was aware that he was taking hazards but there was no way back.

Hazard vt 1) trust to chance; take the risk of, e.g. Rock-climbers sometimes hazard their lives. 2) offer or venture, as to hazard a remark (guess), battle

Hazardous a risky; dependent on chance, as a hazardous climb. Ant. safe, secure, sheltered.

2. persuade vt I) convince; lead (a person) by argument to believe something or to think in a certain way, as to persuade a person of the truth of a report, e.g. I persuaded myself that all was well. 2) cause (a person) by argument to do something, e.g. His friends could never persuade him to go to a hockey-match: he said the absurdity of the game made him feel too sorry for the players.

Persuaded p.p. (predic. only) certain; convinced, e.g. I am almost persuaded of his honesty.

Persuasion n, e.g. No persuasion on my part could make him do it. He agreed to stay in bed only after much persuasion.

Word Discrimination: to convince, to persuade.

Both are rendered in Russian as «убеждать». То persuade may be translated into Russian by «склонять, уговаривать»; this shade of meaning does not apply to convince, which win help to distinguish the difference between the two words.

To convince a person means to satisfy his understanding as to the truth of something by proof, evidence or arguments, e.g. Nothing will convince me that lies and falsehoods can be justified. Adjectives: convinced, convincing, as convinced bachelor; convincing proof, evidence, statement, reason.

To persuade a person is to influence him in some way, either by argument, proof or otherwise. Conviction or the process of convincing leads to belief. Persuasion leads to action. A stubborn person may be convinced of the necessity of doing something, but nothing may be able to persuade him to do it, e.g. You have persuaded me that I must apologize.

To convince a person is to prove the truth to him. To persuade a person is more than that: it implies not only convincing, but also influencing a person to act, to do something on the basis of his conviction.

Persuade may refer to the process itself of arguing with a person whereas convince is never used in this sense, but implies rather the final result of argument. E.g. We were persuading him to give up that dangerous plan, but failed to convince him.

3. Scheme v – plan or form a plan, esp. a secret or dishonest one, e.g. They schemed to overthrow their rivals.

Scheme n 1) a plan, e.g. The designer acquainted us with the scheme. 2) an arrangement in which each part fits the other parts perfectly, as a colour (furnishing) scheme (i.e. an arrangement chosen so that the effect is pleasing) 3) a secret, esp. dishonest, plan, e.g. Their scheme was exposed and the criminals were soon put on trial. 4) a carefully arranged statement of a plan, e.g. In the first lesson the teacher gave the students a scheme of work for the year.

4. Commit v –  1} (usu.) to do a bad or foolish act, as to commit a crime, suicide, an error, e.g. He committed a grave error and he was conscious of it. I wonder what made him commit suicide. 2) handover or give up for safe keeping; entrust; place, as to commit smth. to paper (to writing); to write it down, e.g. If you are very ill, you have to commit yourself to doctors and nurses. The prisoner was committed for trial (i.e. sent before the judges to be tried). The body was committed to the flames, (i.e. burnt). 3) to speak or act in such a way that one will be compelled to do smth, e.g. He has committed himself to support his brother's children (i.e. said or done smth that makes it necessary for him to support them).

5. Acute a 1) (of the mind and the senses) sharp; quick, e.g. Dogs have an acute sense of smell. A man with an .acute mind soon knows [46] whether a book is valuable or not. 2) severe, sharp and sudden, e.g. A bad tooth may cause acute pain. 3) very strong; deeply felt, e.q. His son's success in the examinations gave him acute pleasure. 4) (of an illness) serious and causing great suffering; coming sharply to a crisis. (Cf. chronic), as acute gastritis 5) sharp, pointed, as an acute angle (one that is less than a right angle)

Acutely adv – e.g. He was acutely conscious of her presence, and it made him unusually silent.

6. Appeal v –

1) ask someone to decide a question; (esp.) ask someone to say that one is right; ask earnestly for something, e.g. The prisoner appealed to the judge for mercy. She appealed to me to protect her. 2) Move the feelings; interest; attract, e.g. Do these paintings appeal to you? (Do you like them?) Bright colours appeal to small children. The sea voyage does not appeal to me.

Appealing pl. p., a imploring, e.g. The girl said it with such an appealing smile that Mr. Fowler, to his own surprise, granted the request, though but half a minute before he meant to refuse it.

Appeal n 1) an earnest call for help, as to collect signatures to an appeal, e.g. An appeal is being made for help for those who lost their homes in the earthquake. 2) a call to smth. or smb. to make a decision, e.g. So powerful seemed his appeal that the people were deeply moved. 3) interest or attraction, e.g. That sort of music hasn't much appeal for me. (I'm not much attracted by it.) The novel has general appeal, to make an appeal to smb. to attract smb., e.g. This type of romantic hero is sure to make an appeal to feminine hearts.

Word Discrimination: to address, to apply to, to appeal to, to turn to, to consult, to go to.

The Russian word «обращаться» has a number of equivalents in English:

To address, which is a formal word, means to speak to smb., to make a speech, as to address a person, audience, meeting. It is not followed by a preposition, but in the expression "to address oneself to smb." the preposition "to" is used. E.g. It is to you, sir, I address myself. Also: That remark was addressed to his neighbour.

To apply (to smb. for smth.) is more limited in use than to address and is even more formal. We say: to apply to an authority, to apply for work, information, permission, a certificate, etc. E.g. Carrie decided to apply to the foreman of the shoe factory for work.

To appeal (to smb. for smth.) to ask earnestly for smth. (usu. for help or moral support), to appeal to someone's feelings. [47]

To turn (to smb. for smth.) to go to someone for help (less formal and less emotional), e.g. The child turned to its mother for help.

To consult to go for advice or information, as to consult a lawyer, a doctor, a map, a dictionary. E.g. Nobody ever thought of consulting him. I must consult the doctor.

To see and to go to may be used in the meaning of "to consult" (coll.), as to see a doctor, a lawyer.

7. Endurance n ability to endure, e.g. He showed remarkable powers of endurance. There are limits to human endurance.

endure verb  bear bravely; remain firm or unmoved; suffer without complaining, as to endure suffering (pain, torture, etc.), e.g. If help does not come, they will endure to the end, 2) suffer; bear; put up with (esp. in the negative with 'can, could, be able1), e.g. I can't endure that man. 3) last; continue in existence, as as long as life endures.

enduring pr. p., a, as an enduring peace (i.e. one that will last a long time)

8. Content v  satisfy, e.g. There were no roses at the florist's, and we had to content ourselves with big, red carnations. There is no contenting some people (i.e. it's impossible to satisfy them).

contented a satisfied, as a contented look (smile, laugh, etc.)

content a (predic. only) 1) satisfied with what one has or has had; not wishing for any more, e.g. He is content with very little. 2) willing, e.g. I am content to remain where I am now.

content n the condition of being satisfied; feeling easy in one's mind, as to live in peace and content (i.e. peacefully and happily, with no worry or anxiety); to one's heart's content as much as one wants, e.g. And now you may enjoy yourself to your heart's content.

Word Combinations and Phrases

To be as hard as nails

To have (very much) a mind to do smth.

To fall out of love

To keep one's own counsel

To be apt to do smth.

To want finding (washing, a good beating, etc.)

To take to one's bed to be one's first consideration


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Two and mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pronunciation:

inevitable, menacingly, necessity, quay, extricate, experience, dispossess, prudence, pathos, hazard, apparently, persuade, callous, dreadfully, scheming, angel, cheque, pathetic, jewel, acutely, solemn, oath, quandary, release, assess, immoderately, gesture, restaurant, sympathetic, chamber, agent, basement, attic, tiring, patience, perseverance, innumerable, reconsider, endurance, revolt, content, assiduous, messenger, herewith

3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to different types of assimilation and the linking "r":

and the necessity for immediate action; round the world; at the selfsame port; that dispossessed Roger of his common sense; on the point of filling with tears; between the hazards of life and this helpless little thing; she twice trumped my best card; his eyes were opened; he swore a solemn oath; in her appealing way; people are apt to think; in the basement; made the house unsuitable; they climbed thousands of stairs; but it did not affect the gentleness of his reply; we'll be married the very moment we find a house

4. Read the following sentences: beginning with "I have always been convinced...", "Not always that..." and "Mrs. Barlow, for she was twice a widow..,.". Divide them into intonation groups; read them using proper intonation patterns and beating the time; mind strong and weak forms of form words and al! the phonetic phenomena of connected speech.

5. Read the following extracts: from "When Roger told me,..." up to "...as hard as nails", from "If you don't find a house soon,..." up to "...sixty houses on them", and from "Mrs. Barlow had the patience of an angel..." up to "...Ruth Barlow took to her bed" paying attention to the intonation of the stimuli and responses in the dialogues. Convey proper attitudes by using adequate intonation patterns.

6. Read the text and consider its following aspects:

a) What is the relation of the opening passage of the story (ending "... from whom he had fled") to the main plot? Comment on the syntax of the second sentence ("Not always that;..."); justify its length.

b) What would be lost if the sentence "but Ruth Barlow had a 'gift' (or should I call it a 'quality'?! That renders most men defenseless" were written "but Ruth Barlow had a 'quality' that renders most men defenseless..."? What does the device of contrasting 'quality' to 'gift' aim at?

c) Select from the first paragraph words and phrases characterizing Ruth Barlow. What is the attitude implied? What method of characterization is used here? Point out clichés. Why does the author use them? How do they colour Roger's attachment to Ruth?

d) Analyze the rhythm in the sentence beginning "If she married a husband..." and the effect achieved. Indicate the stylistic devices in "She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die".

e) What method (or methods) of characterization is used in the fragment beginning "I couldn't say less...", ending "...when next we met"? Is this description of Ruth in full accord with the one given in the first paragraph? If not, what is the reason? Explain "as hard as nails".

f) Exemplify the author's use of vivid epithets in the character of Ruth Barlow. Which features of hers do they accentuate?

g) Point out instances of irony. (Is it irony or humour? Prove your point.)

h) What is the purpose of the parenthesis in "...she would (in her appealing way) assess her wounded feelings..."?

i) Comment on the sentence structure in "Sometimes they were too large...". What is the effect achieved?

j) Exemplify the use of metaphors, similes and repetition. Comment on their effect.

k) Indicate the variety of the sentences and the rhythmic effects achieved.

1) Point out the climax of the story. Comment on the methods used for heightening the tension in the passages leading to the climax.

7. Copy out from Text Two the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given above and translate them into Russian.

8. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Conflict almost tore her apart. She was not sure whether she should have the heart to talk with them or keep her plans secret. 2. Before she has a special check on her heart and general condition we must take care of her. We should think about her health in the first place. 3. He had drive and energy... Besides, he could be pitiless, so Johnson thought he was the right man to run his business. 4.1 doubt if my opinion will have enough weight. As a rule youngsters disregard the advice of adults. 5. She could hardly hold her temper in check. She wished to say very unladylike things to him. 6. For some reasons of his own he held back some information and kept his plans secret. 7. Your dress is stained. It needs to be cleaned.

9. Write sentences of your own using the given list of word combinations and phrases (3 sentences on each item).

10. Compose short situations in dialogue form using the word combinations and phrases. Pay attention to the intonation of the stimuli and responses.

11. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Она обратилась к врачу, но ей не стало лучше, и она слегла. 2. Его новый метод, вероятно, будет иметь успех. 3. Большинство взрослых склонно изучать иностранный язык по учебникам. 4. Я прежде всего забочусь о твоем благополучии. 5. Он был скромным человеком и молчал о своих делах. 6. Я прошу вас держать наш разговор в секрете. 7. Я склонна думать, что работа для него самое главное. 8. Твое платье необходимо погладить. Оно выглядит неопрятно. 9. За такие проказы его нужно хорошенько наказать. 10. Я очень хочу посетить ее урок, Говорят, что она очень интересно объясняет материал. 11. Тебе не мешало бы постричься, уж очень неряшливый у тебя вид. 12. У него было сильное желание повидаться с семьей, но прежде всего он думал об эксперименте и его исходе. 13. Людям свойственно забывать свое горе. 14. Он производил на всех впечатление мягкого и доброго человека, но на самом деле был черств и сух и умел добиться своего любыми средствами. 15. Человека, который бы умел держать язык за зубами, не так-то легко найти. 16. Я очень хочу побывать этим летом в своем родном городе.

12. Answer the following questions:

1. What kind of woman was Ruth Barlow? Was she really in love with Roger? Why did she make up her mind to marry him? 2. Was Roger in love with Ruth? Was it a serious and a profound feeling? 3. What kind of man was Roger? How do his flat-chase tactics characterize him? How should he have behaved? 4. Whose side do you take in the conflict: Ruth's or Roger's? 5. Isn't there anything to be said in Ruth's defence? 6. What is the social significance of the story?

13. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

14. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. "There are certain hazards in looking too attractive in the classroom," Bester said. 2. When he saw the lovely Sofie, the youth could not help admitting that the captive possessed a treasure which would fully reward his toil and hazard. 3. Travel on the thoroughfares of Manila was not without its hazards. 4. The hazards of radioactive waste are receiving as much attention as the hazards of radioactive fallout. 5. He had endeavoured to persuade his father to permit him to accompany me, but in vain. 6. Mrs. Brooke foresaw that the task of persuading Rosa to this marriage would be the fiercest and most important of all the engagements they had taken part in. 7. We could not tear ourselves away from each other, nor persuade ourselves to say the word "Farewell". 8. My persuasions have restrained my uncle from undertaking a journey to Ingolstadt. 9.1 could not persuade myself to confide to him that event which was so often present to my recollections. 10. There is something in your words which persuades me that you are sincere. 11.I avoided explanation for I had a persuasion that I should be supposed mad. 12. We decided to put the scheme into operation as soon as possible.

B. 1.1 shall commit my thoughts to paper, it is true; but that is a poor medium for the communication of feeling. 2.I wandered like an evil spirit, for I had committed deeds of mischief beyond description horrible. 3. He refused to commit himself by talking about the crime. 4. The article appealed to patriotism and called for immediate action. 5. He appealed to her reason but in vain. She would not listen to him. 6. My passionate and indignant appeals were lost upon them. 7. Intellectual pleasure is the most satisfying and the most enduring. 8. He could not endure seeing animals treated cruelly. 9.1 can't endure the thought that he will have to content himself with such a poor job. 10. Exhaustion succeeded to the extreme fatigue both of body and of mind which I had endured. 11.I was better fitted by my constitution for the endurance of cold than heat. 12.I have endured toil and misery. I have endured incalculable fatigue, and cold, and hunger. 13.1 had not been content with the results promised by the modern professors of natural  science. 14. The blue lake, and snow-clad mountains, they never change; and I think our placid home and our contented hearts are regulated by the same immutable laws. 15. They did not appear rich, but they were contented and happy; their feelings were serene and peaceful. 16- "You are in the wrong," he replied; "and instead of threatening, I am content to reason with you." 17. During my youthful days discontent never visited my mind. 18. In spite of the intense labour and wonderful discoveries of modern philosophers, I always came from my studies discontented and unsatisfied.

15. Fill in the blanks with "to persuade" or "to convince" in the required form. Give reasons for your choice:

1. The conclusion of this speech ... my father that my ideas were deranged. 2.1 was firmly... in my own mind that she was guiltless of this murder. 3. During Elizabeth's illness many arguments had been urged to ... my mother to refrain from attending upon her. 4. Who would believe, unless his sense ... him, in the existence of such a monster? 5. We ... him that his method was inefficient but we could not... him to try our method. 6. Martin Eden could not... Ruth that he would become a writer. 7. Ruth could not... Martin to take ajob as clerk and give up writing. 8. Atticus could not... the jury that Robinson was not guity, 9. The members of the Digamma Pi Society ... Fatty to use cribs at the exams. 10. For centuries Outer Space seemed as unattainable as the Moon. Now everybody is ... that Space will be conguered. 11. It took a great deal of... on his part to get her agree to publish excerpts from her account of her daily life. 12. He ... her to let him take one of the notebooks to his newspaper.

16. Translate into English using "to persuade" and "to convince":

1. Убедить его, что это очень опасный шаг, было невозможно. 2. Факты убедили его в том, что подсудимый невиновен. 3. Мне удалось убедить его, что на случай чрезвычайного положения все должно быть в порядке. 4. Пришлось убеждать его в том, что это не помешает нам подготовиться к зачету. 5. Все были убеждены, что присяжные осудят преступника. 6. Рудольф был убежден, что судьба хранит для него про запас какую-нибудь романтическую историю. 7. Мартину долго пришлось убеждать работников редакции, что у него нет денег на обратный путь. 8. Рудольф вначале был убежден, что девушка специально придумала всю эту историю с карточками, чтобы привлечь к себе внимание.

17. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary:

1. Миссис Чивли пыталась упрочить свое положение в обществе путем рискованных интриг. 2. Он был настолько упрям, что не было никакой возможности убедить его покинуть старую квартиру. 3. Защищая Робинсона, Аттикус шел на риск, но он не мог поступить иначе. 4. Только после долгих уговоров он согласился подписать эту бумагу. 5. Он осмелился возразить, и Браун с удивлением взглянул на него. 6. Тело погибшего было предано земле, и отряд без промедления тронулся в дальнейший путь. 7. Он совершил ошибку и теперь должен заплатить за это. 8. Его острый ум и быстрая реакция вызвали всеобщее восхищение. 9. Его раздражало то, что он связал себя обязательством. 10. Я очень остро чувствовала, как изменилось их отношение ко мне после этого случая. 11. Его выносливость была совершенно необыкновенной, и мы обращались к нему, когда нужно было сделать особенно трудную работу. 12. Вы должны понять всю безнадежность вашего плана. 13. Он не выносит джаза, поэтому не стоит уговаривать его идти на концерт. 14. Ее мольба о помощи не осталась без внимания. 15. Его совершенно не привлекают танцы, поэтому не старайтесь убедить его пойти на этот вечер. 16. Он был очень молод и думал, что его любовь будет длиться вечно. 17. Экспедиция была несомненно очень рискованной, но вы блестяще справились со всеми задачами, 18. Вам придется удовольствоваться этим скромным ужином, так как больше ничего нет. 19. Его довольная улыбка в такой неподходящий момент вызвала у всех возмущение. 20. Дружба всегда помогает переносить все жизненные невзгоды.

18. Write a one-page summary of Text Two.

19. Retell the story of Roger's "narrow escape" using your active vocabulary, word combinations, phrases and patterns: a) as Ruth Barlow sees it: she is, certainly, bewildered and even indignant; use proper intonation means to convey her attitude to Roger and his conduct; b) as Roger tells it to a friend of his in a confidential way; he is greatly relieved; express his attitude by using proper intonation means; c) from the point of view of the lady next door to Ruth Barlow's who pretends to sympathize with Ruth and disapprove of Roger's behaviour, but, in fact, hugely enjoys the situation; use adequate intonation patterns to convey her attitudes.

20. Discuss the events of the story in dialogues as they would be treated by: a) Ruth Barlow and a lady friend of hers: b) Roger and the narrator of the story. Use proper intonation means in the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

21. Reread Text Two to answer the following questions on its style and composition.

a) In what way does the story begin? Is the reader's interest awakened at once? If so, how does the author achieve it?

b) What is gained by telling the story in the first person? From whose point of view is it told? Point out the passages reflecting the narrator's attitude, Roger's and the author's. Is the author detached in his attitude to Ruth? Prove your point.

c) Is the plot an important feature of the story? Indicate briefly the stages by which the narrative is unfolded.

d) Does the story end as the reader expects? Point out passages aiming at suspense.

e) Is the title appropriate? Does it reflect the point of the story?

f) What words and phrases give atmosphere to the story in descriptions of human appearance, characters, human relations? (Make up lists.)

g) Do you regard "The Escape" as a typical specimen of Somerset Maugham's prose? Read the following to answer the question:

The qualities of Somerset Maugham are not at all elusive. An innate dramatic sense enables him to write sound, solidly constructed novels that never fail to interest the reader, His prose is clean and hard and is always marked by a precision that is rare in contemporary writing. Passion and lyricism are not evident but in their place the reader will find a superbly controlled irony and a brilliant wit. Transforming the commonplace into art, he produced a long, distinguished list of plays, short stories and novels that will never cease to give the greatest of pleasure. <...>




By Campbell Nairne


Nairne, Campbell, a Scottish novelist, the author of two books "One Stair Up" (1932) and "Stony Ground" (1934). "One Stair Up" deals with the life of an Edinburgh working-class family and is characterized by realism, a fine style and a sense of humour.

