94607

Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад)

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Suggested Topics for Self-Control and Class Discussion A Short Historical Outline of European and Ukrainian Translation Translation and Interpretation during the Middle Ages Translation during the Renaissance Period Translation during the Period of Classicism and Enlightenment The Epoch of Romanticism and Establishment...

Английский

2015-09-14

2.62 MB

19 чел.

ББК 81.432.1-7

К68

УДК 802.0 (075)

ISBN 966-95804-0-4

Редактор: O.I. Tepex

Корунець І.В.

Теорія і практика перекладу (аспектний переклад): Підручник. -Вінниця. «Нова Книга», 2001 -448 с.

У пропонованому підручнику висвітлюється широке коло питань теорії та практики відтворення мовних одиниць і явищ лексикологічного і граматичного аспектів англійської й української мов. У теоретичній частині дохідливе англійською мовою викладаються короткі відомості про існуючі типи і види перекладу,|про історію розвитку принципів перекладу в Західній Європі та в Україні впродовж останнього тисячоліття^ Проте основна частина підручника відведена способам відтворення лексикологічних та граматичних труднощів англійської мови українською і навпаки. Зокрема: вірному/адекватному відтворенню різних типів власних назв людей, географічних назв і назв установ, компаній, корпорацій, назв газет і журналів, профспілок, політичних, спортивних, гуманітарних організацій, назв газет, журналів, тощо. Пропонуються вивірені способи відтворення ідіомів, значень реалій суспільного життя, класів інтернаціональної лексики, а також асиндетичних іменникових словосполучень і віддієслівних предикативних комплексів тощо. Підручник містить багато різноманітних вправ на закріплення теоретичного матеріалу.

ISBN 966-95804-0-4

©Корунець І.В.

© Вінниця, «Нова Книга», 2001


І.В.Корунець

ТЕОРІЯ І ПРАКТИКА ПЕРЕКЛАДУ

(аспектний переклад)

ПІДРУЧНИК

За редакцією Тереха О.І.

Затверджено Міністерством освіти України

НОВА КНИГА

ВИДА.ВИШДТВО


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Передмова 8

I. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of

Translation 10

Translation as a Notion and Subject 10

Significance of Translating/Interpreting 13

Translation in Teaching of Foreign Languages 15

Ways of Translating 16

Machine Translation 26

Kinds of Translating/Interpreting 28

Suggested Topics for Self-Control and Class Discussion 32

II. A Short Historical Outline of European and

Ukrainian Translation 34

Translation and Interpretation during the Middle Ages 38

Translation during the Renaissance Period 41

Translation during the Period of Classicism and

Enlightenment 42

The Epoch of Romanticism and Establishment of the

Principles of Faithful Translation in Europe 44

Translation in Kyivan Rus' during the 10th -13th Centuries

and in Ukraine during the 14th-16th Centuries 47

The Kyiv Mohyla Academy and Revival of Translation

Activities in Ukraine 52

Kotlyarevskyi's Free Adaptation of Virgil's Aeneid and the

Beginning of a New Era in Ukrainian Translation 54

Translation and Translators during the Late

19th - Early 20th Centuries 57

Translation during the Years of Ukraine's Independence

(1917-1921) and Soviet Rule 63

Translation and Translators in Post-War Ukraine. The

Development of the Principles of Faithful Translation 72

Translation in Ukraine during the Last Decade of the 20th

Century and the Role of the Vsesvit Journal 86

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 89


///. Lexicological Aspects of Translation 91

Methods and Ways of Translating Various Proper Names 92

Conveying the Names of Companies, Corporations, Firms 104

Topics for Self-Control and Class/Home Reviewing 113

Texts for Independent Oral and Written Translation 126

Units of International Lexicon and Ways of Rendering

Their Meaning and Lingual Form 128

Ways of Conveying the Lexical Meaning of Genuine

Internationalisms 135

Translating of Loan Internationalisms 140

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 141

Exercises for Class and Homework 142

Texts for Independent Class and Home Translation 146

News Items for Class Translation at Sight (in Viva Voce) 148

Units of Nationally Biased Lexicon and Ways of

Their Translation 151

Ways of Rendering the Meaning of Nationally

Biased Units of Lexicon 157

Exercises for Class and Homework 169

Texts for Independent Class and Home Translation 177

Translating of Idiomatic/Phraseological and Stable

Expressions 182

Transformations of Some Idioms in the Process of

Translating 196

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 198

Exercises for Class and Homework 198

IV. Lexico-Grammatical Aspects of Translation 208

Rendering of the Contextual Meanings of the Definite and

Indefinite Articles 208

Realization of Contextual Meanings of the Definite Article 210

Realization of Contextual Meanings of the Indefinite Article 215

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 221

Exercises for Class and Homework 221

Asyndetic Noun Clusters and Rendering Their

Meaning into Ukrainian 225

Approaches to Translating Asyndetic Substantival Clusters 226


Translation of Two-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters 227

Translation of Three-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters 232

Translation of Four-Componental Asyndetic Substantival

Clusters 237

Translation of Five-, Six- and Seven-Componental Asyndetic

Substantival Clusters 240

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 243

Exercises for Class and Home Translation 244

Translating of English Verbals and Verbal

Constructions/Complexes 252

Ways of Rendering the Lexico-Grammatical Meanings

and Function of the English Infinitive 253

Ways of Translating Infinitival Complexes 256

Ways of Translating the Objective with the Infinitive

Constructions/Predicative Complexes 259

Ways of Rendering the Meaning of the Subjective with the

Infinitive Constructions 263

Ways of Translating the Participles and Participial

Constructions 269

Ways of Translating Participial Constructions/Complexes 273

A. Ways of Translating the Objective with the Participle
Constructions/Complexes
274

B. Ways of Translating the Subjective with the Participle
Constructions/Complexes
276

C. Ways of Translating the Nominative Absolute Participial
Constructions/Complexes
280

D. Ways of Identification of Implicit Meanings in the Nominative

Absolute Participial Constructions 283

Structural Types of Ukrainian Language Units Conveying the Meaning of the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions... 285

Translation of the Gerund and Gerundial Complexes 295

Ways of Translating Gerundial Complexes/Constructions 299

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 302


Ways and Means of Expressing Modality in English and

Ukrainian 308

The Lexico-Grammatical Expression of Modality

through Modal Verbs 310

English Modal Verbs Having not Always Modal Verbs

Equivalents in Ukrainian 334

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 343

Exercises for Class and Homework 343

Transformations in the Process of Translation 361

Grammatically and Stylistically Prearranged

Transformations 367

Stylistically/Subjectively Predetermined Transformations 369

Ways of Conveying the Passive Voice Constructions 370

Objectively Required and Subjectively Introduced/Contextual

Transformations of Language Units 376

Objectively and Subjectively Conditioned Transformations

of Lexical Units in the Process of Translation 382

Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 387

Exercises for Class and Homework 387

V. Semantic Aspects of Translation 391

Language Units and Levels of Their Faithful Translation 391

Ways of Conveying the Meanings of Polysemantic

Language Units 394

Conveying the Meanings of Language Units at

Passage/Text Level 398

Lexico-Semantic, Stylistic and Structural Analysis of

Language Units/Sense Units of the Excerpt 405

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion 419

Exercises for Class and Homework 420

Publicistic and Newspaper Style Texts and Ways of

Their Translation 423

New Items for Class and Home Written or Oral Translation 437

A List of Literature Used and Recommended 445


ПЕРЕДМОВА

Підручник «Теорія і практика перекладу» розрахований на студентів перекладацьких відділень університетів та інститутів. Однак поаспектний виклад навчального матеріалу та система різноманітних вправ для його вивчення й інтенсивного закріплення дозволяє ефективно використовувати підручник в усіх гуманітарних і технічних вузах, де викладається переклад, а також у коледжах і гімназіях та в старших класах загальноосвітніх шкіл. Стане він у пригоді і всім бажаючим самостійно опановувати лінгвістичні основи письмового та усного перекладу з англійської мови на українську та навпаки. Цьому сприятиме і розподіл та виклад навчального матеріалу, а також пропоновані способи подолання багатьох лексикологічних, лексико-граматичних, семантичних і синтаксичних/структурних труднощів перекладу різних мовних одиниць.