They went up a short marble staircase, treading without sound on a rich carpet of some green material that yielded like springing turf, and moved across a salon hung everywhere with the coloured and signed portraits of film stars. Back in this dim region of luxury, quite still except for the soft whirring of fans they could hear a tea-spoon chink, a cup grate on a saucer, a voice rise above another voice and sink again into voluptuous stillness. Out of a door marked "Circle" over the bull's-eye in each of its two folding partitions, a trim girl in a chocolate uniform with blue pipings silently emerged, glanced at the tickets, and admitted them, flashing her torch into a hot darkness lit here and there by red lamps and speared diagonally by a shaft of white
light falling on the rounded oblong of the screen. "Gee baby, you're a swell kid."
1 There was a murmur in the audience, and a man's face came surprisingly out of shadow as he struck a match in the lower part of the gallery. Still flashing her torch, the girl hopped in front of them down the steps of the circle, picked out a couple of vacant seats, and stood back to let them squeeze past her into the row. "Thank you," Andrew said huskily. Several faces glared at them as they sat down.

"This a comedy?" Rosa took off her gloves and surveyed the dim amphitheatre in the hope of recognizing some of her acquaintances. It pleased her to be seen in the dress circle, even with Andrew. But her eyes were still unaccustomed to the obscurity. She noted that the cinema, as usual, was nearly full, and looked for the first time at the screen. Two shadowy faces, enormous on the white background, moved together and kissed.

"It isn't the big picture,"2 Andrew said. "That doesn't come on till eight-forty. You see all right?"

She nodded. He risked no further inquiries, knowing how often she had forbidden him to talk to her in a cinema. He promised himself that to-night he would resist that awful temptation to explain the story in a whisper when he fancied he saw the end of it. Nor would
he even say: "Liking it, Rosa?" — "No bored, are you? 'Cos
3 if you are we'll go out." — "It's hot stuff, isn't it?" No, he would say nothing and enjoy himself... Ah, this was better. Nice and warm in a cinema, and dark; you couldn't see anybody else, and they couldn't see you. Prefer cinemas to theatres any day.

The film ended a few minutes after they had come in. Down swung a looped curtain, pot-plants and palms leapt up under the stage apron, one row of lights and then another shed a pink radiance over the exits, in the domed roof a shower of small stars twinkled and glittered and three bowls flushed suddenly to ruby colour. A dozen or so of the audience got up and pushed out to the exits. Swiftly the light dimmed again. The curtain rattled back and the white oblong emerged from folds already caught by lines of flickering grey print. A draped girl swam into view and began to blow bubbles out of a long pipe. One of these expanded and expanded until it filled the whole screen. It then burst into the letters "All Next Week", which in turn dissolved and announced a film called "Mothers of Broadway" as a forthcoming attraction.4 The film seemed to have smashed all records. It drew tears from the hardest hearts. It sent thrills down the spine. It was a rapid-fire drama. It was a heart-searing tale of studio parties, million-dollar prize fights, and supercharged automobiles. It was, according to other statements that rushed out of the screen, packed with heart-throbs, tingling with reality, vibrant with love and hate — and what a story it had! "You will love it," the screen confidently asserted. "You must see it: the film you'll never forget." Beautiful blondes evidently abounded in this tale of thrill-thirsty young bloods.5 One of them, it seemed, was to find after rushing through "gaiety, temptation, and sorrow" that motherhood is the greatest of all careers. "A film that plucks the heart-strings. Bewitching Minnie Haha in the mightiest drama of Broadway."

"Not much good, I expect," Andrew said, "Hullo" — the lights dimmed and a chorus of metallic jazz broke out — "I think that's the big picture on now."

He had now a pleasant feeling that he was going to enjoy himself.

There was some rare fun in this picture. That fat man with the beard — you had to laugh! First of all you saw a shelf with a basket of eggs on it, then a cat moved along, then the eggs tumbled one by one on the man's head. Oh dear! the way he squeezed that yolk out of his eyes and staggered forward and plumped headfirst into a water-butt. And then the lean chap, coming into the corridor, didn't look where he was going and hit a cook who was marching out of the kitchen with a tray of custards. What a mix-up. Custards all over the place. Holding his seat tight to control his laughter, Andrew wondered whether these chaps really allowed themselves to be knocked down and swamped with custards. No wonder they got big salaries if they had to put up with that kind of thing every day of their lives. Perhaps they faked some of it. Anyhow it was too funny for words. And now here was that dog — must be a hard-worked dog, for you saw it, or another like it, in dozens of these comic films — and of course it was carrying something in its mouth. Oh yes, a stick of dynamite. Where was it going to put that? Under the fat man's bed. Andrew wriggled with enjoyment, then started and laughed gleefully as the dialogue was cut short by a sudden loud explosion. Ha-ha! There was the fat man with a black eye, no beard, half a collar, and no trousers. Oh, this was good! Rosa must be liking this.

What a baby he is, Rosa was thinking. You can't really be angry with him. He doesn't seem to have grown up at all. Talk about Peter Pan.6 He's just a big hulking kid. Faintly contemptuous, she watched his blunt nose and chin silhouetted in the darkness. Is he really so stupid, she wondered. Yes, I suppose he is. Oh, for heaven's sake stop that cackling! The explosion shattered its way into the half. She started.

"Good, isn't it?" he broke out, forgetful in his excitement.

She tossed her head.

"I don't see anything funny in that."


His hands dropped; all the joy died out of his face and eyes. He looked so abject that she was sorry for him against her will.

"I thought — it was quite funny, you know — I mean, people laughed. I wasn't the only one. But if you don't like it — "

She tried hard, still moved by pity, to reply with gentleness, but the retort shaped itself and was uttered before she had command of it.

"I haven't your sense of humour, that's all."


1. Gee baby, you're a swell kid: These words are coming from the screen. Gee is an interjection which in American English expresses approval.

2. By "the big picture" Andrew means the main film on the programme (a film-show in Britain as a rule consists of the main film usually called "the main feature" and a so-called "support film" which usually precedes the main feature).

3. 'Cos: (coll.) because

4.  A forthcoming attraction: a film to be released in the near future.

5. Young bloods: here society youths

6. Peter Pan: the main character of "Peter and Wendy", a book written by J.M. Barrie in 1911 and extremely popular in English-speaking countries. Peter Pan was a boy who never grew up and is a symbol of the sincerity and ingenuousness of childhood.

7. Och: interjection used in Scotland and Ireland for "oh, ah"


Vocabulary Notes

1. Dim a 1) not bright, clear or distinct, shadowy; as the dim light of a candle; the dim outline of buildings in a dark night; a dim memory of what happened in childhood, e.g. The hall was dim in the light of a single electric-light bulb which hung down in its centre. He had a dim recollection of the stranger flinging himself upon him. 2) (of the eyes and the eyesight) not seeing clearly, e.g. The old man's sight was getting dim. Her eyes were dim with tears.

Dim vt/i become dim, make dim, e.g. The stars in the sky dimmed; it was getting cloudy. The light of a candle is dimmed by the sun.

Dimly adv, e.g. He dimly saw figures near him.

2. Fold vt/i 1) bend or double one part of a thing over on itself, as to fold a letter, a newspaper, etc. 2) bend close to the body, as to fold one's arms. (i.e. cross them closely together across the chest); to fold one's hands [i.e. put them together with the fingers locking), e.g. The bird folded its wings, to fold one's arms and to fold one's hands are also used figuratively meaning to be idle. Ant. unfold vt/i 1) (of something that is folded) open, as to unfold a newspaper, e.g. Buds unfold in the summer. 2) reveal, disclose, as to unfold one's intentions

Folding a able to be folded, as a folding screen, bed, chair, boat; a folding door (a door consisting of two parts)

Fold n a part of smth. that is folded, as a dress hanging in loose folds. [74]

Folder n a holder made of stiff paper or cardboard for loose papers -fold, suff. of a 1) two, three, etc. times as much or as many, e.g. He pushed with tenfold force. 2) combining two or more qualities that are different, e.g. The reasons for our going to town were threefold.

Fold suff. of adv two, three, etc. times as much, e.g. The production of steel increased fourfold.

3. Flash vt/i 1) send or give out a sudden bright light; (of the eyes) become brilliant or sparkling, e.g. The lightning flashed across the sky. He smiled and his fine eyes flashed in his dark face. Syn. glitter, twinkle, flicker 2) come suddenly into the mind, e.g. The idea flashed into (through) his mind. 3) appear suddenly; move past at great speed, e.g. The express train flashed past. 4) send (light, etc.) suddenly and quickly, as to flash a light in a person's face; to flash a smile (a glance, etc.) at someone; to flash a signal (e.g. with a lamp), e.g. His
eyes flashed fire. His eyes flashed back defiance.

Flash n 1) a sudden burst of light or flame, as a flash of light, a flash of lightning 2) a short, sudden feeling or an outburst of mental brilliance, as a flash of hope (merriment, wit, inspiration, etc.) 3) a moment; an instant, as in a flash

Flash-light n 1) a light that flashes (e.g. as in a lighthouse) 2) a small electric light or torch.

Flashback n (cinemat.) recapitulation of an earlier scene, e.g. His character emerges through a set of flashbacks that show him as a boy and then as a young man.

Flashy a brilliant or smart on the surface but really poor or worthless, as flashy jewelry, clothes, etc.

Word Discrimination: to flash, to glitter, to twinkle, to flicker.

Flash implies a sudden outburst of light or a sudden display of something that brilliantly reflects light.

Glitter refers to an unsteady emission of light caused by the reflection on transparent or bright bodies, thus a diamond glitters by the reflection of the light on it. A person's eyes may be said to glitter with fever, wickedness, greed, cunning, etc.

Twinkle suggests soft, faint and intermittent flashing, as the twinkling of the stars. A person's eyes may be said to twinkle with amusement.

Flicker suggests a light moving with an unsteady and swift motion, swaying because of a sudden disturbance in the air, as the flicker of a candle.

4. Squeeze vt/i 1) press hard, as to squeeze a person's hand 2) press in order to get the liquid out; get out by pressing, as to squeeze [75] a lemon dry 3) pack tightly, e.g. He squeezed a lot of things into his suitcase. 4) press, push or force (one's way), as to squeeze (one's way) through a crowd, past somebody, e.g. Can I squeeze in?

Squeeze n the state of being close together as in a crowd, e.g. We all got in, but it was a (tight) squeeze, a close (narrow, tight) squeeze a difficult or dangerous position

5. Obscure a 1) not easily seen; not clear or distinct; dark or dim; as an obscure view 2) difficult to understand; not clear to the mind, as an obscure poem 3) not well known, as an obscure village.

Syn. dim, vague.

obscurely adv, e.g. She realized obscurely that he had told her the story to annoy her.

obscurity n the state or quality of being obscure, e.g. He is content to live in obscurity.

obscure vt darken; hide from view, e.g. The moon was obscured by the clouds.

Word Discrimination: dim, obscure, vague.

Dim expresses a degree of darkness, it suggests just so much darkness that the things before one cannot be seen clearly.

Obscure is now more often used in its figurative sense (denoting something the true meaning of which is not understandable) than in its literal sense, but it is still employed when there is a suggestion of darkening by covering, concealment, overshadowing, e.g. The strange object looked obscure through the deep water.

Vague in its physical application denotes smth. which is lacking in distinct outlines, as the vague shape of a building or a tree in the distance.

Vague in its non-physical sense means knowledge, an idea, statement, answer, feeling, etc. lacking in clear definition either because it is too general or because it is not formulated clearly enough, e.g. He had got used to connecting her with a vague sense of the future.

We may have only a dim recollection of the appearance of a house, and only a vague idea of the district in which it is situated. A writer's ideas may be so vague as to tend to become obscure to most of the readers.

6. Risk vt 1) expose to the possibility of injury, loss, etc., as to risk one's neck (head, life), health, fortune, etc. 2) take the chances of, be in danger of; be willing to accept the result of (+ noun or gerund), as to risk failure, to risk being caught

Risk n possibility or likelihood of meeting danger or injury, suffering, loss, etc.; an instance of this, e.g. There is no risk of your catching cold if you wear warm clothes, run risks, a risk, the risk (often of + gerund) expose oneself or be exposed to bad consequences, loss, etc., e.g. He didn't realize that he was running the risk of being captured by the enemy. If she fails one more exam, she ruris the risk of being expelled, take risks, a risk, the risk of deliberately expose oneself to danger, etc., e.g. He was a man who had made decision and taken risks, at one's own risk accepting responsibility, e.g. Remember, if you join the expedition, you do it at your own risk.

Risky a containing risk, dangerous, e.g. It was risky for the boys to go straight into the swamp.

Note. Bear it in mind that unlike the Russian verb «рисковать» the verb to risk is never used without an object. Thus, when speaking of a definite situation, as «Было трудно, но я решил рискнуть» we shall say either "I decided to risk it" or "I decided to take the risk". In a more general situation as «Я люблю рисковать» we shall say "I like taking risks".

7. Tempt vt 1) persuade to do smth. wrong, e.g. No matter what you promise the boy, you'll hardly tempt him to betray his friends. 2) attract so as to make smb. do smth., e.g. It was no use offering him the book: nothing would tempt him to read poetry.

Temptation n (both in good and bad senses), e.g. Clever advertisements are temptations to spend money. The sight of the purse on the table was a strong temptation to the thief. He could hardly resist the temptation of going there again.

Tempting a attractive, as a tempting offer, a tempting apple, etc.

8. Fancy vt 1) imagine, suppose, e.g. Can you fancy me as a teacher? 2) be under the impression that; be inclined to suppose (though not feeling certain), e.g. He fancied (that) he heard footsteps behind him. 3) like (+ noun or gerund), e.g. I don't fancy going there. 4) believe without sufficient reason, e.g. He fancies that he can succeed without working hard. 5) expressing surprise (in exclamatory sentences), e.g. Fancy doing that! Fancy her saying such a thing! Just fancy! Fancy that, now!

Fancy n 1) the power of calling up things to the mind, e.g. He has a lively fancy. 2) smth. imagined, e.g. I have a fancy (a vague idea) that he will arrive late. 3) a liking; take a fancy to (a person or thing) become fond of, e.g. The child took quite a fancy to her. take (catch) a person's fancy please or attract him, e.g. The new comedy took the fancy of the public. [77]

9.  Turn n 1) the act of turning; a turning movement, as a few turns of the handle; a turn to the right; done to a turn (of food) cooked just enough, neither underdone nor overdone 2) a change in condition, e.g. The weather took a turn for the better (worse). 3) a time, occasion or opportunity for doing something, esp. something done by a number of people one after the other, e.g. It's your turn to read now. in turn one after another; out of turn not in the usual order; before or after the time appointed or usual, e.g. You mustn't speak out of (your) turn. There was a long queue at the box-office but he cut out of turn, take turns work alternatively, e.g. We shall take turns at looking after the child, 4) an action regarded as affecting someone, e.g. He once did me a good (bad) turn (i.e. a service, disservice). One good turn deserves another [i.e. if you help me I should help you in return). 5) a tendency or disposition; a cast of mind; an aptitude, e.g. He is of a mechanical turn (i.e. interested in, clever at using machinery). He has a gloomy turn of mind. 6) (coll.) a shock; an unpleasant surprise, e.g. The news gave me quite a turn.

10.  Dissolve [di'zolv] vt/i 1) change or cause to change from a solid to a liquid state (cf. melt which implies the use of heat), e.g. Sugar dissolves in water. Dissolve the salt in water. Note: The mixture that results from such a process is called solution (as a solution of salt and water). 2) break up, put an end to, as to dissolve a marriage, a business partnership, parliament (before a general election) 3) fade away; vanish gradually from sight, e.g. The view dissolved in mist.

Dissoluble [di'snljubl] a that maybe dissolved, e.g. The Catholic Church says that no marriage is dissoluble. Ant. indissoluble.

Dissolution n breaking up or separating, as the dissolution of marriage (of a partnership)

11. Smash vt/i (often with 'up') 1) break something to pieces with noise, e.g. The boy smashed a window with a stone. 2) be broken to pieces, e.g. The dishes smashed as the tray upset. 3) defeat utterly as to smash an enemy's attack 4) rush violently into, e.g. The car
smashed into a wall.

Smash n 1) the act and noise of something breaking to pieces, e.g. We heard a smash as the other motor-car hit ours. 2) crushing defeat, disaster, destruction, e.g. A big bank failed and many businesses were ruined in the smash that followed.

12.  Fake (often with 'up') vt to make up, to seem right or true, e.g. The whole story had been faked up. Syn. forge. [78]

Word Discrimination: fake, forge.

Fake differs from forge in not necessarily implying a criminal purpose, e.g. He faked a story to amuse his friends. But He faked an old manuscript to sell it for a large sum of money.

Forge always implies a criminal purpose (to forge a cheque, a signature, a banknote, etc.).

Forgery n, forger n

Fake n 1) a worthless thing that is represented as being smth. it is not; may be used attributively, as a fake picture 2) a person that represents himself as someone he is not. Syn. fraud.

Fake differs from fraud in not necessarily implying dishonesty, for a fake maybe a joke, or a theatrical device (e.g. Actors use fakes instead of real swords), or it may be dishonesty (e.g. This testimony is clearly a fake).

Fraud always refers to wilful deception and dishonesty (e.g. He got money by fraud) or to a person who cheats or a thing that deceives (e.g. This hair-restorer is a fraud, I'm as bald as ever I was!).

Word Combinations and Phrases

(Be) hung with portraits (pictures, photos, etc.)

Sink into stillness (silence)

To be (un)accustomed to smth. (to doing smth., to do smth.)

To be too funny for words (coll.)

To be cut short

(Be) moved by pity

To put up with smth.

To have command of smth. (a feeling, a reply, a subject, etc.)


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Three and mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pronunciation:

marble, luxury, voluptuous, obscurity, inquiry, apron, confidently, gaiety, chorus, partition, chocolate, uniform, diagonally, oblong, gallery, amphitheatre, radiance, exit, bowl, dissolve, record, automobile, vibrant, metallic, yolk, dynamite, dialogue, contemptuous, silhouetted, abject [79]

3. Practise the pronunciation of the following compound words paying attention to stresses:

'tea-spoon, 'bull's-eye, 'dress .circle, 'background, 'pot-plants, 'stage,apron, 'rapid-'fire, 'heart-.searing, 'heart-throbs, 'thrill-'thirsty, 'heart-string(s), 'water-butt, 'mix-'up, 'hard-'worked, a 'hard-worked 'dog, 'black 'eye

4. Read the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech (assimilation, linking "r", lateral and nasal plosions, loss of plosion):

a short marble staircase; in the dim region; here and there; you're a swell kid; a murmur in the audience; stood back to let them squeeze; surveyed the dim amphitheater; in the hope of; some of their acquaintances; in the dress circle; she noted that the cinema; on the white
background; it isn't the big picture; no further inquiries; a shower of small stars; filled the whole screen; sent thrills down the spine; packed with heart-throbs; in this tale of thrill-thirsty young bloods; in the mightiest drama; then the eggs tumbled; he squeezed that yolk; and then the lean chap

5. Read the following sentences out loud; beginning with "Back in this dim region of luxury...", "Out of a door marked "Circle"..." and "Down swung a looped curtain...". Beat the time and observe all phonetic phenomena of connected speech. Use proper intonation patterns.

6. Study the following proverbs, a) Translate them into Russian or supply their Russian equivalents, b) Practise their reading paying attention to the sound [ai] and the intonation; beat the time:

1. Beauty lies in lover's eyes. 2. A stitch in time saves nine. 3. Once bitten, twice shy. 4. Let bygones be bygones. 5. Out of sight, out of mind. 6. Velvet paws hide velvet claws. 7. Salt water and absence wash away love. 8. Time and tide wait for no man. 9. Idleness rusts
the mind.

7. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a) Comment upon the choice of words:

in this dim region of luxury (why not "dark" ?); a trim girl... silently emerged, glanced at the tickets, and admitted them (why not "silently appeared, looked at the tickets, and let them in"); several faces glared at them (why not "looked"?).

b)  Point out formal (learned) words and colloquialisms in the first three paragraphs. Explain how their use is motivated by the nature of the context in which they occur.

c)  Explain:

treading without sound on a rich carpet... that yielded like springing turf; a hot darkness... speared diagonally by a shaft of white light; in this dim region of luxury, quite still except for the soft whirring of fans; a draped girl swam into view; the curtain rattled back; it was
a rapid-fire drama; it was a heart-searing tale; supercharged automobiles; it was... packed with heart-throbs, tingling with reality, vibrant with love and hate; thrill-thirsty young bloods; what a mix-up; perhaps they faked some of it; talk about Peter Pan; the retort shaped itself and was uttered before she had command of it

d)  Select from the first three paragraphs sentences through which the author, by implication, introduces the reader into the relations between Rosa and Andrew. What can be deduced about their relations?

e)  Make a thorough stylistic analysis of the extract describing the advertisement film. Which elements strike you as particularly effective and why? Exemplify the author's use of vivid stylistic devices. Comment on the syntax of the extract. How is the description arranged from the point of view of tempo? What is the author's attitude to the described film? (Prove your point.)

f)  Comment on Andrew's words "Not much good, I expect" in relation to the preceding paragraph. What change in the atmosphere is created by the words?

g)  Make a thorough stylistic analysis of the description of the "big" picture. Compare it with the description of the advertisement film. What is the difference in the treatment and style?

h) Point out passages given in non-personal direct speech. What is the effect achieved?

8. Copy out from Text Three the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given above and translate them into Russian.

9. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. His words were interrupted by a strange noise coming from the next room. 2. She knows French pretty well. 3. Coloured photos hung on the walls. 4. We found the film indescribably funny. 5. I resent this state of things and am going to put an end to it. 6. They were used to
seeing a lot of him. 7. The noise in the room ceased. 8. She was sorry for Tom and decided to help him.

10. Compose two dialogues using the word combinations and phrases. Mind the intonation patterns in the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

11. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. До чего смешной рассказ, правда? — К сожалению, я не разделяю твоего мнения. 2. Ваш сын в совершенстве владеет немецким языком. — Мне приятно это слышать. 3. Фасад театра был увешан афишами. 4. Оратора прервали, и следующего оратора тоже никто не захотел слушать. 5. Я больше не намерен мириться с этим! 5. Он не привык к этому климату, не мог приспособиться к нестерпимому зною. 7. Он кончил говорить, и в зале воцарилась тишина. 8. Движимый жалостью, он взял ребенка на руки и стал ему что-то рассказывать в надежде успокоить его.

12. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the salon like? 2. In what part of the hall did Andrew and Rosa have seats and how did they reach them? 3. What did Andrew promise himself? 4. Describe in detail the way the film "Mothers of Broadway" was advertized. 5. Describe "the big picture" and the impression it made on Andrew and on Rosa. Which of them do you think was right? Motivate your opinion. 6. What did Rosa think of Andrew? 7. How did Andrew react to Rosa not liking the film?
8. Why did Rosa fail to reply with gentleness?

13. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

14. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. The room had changed as if something sinister had been removed from it; something which dimmed the lights, something which threatened him. 2. The centre of the lake was glittering, but along the edge the green banks could be seen reflected and the blue sky, the
colours clear yet strangely altered into the colours of a
dimmer and more obscure world. 3. The folds around his mouth seemed to express eternal disgust. 4. The author unfolded all the historic events of which his hero could have been a witness. 5. The instant flashed and was gone.
6. Ever so carefully he placed his hands on the table, fingers interlaced,
an artificial diamond
flashing on his little finger. 7. Bending forward, [82] Ernest turned round and flashed his spectacles at Bob who was studying the programme. 8. The pitch darkness squeezed Bart from all sides. "You promised...," whispered Charley, giving him a slight squeeze on the elbow. 9. "Well, in eight hours or so we shall be there," he said, squeezing shut the lid of his watch. 10. The measures taken to ease the money squeeze in the USA have not been successful so far. 11. The lorry would have been better for the trip, as the load would have a tight
in the small car. 12. She looked at the stage with a furrow between her brows, seeing nothing, her hands squeezed together in her lap. 13. An old lady who has for some obscure reason begged me not to divulge her name, happened to show me the diary she had kept in
the past. 14. He was a noisy robust little man with a gleam of real talent concealed in the
obscurity of his verse. 15. The curtains were drawn back and the window-pane behind her displayed a huge frost picture which obscured the dim morning light, so that it was quite dark in the room. 16. The learning we received only tended to obscure our vision. 17. The children took the risk of getting into old Mr. Radley's garden. 18. By concealing the truth you are running a serious risk of being suspected. 19. He took off his gasmask, sniffed and decided to risk leaving the mask off.

B. 1. The boat had the tempting look that small rowing boats have, but Dora resisted the temptation to get into it and glide upon the glittering lake. 2. His sister ran away from home with an actor who happened to be playing in Kansas City and who took a passing fancy to her. 3. The old quartet has broken up but sometimes they come together again for TV, records, concerts and anything that takes their fancy. 4. The turn of the conversation had upset Mark; he did not like to hear Pete talking like this. 5. She said she would leave him for a while and earn her own living. When things took a turn for the better she would join him again. 6. He is an old chum of mine, and feels my pulse, and looks at my tongue, and talks about the weather, all for nothing, when I fancy I'm ill; so I thought I would do him a good turn by going to him now. 7. Haven't you a turn for something? What about literature, art and so forth? 8. What was she afraid of here which made her dream vaguely of an escape, rescue, a shock which would dissolve barriers? 9. The president called for the student union to be dissolved. 10. Though scrupulously clean, the room appeared dusty, as if the walls were dissolving into powder. 11. There was trouble here at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries and that bridge was destroyed. 12. Girls of her type do not smash a man's life, they build it. 13. He smashed the ball into the net through the goalkeeper's upflung hands. 14. Most of the wall and the towers of the city are faked, but the restoration is wonderful. 15. The innocence of their converse had been a fake. 16. This play and other Shakespearean discoveries were soon revealed to be fakes. 17. A town councilor was charged with forging votes in his favour. 18. A wealthy banker, a man respected by all, he was arrested one day on a charge of fraud.

15. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

1. By doing this he put his health at stake. 2. He embraced his little daughter and his eyes became brilliant with joy. 3. He has let me down. 4. The literary critic found that the young poet's verses lacked clarity. 5.1 have written to him twice, now you should do it. 6. He was
sitting with his arms crossed on his chest. 7. The motorbike moved past at great speed. 8.1 don't believe his story, he is lying. 9. What you intend to do is rather dangerous. 10. The attraction was too strong for him to resist it. 11. I'm rather inclined to suppose that he has told her all about it. 12. He smiled warmly and pressed my hand hard, which rather surprised me as I knew he didn't like me. 13. Kindness ought to be repaid by kindness. 14. The doctor didn't allow her to eat tomatoes, but this one looked so attractive that she decided to have it. 15. How many dresses can you stuff into this small suitcase? You must, at least, double them carefully, or they'll be in a mess! 16. They defeated the enemy forces utterly. 17. How could she have said such a thing? 18. They are going to be divorced. 19. The lights in the hall went down. 20.1 can't say I have a clear idea about it.

16. Fill in the blanks with the right word: flash, glitter, twinkle, flicker

1. There were a lot of skaters on the ... ice of the rink. 2. The lightning ... and a clap of thunder followed. 3. He could hardly see her face in the ... light of the candle. 4. There was no moon, the stars were .... 5. She was dressed in her tweed overcoat, upon which snow ... here and there. 6. The spires of the city ... a little in the light as if faintly visible stars had alighted upon them. 7. He struck a match and held it up; his hand trembled and the ... light went out. 8. He sped past a shrubbery, a lighted window ... somewhere.

dim, vague, obscure

1. I can't say I know the play well, I have rather a ... idea about it. 2. In the ... light of an oil-lamp the contours of the things seemed....  3. "His verses lack clarity." — "Yes, they are guite...." 4. It happened such a long time ago, my recollections of the event are rather.... 5. Muriel felt a ... uneasiness, but she had seen her father in such moods before. 6. Pattie was born in an ... town in the centre of England.

17. Use your active vocabulary to make up a sentence in such a way as to provoke the given remark.

Model: " She was cut short in the middle of her speech!" – "Fancy that, now!"

1.... — "Risky, isn't it?" 2.... — "Just fancy!" 3.... — "Fancy him doing a thing like that!" 4. ... — "Why run unnecessary risks?" 5.... — "He was there in a flash!" 6.... — "Nor did he give her as much as a nod!" 7. ... — "Oh, he seems to have taken quite a fancy to little Pete." 8.... — "A tight squeeze, indeed!" 9.... — "Fancy that, now!" 10. ... — "Yes, it caught my fancy, you know."

18. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary

1. Он привык к славе, и ему тяжело было жить в безвестности, однако приходилось мириться с этим. 2. Он усиленно старался вспомнить, куда он положил письмо, и, наконец, достал папку в надежде найти его там. 3.' Автобус переполнен, вряд ли мы сможем в него втиснуться. 4. Кажется, эта книга увлекла тебя. 5. Мне не нравятся эти складки. Они, кажется, вышли из моды. 6. После одного оборота ключ застрял в замке. 7. Он кивнул мне и улыбнулся; его глаза весело блеснули. 8.' «Твоя квартира мне не нравится, да и улица тоже», — сказал я. Он, в свою очередь, заявил, что ему не нравится моя квартира. 9. Мне приятно слышать, что я понравился вашим родителям. 10. Он воображает, что сможет написать статью по-английски, но я сомневаюсь в этом, он не владеет языком. 11. Я вдребезги разбила свою любимую чашку. — Подумать только! 12. Я признаю, что трудно было не поддаться искушению. 13. Он презрительно пожал плечами, словно говоря: «Ваше предложение не кажется мне соблазнительным. Я не желаю рисковать быть схваченным полицией». 14. Ему было приятно думать, что в этой глухой деревне он в безопасности; он устал рисковать. 15. Вчера я рассказал ему эту новость, а он, в свою очередь, решил рассказать ее Дику. 16. Он не мог дать таких показаний! Это фальшивка! 17. Когда она снова повернула к нему лицо, в ее глазах светилась радость. 18. Эта  поэма представляется мне малопонятной. 19. Вспыхнула спичка, осветив на мгновение белые стены комнаты и испуганные побледневшие лица. 20. Парламент был распущен, и новые выборы были назначены на сентябрь. 21. В конце длинного темного коридора появился мерцающий огонек свечи. 22. Что ты сидишь, сложа руки? Не пора ли взяться задело? 23. Ты будешь это делать один? — Нет, мы будем чередоваться. 24. Я не желаю рисковать своей головой ради человека, которого презираю. 25. Я позвал его, и он тут же появился. 26. Он не захотел рисковать, и она не испытывала к нему ничего, кроме презрения. 27. Он оказался в тяжелом положении, и ему было приятно видеть, что мы хотим помочь ему, хотя это и значило идти на риск. 28. Он промчался мимо на своем мотоцикле и даже не взглянул в мою сторону. — Подумать только! 29. У кассы толпилось много народу, но он сумел получить билет без очереди. 30. Я никогда не забуду услугу, которую он мне оказал! 31. Погода меняется к лучшему. — Да что ты! Мне кажется, вдали только что блеснула молния. Не выходи без плаща, а то ты рискуешь промокнуть. 32. Он улыбнулся ей ослепительной улыбкой. 33. Множество звезд мерцало на небе, а луны не было видно: ее закрыло большое облако. 34. Ребятам было приятно кататься по гладкому сверкающему льду, они и понятия не имели, что рискуют провалиться в воду.

19. Give the gist of Text Three.

20. Compose dialogues in the course of which:

a) Rosa and Andrew discuss the film. Rosa's impression of the film is not favourable, therefore she sounds categoric, irritated and impatient; to convey her attitudes use the intonation pattern "High Head + Low Fall". Andrew tries to soothe her, sometimes he is puzzled; make use of the intonation pattern "High Head + Low Rise".

b) Rosa describes her evening at the cinema to a friend of hers in a cool, reserved and dispassionate way; use the intonation pattern "(Low Head +) Low Fall" and "High Head + Low Fall"; her friend, on the contrary, is genuinely interested and encourages further conversation: the intonation pattern "High Fall" with preceding "Low Head" or "High Head" or "High Head + Low Rise" could be used.

c) Andrew shares his impressions with a friend of his. The former is deeply impressed by the film, therefore he sounds enthusiastic and lively; make use of the intonation patterns "Low Head + High Fall" or "High Head + High Fall". The latter is genuinely interested in Andrew's narration, and encourages further conversation; to convey his attitudes the intonation pattern "(Low Head +) Low Rise" and"High Head + Low Rise" should be used.

21. Reread Text Three to discuss the following points of its style.

a) Into what distinct parts does the text fall? Give an appropriate and effective heading to each part. Comment on the variety of stylistic treatments used for each part.

b) Is the author's attitude charged with humour or irony? Prove and illustrate your point.

c) What method of characterization does the author use? Give examples.

d) What is your opinion about the extract? Give it in a few well-motivated sen-tences.  


Text four


By John Boynton Priestley

(Three fragments from the play)

John Boynton Priestley (1894— 1984) is one of the outstanding English authors of today. His early books (1922-26) were of a critical nature. It was the success of his novel "The Good Companions" (1929) which brought him world fame. In early thirties Priestley began his work as a dramatist. "Dangerous Corner" (1932} — one of the series of Seven Time Plays — was his first effort in dramatic art.

Priestley's other most famous novels are "They Walk in the City", "Angel Pavement", "Wonder Hero", "Far Away". "Let the People Sing". "Bright Day" and many others.


The scene is laid in a cosy drawing-room. Several men and women — some of them members of the same family, others their intimate friends — are idly discussing a wireless play they have just heard. The host and hostess of the party are Robert Caplan and his wife Freda.

Cordon: What did you hear?

Freda: The last half of a play.

Olwen: It was called "The Sleeping Dog".

Stanton: Why?

Miss M.: We're not sure — something to do with lies, and a gentleman shooting himself.

Stanton: What fun they have at the B.B.C.!

Olwen (who has been thinking): You know I believe I understand that play now. The sleeping dog was the truth, do you see, and that man — the husband — insisted upon disturbing it.

Robert: He was quite right to disturb it.

Stanton: Was he? I wonder. I think it a very sound idea — the truth as a sleeping dog.

Miss M. (who doesn't care): Of course, we do spend too much of our time telling lies and acting them.

Betty (in her best childish manner): Oh, but one has to. I'm always fibbing. I do it all day long.

Gordon (still fiddling with the wireless): You do, darling, you do.

Betty: It's the secret of my charm.

Miss M. (rather grimly): Very likely. But we meant something much more serious.

Robert: Serious or not, I'm all for it coming out, It's healthy.

Stanton: I think telling the truth is about as healthy as skidding round a corner at sixty.

Freda (who is being either malicious or enigmatic): And life's got a lot of dangerous corners — hasn't it, Charles?

Stanton (a match for her or anybody else present): It can have — if you don't choose your route well. To lie or not to lie — what do you think, Olwen? You're looking terribly wise...

Olwen (thoughtfully): Well — the real truth — that is, every single little thing, with nothing missing at all, wouldn't be dangerous. I suppose that's God's truth. But what most people mean by truth, what that man meant in the wireless play, is only half the real truth. It doesn't tell you all that went on inside everybody. It simply gives you a lot of facts that happened to have been hidden away and were perhaps a lot better hidden away. It's rather treacherous stuff. ...


The conversation drifts to Martin Caplan, Robert's brother, who committed suicide six months ago. Robert insists on knowing certain trifling facts relating to the day of the suicide. Yet, what looks trifling and innocent enough at first, leads to graver and still graver discoveries. Finally Robert is confronted with facts whose ugliness he finds himself unable to bear.

In the beginning of the fragment that follows Olwen, a friend of the Caplans, argues with Robert pointing out to him once more that half truth is dangerous.

Olwen: The real truth is something so deep you can't get at it this way, and all this half truth does is to blow everything up. It isn't civilised.

Stanton: I agree.

Robert (after another drink, cynically): You agree!

Stanton: You'll get no sympathy from me, Caplan.

Robert: Sympathy from you! I never want to set eyes on you again, Stanton. You're a thief, a cheat, a liar, and a dirty cheap seducer.

Stanton: And you're a fool, Caplan. You look solid, but you're not. You've a good deal in common with that cracked brother of yours. You won't face up to real things. You've been living in a fool's paradise, and now, having got yourself out of it by to-night's efforts — all your doing — you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in....


Freda: I'm sure it's not at all the proper thing to say at such a moment, but the fact remains that I feel rather hungry. What about you, Olwen? You, Robert? Or have you been drinking too much?

Robert: Yes, I've been drinking too much.

Freda: Well, it's very silly of you. it

Robert (wearily): Yes. (Buries his face in his hands.) I

Freda: And you did ask for all this.

Robert (half looking up): I asked for it. And I got it.

Freda: Though I doubt if you minded very much until it came to Betty.

Robert: That's not true. But I can understand you're thinking so. You see, as more and more of this rotten stuff came out, so more and more I came to depend on my secret thoughts of Betty — as someone who seemed to me to represent some lovely quality of life.

Freda: I've known some time, of course, that you were getting very sentimental and noble about her. And I've known some time, too, all about Betty, and I've often thought of telling you.

Robert: I'm not sorry you didn't.

Freda: You ought to be.

Robert: Why?

Freda: That kind of self-deception's rather stupid.

Robert: What about you and Martin?

Freda: I didn't deceive myself. I knew everything — or nearly everything — about him. I wasn't in love with somebody who really wasn't there, somebody I'd made up.

Robert: I think you were. Probably we always are.

Olwen: Then it's not so bad then. You can always build up another image for yourself to fall in love with.

Robert: No, you can't. That's the trouble. You lose the capacity for building. You run short of the stuff that creates beautiful illusions, just as if a gland had stopped working.

Olwen: Then you have to learn to live without illusions.

Robert: Can't be done. Not for us. We started life too early for that. Possibly they're breeding people now who can live without illusions. I hope so. But I can't do it. I've lived among illusions —

Freda (grimly): You have.

Robert (with growing excitement): Well, what if I have? They've given me hope and courage. They've helped me to live. I suppose we ought to get all that from faith in life. But I haven't got any. No religion or anything. Just this damned farmyard to live in. That's all. And just a few bloody glands and secretions and nerves to do it with. But it didn't look too bad. I'd my little illusions, you see.

Freda (bitterly): Then why didn't you leave them alone, instead of clamouring for the truth all night like a fool?

Robert (terribly excited now): Because I am a fool. Stanton was right, That's the only answer. I had to meddle, like a child with a fire. I began this evening with something to keep me going. I'd good memories of Martin. I'd a wife who didn't love me, but at least seemed too good for me. I'd two partners I liked and respected. There was a girl I could idealise. And now —

Olwen (distressed): No, Robert — please. We know.

Robert (in a frenzy): But you don't know, you can't know — not as I know — or you wouldn't stand there like that, as if we'd onlyjust had some damned silly little squabble about a hand at bridge.

Olwen: Freda, can't you — ?

Robert: Don't you see, we're not living in the same world now. Everything's gone. My brother was an obscene lunatic —

Freda (very sharply): Stop that.

Robert: And my wife doted on him and pestered him. One of my partners is a liar and a cheat and a thief. The other — God knows what he is — some sort of hysterical young pervert — (Both women try to check and calm him.) And the girl's a greedy little cat on the tiles -

Olwen (half screaming): No, Robert, no. This is horrible, mad. Please, please don't go on. (Quieter.) It won't seem like this tomorrow.

Robert (crazynow): Tomorrow! Tomorrow! I tell you, I'm through. I'm through. There can't be a tomorrow. (He goes swaying to the door.)

Freda (screaming moves to Olwen and grips her arm):. He's got a revolver in his bedroom.

Olwen (screaming and running to the door): Stop, Robert! Stop! Stop!

For the last few seconds the light has been fading, now it is completely dark. There is a revolver shot, a woman's scream, a moment's silence, then the sound of a woman sobbing.


Vocabulary Notes

1. malicious a feeling, showing or caused by, ill-will or spite, as a malicious person (remark, tone, face, etc.), e.g. How can you set the child against his parents? It's a malicious thing to do. Why do you always speak ill about all your comrades? Don't be so malicious.

malice n active ill-will; spite; desire to harm others; bear smb. malice wish smb. harm, e.g. I bear you no malice.

2. match n 1) a game; a contest of skill, strength, etc. 2) a person who is able to meet another as an equal (in skill, strength, intellect, etc.), e.g. He has met his match. Soon it became clear that the younger boy was quite a match for the big one. 3) a person or thing that is exactly like another, or that agrees or corresponds perfectly, e.g. The coat and the hat are a good match (i.e. agree in colour and style), 4) a marriage, e.g. I'm told they are going to make a match of it (i.e. they are going to get married). 5) a person considered from the point of view of marriage, e.g. He is a very good match.

3. treacherous a I) false; untrustworthy; disloyal, as a treacherous friend 2) betraying smb.' s trust; involving disloyalty, as a treacherous action 3) appearing good, but not to be depended on, as treacherous weather, a treacherous smile, e.g. The mountain roads were enveloped in such a treacherous fog that driving at night involved a serious risk.

treachery n treacherous action; act of betraying smb., e.g. No one knew yet by whose treachery it was that the deepest secrets of the family had become public property. Syn. betrayal, e.g. This act of his was a betrayal of all that they both had held sacred.

treacherousness n quality of being treacherous, e.g. Before that incident I hadn't been aware of the latent treacherousness in his nature. Note: An act of treachery is described by the verb betray, e.g. You may be confident that I'll never betray your secret. A person guilty of treachery is described by the noun traitor, e.g. Mrs. Cheveley knew that Sir Robert Chiltern had begun his political career as a traitor, by selling a Cabinet secret for a considerable sum of money.

4. deceive v cause smb. to believe what is not true, e.g. Don't try to deceive me, I know what really happened.

deception n the act of deceiving or being deceived, e.g. There are few things as difficult to forgive as deception; self-deception believing something not because it is true but because one wants to believe it, e.g. With a shock I realized that she didn't lie when she told everybody about her coming marriage; she half-believed it herself: it was a pitiful case of self-deception. Syn. deceit n

Word Discrimination: deception, deceit.