У першому розділі розглядаються загальнотеоретичні й почасти методологічні питання перекладу, зокрема роль і значення перекладу для здійснення багатосторонніх зв'язків на різних рівнях розповсюдження ідей, при обміні інформацією та збагаченні національних мов, літератур і культур, при навчанні та вивченні іноземних мов тощо. В цьому розділі пояснюються також деякі перекладацькі терміни й поняття.

У другому розділі подається коротка історія розвитку євро-пеййБкого і зокрема українського перекладу від давнини до сучасності, що може зацікавити не тільки істориків.

Засоби вірного/адекватного перекладу різних мовних одиниць, понять і явищ англійської мови українською і почасти української англійською розглядаються в наступних розділах підручника. Так, у третьому розділі обґрунтовуються правила відтворення/перекладу різних назв, зокрема й географічних, інтернаціо-налізмів, реалій суспільно-політичного життя, усталених та ідіоматичних виразів англійської й української мов.

Лексико-граматичні питання перекладу є об'єктом розгляду в четвертому розділі, де прослідковуються засоби вираження й відтворення можливих контекстуальних значень означеного й неозначеного артиклів, об'єктивної (граматичної) та суб'єктивної модальності, англійських асиндетичних іменникових словосполучень і конструкцій/комплексів з віддієслівними формами а також різні види перекладацьких трансформацій.

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Семантичні й почасти стильові аспекти перекладу подаються в підручникові безпосередньо через практику письмового й усного відтворення специфічних особливостей на відповідно підібраних для цієї мети текстових вправах у четвертому розділі. Окремі з цих вправ доцільно використовувати відповідно для письмового й усного підсумкового контролю знань і вмінь студентів. Проте головною метою введення тематичних текстових вправ є навчити й перевірити засвоєння теоретичних знань та їх реалізацію через навички письмового й усного перекладу різних типів тексту (зокрема й художнього та науково-технічного). Матеріали вправ можуть бути використані і на лекціях чи семінарських заняттях як наочний/ілюстративний матеріал до відповідних теоретичних тем аспектного перекладу та для тренувань письмового та усного перекладу з аркуша.

Оскільки теоретичні положення кожної теми розраховані на інтенсивне їх вивчення, закріплення і практичне застосування, всі правила перекладу в кожному розділі формулюються лаконічно доступною англійською мовою та ілюструються достатньою кількістю прикладів. Це дає викладачеві змогу виносити окремі теми на самостійне опрацювання студентами. Корисним для свідомого засвоєння найважливіших теоретичних положень можуть бути індивідуальні чи групові завдання студентам на самостійне відшукання ілюстративного матеріалу до окремих тем з відповідних англійських чи українських першоджерел.

Виклад переважної більшості теоретичних питань і положень у підручникові широко ілюструється різними словниковими прикладами і реченнями оригіналу та їх перекладу. Зважаючи на зміни й уточнення/синонімічні заміни й ін., внесені в окремі українські й англійські переклади з метою повнішої ілюстрації певних мовних одиниць/явищ, імена перекладачів не скрізь наводяться.

Автор із вдячністю прийме всі критичні зауваження та пропозиції спрямовані на поліпшення в подальшому пропонованого підручника.


I. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION AS A NOTION AND SUBJECT

Translation as a term and notion is of polysemantic nature, its common and most general meaning being mostly associated with the action or process of rendering/expressing the meaning/content of a source language word, word-group, sentence or passage (larger text) in the target language or with the result of the process/action of rendering. In other words with the work performed by the translator (cf. this is my translation). «Translation» is also used to denote the subject taught or studied, the examination in the subject (cf. we have translation in the time-table today; I have to pass translation tomorrow). «Translation» may refer to the title of the manual/ theoretical work on the subject (cf. I bought Translation by Ivanenko). Besides, the Romanization of proper nouns, geographical names, different internationalisms, etc., when Latin letters are used to convey the Ukrainian nouns, verbs, adverbs is «translation» too: Київ Kyiv, Бровари Brovary, Львів Lviv, Біла Церква Bila Tserkva, Полтава Poltava, Згурівка Zghurivka, Медвин Medvyn, algebra алгебра, geographerreorpadp, computer комп'ютер, opera опера, telephone (v) телефонувати, mechanically механічно, ignore ігнорувати, historically історично. «Translated» in this way, i.e., transliterated with the help of Cyrillic letters are many English and other foreign names and different terms. Cf.: Archibald Cronin Арчібальд Кронін, RobertFrosf Роберт Фрост, Ottawa Оттава, Mc/сНік, Susar/Сюзан, Helmut /<оп/Гельмут Коль, shilling шилінґ, pizza піцца, therapeutic терапевтичний, etc.

No less ambiguous is also the term «interpretation» which is synonymous to «translation» and is used to denote the way or manner of presenting the idea of the work in translation orally (as well as its aesthetic, religious, political, pragmatic background and other qualitative characteristics of the work under translation). These may be artistic, genre and stylistic peculiarities rendered by the translator in his particular way, which is somewhat different from that of the author's. The thing is that «interpretation», unlike «translation», admits some more freedom of the translator in his treatment (at least in certain places or cases) of the matter under translation. Hence,

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the existence of free versifications (переспіви) and free adaptation (перелицювання) which are rightly treated as new creations (when they are of high artistic value). To the latter belong the famous free interpretations of Virgil's Aeneid in Ukrainian by I. Kotlyarevskyi or I. Franko's free adaptation of the German work Reineke Fuchs under the Ukrainian title «Фарбований лис», and many others both in our national literature and in world literature. Practically «adapted» (thought in a peculiar way and with the highest degree of faithfulness, i.e. interpreted according to our national literary tradition), are also Shakespearean masterpieces, Byronean writings and many other poetic and prose works. Consequently, «interpretation» may denote apart from the oral method of translation also a peculiar, pertained to a master of the pen and characteristic of him, as well as the only way of presenting a prose or poetic work in translation. («Interpretation» may also denote the style of a peculiar translator and his way of presenting a particular literary work).