Deception and deceit are closest when used in the meaning of act of deceiving. Yet, even in this case there is a difference. Cf. The boy's deceit made his mother very unhappy. (Deceit here implies telling lies.) As a politician he often practised deception. (Deception implies making false promises, producing a false impression, treacherous tricks, cheating, etc.) Deceit may be also used as a characteristic of a person, e.g. Deceit is quite foreign to her nature.

deceitful a inclined to lying; intentionally misleading, e.g. I can't stand deceitful people.

deceptive a deceiving, producing a false impression, e.g. Appearances are deceptive. The evidence against him was rather deceptive.

5. breed (bred, bred) vt 1) give birth to young, e.g. Rabbits breed quickly. Birds breed in spring. 2) cause animals, birds, etc. to have young by choosing pairs (male and female) and bringing them together, e.g. He makes a living by breeding horses. 3) bring up, look after, teach, educate, e.g. It is a heroic country indeed that breeds such sons. He's an Englishman born and bred (i.e. by birth and education). 4) be the cause of, e.g. War breeds misery and ruin. Familiarity breeds contempt. Syn. bring up (corr. noun upbringing).

breeding n good manners and behaviour; knowledge given by training and education, e.g. He's a man of fine breeding.

Word Discrimination: upbringing, breeding.

Upbringing denotes process, breeding denotes result.

well-bred a having or showing good manners

ill-bred a badly brought up, rude, e.g. A well-bred person is always mindful of others, an ill-bred one is so absorbed in himself, that the rest of the world might as well not exist.

6. faith n - trust, confidence, reliance, e.g. Faith means believing something without proof. Have you any faith in what he tells you? Robert shot himself because he had lost faith in the people surrounding him. put one's faith in smth. (smb.) trust; feel confidence in smth. (smb.), e.g. I advise you not to put your faith in such a remedy. 2) a system of religious belief, as the Christian or Mohammedan faiths

faithful a loyal; keeping faith; deserving trust, as a faithful friend, a faithful wife

unfaithful a treacherous; be (un)faithful to smb. (often applied to husband or wife)

faithfulness n loyalty, the quality of being true to smb. or smth., e.g. His faithfulness to duty was never doubted.

7. check v to examine a thing to find out whether it is accurate, usually by comparing it with something else, e.g. Will you check these figures (see that they are right)? check on smb. (smth.) try and find out whether the previous information or knowledge about smb. or smth. is true to fact, e.g. "Here are some names and addresses of people who were witnesses," said the police inspector. "Of course, they'll have to be checked on." 2) hold back, control, stop, e.g. We have checked the advance of the enemy. He couldn't check his anger.

check n 1) a control; a person or thing that keeps back or makes it impossible to do things, e.g. Wind acts as a check on speed, keep (hold) in check control, e.g. Human emotions are held in check by social convention. 2) a sudden stop or delay, e.g. Tom's illness gave a check to our plans. His ambitions received a sharp check. 3) an examination of the accuracy of a thing, e.g. If we both add up the figures, your result will be a check tin mine. 4) a ticket or a piece of paper, wood or metal with a number on it given in return for smth. (for hats and coats in a theatre, for bags, luggage, etc.)

Word Combinations and Phrases

get at smth. (coll.]

set eyes on smb. (smth.) (coll.]

face up to things (coll.)

 fool's paradise

make up smth. (smb.) (as in "smb. I'd made up")

run short of smth.

clamour for smth.

keep smb. going

dote on smb.

everything's gone

come out (about facts, truth, etc.)


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Four and mark the stresses and tunes. b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consulting a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pronunciation: 

intimate, hostess, wireless, serious, discovery, cynical, dissipated, addict, noble, capacity, illusion, gland, malicious, enigmatic, dangerous, route, treacherous, suicide, innocent, civilised, sympathy, seducer, paradise, wearily, represent, sentimental, courage, religion, clamour, idealise, squabble, obscene, pervert

3. Read the following paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech (assimilation, linking "r", all kinds of plosions, etc.):

their intimate friends; called "The Sleeping Dog"; what fun they have at the B.B.C.; who has been thinking; I understood that play; was quite right to disturb it; who doesn't care; I'm all for it coming out; every single little thing; what most people mean by truth; what that man meant in the wireless play; that happened to have been hidden away; certain trifling facts; you can't get at it this way; after another drink; and you're a fool; with that cracked brother of yours; I asked for it; that's not true; as more and more of this rotten stuff came out; my secret thoughts; another image; I had to meddle; a greedy little cat on the tiles; please, don't go on; and grips her arm

4. Read the following word combinations out loud paying attention to the pronunciation of the nasal sonorant [n] in the intervocalic position:

are idly discussing a wireless play; upon disturbing it; I'm all for it coming out; with nothing missing at all; trifling and innocent; in the beginning of the fragment; pointing out to him; to blow everything up; living in a fool's paradise; half looking up; with growing excitement; not living in the same world; screaming and running to the door

5. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a) Comment upon the choice of words in:

I'm always fibbing (why not "lying" ?); I never want to set eyes on you again (why not "I never want to see you again"?); you've a good deal in common with that cracked brother of yours {why not "you've much in common with that mad brother of yours?"); some damned silly little squabble (why not "quarrel"?)

b) Explain a considerable number of abbreviations occurring in the text (we're, it's, that's, you'll, you're, I've, etc.).

c) Indicate the figure of speech in "What fun they have at the B.B.C.!"

d) Explain the allusion in: 

1. The sleeping dog was the truth, do you see, and that man insisted upon disturbing it, 2. To lie or not to lie — what do you think, Olwen ?

e) Express in your own words:

I think telling the truth is about as healthy as skidding round the corner at sixty. — What stylistic device is used in the sentence ? Comment upon its effectiveness. How does the statement characterize the speaker?

f) Indicate the stylistic devices in:

1. And life's got a lot of dangerous corners — hasn't it, Charles? 2. It can have — if you don't choose your route well.

g) Explain:

a match for her or anybody else present; you won't face up to real things; that cracked brother of yours; fool's paradise; you're busy building yourself a fool's hell to live in; someone who seemed to me to represent some lovely quality of life; you were getting very sentimental and noble about her; in love with somebody who really wasn't there; I began this evening with something to keep me going; we'd ... had some silly little squabble; a hand at bridge; on the tiles

h) Comment on the methods used for heightening the emotion in the concluding episode.

6. Copy out from Text Four the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases and translate them into Russian.

7. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. We've very little sugar left. You'11 have to go out and get some. 2. There was a certain weakness in him which prevented him from accepting things as they were. 3. Before that day I had never seen the man. 4. It was obvious that the facts he had given were not real: he had invented them. 5. Her child was all her world, the only thing that supported and encouraged her. 6. The real truth is sure to be revealed sooner or later. 7. He had been living in a secret happy world of his own which had nothing to do with reality. Now it was all over. 8. He found he had little petrol left and stopped to fill in. 9. The flower grew so high on the steep bank that the child couldn't get hold of it. 10. The infuriated crowd shouted angrily demanding their money back. 11. Hope and courage alone helped them to survive.

8. Compose two dialogues using the word combinations and phrases. Mind the intonation patterns in the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

9. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Ричард Стэнли был из тех людей, которые не умеют и не хотят взглянуть в лицо реальности. Стараясь забыть о своей унылой безрадостной жизни, он выдумывал красивые сказки, в которых он сам был главным действующим лицом. Эти мечты помогали ему жить. Он был по-своему счастлив в этом выдуманном раю. 2. Теперь, когда мы добрались до некоторых фактов, остававшихся до сих пор неизвестными, можно надеяться, что в скором времени истинные обстоятельства дела будут выяснены. 3. У тебя нет лишней ручки? У меня кончились чернила. 4. У ворот роскошной виллы губернатора грязные оборванные люди шумели и кричали, требуя работы. 5. Не понимаю, как это можно так сходить с ума по кому-то, кого и в глаза не видел до прошлого месяца. 6. Чтобы смотреть правде в глаза, требуется определенная сила характера. 7. Я слышал, вы потеряли работу. У вас, наверное, кончились деньги? — Да, почти. Но дело не в этом. Я любил свою работу и жил только ею. Теперь, когда у меня ее отняли, все погибло.

10. Answer the following questions:

1. How do you understand the words: "The truth, like a sleeping dog, is not to be disturbed"? 2. What was Robert Caplan's view on Truth? 3. What was Stanton's opinion on the same point? Explain his words and comment on them. 4. What was Olwen's view on Truth? Comment on it. 5. Why did Stanton think Robert a fool? Was he right? 6. What was Robert's attitude to Betty? 7. What discoveries did Robert make during the evening which distressed him so much? 8. Why did he shoot himself? 9. What type of man is represented in the character of Robert?

11. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

12. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. He heard Mrs. Baines's voice like a voice in a nightmare; it was sharp and shrill and full of malice, louder than people ought to speak. 2. "Same tidy creature," he said. "A place for everything and everything in its place." He laughed with a faint malicious note in the laugh. 3. She is the gentlest creature living; not at all the type to bear malice or nurse grievances. 4. "So glad to hear your girl's going to get married — at last," she went on sweetly. "He's a charming boy; a good match and a fine catch, as they put it." The malicious words made her wince; the ill-bred hint sent an indignant flush to her cheeks. 5. I've an elder brother who's a match for two like you,.. 6. "This skirt and that blouse? Do you call it a mate/i?" — "Why, they are both blue, aren't they?" — 'These shades of blue don't harmonize; the bright one completely kills the other one. This electric blue is a treacherous colour..." 7. Mrs. Lawson, accustomed to dominate and to bully, had little dreamt that in the young daughter-in-law she was meeting her match. 8. The deceitful people, the treacherous climate, — how she hated it all. 9. Forests have ears/And fields have eyes; /Often treachery lurking lies./ Underneath the fairest hair. (Longfellow) 10. Gives not the hawthorn bush a sweeter shade/To shepherds, looking on their silly* sleep/ Than doth a rich embroider' d canopy/To kings that fear their subjects' treachery? ", (Shakespeare. "Henry VI") 11. Sensing the treacherousness of the ground they were treading, he checked himself in embarrassment. 12. Unfaithfulness was hard to bear, but deceit was even harder. The treacherous warmth of her smile, the deceptive frankness of her eyes... 13. There can be no genuine relationship which involves deceit. The very essence and beauty and joy of our relation depend upon its being honest and frank. 14. The deceptive friendliness of his manner misled people into expecting sympathy and understanding where there were none of these excellent qualities.

B. 1. ...two people who don't understand each other, breeding children whom they don't understand and who will never understand them... 2. Her upbringing was rather conventional. She was taught that it was wicked to hurt others if you knew you were hurting them. 3. Of course, the best solution would have been to kick the fellow out, but unfortunately his breeding cut off that simple and beautiful way of dealing with the painful situation. 4. Martin had faith in himself, but he was alone in that faith. 5. Love should be absolute love. /Faith is in fullness or nought... (R. Browning) 6. Friends meet to part; love laughs at faith; /True foes once met, are join'd till death. (G. Byron) ? Even Mr. Jaggers started when I said those words. It was the slightest start that could escape a man, the most carefully repressed and the soonest checked, but he did start. 8. There were times when she would come to a sudden check in this tone of mockery and would seem to pity me. 9. This extravagant spending must be checked. 10.1 tried very hard to ieep my silly self in check, but felt the treacherous blush spread all over my face and neck.

13. Translate the following sentences into English using your active vocabulary:

1. Я не желаю ему зла, но и сочувствовать ему я тоже не могу. Нужно смотреть правде в глаза: его поведение по отношению к товарищам было предательским. 2. Тяжелее всего было видеть злорадные лица тех, кого еще вчера он считал верными друзьями. 3. Он попытался поднять ее на смех, но оказалось, что она ничуть не уступает ему в злом остроумии. 4. У меня есть чудесный сюрприз для тебя. Я нашла пару для твоей голубой китайской вазы. 5. В предательском тумане очертания знакомых предметов казались пугающе необычными. 6. То обстоятельство, что она была без ума от своих двух девочек, не очень помогало ей в их воспитании. Они росли лживыми и невоспитанными детьми. 7. Я из полиции. Мне нужно проверить некоторые данные показаний свидетелей. 8. Ее спокойствие было обманчивым. Однако никто не понял бы этого, если бы не предательская слеза, которая вдруг скатилась по ее щеке. 9. Если мы говорим о ком-то, что он невоспитанный человек, мы имеем в виду его грубость, бестактность и, главное, неспособность и нежелание считаться с окружающими. 10. Миссис Финни еще ни разу не встречала девушку, которую она могла бы счесть подходящей партией для своего сына. 11. Под оболочкой воспитанности и хороших манер скрывалась лживая и злобная душа. 12. Что же это было, что остановило его на полпути в задуманном им предательстве? Мы не знаем. Да и не все ли равно? Намерение предать — само по себе уже предательство.

13. Легче всего обмануть того, кто хочет, чтобы его обманули.

14. Первые впечатления часто обманчивы. 15. Его спокойная верность долгу вызывала уважение. 16. «Я всецело за то, чтобы вы высказались», — сказал он с вежливой улыбкой. 17. Полностью довериться такому человеку, как он, так же опасно, как довериться бушующему морю. 18. Только хорошее воспитание сдерживало эту необузданную натуру.

14. Give brief situations in which you will say the following (may be done in pairs). Convey proper attitudes:

1. you are being malicious; 2. a good match (in both meanings);

3. a match for; 4. faith in; 5. be unfaithful to; 6. a check on; 7. check smb.; 8. deceitful — deceptive; 9. treacherous (wind, climate, weather, fog, etc.)

15. Render Text Four in detail (use indirect speech).w

16. Give the gist of Text Four.

17. Answer in detail and discuss the following questions:

1. Why is the play called "Dangerous Corner"? What is meant by "dangerous corner" ? 2. What is the point of the play (so far as you can judge by the given fragments)? 3. Would it be correct to state that the author is against the truth and warns people against it? 4. What is generally understood by 'illusions' ? 5. Is it good or bad for people to have illusions? Give your reasons. 6. Do you agree with Robert that people are always in love with somebody "who really isn't there", somebody they have made up?

18. Reread Text Four to speak on the following points of style.

a) Exemplify the use of colloquialisms. How can you explain their comparatively limited number in a dramatic text?

b) Is the speech of the characters individualized? Illustrate your point.

c) Analyse the language of the extracts in a few well-motivated sentences. Compare the language of the text with that of "The Escape". Account for the differences.

19. a) Study the following proverbs and explain their meaning,

b) Give brief situations to illustrate them:

1. Trust is the mother of deceit. 2. All fails where faith fails. 3. Love asks faith, and faith firmness. 4. A faithful enemy is better than a treacherous friend. 5. He is easiest deceived who wants to be deceived. 6. Deceit breeds deceit. 7. Familiarity breeds contempt. 8. Appearances are deceptive. 9. Let the sleeping dog lie. 10. Those who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones.

c) Make up dialogues on proverbs 8,9,10 in which one of the speakers will support the idea conveyed by the proverb, and the other will argue it.

20. Complete the following dialogues. Give a brief preface pointing out who is talking and under what circumstances. Then continue the dialogue. Use your active vocabulary and convey proper attitudes:

1. " Now, I want to know exactly what really happened. 'Can you give me all the details with nothing missing at all?"

" I could try. But what's the use ? "

"We must get at the truth somehow. I'm not at all satisfied with what I know."

"Well, you ought to be."...

2. "Having got himself out of the trouble, he is simply asking for another. Couldn't you do something?"

"Could you? Can any one?"

"Oh, it's a silly way to talk. Of course, we can. I'm all for us doing something." ...

3. "You are meddling like a child with a fire." "Well, people do sometimes, you know." "I'm sure I never do."

"I'm sorry you don't. It's pure lack of imagination that makes you so sensible. And, after all, what am I to be blamed for?" ...

4. "You are their teacher. You ought to knowwhat's going on inside the heads of those pupils of yours."

"It's more difficult than you think."

"But what about that girl of yours who wrote the letter? Do you know her well?"

"I've always thought so." ...

5. "I still think him a fully reliable and faithful person." "Don't you remember that famous quotation — is it Shakespeare? — something about a villain faithful only to his own treachery?" "Now, I don't quite see what you mean by it." ...

21. Render the following text in English. The italicized parts should be reproduced close to the text:

«Опасный поворот» — первая пьеса Джона Пристли, и сам автор склонен был рассматривать ее скорее как «техническое упражнение в драматическом искусстве, чем подлинное исследование (study) человеческих характеров».

Однако, как показало время, автор, по-видимому, недооценил художественных достоинств своей пьесы: иначе трудно было бы объяснить тот неизменный успех, с которым она шла на сценах чуть ли не всех стран Европы и Америки.

Несомненно, если рассматривать пьесу с чисто «технической» стороны, можно с уверенностью сказать, что это блестяще написанная пьеса. Особенно это относится к композиции — к этому знаменитому «трюку со временем» (time trick), к которому теперь мы уже привыкли по множеству подражаний — особенно в кино, — но который во время написания пьесы (1932г.) был ошеломляющим новшеством, повергавшим в изумление зрителей, читателей и критиков.

«Трюк» заключается в том, что в третьем действии, после того как прозвучал роковой выстрел Роберта, на сцене гаснет свет, после паузы зажигается снова, и мы, вместе с героями пьесы, возвращаемся в ту точку времени, в которой мы были в начале первого действия. Иначе говоря, начало первого действия повторяется почти слово в слово — с некоторыми сокращениями. Думаете это скучно? Нет! Это настолько захватывающе, что у вас мороз пробегает по коже. Мы снова видим этих людей, таких спокойных и счастливых; дружная любящая семья и их близкие друзья. Но мы теперь уже знаем, что это обман, что под маской дружелюбия и воспитанности скрываются ложь, предательство и измена. Каждая фраза пустой светской беседы звучит теперь двусмысленно, ибо за ней стоит та правда, которую мы знаем об этих людях и которую они хотят скрыть. Получается так, как будто мы видим одновременно эту уютную сцену в гостиной и сквозь нее те подлинные факты, которые вышли наружу на протяжении пьесы. Вот каков этот «технический трюк». Он подчеркивает и углубляет основную мысль пьесы. Б этой концовке окончательно спадают маски. Мы больше не верим любезным улыбкам и лживым словам, и если вся пьеса разоблачает моральное падение большинства этих людей, то концовка мастерски подчеркивает еще и их лживое лицемерие. Вот таким образом «чисто технический трюк», блестяще задуманный и выполненный, способствует углублению и раскрытию характеров и идейного содержания пьесы.

22. Additional topics for students' talks, discussion and written composition:

A. 1. Priestley's play "Danqerous Corner". 2. Priestley as a playwright.3. A novel by Priestley.

B. The character of Louka and his theory of "consoling deceit" (Maxim Gorky. "At the Bottom of Life").

С. The difference between the writer's optimism and the writer's "fool's paradise". Speak on concrete books and authors.


I. Listen attentively to your fellow-students' reading of Ex. 2; correct their mistakes in the pronunciation of the sounds and stresses.

II. Listen to your fellow-students' reading of the word combinations from Ex. 3. What advice will you give them if they fail to pronounce them correctly?

III. Ask your fellow-student to read Ex. 4. In what way would you correct his mistake, should he intrude the [gj sound after [rj|? What recommendation would you give schoolchildren if they made a similar mistake?

W. There is no denying the fact that appropriate reading matter in the target language can effectively be used for educational objectives as well. Try to recollect an interesting class discussion you had in the course of teacher training that was both entertaining and instructive. Describe the discussion in terms of teaching methods.

V. Think up a list of topics that could raise debates in your class. Select the best one and prepare yourself to conduct a class discussion on it. Use the following phrases (for the discussion leader):

1. Avoid elliptical, loaded or vague questions. 2. First arrange in your mind all you are going to say. 3. Don't monopolize the discussion! 4. You are too subdued. 5. What do you think on the point? 6. Do you share her view? 7, Give your reasons, etc.

VI. It has been acknowledged by educationists that drama can help the development of children in a number of specific ways. What are the implications of that view for teacher training in general/foreign-language teaching in particular?

VII. Take up problem-solving situations 6-10 (See the Appendix). Discuss them in class.




By Bel Kaufman


Bel Kaufman, an American writer. She worked as a teacher of the English language and literature in a New York high school for 15 years. "Up the Down Staircase" (1964) is her first prominent work. The book deals with the experiences of a young high school teacher.

Sept. 25

Dear Ellen,*

It's FTG (Friday Thank God), which means I need not set the alarm for 6:30 tomorrow morning; I can wash a blouse, think a thought, write a letter.

Congratulations on the baby's new tooth. Soon there is bound to be another tooth and another and another, and before you know it, little Suzie will start going to school, and her troubles will just begin.

Though I hope that by the time she gets into the public high school system, things will be different. At least, they keep promising that things will be different. I'm told that since the recent strike threats, negotiations with the United Federation of Teachers, and greater public interest, we are enjoying "improved conditions". But in the two weeks that I have been here, conditions seem greatly unimproved.

You ask what I am teaching. Hard to say. Professor Winters advised teaching "not the subject but the whole child". The English Syllabus urges "individualization and enrichment" — which means giving individual attention to each student to bring out the best in him and enlarge his scope beyond the prescribed work. Bester says "to motivate and distribute" books — that is, to get students ready and eager to read. All this is easier said than done. In fact, all this is plain impossible.

Many of our kids — though physically mature — can't read beyond 4th and 5th grade level. Their background consists of the simplest comics and thrillers. They've been exposed to some ten years of schooling, yet they don't know what a sentence is.

The books we are required to teach frequently have nothing to do with anything except the fact that they have always been taught, or that there is an oversupply of them, or that some committee or other was asked to come up with some titles.

I've been trying to teach without books. There was one heady moment when I was able to excite the class by an idea: I had put on the blackboard Browning's1 "Aman's reach should exceed his grasp, or what's a heaven for? " and we got involved in a spirited discussion of aspiration vs.2 reality.'Is it wise, I asked, to aim higher than one's capacity? Does it not doom one to failure? No, no, some said, that's ambition and progress! No, no, others cried, that's frustration and defeat! What about hope? What about despair? — You've got to be practical! — You've got to have a dream! They said this in their own words, you understand, startled into discovery. To the young, cliches seem freshly minted. Hitch your wagon to a star! And when the dismissal bell rang, they paid me the highest compliment: they groaned! They crowded in the doorway, chirping like agitated sparrows, pecking at the seeds I had strewn — when who should materialize but Admiral Ass.3

"What is the meaning of this noise?"

"It's the sound of thinking, Mr. McHabe," I said.

The cardinal sin, strange as it may seem in an institution of learning, is talking. There are others, of course — sins, I mean, and I seem to have committed a good number. Yesterday I was playing my record of Gielgud4 reading Shakespeare. I had brought my own phonograph to school (no one could find the Requisition Forms for "Audio-Visual Aids" — that's the name for the school record player) and I had succeeded, I thought, in establishing a mood. I mean, I got them to be quiet, when — enter Admiral Ass,5 in full regalia, epaulettes quivering with indignation. He snapped his fingers for me to stop the phonograph, waited for the turntable to stop turning, and pronounced:

"There will be a series of three bells rung three times indicating Emergency Shelter Drill. Playing records does not encourage the orderly evacuation of the class."

I mention McHabe because he has crystallized into The Enemy...

Chaos, waste, cries for help — strident, yet unheard. Or am I romanticizing? That's what Paul says; he only shrugs and makes up funny verses about everyone. That's Paul Barringer — a writer who  teaches English on one foot, as it were, just waiting to be published. He's very attractive: a tan crew cut, a white smile with lots of teeth; one eyebrow higher than the other. All the girls are in love with him.

There are a few good, hard-working, patient people... who manage to teach against insuperable odds; a few brilliantly endowed teachers who — unknown and unsung — work their magic in the classroom; a few who truly love young people. The rest, it seems to me, have either given up, or are taking it out on the kids. "Those who can, do, those who can't, teach." Like most sayings, this is only half true. Those who can, teach; those who can't — the bitter, the misguided, the failures from other fields — find in the school system an excuse or a refuge. ...

And Dr. Bester, my immediate supervisor, Chairman of the English Department, I can't figure out at all. He is a dour, desiccated little man, remote and prissy.6 Like most chairmen, he teaches only one class of Seniors; the most experienced teachers are frequently promoted right out of the classroom! Kids respect him; teachers dislike him — possibly because he is given to popping up, unexpectedly, to observe them. "The ghost walks" is the grape-vine signal for his visits. Bea7 told me he started out as a great teacher, but he's been soured by the trivia-in-triplicate8 which his administrative duties impose. I hope he doesn't come to observe me until I get my bearings.


1. Browning, Robert: an English poet and playwright (1812-1889)

2. vs.: short for versus (Lat.) against

3. Admiral Ass: the nickname given to James J. McHabe, the administrative assistant, because he signed his innumerable circulars "James J. McHabe, Adm. Asst."

4. Gielgud, John: an outstanding English actor and producer

5.  ...enter Admiral Ass: the verb: "to enter" is used like this (the form of the Subjunctive I) in stage directions in a printed play (e.g. Enter Hamlet = Let Hamlet enter)

6. prissy: a blend of precise and sissy; prim and precise (coll., USA)

7. Bea: short for Beatrice, one of the teachers

8. trivia-in-triplicate: from trivia, a Latin noun in the plural, which means trifles; triplicate a threefold (e.g. to draw up a document in triplicate — to write a document together with three copies of it). The author of the letter wants to say that Bester is overburdened with his administrative duties.


Vocabulary Notes

1. Negotiate vi/t 1) discuss matters in order to come to an agreement; negotiate with smb. for, on, over smth. (for peace, truce, ceasefire, etc.) 2) bring about (a desired object), by preliminary discussion, arrange (a business affair), e.g. The Ministers negotiated a top-level meeting.

Negotiations л the act of negotiating, making arrangements, as to enter into (conduct, carry on, hold, resume) negotiations with smb.; break-down of negotiations; negotiations on an issue, e.g. The negotiations on the oil issue are in progress.

Negotiating parties groups of persons discussing political or business matters

Negotiator n one who negotiates

2. distribute vt hand, give or send out among a number of persons, e.g. The teacher distributed the examination papers to the class (among the pupils).

Distribution n distributing or being distributed  

Distributor n a person or thing that distributes

3. Exceed vr 1) go beyond what is allowed or necessary, as to exceed one's authority, the limits of decency; e.g. The driver was fined for exceeding the speed-limit. You have exceeded your instructions {i.e. done more than you had authority to do). 2) be greater than, e.g. 30 exceeds 13 by 17.

Exceedingly adv extremely, to an unusual degree, as an exceedingly difficult book

Word Discrimination: exceed, surpass.

Exceed is applied mostly to things in the sense of going beyond in measure, degree, quantity, and quality; one thing exceeds another in magnitude, height, or any other dimensions. It is usually taken in an indifferent or in a bad sense, particularly in regard to persons, as a person exceeds his instructions or exceeds the due measure.

Surpass signifies to exceed or be superior in that which is good. E.g. His playing now surpasses his teacher's. His record was surpassed the other day.

Either of the verbs may be used in reference to expectations. E.g. His success exceeded (or surpassed) his expectations.

4. Involve vt 1) mix up in, as involve smb. in war, crime, debt, scandal, mystery, etc., e.g. He is deeply involved in debt. 2) have as a necessary consequence, as involve great expenses, difficulties, complications, serious trouble, much work, an increase in, etc., e.g. The war has involved an enormous increase in the national debt. 3) be (get, become) mixed up with smb., e.g. It was clear he didn't want to get involved with us.

Involved a complicated in thought or form, as involved reasoning, an involved mechanism, sentence, etc.

Involvement n the state of being involved

5. Aspire vi desire earnestly (to, after, at or infin.), e.g. We aspire after what is great and unusual.

Aspiration n (for, after), as the aspirations of the people for freedom

6. Ambition n strong desire to be or do smth., or for success, fame, honour, e.g. His ambition is to be a great scientist.

Ambitious a 1) full of ambition, e.g. He is an ambitious boy; he wants to become famous. 2) needing great efforts in order to succeed, showing ambition; e.g. His plans are very ambitious, he wants to master the language in a year.

Word Discrimination: aspiration, ambition.

Both nouns express strong desire to achieve something but there is a subtle difference between them. Aspiration usually expresses an ardent desire for what is elevated, noble, spiritual or pure, the striving after which is uplifting or ennobling.

Ambition usually expresses an ardent desire for distinction. E.g. Pete was full of ambition, worked hard and became top boy of the class.

7. Frustrate v l) to prevent smb. from doing smth., as to frustrate the plans of one's enemies, to frustrate one's enemies in their plans, to be frustrated in an attempt to do smth. 2) to bring to nothing, e.g. His hopes were frustrated.

Frustration n 1) frustrating or being frustrated, e.g. The frustration of all the dreams aged her before her time. 2) a defeat or disappointment, e.g. His frustration strengthened his opposition.

8. Observe vt 1) take notice of; see and notice; watch closely and carefully, study; e.g. We observed that it had turned cloudy. The head teacher observed several lessons. 2) keep or celebrate; pay attention to (laws, customs, festivals), as to observe a person's birthday, an anniversary, etc., e.g. This rule is strictly observed by everyone. 3) say by way of comment, e.g. He observed that we should probably have rain.

Observation n, as to carry on, maintain observation; to be (keep a person) under observation, powers of observation; an observation post

Observance n the keeping of law, custom, duty, etc.

Observant a quick to pay attention to; in the habit of noticing things, as an observant boy

observer n 1) one who observes, as an observer of nature 2) one who keeps rules, customs, etc., as an observer of old traditions

9. Impose vt 1) put or lay (a duty, tax, punishment, obligation, curfew, etc.), e.g. A fine was imposed on him for careless driving. 2) force or persuade a person to do or take smth. by using unfair methods, tricks, etc., e.g. He imposed his will on his family.

Imposition n the act of putting or laying a tax, burden, punishment, etc. on smb., as the imposition of new taxes

Imposing a making a strong impression because of striking character or appearance; causing admiration, as an imposing lady, an imposing building

Word Combinations and Phrases

To set the alarm (-clock) for               To work magic

To bring out something                   To take (it) out on smb. (coll.)

To enlarge (widen) one's scope         To doom one (or: be doomed) to failure

Easier said than done                            To fight (teach, etc.) against       

To pay somebody a compliment as it were  To figure (smb., smth.) out (coll.)

Great (fearful, insuperable, etc.) odds                To get (find, take) one's bearings


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Five and mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pronunciation:

blouse, syllabus, individual, mature, background, frequently, oversupply, reality, capacity, failure, progress, frustration, cliche, sparrow, phonograph, record player, regalia, epaulette, emergency, chaos, romanticize, insuperable, endowed, refuge, dour, senior, experienced, ghost, soured, administrative

3. Read the following words;

a) observing the principal and secondary stresses:

congratulation, negotiation, federation, individualization, aspiration, ,institution, requisition, indignation, evacuation

b) observing the principal stress:

motivate, distribute, agitate, materialize, indicate, crystallize, 'desiccate

4. Read out the following words and word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech.

1) Assimilation: a) The alveolar consonants [t, d, n, I] become dental before th- :

set the alarm; congratulations on the baby's new tooth; not the subject but the whole child; to bring out the best in him; beyond the prescribed work; all this is easier said than done; and thrillers; except the fact that they have always been taught; to excite the class; on the blackboard; when the dismissal bell rang; find the Requisition Forms; I got them to be quiet; in the classroom; in the school system

b) The alveolar consonants [t, d] become post-alveolar under the influence of [r]:

her troubles; the recent strike threats; I've been trying; that's frustration; to have a dream; I had strewn; strange as it may seem; drill; strident; attractive; truly; trivia-in-triplicate; administrative

c) The backlingual consonants [k, g] become labialized before [w]:

require, quit, frequently, quiet, quivering, bilingual, language

2) The linking "r"

there is bound to be; there is an oversupply of them; or other; (in) their own words; enter Admiral Ass; are in love; there are a few good; or a refuge

5. Read the following extracts out loud: from "Is it wise. I asked..." up to "...cliches seem freshly minted" and from "There are a few good, hard-working, patient people..." up to "...an excuse or a refuge". Beat the time. Remember that parentheses as a rule should be unstressed and constitute the tail of the intonation group they belong to. Use proper intonation patterns to convey appropriate attitudes.

6. Study the following proverbs, a) Translate them into Russian or supply their Russian equivalents, b) Practise their reading paying attention to the vowels [з:,и, u], the phonetic phenomena of connected speech and the intonation:

1. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 2. Between two stools one goes to the ground. 3. Choose an author as you choose a friend. 4. Don't halloo until you are out of the wood. 5. He who would search for pearls must dive below. 6. Many words hurt more than swords. 7. No news is good news. 8. Of two evils choose the least. 9. The early bird catches the worm. 10. The work shows the workman.

7. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a)  Comment on the syntax and the rhythmic effect achieved in "I can wash
a blouse, think a thought, write a letter."

b) Explain:

teaching not the subject but the whole child; individualization and enrichment; enlarge his scope; to motivate and distribute books; their background consists of the simplest comics and thrillers; some committee was asked to come up with some titles; a man's reach should
exceed his grasp; to the young, cliches seem freshly minted; hitch your wagon to a star; ...who teaches English on one foot; to teach against insuperable odds

c) Indicate the stylistic devices in the following sentences. Comment upon the fitness of the comparison with sparrows in the first sentence. What is the speaker's attitude conveyed by the last sentence?

1. They crowded in the doorway, chirping like agitated sparrows, pecking at the seeds I had strewn. 2.1 had succeeded, I thought, in establishing a mood. I mean, I got them to be quiet. 3. ...Enter Admiral Ass, in full regalia, epaulettes quivering with indignation.

d) Exemplify the use of colloquialisms and learned words. Why does the writer of the letter make use of both?

e) Comment on the passage beginning "There are a few good, hard-working, patient people...". What immediate impression does it make on you? What is the key sentence of the passage? Enlarge upon the idea expressed in it.

8. Copy out from Text Five the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases and translate them into Russian.

9. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Disputed wills were always painful. They brought out the worst in everybody. 2. The ivory colour of the walls seems to bring out the beauty of the rugs. 3. I'm sorry, it's my own fault and I've no right to take it out on you. 4. I can't figure out what you're getting at. 5. She had, as it were, got her bearings in the household before she approached Finch on one of the chief objects of her visit. 6. He was holding them, as it were, in the net of his mockery. 7. The clock lost twenty minutes every day, and might have been counted a sluggard but for the fact that its alarm had to be set half an hour later than the time when one wished to be called, so urgent was it in its desire to go off. 8. If only he could figure out a way to achieve it without harm to himself. 9. The author works his magic in a story that is a marvellous combination of detection, pursuit, and imaginative reconstruction. 10. They were trying to figure out what had gone wrong. 11. He looked about him in the moonlight, getting his bearings. 12. The walls were painted yellow; the basic hue seemed dark and smooth, claylike as it were. 13. Enlarging one's scope involved endless trips to the town library, sleepless nights, millions of questions to which there didn't seem to be any answers. It was all uphill work; it was like an ocean, and he was alone in the middle of it, without any hope to find his bearings. 14. "In this accursed town the very fact that you were born in the slums dooms you to failure," he said in rage. "I understand that you're fighting against fearful odds, but why should you take it out on me, of all people?"

10.  Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Miss Barrett didn't want her lessons to be observed until she gained a little experience in dealing with her pupils. 2. The tragic turn of events revealed her good qualities. 3. I can't understand this man. 4. You should read more in order to extend your knowledge. 5. This attempt is sure to fail. 6. He told her something flattering. 7. They say this doctor can do wonders. 8. They fought bravely but the chances were not in their favour at all. 9. I admit you have cause for irritation, but don't scold the child, he's not to blame.

11. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Он, так сказать, сделал ей комплимент, заметив, что темная шляпа ей очень идет, оттеняя ее седые волосы. 2. С какой стати ты вымещаешь свою злость на мне? Ты же знаешь, что это произошло не по моей вине. 3. Изучение иностранных языков способствует расширению кругозора; кроме того, как только человек начинает разбираться в иностранном языке, он глубже постигает и родной язык. 4. Я ничего не буду предпринимать, пока не начну ориентироваться в обстановке. Без этого все мои усилия обречены на неудачу. 5. Вчера он пытался выместить на мне свое раздражение, а сегодня сделал мне комплимент! Я не могу его понять! 6. Я восхищаюсь этой балериной. Она творит чудеса на сцене. 7. Мне придется поставить будильник на 6 часов, чтобы не опоздать. 8. Он преподавал в весьма неблагоприятной обстановке и, несмотря на это, делал чудеса. 9. Как ты думаешь, почему Смит уехал так внезапно? — Я тоже этого в толк не возьму. 10. Тебе необходимо расширять свой кругозор! — Легче сказать, чем сделать!

12. Compose short situations in dialogue form using the word combinations
and phrases.

13. Answer the following questions:

1. What advice did Miss Barrett get a) from her college professor b) from the English Syllabus c) from Dr. Bester, her immediate supervisor? What did she think of all this advice? 2. How did Miss Barrett characterize her pupils? 3. On what "principles" were the books for the school in question selected? 4. What was the quotation that involved the class in a spirited discussion? 5. What problems emerged in the course of the discussion? 6. Why did the teacher regard the groan her pupils gave at the sound of the bell as the highest compliment to her? 7. What was the cause of Miss Barrett's conflicts with McHabe? 8. What did Paul Barringer look like? 9. Was his attitude to teaching similar to Miss Barrett's? 10. How did Miss Barrett classify her fellow-teachers? 11. What was the teachers' dislike of Dr. Bester motivated by? 12. What opinion have you formed of Miss Barrett on the basis of her letter?

14. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

15. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying special attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A- 1. A high-ranking official has arrived in the capital to negotiate the ambassador's release. 2. It looked as if the negotiations would collapse before they started. 3. The negotiators meet tomorrow for further discussions. 4. A pretty girl standing in the middle of the room was distributing the toys and sweets among the children. 5. The profits are supposed to be distributed to the shareholders. 6. He ascribed his poor condition to the heat that certainly exceeded anything he had ever experienced. 7. It is the best known of the author's works, although his three later books surpass it in many ways. 8. He described the operation as an enormous success far exceeding expectations. 9. He was doing his best to avoid Martha, it would have been too painful to get emotionally involved once again. 10. He involved himself in what he always knew was a vain struggle. 11. The guerillas denied they were involved in the air crash. 12. The policy aimed at the country's economic independence from her neighbour succeeded remarkably well considering the involvement of the two economies. 13. Nick himself regarded his relations with Helen as a great passion and had no idea that his mother described it to her friends as "Nick's unfortunate involvement". 14. His statement that aroused much controversy was: "Cruelty is permissible where self-preservation is involved,"

B. 1. His aspirations were conventional enough, but they differed from the aspirations of the majority of young men. 2. "I'm not ambitious." "What you mean is you're not particularly ambitious to be rich or famous." 3. He was a heartless, humourless, calculating man of ambition. 4. Bob hoped to become a dramatic critic. Ernest knew something of this ambition, but not all of it, for Bob could be secretive when he chose. 5. He was murdered after what seems to have been a frustrated kidnap attempt. 6. Their anger and frustration are likely to stiffen their resistance. 7. Though the flashing emotions are very much on the surface, what makes the piece particularly interesting is Pirandello's characteristic observation of the tragedy and frustrations below the surface of the comedy, and the dazzling contrasts between reality and deception. 8. She led him about, showing him all the electrical devices. They delighted him. He must press the electric buttons and observe all the resulting phenomena. 9. They said they would observe the cease-fire if the other side abided by it. 10. Hands in pockets, he lounged over to Finch, and, with an eager smile lighting his clever, humorous astonish face, observed: "I want to tell you, Whiteoak, how awfully pleased I am with your performance today." 11. Finch, scarcely noticed by the family once their rejoicing over his return had subsided, was only an observer of this drama. 12. This was what he always left out of account — the accuracy of her observation. 13. He recalled the imposing facade of the house. 14. Mrs. Brooke set briskly about her self-imposed task of retrieving the family fortunes. 15. His grandmother! That imposing, sinister old woman! 16. The seven accused had been held in jail since the weekend, when the judge imposed stiff jail-sentences on them for contempt of court during the noisy trial. 17. A partial ban was imposed on the students' committee. 18. After several planes had been hi-jacked, the airlines imposed tight security measures. 19. They protested against minority groups imposing silence on speakers. 20. New restrictions on travel were reported to have been imposed.

16. Paraphrase the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

1. The secretary handed the booklets to all the participants in the conference. 2. The two  parties decided to discuss matters in order to come to an agreement. 3. On several occasions he did more than he had authority to do. 4.1 wish he hadn't got mixed up in this. 5. I've rescued Jane from a sense of defeat and disappointment. 6. She is a better dancer than her teacher used to be in her youth. 7. The Browns were popular in town and a lot of parents ardently desired that their little boys should be the playmates of the Browns' only child. 8. This girl is in the habit of noticing things. 9. The Browns used to celebrate all the holidays. 10. When they learnt what he was up to they decided not to let him put his scheme into effect. 11. The old lady's appearance and character never failed to impress people. 12. The talks went off extremely well. 13. The building of the house will require great expenses. 14. The teacher remarked that the woman's son was too vivacious. 15. The suspect was closely watched by the police. 16. Every citizen is to pay an income tax.

17. Use the active word combinations and vocabulary of this lesson to make
up a sentence or question to provoke the given remark:

1. Oh, this surpassed my expectations! 2. Naturally, these plans were doomed to failure from the start! 3. Yes, indeed! And that's why he got his bearings very quickly! 4. That's why a considerable fine was imposed on him. 5. Easier said than done! 6. You don't say! Can he have paid me such a compliment?