Apart from the two mentioned above, there are some other terms in the theory of translation which may seen ambiguous to the inexperienced student. These usually common terms are: accurate or exact (to what degree?) translation точний переклад; faithful (or realistic) translation, адекватний/вірний переклад; faithfulness of translation/interpretation, адекватність/вірність перекладу/ тлумачення; fidelity (or faithfulness) of translation/interpretation вірність, адекватність перекладу; equivalent translation/interpretation еквівалентний переклад; free interpretation вільний переклад, перелицювання; free adaptation вільний переклад, переробка; free interpretation вільний переспів, перелицювання; free/loose translation вільний переклад, переказ; consecutive interpretation послідовний переклад, усне тлумачення; off-hand translation/ interpretation переклад/тлумачення без попередньої підготовки (з голосу чи з аркуша); rehash вільна переробка (вдала чи невдала) твору; sight translation/interpretation (translation at sight) переклад/ усне тлумачення з аркуша/тексту; simultaneous translation/ interpretation синхронний переклад; rough translation робочий варіант перекладу, чорновий переклад and some others.

Each of the above-mentioned terms may be understood and interpreted differently. Thus, «free interpretation» may mean both «free translation», «free adaptation» and sometimes even «loose translation». Similarly with the terms and notions as «faithful translation» and «equivalent translation» which are synonymous if

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not identical by their general meaning thought not without some difference between them. The term «faithful translation» (адекватний, вірний переклад) is used to denote the highest level/degree of rendering the denotative or connotative meanings of words, the sense of word-groups and sentences, the content, the expressiveness, picturesqueness and the pragmatic subtext/intention of passages or works of the source language with the help of the available means of the target language. The term «equivalent translation» is nowadays practically used in the same meaning as «faithful translation» with one exception only: it also includes the necessity of quantitative and qualitative representation of all constitutive parts or elements of the source language units in the target language. Consequently, a «faithful translation» very often means the same as «equivalent translation» which can be best illustrated on single words, word-groups or sentences as the following: acre акр, democracy демократія, work праця, professors and students професори й студенти, fo work hard важко працювати, take part брати участь, throw light проливати світло, between Scilla and Charybdis між Сціллою і Харібдою, Ukraine celebrated her fifth anniversary in August 1996 Україна святкувала п'яту річницю своєї незалежності в серпні 1996 року.

Equivalent can also be considered the translation of the following English sentence which maintains in Ukrainian its main constituent parts, its content, expressiveness and picturesqueness: There was Penelope flying after me like mad. (W.Collins) За мною гналась, мов навіжена, Пенелопа.

In regard to the afore-said, there can be no equivalence but only faithfulness in the translation of such and the like English language units as: complexion колір обличчя, to take measures вживати заходів, little bird донощик («стукач»), live in the street рідко бувати вдома, one's sands are running out (idiom) тонко пряде/йому недовго ряст топтати, same here (colloq.) це ж саме (так само) і в мене (зі мною), те/це ж саме можу сказати і про себе or: це так само стосується і мене. In a large number of cases «translation» is traditionally applied to various substitutions of the source language constituents/images for the explicatory constituents and images of the target language, which helps achieve the necessary faithfulness in conveying their meaning. Cl: penny-in-the slot прилад/ пристрій-автомат для розрахунків за товари (торгівля); the land of golden fleece Австралія; red blood мужність, відвага, хоробрість

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(когось); let George do it Іван киває на Петра (один спихає відповідальність на другого); agonic (геометрія) що не утворює кута, etc. Therefore, «faithfull» is not always «equivalent».

The term «translation» is used even to denote purely functional substitutions which have absolutely nothing in common with any expression/rendering of meaning of the source language sense units in the target language. A graphic example of this kind of «translation» can be the following passage: «There's the tree in the middle... It could bark... It says «Bough-wough»... «That's why its branches are called boughs». (L.Carrol, Alice in Wonderland). In Ukrainian: Он Фікус стоїть!.. Ми тому й прозвали його Фі-Кус, що він кусається. It goes without saying that the lexical meaning of «tree» is not «Фікус» and «Bough-wough» or «boughs» do not correlate with «кусатись» which they were substituted for in this Ukrainian translation by H.Bushyna.

Similarly «translated» i.e. functionally substituted are different English and Ukrainian metaphorically used nouns, verbs and set expressions as in the examples knight of the pencil журналіст/ кореспондент, baby-snatcher стара жінка, що одружилася з молодим чоловіком, the Square Mile Лондонське Сіті (фінансовий центр Лондона), the Square Mile of Vice (Сою, район нічних розваг міста Лондона), soft head недоумкувата людина (дурник), etc.

SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSLATING/INTERPRETING

The importance of translating and interpreting in modern society has long been recognized. Practically not a single contact at the international level or even between any two foreign persons speaking different languages can be established or maintained without the help of translators or interpreters.

Equally important is translating and interpreting for uninterrupted functioning of different international bodies (conferences, symposia, congresses, etc.) to say nothing about the bodies like the E.E.C.(European Economic Council), the I.M.F.(lnternational Monetary Fund) or the United Nations Organization with its numerous councils, assemblies, commissions, committees and sub-committees. These can function smoothly only thanks to an army of translators and interpreters representing different states and working in many different national languages.

Numerous branches of national economies too can keep up

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with the up-to-date development and progress in the modern world thanks to the everyday translating/interpreting of scientific and technical matter covering various fields of human knowledge and activities. The latter comprise nuclear science, exploration of outer space, ecological environment, plastics, mining, chemistry, biology, medicine, machine building, electronics, linguistics, etc. In the present days translation of scientific and technical matter has become a most significant and reliable source of obtaining all-round and up-to-date information on the progress in various fields of science and technology in all countries of the world.

The social and political role of translation/interpretation has probably been most strongly felt in the 20th century when it provided the dissemination of political (doctrinal) ideas, of social and political knowledge in different fields of sciences.

Translating is also a perfect means of sharing achievements and enriching national languages, literatures and cultures (operas, artistic films). The many translations of the prose, poetry and drama works of the world's famous authors into different national languages provide a vivid illustration of this permanent process. Due to masterly translations of the works by W.Shakespeare, W.Scott, G.G.Byron, P.B.Shelley, C.Dickens, W.Thackeray, O.Wilde, W.S.Maugham, A.Christie, H.W.Longfellow, Mark Twain, J.London, T.Dreiser, R.Frost, E.Hemingway, F.C.Fitzgerald and many other authors their works have become part and parcel of many national literatures. The works by Ukrainian authors have also been translated into English and some other languages, the process being increasingly intensified after Ukraine's gaining independence in 1991. Hitherto only the works of Ukrainian classics had mainly been published in some foreign languages. Among them are first of all T.Shevchenko, I. Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, M.Kotsyubynskyi, V.Stephanyk, V.Vynnychenko, I. Bahryanyi, O.Honchar, O.Dovzhenko. Now the works of V.Symonenko, L.Kostenko, I. Drach, HryhirTyutyunnyk, V.Stus and others are also translated into various foreign languages and have become available for many readers abroad.