18. Translate the following sentences into English using your active vocabulary:

1. Переговоры между этими фирмами не прекратились бы, если бы в стране не начался энергетический кризис. 2. Ожидают, что переговоры между двумя премьер-министрами возобновятся и будут проходить в Лондоне. 3. Договаривающиеся стороны не смогли прийти к соглашению, и политические обозреватели полагают, что переговоры обречены на провал. 4. Министры иностранных дел встретились, чтобы договориться о встрече на высшем уровне. 5. Результаты переговоров превзошли все ожидания. 6. Сражение повлекло за собой большие потери в живой силе и технике. 7. В 1914 году многие государства оказались втянутыми в первую мировую войну. 8. После беспорядков в городе был введен комендантский час. 9. Дом выглядел очень внушительным, и у Каупервуда появилось честолюбивое стремление купить его. 10. Джемма разделяла стремление Овода посвятить себя освобождению Италии. 11. Наблюдательный человек сразу бы понял, что попытки навязать таким людям свое мнение связаны с известным риском. 12. Он был уволен из полиции за действия, которые официально были квалифицированы как превышение власти. 13. Врач сказал, что больной должен быть под постоянным наблюдением, с какими бы трудностями это ни было связано. 14. Миссис Смит ходила в церковь и соблюдала религиозные праздники, но ей не удалось навязать свои взгляды сыну. 15. Оставь меня в покое, я не хочу ввязываться в это дело. 16. Этот честолюбивый замысел сопряжен с большим риском. 17. Наблюдательная девочка не могла не заметить безысходного отчаяния сестры. 18. «Соблюдение этих правил требуется от всех, кто принят в нашу школу, — сказал м-р Ривз. — Правила устанавливает школьный совет».

19. Give the gist of Text Five.

20. Discuss Browning's words "A man's reach should exceed his grasp, or what's a heaven for?", a) Comment on the quotation. b) How would you answer Miss Barrett's question as to whether it is wise to aim higher than one's capacity? With which group of pupils would you side? c) Illustrate the quotation by a literary example, d) Make up dialogues dealing with the ideas Browning's words arouse.

21. Comment on the phraseological unit "to hitch one's wagon to a star".

22. Reread Text Five to speak on the following points of its style.

a)  The story is told in the form of a letter. Is it a modern or an old-fashioned
form? (Prove your point) What is the author's purpose in resorting to it? Point out
some of the characteristic features of the style resulting from the choice.

b) What is gained by telling the story in the first person? How does the fact in-
fluence the mood and atmosphere of the narration?

c) What impression do you form of the character of Sylvia Barrett from her let-
ter? Is she detached in her attitude to the facts she describes? Prove your point.

d) What method(s) of characterization does the author use?

e)  Point out the sentences bearing touches of humour or irony. (Prove
which it is.)

f) Comment on the language. Compare it with that of James Hilton (Text One). [144]




By Eleanor Farjeon

Eleanor Farjeon wrote delightful and distinctive poems for children. Her first novel was "Ladybrook", a tale of Sussex country life which retained that delicate humorous touch which characterized the work she did for children. Her sensitiveness to beauty and true understanding of the essential qualities of romance find expression in this charming rhapsody.

Skipping his breakfast paper one day, bewildered, as he always was, by vital facts about Home Rails, Questions in the House, and Three-Piece Suits: facts grasped, as he knew, instantaneously in their full import all over England by different orders of mind from his, through which they slipped as through gauze, Anthony's roving eye was captured by certain words in a paragraph headed

Mouchard (near the Jura Mountains)

Jura Mountains... Blue smoke... a blue-eyed Alsatian... a Concertina... the Blue Alsatian Express... many miles from nowhere... haymaking damsels in white sunbonnets... hayrakes... laughing at us...

A Minor Mystery

Anthony's eye roved no more. He felt that the gauze, which could not contain the torrents of the world's activities, might house this butterfly and not brush off its bloom. He read the paragraph with attention. It described the breakdown "many miles from nowhere"
of the Blue Alsatian Express at the foot of the Jura Mountains. It described the blue smoke rising from a heated axle, the engine-driver sprinting along the lines like a madman, soldiers jumping out on the line and playing a concertina, a nervous woman-passenger wondering what had happened; it indicated the plutocratic luxury of the corridor train with its restaurant; it told of the blue mountains and the blue sky, and "the hay-making damsels in white sunbonnets and
 hayforks on their shoulders" who "are laughing at us over the hedgerows".

And then came the paragraph headed "A Minor Mystery" which ended the account of the accident.

"One mystery about this train will never be solved. When it first came to a standstill a quiet little man, who looked like a country farmer, packed up his things, climbed out of the train, and deliberately walked away from it without any outward sign of annoyance, hesitation, or distraction, crossing the fields and disappearing into a wood.

Had the breakdown occurred within easy reach of his own home or destination?"

"Oh, no," said Anthony, answering the journalist, "of course not!"

Why should it? It was most unlikely. And — annoyance? Why should the little man be annoyed? And where was the Mystery, Minor or Major?

Railways — it is their drawback — compel you to travel to somewhere. You, who desire to travel to Anywhere, must take your ticket to Stroud or Stoke, and chance it. The safest plan is to choose some place with a name like Lulworth, Downderry, or Nether Wallop; such places surely cannot go far wrong/ But even though they prove to be heaven in its first, second, or third degree, still, there you must go, and nowhere else; — and think of the Seventh Heavens you flash through continually on your way there, Heavens with no names and no stations, Heavens to which no tickets are issued. To whom has it not happened, time and again, on his way to the Seaside, the Moors, or the Highlands, to cry in his heart, at some glimpse of Paradise from
the carriage windows: "
That is where I really wanted to go — that is where I would like to get out! That valley of flowers, that cottage in the birch-glade, that buttercup field with the little river and a kingfisher — if only the train would stop!" — But it never does.

Never? Once it did. Anthony laughed aloud at that Minor Mistery in his morning paper. Where was the Mystery? Luck had been with the quiet little man, and he did the only thing there was to do.

..."Why have we stopped?" asked the nervous lady who sat opposite Anthony in the stuffy carriage.

"Ha-ha-ha! Ha-ha-ha!" laughed a fresh young voice outside.

"Preposterous, preposterous! I shall be late!" snorted a fat millionaire.

"I want my lunch," puffed his fat wife. "I refuse to go without my, lunch!"

Anthony looked out of the window. A hedgerow bowed with blossom, beyond it a meadow in full flower, long flowering grass, threaded with flowering stems, lace-white, chicory-blue flowers, a profusion of flowers shimmering in the long grass. In one part of the meadow the grass lay mowed in swathes, the sweet flowers with it. A party of young peasants, in loose white shirts and embroidered jackets and aprons, lay in the grass munching honey-cake and drinking light beer. One tall young fellow, splendid as a god, stood edgeways in the sunlight,
his bright scythe shining. A few girls stood and stooped in the long grass, picking the flowers; some wore wreaths of the blue and white flowers, some were laughing under their white sunbonnets, some used, some rested on their rakes, all were sweet and fresh and frank.

"Oh, why don't we go on?" moaned the nervous lady. "Oh, what has happened?"

Passengers spoke on all sides. "We are held up!" "We have broken down!" "Bandits! — these dreadful foreign parts!" "The engine is on fire!" "The engine-driver has gone mad!"

"Oh, oh, oh!" moaned the nervous lady in the carriage.

"Ha-ha-ha!" laughed the gay young voices in the air.

"I shall be late, I tell you!" fumed the fat millionaire.

"Are we never going to eat?" puffed his wife.

Beyond the meadow of flowers and haymakers lay the blue mountains, as blue as dreams, as Paradise. Soft dim woods lay between the meadow and the slope. At the very edge of the woods, as though it had just stepped out of the trees and set foot on the grass, was a tiny
cottage with a balcony. In the fringe of trees meandered little paths and a little stream, and some goats. The scent of hay and flowers and aromatic trees filled the carriage.

"La-la-la-la, ti-ti-ti-ti!" A soldier sitting on the rails was singing The Blue Danube to a concertina played by another soldier.

The girls in the meadow began to dance.

"Oh, what is it, what is it? " wailed the nervous lady.

"Food, food!" puffed the fat one.

"How late, how late I shall be!" repeated her husband.

"Keep the doors shut — don't let them come in!" implored the nervous lady, wringing her hands.

"Ha-ha-ha!" laughed the dancing girls, "ha-ha-ha!"

'Swish!" sang the young god's scythe. – Anthony got his little bag from the rack and opened the carriage door. The nervous lady gave a tiny shriek.

"Ah!" don't let them in!"

"Late! late! late!"

"Lunch is served. Come!"

Anthony crossed the rail and found a gap in the blossoming hedge. In the hayfield, nearly hidden in flowers, was a crooked footpath. It led over the meadows to the little wood at the foot of the blue mountains. He followed it unhesitatingly. He left behind him the dancing laughing flower-gatherers, the young god mowing, the peasants drinking, the soldiers playing, the Blue Alsatian Express containing the millionaire who would be late — for what? For what could one be late? One was in Blue Alsatia. To which there are no tickets.

He entered the little wood and was lost to sight.

At the back of the cottage, barefoot by the little stream, stood a girl of sixteen, a lovely grey-eyed child, feeding her kids from a bundle of hay in her apron, at which they pushed and pulled. She wore a white chemise and a blue embroidered skirt. When the kids were rough she thrust them from her with her brown toes, and laughed like music. On a bench by the cottage stood a pitcher and a wooden bowl.

Her eyes met Anthony's. She let fall her apron, and the sweet hay tumbled down, a full feast for the kids. She went to the bench, filled the bowl with milk, and offered it to Anthony with a bit of honey-cake, her grey eyes smiling. As he drank, she made a simple gesture.

"Stay," she said.

The Blue Alsatian Express went on without him.

Anthony stirred his tea-cup. In the next column was an account of Last Night's Debate on —

He skipped it.


Vocabulary Notes

1. skip vt/i 1) spring, jump or leap quickly or lightly from one foot on to the other, e.g. He skipped out of the way (i.e. jumped quickly to one side). 2) jump over a rope (called a skipping-rope) which is made to swing under the feet and over the head 3) pass over; leave
e.g. You've skipped a sentence here. 4) read smth. hastily, omitting parts, e.g. The book was given me for one day only, and I just skipped it. Syn. skim

Word Discrimination: skip, skim.

Skip implies omitting those parts of the reading stuff which one considers dull or of no importance.

Skim, on the contrary, lays a stress on the fact that the reader picks out the parts which interest him, reading only choice places (cf. with the main meaning of skim, as to skim the cream from the milk).

2. Vital a essential; necessary to the existence of smth., as a vital necessity, of vital importance; e.g. This is a matter of vital importance to us.

Vitality n vital force; strength; vigour, e.g. His features were handsome enough, but they lacked vitality.

3.  Grasp vt/i 1) seize firmly with the hand, as to grasp a rope, a person's hand 2) (fig.) understand with the mind, e.g. I saw he was unable to grasp my meaning. She fully grasped the argument.

4. Capture vt 1) make a prisoner of; catch, e.g. Our army captured 1,000 enemy soldiers. 2) get by force, skill or a trick, e.g. Tom was so clever that he captured all the prizes at school; capture smb.'s attention (interest, sympathy, curiosity, etc.) attract smb.'s attention (arouse interest, sympathy, curiosity), e.g. This advertisement is sure to capture the public attention, capture smb.'s eye attract attention, e.g. He wasn't sure whether the colour scheme could be defined as vivid or garish, but the picture certainly captured the eye.

5.  Minor a less; smaller (not followed by than); comparatively unimportant, as the minor planets; a minor injury; a minor matter; a minor mystery; minor repairs

minority n the smaller number or part, e.g. He had never liked to find himself among the minority.

Ant. major a greater or more important, as the major part of one's life, the major issue on the agenda; major matters, etc.

majority n the greater number or part, e.g. The optimism of the majority finally prevailed over the fears and doubts of the minority.

6.  Breakdown n 1) an accident (to machinery or to an electric power system or to trains, trams, cars, etc.) which causes work or activity to stop, e.g. There was a breakdown on the railway and all the trains were two hours late. 2) a failure of the mind or of the body to work well, caused by doing too much work or by overstrained nerves, e.g. My impression is that he is on the verge of a nervous breakdown.

Break down become disabled or useless; suffer a physical or mental weakening; collapse, e.g. The machinery broke down. His health broke down. All our plans broke down.

7. Destination л the place to which a thing or person is going or being sent or which a person wants to reach, e.g. Finally we were informed that he had left the town, but no one seemed to have any idea of the destination.

Destine vt determine the future of (usu. in the passive), e.g. They were destined never to meet again.

Destiny n 1) what happens to a person or thing in the end, esp. what is thought to be determined in advance, e.g. It was his destiny to die in a foreign country. 2) the power that is supposed to control events; fate, e.g. Destiny sometimes plays strange tricks on human beings.

8. Issue vi/t give or send out; publish; distribute, as to issue commands (banknotes, stamps, a newspaper, etc.), e.g. How many newspapers are issued in this town?

Issue n 1) putting forth or sending out; publication, as the issue of a newspaper; to buy new stamps on the day of issue; the most recent issues of a newspaper 2) a problem; a point in question; something about which there is debate or argument, as to debate an issue; to raise a new issue; to argue political issues 3) a result, outcome or consequence, as the issue of a battle (war, etc.)

9.  Shimmer vi emit a faint or wavering light, as moonlight shimmering on the water

Shimmer n a wavering shine, as the shimmer of pearls Syn. shine, glimmer, glitter, glisten, sparkle, gleam

Word Discrimination: glitter, sparkle, shimmer, glimmer, glisten, gleam.

1)  The synonyms above differ, first of all, by the intensity of light each of them describes. The following scale of intensity might be suggested for these verbs (beginning with the highest degree of intensity): sparkle — glitter — glisten — gleam glimmer shimmer.

2) Another line of discrimination is connected with the nature of light or brightness described by each of the verbs. Sparkle and glitter describe scattered scintillation realized in a series of irregular, small, but bright flashes of light. The same wavering nature of light, but of a fainter degree, is implied by shimmer and glimmer. Cf. The bright sea was sparkling in the sun. The icebergs were coldly glittering against the green water. Through a faint mist the stars were dimly glimmering. We lazily watched the moonlight shimmering on the water.

In glisten the wavering character of light is less emphasized. Cf. The lake glistened in the moonlight (= reflected the moonlight and shone smoothly). The lake shimmered in the moonlight (= reflected the moonlight in tiny sparks).

Gleam means to send out a ray or beam of light, especially one that is faint or one that comes and goes at intervals, as "the gleam of a distant lighthouse", or "fireflies gleaming in the night".

3)  Note an emotional colouring which sometimes can be discerned in some of these synonyms. Cf. Her eyes sparkled with merriment. Her eyes coldly glittered with anger. Her eyes glistened with tears. Her eyes gleamed with malice.

4) Note also that stars sparkle on a warm summer night, glitter on a cold winter night, glimmer through the mist. Diamonds sparkle or glitter; gold and silver glisten; brocade and taffeta shimmer; an unpowdered nose or a perspiring face may glisten.

10. Gap n 1) a break or opening; a hole (in a hedge, fence, etc.), e.g. We must see that there is no gap in our defences. 2) a blank; a space that is not filled; a wide separation (in views, sympathies, etc.) as a gap in a conversation (in one's knowledge, in a story), a wide gap between their views, etc., e.g. The age gap was too great: he was fifteen years her senior, fill a gap supply smth. that is Tacking, e.g. He read the book without real interest, but just in the hope of filling the gap in his knowledge on the subject, bridge a gap build up a connection, e.g. Now she realized that her new activities did nothing to bridge the gap between her interests and her husband's.

Generation gap differences of opinion (tastes, manners) arising between parents and children or, in general, between representatives of different age groups.

Word Combinations and Phrases

a different order of mind from smb.'s   time and again

the account of smth. luck had been (was) with (him)

come to a standstill (he did) the only thing there was to do

(we are) held up within easy reach of smth.               

(you must) chance it on fire set foot on smth. (in a place)

(such places) cannot go (far) wrong lost to sight         


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Six and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Find the following words. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following
words and practise their pronunciation:

bewildered, instantaneously, gauze, paragraph, concertina, damsel, torrent, passenger, plutocratic, luxury, hedgerow, deliberately, annoyance, hesitation, destination, journalist, continually, paradise, preposterous, millionaire, chicory-blue, profusion, swathe, loose, embroidered, apron, edgeways, scythe, wreath(s), balcony, meander, aromatic, chemise, honey-cake, gesture, debate

3. Practise the pronunciation of the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech:

Questions in the House; in their full import; he felt that the gauze; contain the torrents; he read the paragraph; it described the breakdown; it indicated the plutocratic luxury; which ended the account; a quiet little man; why should the little man; and nowhere else; that cottage in the birch-glade; at that Minor Mystery; in the stuffy carriage; shimmering in the long grass; and drinking light beer; moaned the nervous lady; laughed the gay young voices in the air; fumed the
fat millionaire; between the meadow and the slope; sitting on the rails; laughed the dancing girls; opened the carriage door; don't let them in; crossed the rail and found a gap in the blossoming hedge; to the little wood at the foot; in her apron; she thrust them; and the sweet hay tumbled down; filled the bowl

4. Read the following passage of descriptive character; from "Anthony looked out of the window" up to "...all were sweet and fresh and frank". Observe the intonation group division, the rhythm and all the phonetic phenomena of connected speech.

5. Study the following proverbs, a) Translate them into Russian or supply their Russian equivalents, b) Practise their reading paying attention to the vowels, all the phonetic phenomena of connected speech and intonation:

1. Make hay while the sun shines. 2. A burnt child dreads the fire. 3. Experience is the mother of wisdom. 4. Nothing venture, nothing have. 5. Experience keeps a dear school, but fools learn in no other. 6. Every country has its customs. 7. Two is company, but three is none. 8. Strike the iron while it's hot. 9. A hungry belly has no ears. 10. Hares may pull dead lions by the beard. [165]

6. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a)  Explain:

vital facts about Home Rails, Questions in the House, and Three-Piece Suits; different orders of mind from his; many miles from nowhere; We are held up! We have broken down!

b) Comment on the punctuation in the passage entitled "Mouchard (near the Jura Mountains)".

c) Express in simpler language the sense of the sentence "He felt that the gauze, which could not contain the torrents of the world's activities, might house this butterfly and not brush off its bloom." Point out the stylistic devices used in the sentence and comment on their effectiveness. Do you accept the comparison with a butterfly or do you consider it too ornate? Give your reasons.

d) Justify the length of the sentence beginning "It described the blue smoke..."

e) Analyse the stylistic devices used in the author's digression beginning "Railways — it is their drawback...". Point out inversion, repetition, rhetorical question and comment on their purpose. Indicate the syntax of the second part of the passage and the rhythmic effect achieved. Can you detect any sound-imitative effects? What does the rhythm of the extract imitate? Comment on the rhythmic value of "But it never does. Never? Once it did" in its relation to the preceding extract. Comment on the names of places (Lulworth, Downderry, Nether Wallop) which, in the author's opinion, "cannot go far wrong". Why can't they? Suggest some typical Russian countryside names with the same kind of implications.

f)  Think of a suitable heading for the episode beginning "Why have we stopped?" What is the role of the extract in the structure of the story? Comment on the composition device by which the episode is introduced in the texture of the story.

g) Analyse the stylistic values of the fragments beginning "A hedgerow bowed with blossom...", ending "...all were sweet and fresh and frank" and from "Beyond the meadow of flowers" to "filled the carriage". What words and phrases give atmosphere to the passages? Is it a realistic description? How is its dream-like quality created? Do you consider the description sweetish and sentimental or do you think that it serves its purpose? If so, what purpose? Support your opinion.

h) Comment on the contrast provided by the fragments of dialogue interchanging with the descriptive passages referred to in item g).

What is the purpose of the device? Indicate the rhythmic effects achieved, especially in the passage beginning "Oh, what is it?...", ending "Lunch is served. Come!".

i) Point out the climax of the story motivating your choice.

j) Comment on the composition device used in the last three lines of the story.

7. Copy out from Text Six the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases and translate them into Russian.

8.  Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and

1. "Are you really going to spend your holiday in that horrid village, at the other end of the world?" "It's not so horrid, you know, it's a lovely place." "Probably, for people who think and feel differently from myself. As for me, I've rented a charming little cottage in a place from which you can get up to town in a very short time."" Glad to hear it. Only what's the good of going to town when you're on holiday?" '!f>h, it's just that I sometimes get tired of green meadows and yellow buttercups and simply long to tread on asphalt and to have a meal at a restaurant. I've told you dozens of times that I'm not in the least nature crazy." "Then, what's the point of leaving town at all?" "Oh, everybody does, you know. I always say, do as others do, and you won't make a mistake." 2. In the morning paper there was a detailed description of an unpleasant incident which occurred on a lonely country road thirty miles from London. Jean Gatsby, the famous film star, was driving her car. In a side road Miss Gatsby's car was stopped by three armed men. Yet, fortunately for the young actress, at the critical moment another car appeared on the road. Miss Gatsby had no other way out but scream loudly for help. The car stopped, and the masked gangsters ran to the wood and disappeared there. 3. "The pen is burning. I'll run and let out the sheep." "It's blazing! You'll burn yourself." "There's nothing for it, I must risk it."

9. Compose short situations in dialogue form using the word combinations and phrases. Pay attention to the intonation patterns of the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

10. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Он решил, что если он будет внимательно следить за соседями по столу и делать все, как они, он не ошибется. 2. На этот раз нам не повезло. Наша машина сломалась. Она остановилась в пустынном месте. Поблизости не было ни одной деревни, до которой было бы легко добраться. Хоть бы какая-нибудь машина проехала! Но не тут-то было. Нам ничего не оставалось, как довериться случаю и ждать. 3. Он прекрасно понимал, что лю- [167] дям с иными вкусами и наклонностями его хобби, наверное, показалось бы смешным. 4. В газетной заметке сообщалось о бандитском налете, которому подвергся пассажирский поезд в горах Адельяно. 5. Он вздохнул с облегчением, когда вступил,
наконец, на палубу корабля. Скоро берега чужой земли пропали из вида. Снова и снова он повторял себе: «Домой! Я возвращаюсь домой!» б. «Вас к телефону!» — улыбаясь, сказала хозяйка дома. Он вышел в переднюю, взял трубку. Незнакомый голос
в трубке сказал: «Завод горит. Немедленно

11. Answer the following questions:

1. In what way did Anthony read his morning paper? 2. Why couldn't he concentrate on vital facts in the paper? 3. Why was it that the article about the breakdown of the Alsatian Express captured his attention? 4. What were the contents of the article? 5. What was the "minor mystery" connected with the accident? 6. What is the drawback of the railways in the author's opinion? Do you share this opinion? 7. Have you ever experienced the feeling described in this paragraph and summed up in the words: "If only the train would stop!" ? Describe an incident when you did. 8. How did it happen that Anthony found himself in a carriage of the Blue Alsatian Express? (Was it a real fact or only his day-dream?) 9. What did he see when he looked out of the window? 10. The rest of the passengers were also fascinated by what they saw out of the windows, weren't they? 11. Why was it that Anthony was the only passenger who seemed to appreciate the loveliness of the place? 12. Why did Anthony leave the train? 13. Where did he go? 14. Whom did he meet? 15. Then he returned to the train, didn't he? 16. Comment on the final paragraph of the story: how did Anthony, all of a sudden, return to his tea-cup and his paper again? 17. What is the point of the story?

12. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

13. Fill in the blanks with "shimmer", "glimmer", "glitter», "sparkle", "glisten", "gleam" and their derivatives:

1. Stars were ... in the frosty sky. 2. Her golden hair seemed to ... in the sunlight. 3. The satin of her dress... in the candlelight, and her bare neck and arms ... with diamonds. 4. The mirror dimly ... in the corner of the darkened room. 5. The snow faintly... in the moonlight. 6. The ... icicles were shedding gay tears. 7. The polished furniture ... and the crystal chandelier gaily... 8. The distant snow-capped mountain-peaks faintly... through the mist. 9. His black face ... with sweat, but the eyes ... with gaiety. 10. The lake ... in the dazzling hot sun. 11. Tears ... in her eyes. 12.1 was startled by the fury ... in his eyes. 13. The lights of the harbour, usually so bright, just... through the fog.

14. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying special attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. She wasn't a cultivated reader, an amusing plot being all she asked from a book. She skipped descriptions, and the author's digressions bored her to death. 2. "I will not conceal from you that the Prime Minister's presence at the Conference is a vital necessity." 3. "Monsieur Poirot, I have come to consult you upon a matter of the most vital urgency. I must ask for absolute secrecy." 4. "Mr. Vole," said the solicitor, "I am going to ask you a very serious question, and one to which it is vital I should have a truthful answer." 5. Jack sighed, grasped his golf club firmly, but at this moment a strange sound captured his attention. 6. "I know it's difficult for you to grasp, but the theatre of today has at last acquired a social conscience, and a social purpose." 7. The letter came by the six o'clock post. An illiterate scrawl, written on common paper and enclosed in a dirty envelope with the stamp stuck on crooked. Mr. Mayherne read it through once or twice before he grasped its meaning. 8. She stared at him, her eyes filled with a deep, unspoken sorrow, like the eyes of a small captured monkey he had seen on the docks. 9. The boy at the table, making every effort to give full attention to his studies, was resentful of their conversation that captured his interest. 10. By now he was not nearly so certain as he had been that he had really heard the cry — the natural result of trying to recapture a lost sensation.

B. 1. Charlie Chaplin's "The Circus" comes to us like a surprise gift from history, the cinematic equivalent of a suddenly discovered minor masterpiece by Mozart or an unearthed James Joyce manuscript. 2. This, then, was the British expert described by Lady Willard as being a minor official at the British Museum. 3. Young Bleibner was suffering from some minor skin trouble. 4. A few yards down that unfrequented road a large car is standing, apparently broken down. 5. The constant stale of strain under which she has been working recently may lead to a serious breakdown. 6. As Ferris taxied uptown he glimpsed at intersections the lingering sunset, but by the time he reached his destination it was already autumn dark. 7. The little girl was eleven — beautifully ugly as little girls are apt to be who [169] are destined after a few years to be inexpressibly lovely. Vitality is born early in such girls. It was utterly in evidence now, shining through her thin frame in a sort of glow. 8. As seen from one of its seven hills, Richmond was beautiful, with its broad streets, its noble trees and the shimmer of the gently flowing river. 9. The Army Bill was under discussion and it was clear Jefferson Davis thought none but himself qualified to speak on the issue. 10. Don't stray from the point at issue. I want to get to the bottom of this. 11. He was trying to catch a gleam or gesture that would lessen the gap which lay between his present and his past. 12. The boy was struck dumb by a suave turn of carpeted stairs and a pendant glitter of chandeliers and a mute gleam of gold frames. 13. He continued then for a moment to turn the brooch this way and that in the light to see it sparkle. It sparkled very nicely. 14. His skull and face were shining from a recent scrubbing, so that the little bridgeless nose glistened between the protective points of the cheekbones. 15. Her eyes opened wider as she contemplated the sea-green figured velvet, the shining brass, silver, and glass, the wood that gleamed as darkly brilliant as the surface of a pool of oil. 16. The sun was glaring from the pale sky, and just over the horizon a shifting silvery haze was shimmering.

15. Translate the following sentences into English using your active vocabulary:

1. У него была удивительная память, которая мгновенно схватывала и прочно удерживала всю особо важную информацию. Лекции он не записывал, но после мог воспроизвести все, что говорил лектор, в подробностях, без единого пробела. Накануне экзамена ему нужно было только бегло просмотреть учебник, и все знали, что счастье и на этот раз ему не изменит. 2. «Вы читали этот роман? » Он поднял со стола книгу. — «Я перелистала его». 3. Ответить просто, что она едет в Сан-Франциско, значило бы оказаться в глазах спутников самой заурядной пассажиркой, направляющейся к самому обыденному месту назначения, и потерять всякую надежду привлечь к себе внимание или возбудить интерес. 4. Симфония № 40 и симфония «Юпитер» считаются самыми значительными произведениями Моцарта. Однако великому композитору не было суждено услышать их: при жизни его они ни разу не исполнялись. 5. Читая любой детективный роман, читатель заранее знает, что преступник неизбежно будет схвачен и наказан. Это — существенный нравственный аргумент в пользу данного жанра. 6. Почти всю ночь он блуждал в тумане, пока его внимание не привлек отдаленный свет, тускло блеснувший во мраке. 7. В вечернем выпуске газеты вы найдете подробный отчет о сегодняшних дебатах в парламенте. 8. Досадно, когда такую прекрасную музыку используют только для того, чтобы заполнить паузу между передачами. 9. Большинство экспертов пришли к заключению, что этот портрет, до сих пор приписывавшийся
Ван Дейку (
Van Dyck), на самом деле является подделкой, выполненной неким второразрядным художником девятнадцатого века. 10. Исход битвы при Ватерлоо должен был решить судьбу не только Англии и Франции, но и большинства европейских государств.

16. Give eleven brief situations in which you will say the following (may be done in pairs):

1. I bet you've only skipped it. 2. It is a thing of vital importance. 3. I'm afraid it will be difficult for him to grasp that... 4. ... captured the eye. 5. of minor importance. 6. He was destined to... 7.... to a destination unknown. 8. It was a nervous breakdown. 9. to lack vitality. 10. a gleam of hope (understanding, sympathy). 11. a wide gap between ....

17. Render Text Six.

18. Give the gist of Text Six.

19. Reread Text Six to speak on the following points of its composition and style.

a) Comment on the merits (or demerits) of the composition. What do they call this type of composition (the end returning the reader to the place and time indicated in the beginning)?

b) Is the plot of minor or of major importance in this story? If not the plot, what is it that matters here?

c) Comment on the end of the story. Is the reader led to expect this kind of end or is there an element of suddenness?

d) What kind of man is the hero of the story? What method of characterization is used?

e) Comment on and illustrate the various devices used to make the style suit the subject. Which of them do you consider especially effective?

f) Make a detailed analysis of the rhythmic effects in the whole story. [171]

g) Point out lines bearing touches of irony or humour. Prove which it is.

h) How does the author use epithets? What is the author's purpose in repeatedly using the epithet "blue"?

i) Find examples of the author's keen sensibility to scenery. Are there any evidences of poetic sensitiveness? In what lines?

j) Comment on the language. Compare it with the language of "The Escape".

20. Complete the following dialogues. Use your active vocabulary. Express proper attitudes in the stimuli and responses by adequate intonation means. Observe the rhythm and stresses:

1. "Why on earth did he leave the train? Can you account for it?" "I think I can. You see, ..."

2. "If only the train would stop!" "Why should it?"...

3. "Do you really mean to take me to that horrid place for the holidays?" - "But, darling, it's a lovely place!" - "Lovely, indeed! Many miles from nowhere with not even a cinema!"

4.  "Why don't we go on? What has happened?" - "Nothing has happened. It must be a station." - "Oh, it's most unlikely. Look out of the window. Does it look like a station?" -"Hm, not much."

21. Make up dialogues on the suggested situations using the given phrases. Convey proper attitudes both in the stimuli and responses following the instructions given in each situation:

1. A young man is boasting of his traveling experiences. To hear him, he has been roaming through all the world and seen everything there is to see. As he is evidently making it all up, his friend sounds sceptical.

a) Did you really? (Have you really?) Indeed? Is that so? You don't say so! You can never tell. I don't believe it. I (rather) doubt it. It is most unlikely! You must have imagined it. Tell it to the marines. Dear me! Just fancy! Well, I never! Who'd have thought it! It's amazing!..
It's incredible!

b) But I assure you... Not the slightest doubt about it. I've seen it with
my own eyes. You may take my word for it. Do you doubt my word?

2. Two passengers are admiring the landscape out of a railway-carriage window or from a ship deck. One is immoderately enthusiastic about all he (she) sees; the other is bored and intensely dislikes it all.

a) How lovely! What a charming view! Just look at.... I'm thrilled no end. Isn't it marvellous to ...? I love going by train (boat), don't you? If only the train (boat) would stop! This place is divine, isn't it? Don't you find it so? You agree, don't you? It's breathtaking! A riot
of colour!

b) Nothing to speak of. Why should you be so thrilled? Rubbish! Stuff and nonsense! I don't think so. Can't see anything in it. Why, it's just a landscape, isn't it? I'm not the one for nature. It's ridiculous to get so excited about... This modern craze for nature is absurd.

3. Avery old lady is discussing different methods of travelling with her grown-up grandson. She prefers travelling as it was in olden times. The young man naturally likes modern methods.

a)  used to; were in the habit of; slow but sure; you can never tell; the new ways; you ought to; you'd better not; mark my words; be on the safe side; you can't be too careful.

b) Why should we (you)...? I think you are wrong there. I'm all for; Times do change. Don't let that upset you. Take it easy. There is something in that but; We mustn't be behind the times. You can't be serious! Absurd! Crawl at a snail's pace,

22. a) Write a newspaper account that might have appeared in the next issue of the newspaper under the title "The Minor Mystery Solved". Begin in the following way:

In our previous issue we acquainted the readers with a curious incident related to the breakdown of the Blue Alsatian Express. During the emergency stop one of the passengers had mysteriously left the train. As we have been informed  ...

b) Read your account to your comrades in class. Arrange a competition for the best version.

23. Compose a second part of the story "Anthony in Blue Alsatia" with the view of showing how the newspaper article influenced Anthony's further life, behaviour or psychology.

24. Make a round-table discussion of the story in which one part of the participants will criticize the story pointing out its weak points, and the other will defend it enlarging on its merits.




By John B. Priestley

(Two extracts from the novel)

"Cut some off for George," said Mrs. Smeeth, "and I'll keep it hot for him. He's going to be late again. You're a bit late yourself tonight, Dad."

"I know. We've had a funny day today," replied Mr. Smeeth, but for the time being he did not pursue the subject. He was busy carving, and though it was only cold mutton he was carving, he liked to give it all of his attention.

"Now, then, Edna," cried Mrs. Smeeth to her daughter, "don't sit there dreaming. Pass the potatoes and the greens — careful, they're hot. And the mint sauce. Oh, I forgot it. Run and get it, that's a good girl. All right, don't bother yourself. I can be there and back before you've got your wits together."

Mr. Smeeth looked up from his carving and eyed Edna severely. "Why didn't you go and get it when your mother told you. Letting her do everything."

His daughter pulled down her mouth and wriggled a little. "I'd have gone," she said in a whining tone. "Didn't give me time, that's all."

Mr. Smeeth grunted impatiently. Edna annoyed him these days. He had been very fond of her when she was a child — and, for that matter, he was still fond of her — but now she had arrived at what seemed to him a very silly, awkward age. She had a way of acting, of looking, of talking, all acquired fairly recently, that irritated him. An outsider might have come to the conclusion that Edna looked like a slightly soiled and cheapened elf. She was between seventeen and eighteen, a smallish girl, thin about the neck and shoulders but with sturdy legs! She had a broad snub nose, a little round mouth that was nearly always open, and greyish-greenish-bluish eyes set rather wide apart; and scores of faces exactly like hers, pert, prettyish and under-nourished, may be seen within a stone's throw of any picture theatre any evening in any large town. She had left school as soon as she could, and had wandered in an out of various jobs, the latest and steadiest of them  being one as assistant in a big draper's Finsbury Park way. At home now, being neither child nor an adult, neither dependent nor independent, she was at her worst: languid and complaining, shrill and resentful, or sullen and tearful; she would not eat properly; she did not want to help her mother, to do a bit of washing-up, to tidy her room; and it was only when one of her silly little friends called, when she was going out, that she suddenly sprang into a vivid personal life of her own, became eager and vivacious. This contrast, as sharp as a sword, sometimes angered, sometimes saddened her father, who could not imagine how his home, for which he saw himself for ever planning and working, appeared in the eyes of fretful, secretive and ambitious adolescence. These changes in Edna annoyed and worried him far more than they did Mrs. Smeeth, who only took offence when she had a solid grievance, and turned a tolerant, sagely feminine eye on what she called Edna's "airs and graces".

Left to himself, Mr. Smeeth slowly knocked out his pipe in the coal-scuttle and then stared into the fire, brooding. He was always catching himself grumbling about the children now, and he did not want to be a grumbling father. He had enjoyed them when they were young, but now, although there were times when he felt a touch of pride, he no longer understood them. George especially, the elder of the two, and once a very bright promising boy, was both a disappointment and a mystery. George had had opportunities he himself had never had. But George had shown an inclination from the first, to go his own way, which seemed to Mr. Smeeth a very poor way. He had no desire to stick to anything, to serve somebody faithfully, to work himself steadily up to a good safe position. He simply tried one thing after another, selling wireless sets, helping some pal in a garage (he was in a garage now, and it was his fourth or fifth), and though he always contrived to earn something and appeared to work hard enough, he was not, in his father's opinion, getting anywhere.

He was only twenty, of course, and there was time, but Mr. Smeeth, who knew very well that George would continue to go his own way without any reference to him, did not see any possibility of improvement. The point was, that to George, there was nothing wrong, and his father was well aware of the fact that he could not make him see there was anything wrong. That was the trouble with both his children. There was obviously nothing bad about either of them; they compared very favourably with other people's boys and girls; and he would have been quick to defend them; but nevertheless, they were growing up to be men and women he could not understand, just as if they were foreigners. And it was all very perplexing and vaguely saddening.

The truth was, of course, that Mr. Smeeth's children were foreigners, not simply because they belonged to a younger generation but because they belonged to a younger generation that existed in a different world. Mr. Smeeth was perplexed because he applied to them standards they did not recognize. They were the product of a changing civilization. They were the children of the Woolworth stores and the moving pictures. Their world was at once larger and shallower than that of their parents. They were less English, more cosmopolitan. Mr. Smeeth could not understand George and Edna, but a host of youths and girls in New York, Paris and Berlin would have understood them at a glance. Edna's appearance, her grimaces and gestures, were temporarily based on those of an Americanized Polish Jewess, who, from her mint in Hollywood, had stamped them on these young girls all over the world. George's knowing eye for a machine, his cigarette and drooping eyelid, his sleek hair, his ties and shoes and suits, the smallest details of his motor-cycling and dancing, his staccato impersonal talk, his huge indifferences, could be matched almost exactly round every corner in any American city or European capital.


Vocabulary Notes

1. Pursue vt 1) follow in order to capture or kill; chase 2) (fig.) keep close to; never leave, e.g. His record as a criminal pursued him wherever he went. 3) follow after; seek after; aim at, as to pursue pleasure 4) continue; follow out; carry on, as to pursue one's studies, to pursue a subject continue to talk about it; argue it further

Pursuer n one who pursues; pursuit л 1) the act of pursuing, following or chasing, as a dog in pursuit of rabbits; pursuit of happiness 2) any regular occupation or pastime, as pursuit of science.
Syn. employment

2. eye vt watch very carefully, as to eye a person with suspicion.

Syn. look, stare, gaze, glare, glance

Word Discrimination: look vi is neutral and does not imply any particular aspects of the manner of watching; look n stare vi look steadily, with wide-open eyes, in surprise, curiosity or contempt. Srare may also denote the way of senseless looking devoid of any expression as stare into space; stare n

Gaze vi implies a long and steady process of looking. It may be emotionally coloured: a person may gaze in wonder, tenderness, with interest, e.g. She was gazing at her baby, gaze, n

Glare vi look long, angrily or even fiercely; glare n

Glance vi take a very quick look; glance n

3. Acquire vr 1) get by one's own efforts and behaviour, e.g. You must work hard to acquire a good knowledge of a foreign language. He has acquired a reputation for dishonesty, an acquired taste one that is not natural, e.g. Many Japanese don't like cheese when they first eat it; it is an acquired taste.

Acquirement л 1) act of acquiring 2) smth. that is acquired through the mind, skill or ability, e.g. She is always boasting of her daughter's acquirements (= saying how clever her daughter is).

4. Cheapen vt 1) make cheap(er); lower the price or value of 2) belittle; bring into contempt, e.g. Constant swearing cheapened him. 3) decrease the quality or beauty of; make inferior or vulgar, e.g. So much smoking rather cheapens the girl. Why should you cheapen yourself by this kind of conduct?

Cheapened p. part, vulgar

5. Assist vt/vi help

Assistance n, e.g. Can 1 be of any assistance? (= Can I help?) Assistant n 1) a helper 2) an employee in a shop selling things (also: shop-assistant). Syn. help

Word Discrimination: assist describes the kind of help in which the recipient of help performs the major part of work, and the role of the one who helps is of minor importance; sometimes he does his work under the supervision of the recipient, e.g. The instructor assists the professor by taking notes during the examination. Cf. She helped him to write the book (i.e. It is possible that he would not have managed the work without her help) and She assisted him in writing the book (i.e. She did minor work without which the book would have been written all the same).

6. Vivid a I) (of colour, etc.) brilliant; intense; very clear, as a vivid flash of lightning; 2) lively; vigorous; active, as a vivid imagination; 3) (of descriptions, etc.) very clear and distinct; lifelike

Vividly adv

Vividness n

7. Vivacious a full of life and animation; high-spirited; gay, as a vivacious girl

Vivaciously adv

Vivacity n liveliness, animation; high spirits

8. Adolescence n the state of growing up; the time between childhood and manhood or womanhood

Adolescent a growing up; л a boy or a girl growing up (aged 13 to 20)

9. Grieve vt/i (formal) 1) cause grief to, e.g. We must all grieve at (for, over) the death of such a good man.

Grievance n a real or imaginary cause for complaint; a real or imaginary wrong or hardship, to nurse grievances, e.g. The old woman liked to speak about her grievances.