Whatever the type of matter is translated (belles-lettres, scientific or didactic, social or political, etc.) and irrespective of the form in which it is performed (written or oral) the linguistic and social or cultural significance of translation/interpretation remains always unchanged. It promotes the enrichment of lexicon and of the means of expression in the target language. Due to the unceasing everyday

14


political, economic, cultural and other contacts between different nations the lexicon of all languages constantly increases. Thousands of words and phrases, which were unknown in national languages before, become an integral part of their lexicon. Among them are units like steppe, Cossack/Kozak, Verkhovna Rada, hryvnia, different scientific/technical and other terms (кібернетика, комп'ютер, дискета, аудит, бартер, менеджмент, спонсор, моніторинґ, екологія, etc.). Consequently, translation/interpretation is a very effective means of enriching the national and international lexicon of all languages. But, as has been said, it is not only the word-stock (or rather the vocabulary) of languages that is constantly enriched. And it is not only separate words that are borrowed by national languages as a result of translating/interpreting; a lot of expressions and regular sentence idioms have come to national languages in this way as well. For example: the first/second, third reading (Parliament) перше/ друге читання, Olympic calmness олімпійський спокій, the Ten Commandments десять заповідей, to see a mot in one's eye бачити порошинку в чужому оці, to take part брати участь, time is money час - гроші, black ingratitude чорна невдячність, the Trojan horse троянський кінь, Judah's kiss поцілунок Іуди, and many others.

Among the adopted sentence structures are, for instance, the idioms God defend me from my friends; from my enemies I will defend myself захисти мене, Боже, від друзів, а з ворогами я сам упораюсь; an old dog will learn no new tricks на старості важко перевчатися; he laughs best who laughs last той сміється найкраще, хто сміється останнім, to be or not to be бути чи не бути, the game is not worth the candlerpa не варта свічок, etc.

These few out of many more sentence idioms are a testimony to the versatile influence of translators' activities upon the enrichment of languages through translation. The idiomatic word-groups and sentences of the source language almost always partly influence the placement of their component parts in the Ukrainian target language and thus facilitated their memorazing as well.

TRANSLATION IN TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Translating as a means of teaching foreign languages has no independent value of its own for it is impossible to teach all aspects of a language in their complexity by means of translation only. Nev-

15


ertheless translation in foreign language teaching (and learning) can not and should not be ignored altogether since in many a case it remains not only the most effective but also the only possible teaching means in achieving the necessary aim. That is why translation is often resorted to in the process of teaching and presenting some important aspects of a foreign language.

Translation in teaching is employed by the teacher both at the initial, at the intermediary and at the advanced stage of learning/ teaching foreign languages. But irrespective of the level at which the foreign language is studied or taught, translation is both helpful and indispensable in the following cases:

  1.  When introducing even simple abstract lexemes or notions,
    which can not easily be explained in a descriptive way or by actions
    (gestures):
    think, hate, love, actual, invincible, generally, peace, turn,
    friendship, image, dream, consider, feeling, firstly, immensely, at last,
    gray, immense, strongly, beautifully, haggis, lordship, ladyship,
    etc.
  2.  In order to save time and avoid diverting the attention of
    students by lengthy explications of the meaning of words, different,
    word-combinations or sentences in the process of reading or listening
    to an unfamiliar passage.
  3.  When checking up the comprehension of the lexical material
    (new words, expressions) and in order to avoid the unnecessary
    ambiguity which may arise in the process of teaching through «pic
    tures», since a picture of a tree, for example, may be understood as
    «a tree» or as a kind of tree (oak-tree, birch-tree, pine-tree, etc.).
  4.  While introducing at the lesson (usually at the initial stage
    of teaching/learning) the new grammar/phonetical material, espe
    cially the phenomena which do not exist in the native tongue
    (e.g. the continuous or the perfect forms of the verb, different passive
    constructions, infinitival, gerundial, and participal constructions (sec
    ondary predication complexes).
  5.  When revising the lexical or grammar material studied at
    the lesson/at previous lessons or answering questions like: 'What is
    the Ukrainian for the «gerund», sequence of tenses, the «progressive/
    perfect form» of the verb?' etc.
  6.  While discriminating the meaning of synonyms or antonyms
    of the foreign language, for example: explain the difference between
    great and large, small and tiny, tall and high, clever and foolish, etc.
  7.  When checking up the knowledge of students in written and
    oral tests on lexical or grammar material.

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  1.  When introducing idiomatic expressions which is mostly im
    possible to teach and learn otherwise than on the basis of translating
    (cf.
    Hobson's choice, to play hooky, look before you leap; when at
    Rome; do as the Romans do: the game is worth the candle,
    etc.).
  2.  Before learning any text by heart (poems, excerpts of prose
    or the roles of characters in plays).

  1.  When dealing with characteristic national figures of speech
    (metaphors, epithets, similes, hyperboles, etc.) in the process of read
    ing or translating the belles-lettres passages even at the advanced
    stage of studying a foreign language.
  2.  When comparing the expressive means in the system of
    the source language to those in the target language, etc.

Translation helps the student to master the expressive means in the source and in the target language. In the process of translating the student establishes sets of equivalent substitutes in the target language for the correspondent lexical, grammatical or stylistic phenomena of the source language. No wonder that the student at any stage of learning a foreign language, when not understanding some word, word-combination or sentence always resorts to intuitive translating of it into his native language.

WAYS OF TRANSLATING

Translating is unseparable from understanding and it goes along with conveying content and sometimes even the form of language units. As a result, the process of translation, provided it is not performed at the level of separate simple words, involves simultaneously some aspects of the source language and those of the target language. These are morphology (word-building and word forms), the lexicon (words, phraseologisms, mots), syntax (the means of connection and the structure of syntaxemes), stylistics (peculiarities of speech styles, tropes, etc.).

The level or the degree of faithfulness of translation is mostly predetermined by some factors, which may be both of objective and of subjective nature. The main of them are the purpose of the translation to be performed, the skill of the translator/interpreter, the type of the matter selected for translation, etc. Depending on these and some other factors, the following methods of translating are traditionally recognized in the theory and practice of translation:

1. Literal translating, which is to be employed when dealing

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with separate words whose surface form and structure, as well as their lexical meaning in the source language and in the target language, fully coincide. These are predominantly international by original morphemes, lexemes/words, rarer word-groups having in English and Ukrainian (and often in some other languages too) a literally identical or very similar presentation and identical lexical meaning: administrator адміністратор, director директор, region регіон, hotel/motelготель/мотель, hydrometer гідрометр, Tom Том, etc.

It is easy to notice that in some words thus translated not only the morphemic but also the syllabic structure can sometimes be fully conveyed (cf. an-f/ан-ти, es-cort ес-корт, d/recf-огдирект-ор, ex-pres/d-enfeKC-прези-дент).

In many a case, however, the lingual form of the source language words is only partly conveyed in the target language. This happens when the common word is borrowed by each of the two languages in question from different source languages or when its lingual form is predetermined by the orthographic peculiarities of the target language: anti-alcoholic протиалкогольний, music музика, constitution конституція, zoology зоологія, atomic weight атомна вага, chemical process хімічний процес, national opera theatre національний оперний театр.

The literal translation in all the examples above provides an equivalent rendering of the lexical meaning of each language unit despite the augmentation in the number of morphemes/syllables in the target language (cf. atom/сатом-н-а, а/сопо//салкоголь-н-ий).

Close to the literal method of translating or rather reproduction is the so-called way of translator's transcription by means of which partly the orthographic and partly the sounding form of the source language lexemes/words is conveyed: archbishop архієпископ, card картка/карта, European європейський, Muscovite москвич/москвичка, organized організований, stylized стилізований, fnerapeuf/стерапевтичний.

Literal translating, however, can pervert the sense of the source language lexemes or sentences when their lingual form accidentally coincides with some other target language lexemes having quite different meanings: artist митець, художник (rarer артист); decoration відзнака, нагорода (and not декорація); matrass колба (and not матрац); replica точна копія (and not репліка), etc. Hence, literal translating has some restrictions in its employment and does not always help to render the lexical meaning of words or even morphemes

18


having often even an identical lingual form (spelling) in the source language and in the target language.

2. Verbal translating is also employed at lexeme/word level. But unlike literal translating it never conveys the orthographic or the sounding form of the source language units, but their denotative meaning only: fearful страшний, fearless безстрашний, helpless безпорадний, incorrect неправильний, mistrust недовір'я (недовіра), superprofit надприбуток, non-interference невтручання, weightlessness невагомість etc.

All the words above are practically translated at the lexico-morphological level, as their lexical meanings and morphological stems are identical to those of the English words (cf. help-less без-порадний, mis-trust не-довір'я, super-profit над-прибуток, etc.).

The overwhelming majority of other words, when translated verbally do not preserve their structure in the target language. That is explained by the differences in the morphological systems of the English and Ukrainian languages: abundantly рясно, bank берег (береговий), cliff бескид (скеля, круча), myself я, я сам/сама; автомат automatic machine/rifle, заввишки high/tall, письменник writer (author), череон/muto get/grow red, etc..

Verbal translating of polysemantic words permits a choice among some variants which is practically impossible in literal translating, which aims only at maintaining the literal form.

Thus, the Ukrainian word автомат can have the following equivalent variants in English: 1. automatic machine; 2. slot-machine; 3. automatic telephone; 4. submachine gun (tommy gun). Similarly, the Englsih word ban/cwhen out of a definite context may have the following equivalent variants in Ukrainian: 1. берег (річки); 2. банк; 3. вал/насип; 4. мілина; 5. замет; 6. крен, віраж(авіац.); 1. поклади (корисних копалин). The literal variant/equivalent of the noun bank in Ukrainian can be, naturally, «банк» only.

Verbal translating, however, does not and can not provide a faithful conveying of sense/content at other than word level. When employed at the level of word-combinations or sentences verbal translation may often make the language units ungrammatical and pervert or completely ruin their sense, cf: / am reading now is not я є читаючий зараз but я читаю зараз; never say die is not ніколи не кажи помираю but не падай духом; to grow strong is not рости міцним but ставати дужим; to take measures is not брати міри but вживати заходів; first night is not перша ніч but прем'єра, etc.

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Despite this, verbal translation is widely employed first of all at language level, i.e., when the lexical meaning of separate words is to be identified. A graphic example of verbal translation is presented in dictionaries which list the lexical meanings of thousands of separate words. Verbal translation is also employed for the sake of discriminating the meanings of some words at the lessons, with the aim of identifying the meaning of the unknown words (when translating sentences or passages). The student like any other person eager to know the name of an object or action/quality of the object, etc., employs verbal translation too when asking: What is the English for сніп/ відлига? What is the English for нікчемна людина/нікчема, хвалити Бога? What is the Ukrainian for cranberry/mistletoe? etc.

3. Word-for-word translation is another method of rendering sense. It presents a consecutive verbal translation though at the level of word-groups and sentences. This way of translation is often employed both consciously and subconsciously by students in the process of translating alien grammatical constructions/word forms. Sometimes students at the initial stage of learning a foreign language may employ this way of translation even when dealing with seemingly common phrases or sentences, which are structurally different from their equivalents in the native tongue. Usually the students employ word-for-word translation to convey the sense of word-groups or sentences which have a structural form, the order of words, and the means of connection quite different from those in the target language. To achieve faithfulness various grammtical in translation, word-for-word variants are to be corrected to avoid various grammatical violations made by the inexperienced students. Cf. You are right to begin with*BU маєте рацію, щоб почати з instead of Почнемо з того/припустимо, що ви маєте рацію/що ви праві.

3. The interlinear1 way/method of translating is a conventional term for a strictly faithful rendering of sense expressed by word-groups and sentences at the level of some text. The latter may be a passage, a stanza, an excerpt of a work or the work itself. The method of interlinear translation may be practically applied to all speech units(sentences, supersyntactic units, passages). Interlinear translation always provides a completely faithful conveying only of content, which is often achieved through various transformations of structure of many sense units. For example, the sentence Who

1 «Interlinear» (from Latin interlineare) i.e., written/printed between the lines.

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took my book? admits only one word-for-word variant, namely: Хто взяв мою книжку?

In interlinear translation, however, the full content of this sentence can be faithfully rendered with the help of two and sometimes even three equivalent variants: У кого моя книжка? Хто брав/узяв мою книжку? The choice of any of the transformed variants is predetermined by the aim of the translation, by the circumstances under which the translating/interpreting is performed or by the requirements of style (for example, in order to avoid the unnecessary repetition of the same form of expression/structure close to each other).

Interlinear translating is neither bound to nor in any way restricted by the particularities of word forms, by the word order or by the structural form of the source language units, which are usually word-combinations or sentences in the passage/work under translation.

As can be seen, the Ukrainian variants of the English sentence above (Who took my book?) bear no traces of interference on the part of the English language with its rigid word order in each paradigmatic kind of sentences. Neither is there any peculiar English word-combination transplanted to the Ukrainian sentences, as it often occurs in word-for-word translations. Hence, various transformations in interlinear translations, like in literary translations, are inevitable and they are called forth by grammatical/structural, stylistic and other divergences in the source language and in the target language. This can be seen from the following examples: The student is being asked now студента зараз запитують. She said she would come вона казала, що прийде. It will have been done by then на той час / до того часу це буде зроблено. His having been decorated is unknown to me мені невідомо про його нагородження (що його нагородили).

Transformations are also inevitable when there exists no identity in the form of expressing the same notion in the source language and in the target language: a trip коротка подорож; їздити на лижах to ski; to participate брати участь; овдовіти to become a widow/ widower, знесилитися to become/grow weak (feeble).

Very often transformations become also necessary in order to overcome divergences in the structural form of English syntaxemes which are predominantly analytical by their structural form, whereas their Ukrainian word-groups of the same meaning are mostly synthetic and analytico-synthetic by structure: books of my father книжки мого батька; Kyivstreet traffic regulations правила дорожнього руху

21


міста Києва; but: a task for next week завдання на наступний тиждень.1

Interlinear translating is widely practised at the intermediary and advanced stages of studying a foreign language. It is helpful when checking up the students' understanding of certain structurally peculiar English sense units in the passage under translation. Interlinear translations of literary works, when perfected by regular masters of the pen, may become good literary variants of the original. But interlinear translations do not convey the literary merits/artistic features and beauty of the original. While performing the interlinear translation the student tries to convey completely the content of a source language sentence, stanza or passage. He quite subconsciously analyses the passage, selects in the target language the necessary means of expression for the allomorphic and isomorphic phenomena/sense units unknown to him and only after this he performs the translation. The interlinear method of translating helps the student to obtain the necessary training in rendering the main aspects of the foreign language. Thus, he masters the means of expression pertained to the source/target language. In the example below, taken from P.B.Shelley's poem The Masque of Anarchy, the interlinear translation conveys only the main content of the poetic stanza:

Men of England, Heirs of Glory, Люди Англії, спадкоємці слави,

Heroes of unwritten story, Герої (ще) не написаної історії,

Nurslings of one mighty mother, Сини однієї могутньої матері-вітчизни,

Hopes of her and one another! її надії і надії кожного з вас!