Grievous  a (formal) 1) bringing serious trouble or great suffering, as grievous wrongs 2) exciting grief, as a grievous accident 3) severe, as grievous pain

10. tolerant a reluctant to interfere with the freedom of thought or actions of others; willing to allow others to think or act as they please even when their opinions, ideas, conduct, etc. seem wrong.
Ant. intolerant

Tolerantly adv

Tolerance n willingness to allow others to hold opinions or follow customs different from one's own. Ant. intolerance

Tolerate vt allow; permit; bear; endure, e.g. I will not tolerate your impudence (your conduct).

Tolerable a, Ant. intolerable a

11.  Temporary a lasting for a short time only; not permanent, as temporary success (employment)

Temporarily adv

Temporariness л (formal)

Note. Don't confuse the adjectives temporary and temporal. The latter has the following meanings: 1) of this life only; not eternal. 2) having to do with time (c/. the Russian «временный» и «временной»).

Word Combinations and Phrases

for the time being to work oneself up to a good position

for that matter  to get nowhere (not to get anywhere)

to take offence to apply certain standards to smb.

to turn a tolerant (angry, loving, etc.) eye on smb to be well aware of smth.

a touch of pride (resentment, tenderness, humour, etc. Also: a touch of the flu)


1. a) Listen to the recording of Text Seven and mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

2. Find the following words in a dictionary, translate them and practise the pronunciation:

wriggle, wander, languid, resentful, sullen, vivacious, sword, secretive, ambitious, adolescence, coal-scuttle, perplexing, cosmopolitan, temporarily, stacatto

3. Read the following words paying attention to the primary and secondary stresses:

independent, inclination, cigarette, disappointment, possibility, opportunities, generation, civilization

4. Practise the pronunciation of the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech:

and though it was only cold mutton; don't sit there dreaming; and the mint sauce; I can be there and back; grunted impatiently; thin about the neck and shoulders; sprang into a vivid personal life of her own; Mr. Smeeth slowly knocked out his pipe in the coal-scuttle; grumbling about the children; he had enjoyed them when they were young; he no longer understood them; he simply tried one thing after another; he would have been quick to defend them

5. Read the following word combinations; mind the pronunciation of the nasal sonant, especially in the intervocalic position:

for the time being; letting her do everything; a way of acting, of looking, of talking; to do a bit of washing-up; when she was going out; planning and working; selling wireless sets; getting anywhere; nothing wrong; they were growing up; very perplexing and vaguely saddening; they belonged to a younger generation; knowing eye for a machine; and drooping eyelid; the smallest details of his motor-cycling and dancing

6. Read the beginning of the first extract up to "Didn't give me time, that's all", noting the intonation of the author's words and paying attention to the use of adequate intonation patterns both in the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

7. Read the following passage from "Left to himself,..." up to "... and vaguely saddening". Observe the intonation group division using proper intonation patterns and beating the time; note strong and weak forms and the intonation of parenthesis and parenthetic groups.

8. Read the text and consider its following aspects.

a) What can be deduced from the first five paragraphs about the relations between the parents and the daughter? Point out the sentences which indirectly reveal the relations.

b) Exemplify the use of epithets used in the portrait-sketch of Edna. What kind of attitude do they create? Find the stylistic device of contrast in the same description. Sum up what you have learned about Edna from this paragraph.

c)  Explain and enlarge on: "...her father ... could not imagine how his home, for which he saw himself for ever planning and working, appeared in the eyes of fretful, secretive and ambitious adolescence".

d) What would be lost if the sentence "Mr. Smeeth... stared into the fire, brooding" ran: "Mr. Smeeth looked into the fire, thinking"?

e) Explain the meaning of:

...George had shown an inclination... to go his own way, which seemed to Mr. Smeeth a very poor way. He had no desire... to work himself steadily up to a good safe position.... to George, there was nothing wrong.... he applied to them standards they did not recognize; his huge indifferences...

f) Select the sentences and phrases in which George's portrait-sketch is given. Sum up, in your own words, what you have gathered about George from the description.

g) What is the difference in the methods of portrayal applied in the descriptions of Edna and George?

h) Explain what is meant by: "Their world was at once larger and shallower than that of their parents".

i) Comment on the syntax in the extract beginning "They were the product..." and ending "They were less English". What is the effect produced by the change of the rhythm as compared to the syntax of the preceding paragraphs?

9. Copy out from Text Seven the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases given above and translate them into Russian.

10.  Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:

1. He was quite conscious of the general disapproval, but regarded his critics indifferently and patiently. He didn't seem particulaly hurt even by the wildest accusations and answered them rather humorously than otherwise. 2. "Let us temporarily drop the subject. We are not likely to achieve any results by this messy argument." 3. Young people will never understand their parents while they judge them from the point of their own views and tastes. So far as that is concerned, the same goes for the parents. People can never understand each other at all unless they are ready to meet each other halfway. 4. Jack was a competent and efficient employee, and everyone expected him to make a good career.

11. Compose two dialogues using the word combinations and phrases. Mind the intonation patterns in the stimuli and responses to convey proper attitudes.

Suggested situations: 1. Conversation between father and son about the boy's future career. They disagree on most points but are trying hard to understand each other. 2. Conversation between two mothers complaining about misunderstandings in their families.

12. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations and phrases:

1. Вместо того чтобы смотреть на иллюзии молодых добрыми и терпеливыми глазами, взрослые подчас раздраженно говорили нам: «Любуясь на звезды, ничего не достигнешь. Нужно работать, добиваться прочного положения в обществе, а не гоняться за миражами». 2. «Нельзя же подходить ко всем со своей меркой, — сказал Чарльз с некоторой досадой. — Если уж на то пошло, не все могут позволить себе такие расходы, как ты. И ты это хорошо знаешь». 3. Конечно, Джейн обиделась на эти несправедливые слова, но решила временно сдержаться и не отвечать свекрови. Сказав, что у нее слегка разболелась голова, она ушла в свою комнату.

13. Answer the following questions:

1. What was Mr. Smeeth's attitude to his daughter? 2. What was it that annoyed him in her? 3. What did Edna look like? 4. Do you think that her father's annoyance was well-founded or rather unreasonable? 5. What can be said in Edna's defence? (She was "languid and complaining, shrill and resentful, or sullen and tearful". Probably she had reasons other own for being all that, hadn't she?) 6. Why was it that George, "a very bright promising boy", turned out a disappointment to his father? Do you think that Mr. Smeeth was objective in his disappointment? What was it exactly that worried him about George? Do you think that George's failings were serious
ones? 7. Why was it that Mr. Smeeth's children were foreigners to him? 8. Do you think that the parents are to be blamed for their attempts to apply their own standards to their children? Or, probably, such attempts are natural and understandable?

14. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.

15. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:

A. 1. The next moment the cat was shooting out of the room, hotly pursued by the spaniel. 2. It was true that she had let Toby embrace her, but the implied charge of having actually pursued the young man was too unjust. 3. The whole mob was pouring after him. George swerved sharply to the right casting a swift glance at his pursuers. He disliked them all, especially the man with the pitchfork. 4. "Do you know a hyphenated word of nine letters, ending in 'k' and signifying an implement employed in pursuit of agriculture?" "Pitchfork," said George. "But you may believe me, as one who knows, that agriculture is not the only thing it is used in pursuit of." 5. Every man should have a fixed pursuit of the business of his life, to which the principal part of his life should be devoted. 6. "You say your stay here will be but temporary. But where will you go when you leave London?" the stranger pursued. 7. Strictly speaking, that school, Worrel (one of the second-class public schools) is not very old, but it has turned out so many fellows ready to boast about it to all and sundry that has acquired, by verbal association, the antiquity of Eton. 8. He was one of those who had been robbed of acquiring knowledge through a university course. 9. Miss Matfield typed her letters with slightly less contempt and disgust than usual, and she had acquired an assistant, a second typist. 10. Dersingham did not think of Golspie as an Englishman; he contrived to think of him as a kind of foreigner who had acquired an extraordinary command of the English language. 11. "And look at the way she went and encouraged you at first," said Mrs. Pelumpton, "cheapening herself as anything — that ought to have told you what sort of a girl she is, but of course boys can never see that." 12. The city, too hot and airless in summer, too raw in winter, too wet in spring, and too smoky and foggy in autumn, assisted by long hours of artificial light, by hasty breakfasts and illusory lunches, by fuss all day and worry all night, had blanched the whole man, had thinned his hair and turned it grey. 13. Finally he volunteered to go on to the stage to assist in a conjuring trick. 14. She and Dersingham, assisted by Mr. Pearson, who said that he was used to clearing a table, did what they could to make the dinner come to a civilized end. 15. The new typist had been a great disappointment to Turgis, not because she was of no assistance to him in his work but because she was not the attractive young creature his heated fancy had conjured up to fill the post.

B. 1. Turgis did not try very hard to make himself superficially attractive to the sex that despises crumpled clothes, matted hair, pasty cheeks, youth that has lost all vividness and glow. 2. It was rather queer seeing Mr. Golspie again in the grey light of the winter morning. It was rather like seeing someone you had just met in a vivid dream. 3. Mr. Golspie had been constantly in her thoughts, hardly as a real person she knew, but rather as a particularly vivid and memorable character in a play she had seen. 4. Lena and her father had gone to Paris, leaving Turgis to imagine, with a vividness and force, a host of scenes in which Lena went smiling in the arms of rich and handsome Frenchmen and Americans. 5. Perhaps she could break it to him gently; calm him down, explain. But before she got to the door she was vividly picturing the scene he would make and had changed her mind. 6. As Toby came round the front of the car, someone came into view on the road, another figure vividly revealed in the beam of the lights. 7. "Most of the people I meet here these days seem to be living in a fool's paradise," said Mr. Golspie agressively. "Now, Mr. Golspie," cried his hostess with desperate vivacity, "you're not to call us all fools." 8. She made a joke of it — showing the last gleam of vivacity she would be able to show for months. 9. Her face, her voice, her manner, all pointed to the conclusion that Lilian nursed some huge, some overwhelming grievance against life, but though she gave tongue to a thousand little grievances every day, she never mentioned the monster. 10. "Better one suffer, than a nation grieve." (Dryden) 11. "I read a book last week," Edna announced. "Yes, and been to the pictures three times since then," said her father, who was determined to have his grievance. 12. Turgis, pleased by this statement, but still labouring under a grievance, could do nothing but mumble and mutter. 13. "I know how much you grieve over those who are under your care: those you try to help and fail, those you cannot help." 14. When the lunch was over he slipped quickly out of the dining-room and took temporary refuge in his own room. He could not face anyone at the moment. 15. The blackbird sang again, its song sounding intolerably remote and strange in the silence. 16. Mr. Dersingham she neither liked nor disliked, she merely tolerated him. 17. "Seems to me you don't understand the seriousness of his business," Mr. Smeeth said. "That's all right, Dad," said George tolerantly. "Don't you worry. I can look after myself." 18. "Look, sweetie," said Noel. "As you know, I usually behave with angelic tolerance where you're concerned. You may even have got it into your head that old uncle Noel doesn't mind what you do." 19. The fact was, he wanted her advice but not her absolution. Not that the Abbess would be tolerant. 20. She was the eager, excited, imploring female, and he was the large, knowing, tolerant, protective male. 21. She realized that she had not been unaware of the charms of that hard adolescent body and fresh uncertain face. 22. The most painful part of childhood is the period you begin to emerge from it: adolescence. 23. Adolescents are over-conscious of their appearance and the impression they make on others.

16. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: eye, v; stare v, n; gaze, v, n; glare v, n; glance v, n. Explain your choice:

1. Soames fixed his ... on Bosinney's tie, which was far from being in the perpendicular. 2. He saw at a... what had happened during his absence. 3. This masterpiece has been exhibited during centuries to the admiring ... of the multitude, and today we don't see it through our own eyes but through their eyes as well. 4. One... was enough to understand the situation. 5. Her ... rested on the muscular neck bronzed by the sun spilling over with rugged health and strength. 6. He turned one more corner and found himself ... at the immense panorama of the Thames. 7. After a brief ... he ignored the stranger or pretended to. 8. Both the blind eyes and the lighted eyes of the innumerable windows seemed to answer his ... and to tell him that he did not amount to very much, not here in London. Then his ... swept over the bridge to what could be seen beyond. 9. You would not have noticed him in a crowd, or, rather, you would have given him one... and then decided that that was enough. 10. As he said this, he tried to make Miss Matfield accept a friendly grin, but all that he got in return was a ... like a high wall with broken glass along the top. 11. She brought to bear upon this intruder the full force of her contemptuous.... On this objectionable man it had no effect at all. He ... hard at her, and then grinned broadly. 12. And then they were gone, leaving Mr. Smeeth and Turgis ... at each other in utter bewilderment. 13. "I don't care a damn what he said," cried Goath agressively,... round at them all. "If I hate the feller, I do hate him, and that finishes it." 14. He moved slowly along, sometimes ... into the windows of shops that meant nothing to him. 15. When he found her at last, she was ... into the jeweller's window, entirely absorbed by the sparkle and glitter within. 16. ... at him, she was reminded of the heroes of old. 17. The child ... the stranger with suspicion and fear. 18. All the women sat up and... at him with adoration. 19. «Any more of that impudence from you," Mr. Smeeth shouted at her, ... . 20. If Cleopatra herself in full regalia had been standing there, Mr. Smeeth could not have ... at her in greater astonishment.

17. Translate the following sentences into English using the essential vocabulary.

1. Увлечение искусством — это не только способ заполнить свободное время; это — дверь в новый мир, мир ярких красок и высоких чувств. 2. Особенно впечатляющей в фильме была сцена погони. Правда, события развивались так быстро, что трудно было понять, кто за кем гонится. 3. «Погоня за счастьем — пустое дело, — сказал он. — Счастье — это свойство души; или оно есть у вас или нет». 4. Она была так гротескно накрашена, что люди смотрели на нее с удивлением, а одна старушка даже с гневом. 5. Наша школа, при поддержке семьи, выпускает каждый год толпы подростков, не готовых ни к чему, кроме погони за примитивными удовольствиями. 6. Она с грустью смотрела на эту знаменитую картину, обесцененную и вульгаризированную миллионами плохих репродукций на конфетных коробках и обертках. 7. «Мисс Грин обладает всеми знаниями и умениями,
необходимыми для хорошего секретаря». 8. Мистер Шелли разглядывал шкатулку с таким видом, будто никогда раньше не видел ничего подобного. Его лицо приняло странный зеленоватый оттенок. 9. Майкл с гневом смотрел на отца. «Где я провожу вечера, это мое дело, мне уже семнадцать, я взрослый. А ты только опошляешь все своими грязными подозрениями». 10. Когда в лавке было много покупателей, Элла помогала обслуживать их, но она еще не приобрела необходимых знаний и сноровки, чтобы делать это достаточно профессионально. 11. «Я совершенно ясно, живо помню лицо мисс Дин, когда она только начинала выступать на сцене. Это была актриса полная жизни, веселья и очарования. И такой ранний, такой горестный конец!» 12. «В связи с погодными условиями, все рейсы временно  отменены». 13. У женщины, сентиментально восклицающей: «Ах, где мои шестнадцать лет», наверное, очень плохая память. Отрочество — болезненный период в жизни подрастающего человека. Это — возраст, в котором человек — уже не ребенок и еще невзрослый — нетерпим ко всем и к себе самому, обидчив и склонен надолго затаивать свои обиды. 14. Живость красок в его картинах отчасти маскировала погрешности рисунка. 15.  Живость — естественное качество ребенка, нужно терпимо переносить шум и беготню и не раздражаться.

18. Use the following in brief situations. See to it that the situation enhances the meaning of the word or phrase from your essential vocabulary. May be done in pairs.

1. Where did she acquire such beautiful accent? 2. You needn't cheapen yourself in this way. 3. Did you actually assist in producing the film? 4. You shouldn't nurse grievances. 5. Adolescents are seldom tolerant. 6. It is a temporary arrangement. 7. Yes, she is a vivacious child. 8.1 refuse to pursue the subject. 9. You have a very vivid imagination. 10. What are the girl's acquirements?

19. Give the gist of Text Seven.

20. Compose dialogues.

Suggested situations: 1. Mr. Smeeth is talking with his son George about the latter's career. (For the attitudes, use the information provided by the text.) 2. Mrs. Smeeth is talking with Edna about her behaviour at home and outside. (Use the information provided by the text. Keep it in mind that Mrs. Smeeth is a more tolerant parent than her husband.) 3. George and Edna are discussing their par-ents. 4. Mr. and Mrs. Smeeth are discussing their children.

21. Reread Text Seven to discuss the following points of its style.

a) There are four characters in the extracts. What methods of characterization are used in the portrayal of each? Do a thorough analysis of all the portrait-sketches illustrating what you say with quotations from the text.

b) What is the dominant atmosphere of the narrative? By what lexical elements of the text is it created? (Give examples.)

c) What is the manner of the writer? Does he make use of numerous tropes (stylistic devices)? (Give examples.) What is the effect achieved by this? Is his style lucid or obscure?

d) How would you define the theme of the extract? Formulate it in one sentence.

* silly = blessed (arch.)

* Ellen and Sylvia Barrett had been at college together.

* Alsatia is a poetical name of Alsace


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  Крестцовоподвздошный сустав: тугой капсула вентральная связка дорсальная коротная и длинная крестцовоседалищная связка широкая тазовая. ТБС:: простой многоосный чашеобразный; по краю суставной впадины хрящевая губа над вырезкой впадины поперечная связка впадины помимо капсулы круглая связка у лошадей добавочная связка.
26410. Лёгкие (pulmones, pneumones) 24.5 KB
  На каждом легком различают поверхности: латеральную реберную медиальную средостенную каудовентральную диафрагмальную а также междолевые. На средостенной поверхности заметны вдавления: сердечное аортальное пищеводное и желоб задней полой вены как отпечатки расположенных между легкими соответствующих органов. На правом легком со стороны средостенной поверхности имеется добавочная доля. На средостенной поверхности имеется углубление ворота легкого.
26411. Лимфатическая система 22 KB
  проток правый непарный проток правый и левый трахеальный стволы кишечный ствол чревный ствол у КРС правый и левый поясничные стволы. В неё открывается правый и левый поясничные стволы несущие лимфу с каудальных отрезков туловища и тазовых конечностей. С правой стороны головы шеи грудной конечности лимфа оттекает в непарный правый проток который принимает лимфу из правого трахеального протока и впадает в краниальную полую вену.
26412. Матка uterus 23 KB
  Полость матки каудально переходит в узкий канал шейки открывающейся во влагалище. У КРС матки изогнуты спирально заострены имеют форму бараньего рога. Тело матки снаружи длинное но внутри в большей своей части разделено срединной перегородкой. У свиньи рога матки очень длинные до 140 см извиты наподобие кишечных петель.
26413. Межчелюстное пространство 21.5 KB
  Служит опорой для закрепления мышц языка язычная мышца m. linqualis proprius подъязычноязычная мышца m. hyoglossus сокращаясь она притягивает язык вниз и шилоязычная парная мышца m. Мышца вытягивающая язык в сторону ротовой щели подбородочноязычная мышца m.
26414. Многокамерный желудок 23.5 KB
  От отверстия пищевода начинается желоб сетки. Название сетки соответствует рельефу слизистой оболочки на которой находятся складки гребешки сетки cristae reticuli образующие многогранные ячейки cellulae reticuli. В утолщенной правой стенке сетки расположен желоб сетки sulcus reticuli. В желобе сетки различают дно fimdus sulci reticuli и две губы labium dextrum et sinistrum в виде валиков.
26415. Молочая железа (mamma, lactifera). Вымя, множественное вымя 21.5 KB
  Вымя множественное вымя. Все вместе молочные железы вымя uber у КРС и лошади или множественное вымя ubera свинья собака. У крупных животных вымя подвешено на поддерживающей связке которая прикрепляется к белой линии живота. Лошадь: саггитальной бороздой вымя разделено на 2 половины.
26416. Строение конечностей 20 KB
  Конечности становятся длиннее. Животное опирается не на весь автоподий а только на акроподий что уменьшает площадь опоры конечности о почву. Одновременно благодаря этому уменьшается площадь опоры конечности о почву животное опирается лишь на 3ю фалангу пальцев.
26417. ТАЗОВАЯ ПОЛОСТЬ самца и самки 22 KB
  все органы тазовой полости покрыты снаружи адвентицией. Органы тазовой полости расположены послойно. Кровоснабжение тазовой полости осуществляют внутренние подвздошные артерии и вены которые имеют париетальные и висцеральные ветви. Парасимпатическая иннервация гладкой мускулатуры внутренних органов и желёз тазовой полости происходит из крестцового отдела спинного мозга по тазовым нервам через экстра и интрамуральные ганглии.