From this interlinear translation the reader can obtain a fairly correct notion of what the poet wanted to say in the stanza as a whole. But this translation does not in any way reflect the artistic beauty of Shelley's poem, i.e., the variety of its tropes, the rhythm and the rhyme, the musical sounding of the original work. Despite all that it still ranks much higher than any word-for-word translation might ever be, as it faithfully conveys not only the meaning of all notional words but also the content of different sense units, which have no structural equivalents in Ukrainian. Due to this the method of interlinear translation is practically employed when rendering some passages or works for internal office use in scientific/research centres

See more about transformations of the kind on pages 376-387 of this book.

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and laboratories, in trade and other organizations and by students in their translation practice.

4. Literary Translating represents the highest level of a translator's activity. Any type of matter skilfully turned into the target language, especially by a regular master of the pen may acquire the faithfulness and the literary (or artistic) standard equal to that of the source language.

Depending on the type of the matter under translation, this method of performance may be either literary proper or literary artistic.

Literary artistic translation presents a faithful conveying of content and of the artistic merits only of a fiction/belles-lettres passage or work. The latter may be either of a prose or a poetic genre (verse).

Literary proper translation is performed on any other than fiction/belles-lettres passages/works. These may include scientific or technical matter, didactic matter (different text-books), business correspondence, the language of documents, epistolary texts, etc. In short, any printed or recorded matter devoid of artistic merits (epithets, metaphors, etc.). But whether literary proper or literary artistic, this translation provides an equivalent rendering not only of complete content but also of the stylistic peculiarities of the passage/ work and its artistic merits/beauty, as in belles-lettres style texts.

Literary translations are always performed in literary all-nation languages and with many transformations which help achieve the ease and beauty of the original composition. The number of phrases and sentences in a literary translation is never the same as in the source language passage/work, neither are the same means of expression or the number and quality of stylistic devices per paragraph/ syntactic superstructure. All these transformations are made in order to achieve faithfulness in rendering content and expressiveness of the passage/work under translation. Transformations are also used to convey the features of style and in still greater measure the genre peculiarities of the works/passages under translation.

Literary proper/literary artistic translation of a larger passage/ work often requires linguistic, historical and other inquiries in order to clarify the obscure places (historic events, notions of specific national lexicon, neologisms, archaisms, etc.). Sometimes even the title of a work may require a philologic or historic inquiry. So, «Слово о полку Ігоревім» in a verbal or word-for-word translation would be "A Word about Ihor's Regiment which does not in any way correspond to the real meaning of this title, since the author meant under «Слово»

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story, tale, saga, song. The word полк did not mean the military unit of today's armies (regiment) but troop, host, army. Therefore, the meaning of полк would be in Ukrainian дружина and the whole title would sound in contemporary translation as The Tale of the Host of Ihor, which corresponds to the real meaning of the title (оповідь, повість, пісня про Ігореве військо, i.e. дружину). That is why there exist today different translations of the title of this brilliant work. Among them are the following: 1) The Tale of the Armament of Igor. Edited and translated by Leonard Magnus. Oxford University Press, 1915.2) The Tale of Igor. Adapted by Helen de Verde. London, 1918.3) Prince Igor's Raid Against the Polovtsi. Translated by Paul Crath. Versified by Watson Kirkonnell. Saskatoon. Canada, 1947. 4) The Song of Igor's Campaign. Translated by Vladimir Nabokov. New York 1960. As can be seen, none of these titles conveys the meaning of the title fully, completely equivalently and faithfully, though some are close to it, especially that one suggested by Paul Crath (Prince Igor's Raid against the Polovtsi) and the V.Nabokov's variant The Song of Igor's Campaign.

In Soviet times this old Ukrainian literature masterpiece had an unchanged title The Lay of Igor's Host (suggested by a Georgian linguist). This translation does not differ greatly from the two mentioned above for «lay» is the Middle English poetic word for «song».

A similar approach aimed at a possibly fullest expression of the poetic content, i.e., flavour of the title can be seen in S.Garry's translation of M.Sholokhov's novel «Тихий Дон» sounding in English as rhythmic lines of a song - And Quiet Flows the Don or The Don Flows home to the Sea. The former title was used in the New York publication of the novel (1944) and the latter in its London publication that same year. It goes without saying that a verbal or word-for-word translation of the title as *The Quiet Don or *The Still Don would not convey the poetic flavour of the original title, which is strongly felt in its source language variant.

This poetic subtext of the Russian title is really expressed only in each of the two S.Garry's variants which could have been suggested by the translator only after a deep inquiry into the novel's content, into its main idea, and into the whole system of literary images of Sholokhov's work (as with the work mentioned before). It is no less difficult to convey the meaning and functions of colloquial, conversational, dialectal and other kinds of lexical units often used by many authors in their belles-lettres works. To translate them faith-

24


fully, one must consult reference books, dictionaries and often even the native speakers of the language, e.g.: dabster - dialectal for знавець/фахівець; daisy-slang for something or somebody nice, beautiful, first-rate (першосортне); put up (adj.) is colloquial for задуманий зазделегідь; спланований; ab ovo- Latin for від самого початку (Горацій), букв, «від яйця». Constant inquiries of all kinds are also necessary fo convey the expression side of the source language matter. It becomes especially imperative in versification which is explained by the condensed nature of poetic works in which thoughts and ideas are often expressed through literary means. To achieve the necessary level of faithfulness the translator has to render fully the picturesqueness, the literary images, the rhythm and the rhyme (vocalic or consorantal), the beauty of sounding of the original poem, etc. An illustration of this may be D.Palamarchuk's versified translation of W.Shakespeare's sonet CXV:

Those lines that I before have write do lie, (10) Even those that said I could not love you dearer: (11) Yet then my judgement knew no reason why (10) My most full flame should afterwards burn clearer. (11) Збрехав мій вірш, колись тобі сказавши: (11) «Моїй любові нікуди рости». (10) Я думав - ріст її спинивсь назавше, (11) Найбільшої сягнувши висоти. (10) The Ukrainian variant of the stanza reveals its almost complete identity with the original in the rhythmic and rhyme organization and in the number of syllables in each line. Though in the original their number alternates in reverse order (from 10 to 11) and in the translation - from 11 to 10. But this is in no way a rude violation, since the interchange takes place within the same stanza, though the translator could not fully reproduce the alternate (acbd) rhyme, which is feminine in the first (a) and third (c) lines and masculine in the second (b), and in the fourth (d) lines.

Most striking, however, are the syntactic alternations, there being no single line structurally similar to that of the original verse. All that becomes necessary because of the predominantly polysyllabic structure of Ukrainian words the number of which in the translation is only 19 as compared with 35 words in the source language. Besides, the Ukrainian stanza consists of notional words only, whereas in the original work there are also functionals (have, do, that, most, not, etc.). The notionalsform the artistic images and ideas

25


the number of which is somewhat larger in English. Since it was next to impossible to overcome the «resistance» of the source language verse, some losses in translation became inevitable. They are the result of the existing divergences in the grammatical structure or in the means of expression in the two languages, first of all in the greater number of syllables in the same words in Ukrainian, which is a tangible obstacle for the translators of poetry. That is why in order to maintain the poetic metre of the lines in the original stanza above the translator had to transform them. As a result, the number of inevitable losses in versifications is always larger than in prose translations. Nevertheless, D.Palamarchuk's versification is considered to be highly faithful and artistic, because it conveys, in the main, the following aspects of this Shakespearian sonet: its content, partly its types of rhythm and rhyme, its artistic images and tropes, as well as its picturesqueness and the pragmatic orientation/toning of the original sonet, nothing to say about its main content.

MACHINE TRANSLATION

Rendering of information from a foreign language with the help of electronic devices represents the latest development in modern translation practice. Due to the fundamental research in the systems of algorithms and in the establishment of lexical equivalence in different layers of lexicon, machine translating has made considerable progress in recent years. Nevertheless, its employment remains restricted in the main to scientific and technological information and to the sphere of lexicographic work. That is because machine translation can be performed only on the basis of programmes elaborated by linguistically trained operators. Besides, preparing programmes for any matter is connected with great difficulties and takes much time, whereas the quality of translation is far from being always satisfactory even at the lexical level, i.e., at the level of words, which have direct equivalent lexemes in the target language. Considerably greater difficulties, which are insurmountable for machine translators, present morphological elements (endings, suffixes, prefixes, etc.). No smaller obstacles for machine translation are also syntactic units (word-combinations and sentences) with various means of connection between their components/parts. Besides, no present-day electronic devices performing translation possess the necessary lexical, grammatical and stylistic memory to provide the required stand-

26


ard of correct literary translation. Hence, the frequent violations of syntactic agreement and government between the parts of the sentence in machine translated texts. Neither can the machine translator select in its memory the correct order of words in word-combinations and sentences in the target language. As a result, any machine translation of present days needs a thorough proof reading and editing. Very often it takes no less time and effort and may be as tiresome as the usual hand-made translation of the same passage/work.1 A vivid illustration to the above-said may be the machine translated passage below. It was accomplished most recently in an electronic translation centre and reflects the latest achievement in this sphere of «mental» activity. The attentive student will not fail to notice in the italicized components of Ukrainian sentences several lexical, morphological and syntactic/structural irregularities, which have naturally to be corrected in the process of the final elaboration of the passage by the editing translator. Compare the texts below and find the inexactitudes in all sentences of the Ukrainian translation.

  1.  Communications and the EC
  2.  Public relations and telecom
    munications must work
    hand in
    hand to
    enable Europe really to
    become
    one community. Martin
    Bangemann
    looks to the 21st
    century.
  3.  «Communications have been
    the driving force behind the
    creation and
    growth of global
    companies.»
  4.  The European Commission
    (EC) has expressed one
    vision
    for the future of Europe in its
    White Paper on Growth Com
    petitiveness and
    Employment-
    the Challenges and Ways
    forward
    into the 21 st Century.
  5.  This document addresses

 

  1.  Повідомлення і EC
  2.  Суспільна інформація і
    телекомунікація повинні
    працювати
    рука в руці, щоб
    дозволити
    Европу дійсно
    стати одною співдружністю.
    Мартін Бангеман
    дивиться до
    21st століття.
  3.  «Комунікації були рушійна
    сила
    ззаду створення і ріст
    глобальних
    компаній».
  4.  Европейська Комісія (EC)
    висловила одне бачення на
    майбутній час Европи в Білій
    Книзі
    наріст, конкурентно-
    здатності й
    Занятість
    Виклики і Шляхи Вперед
    у
    21-го століття.
  5.  Цей документ адресує
  6.  

1 Марчук Ю.Н. Проблеми машинного перевода. - М.: Наука, 1983.

27


the facts that, in the last 20 years, the European economy's rate of growth has declined from 4% to 2,5 % per year; unemployment has steadily risen; the investment ratio has fallen by 5%; and Europe's competitive position in relation to USA and Japan has worsened in regard to employment, export market share, research and development innovation and development of new products.

 факти, що в останні 20 років норма (розряд) Европейської економіки (економії) росту знизилося від 4% до 2,5% за рік; безробіття постійно зросла; інвестиційне відношення впало на 5%; і конкурентно-здатне становище (позиція) Европи відносно США і Японії погіршувалося у відношенні зайнятості, експортної ринкової частки, дослідження і нововведення розвитку і розвитку нових виробів.

KINDS OF TRANSLATING/INTERPRETING

As has been noted, the sense of a language unit (the content of a whole matter) can be conveyed in the target language either in writing or in viva voce (orally). Depending on the form of conveying the sense/content, the following kinds or types of translating/interpreting are to be distinguished:

  1.  The written from a written matter translating, which rep
    resents a literary/literary artistic or any other faithful sense-to-sense
    translating from or into a foreign language. It may also be a free
    interpreting performed in writing. The matter under translation may
    be a belles-lettres passage (prose or poetry work), a scientific or
    technical/newspaper passage
    / article, etc.
  2.  The oral from an oral matter interpreting, which is a regu
    lar oral sense-to-sense rendering of a speech/radio or TV interview, or
    recording which can proceed either in succession (after the whole
    matter or part of it is heard) or simultaneously with its sounding. This
    consecutive interpreting is a piecemeal performance and the inter
    preter can make use of the time, while the speech/recording is pro
    ceeding, for grasping its content and selecting the necessary means
    of expression for some language units of the original matter. There
    is also a possibility to interrupt (stop) the speaker/recording in order
    to clarify some obscure place. As a result, consecutive interpreting
    can take more or a little less time than the source language speech/

28


recording lasts. When it takes quite the same amount of time as the source language matter flows and the interpreter faithfully conveys its content, it is referred to as simultaneous interpreting/translating. Otherwise it remains only a consecutive interpreting. That can be well observed when interpreting a film, each still of which in the process of the simultaneous interpretation takes the time, allotted to it in the source language. In Ukrainian this kind of interpreting is called синхронний переклад. Therefore, simultaneous interpreting is performed within the same time limit, i.e., takes the same amount of time or a little more/less, than the source matter lasts.

  1.  The oral from a written matter interpreting is nothing
    else than interpreting at sight. It can also proceed either simultane
    ously with the process of getting acquainted with the content of the
    written matter, or in succession (after each part of it is first read through
    and comprehended). The former way of interpreting, if carried out
    faithfully and exactly on time with the consecutive conveying of the
    matter, may be considered simultaneous too. Usually, however, it is
    a regular prepared beforehand kind of interpreting.
  2.  The written translating from an orally presented matter is,
    as L.S.Barkhudarov points out
    1, a rare occurrence. This is because
    a natural speech flow is too fast for putting it down in the target lan
    guage (except for a shorthand presentation, which would be then a
    regular translation, i.e. interpretation from a written matter). Translat
    ing from an oral speech/recording is now and then resorted to for
    training practices. When the matter to be rendered is produced at a
    slower speed than the written translation, can naturally be performed
    (and put down) in the target language.

DESCRIPTIVE AND ANTONYMIC TRANSLATING

Descriptive translating. One must bear in mind that it is the notional meaning of the source language unit and not always its morphological nature or structural form that is to be rendered in the target language. As a result, the target language unit, which equiva-lently/faithfully conveys the denotative/connotative meaning of the corresponding source language unit may not necessarily belong to the same language stratification level. Depending on the notion expressed by the source language word/lexeme, it may be conveyed in

1 See: Бархударов Л.С. Язьік й перевод. - М.: Междунар. отношения, 1975, р. 46-48.

29


the target language sometimes through a word-combination or even through a sentence, i.e., descriptively: indulge робити собі приємність у чомусь, віддаватися втіхам; infamous той (та, те), що має ганебну славу; inessentials предмети не першої необхідності, предмети розкошів; вщерть up to the brim, full to the brim; в'язи the nape of one's head, the back of the head; окраєць crust of a loaf, hunk of a bread; окривіти (осліпнути) to become lame (grow blind). Therefore, the descriptive way of conveying the sense of language units implies their structural transformation which is necessary to explicate their meaning with the help of hierarchically different target language units.

Descriptive translating/interpreting is very often employed to render the sense/meaning of idioms/phraseologisms, which have no equivalents in the target language. Cf. in English: (as) mad as a hatter цілком/геть божевільний; all my eye and Betty Martin! нісенітниці! (дурниці!); like one (twelve) o'clock миттю, вмить, прожогом. In Ukrainian: зуб на зуб не попадати to feel very cold (to feel freezing); навчить біда коржі з маком їсти hard times make one inventive; наговорити сім кіп/мішків гречаної вовни to say much nonsense.

No less often is descriptive translation employed when dealing with the notions of specific national lexicon: haggis геґґіс (зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяними крупами і спеціями впереміш із січеним овечим потрухом); porridge порідж (густа вівсяна каша зварена на воді чи молоці); Senate сенат (рада університету в Англії, складається переважно з професорів); sweet-meat солодка страва, приготовлена на цукрі чи медові.

Alongside the literal translating some explications of the meaning of specific national notions becomes sometimes necessary: вареники varenyky, middle-sized dumplings filled with curd, cherries, etc.; дума duma, Ukrainian historic epic song; кобзар kobzar, a performer of dumas to the accompaniment of the kobza (a mandoline-like four string musical instrument), the bandore (a flat multistringed Ukrainian musical instrument).

Descriptive translation is also employed in foot-notes to explain obscure places in narration. Cf. midland мідленд, діалект центральної Англії, a spiritual релігійна пісня америк. негрів.

Antonymic translation is employed for the sake of achieving

30


faithfulness in conveying content or the necessary expressiveness of sense units. It represents a way of rendering when an affirmative in structure language unit (word, word-combination or sentence) is conveyed via a negative in sense or structure but identical in content language unit, or vice versa: a negative in sense or structure sense unit is translated via an affirmative sense unit. Cf.: to have quite a few friends мати багато (немало) друзів; mind your own business не втручайся не в свої справи; take it easy не хвилюйся, не переживай; not infrequently часто; по time like the present лови момент (використовуй нагоду); я не нездужую нівроку (Т.Ш.) І feel/am perfectly well; не спитавши броду не лізь у воду look before you leap; немає лиха без добра, every dark cloud has a silver lining, etc.

The antonymic device is empolyed in the following cases:

1) when in the target language there is no direct equivalent for
the sense unit of the source language. For example, the noun «infe
riority» and the adjective «inferior» (like the verb phrase «to be infe
rior») have no single-word equivalents in Ukrainian. So their lexical
meaning can be conveyed either in a descriptive way or with the help
of their antonyms «superiority», «superior»:
The defeat of the Notts
in last season's cup semi-finals was certainly the result of their physical
and tactical inferiority...
(The Kyiv Post) Поразка клубу «Ноттінгем
Форест» у торішньому півфінальному матчі на кубок країни була •
наслідком
переваги їхніх супротивників у фізичній і тактичній
підготовці (...була наслідком того, що гравці поступалися
супротивникові у фізичній і тактичній підготовці).
1

The meaning of some English word-groups can also be conveyed in Ukrainian antonymically only: Baines was reading a newspaper in his shirt-sleeves. (Gr. Greene) Бейнз сидів без піджака і читав газету. Do you mind this? (M.Wilson) Ви не заперечуєте?

2) When the sense unit of the source language has two
negations of its own which create an affirmation:
In those clothes
she was by no means non-elegant.
(S.Maugham) У цьому вбранні
вона була досить елеґантна.

3. In order to achieve the necessary expressiveness in narration: I don't think it will hurt you, baby. (E.Hemingway) Думаю, вам воно не зашкодить, люба. A shell fell close. (Ibid.) Неподалік вибухнув снаряд. Не lurched away like a frightened horse barely

1 See more about transformations of the kind in part IV of this work.

31


missing the piano stool. (J.London) Він сахнувся вбік, мов сполоханий кінь, мало не перекинувши стільця коло піаніно (ледь обминаючи стільця біля піаніно).

4. In order to avoid the use of the same or identical structures close to each other in a text (stylistic aim and means):

Mrs. Strickland was a woman of character. (S.Maugham) Місіс Стрікленд була жінкою не без характеру (тобто, була жінка з характером). Most of the staff is not away. (M.Wilson) Більшість співробітників ще на роботі (ще не розійшлися). Savina said nothing. (Ibid.) Савіна промовчала (тобто нічого не відповіла).

SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-CONTROL AND CLASS DISCUSSION

  1.  The main terms and notions of the theory of translation/
    interpretation.
  2.  Ambiguity of some terms concerning translation (free trans
    lation vs. free adaptation/free interpretation, etc.).

Social and political significance of translating/interpreting.

  1.  Translating as a successful means of enriching national lan
    guages, literatures, and cultures.
  2.  Translating/interpreting in establishing, maintaining, and
    strengthening diplomatic, political, economic, scientific, cultural and
    other relations between different nations in the world.
  3.  The role of translating/interpreting in providing the success
    ful proceedings of international conferences, congresses, sympo
    sia, meetings, etc.
  4.  Translating/interpreting and the progress of world science,
    technology and dissemination of new ideas/doctrines.
  5.  Translating/interpreting while teaching and learning foreign
    languages.
  6.  Literal, verbal, word-for-word translation and restrictions in
    their use out of a contextual environment (cf.
    revolution оберт but
    not
    революція).

10. The main difference between the interlinear and literary/
literary artistic kinds of translating.

11 The requirements to faithful prose and poetic translation/ versification.

12. The machine translation, its progress, present-day poten-

32


tialities and spheres of employment.

13.Kinds of translating/interpreting: a) the written from a written matter translating; b) the oral from an oral matter interpreting; c) the oral from a written matter interpreting; d) the written translating from an orally presented matter.

14. Ways and devices of translating (descriptive and antonymic translating).

33

Ш. LEXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSLATION      

As it has been pointed out in chapter I, the process of written or oral translating presents in reality different forms of decoding or transformation which the source language units undergo at the phonetic, morphological or syntactic levels: Cf.: ambition [aembijn] амбіція, geologist геолог, metaphor метафора, participate брати участь, пеgоtiаblе те (той), що піддається погодженню; рученьки beautiful little hands, лісовик (mythology) forest demon, etc. No lingual, i.e., structural or semantic identity have in the target language many English and Ukrainian specifically national notions of lexicon (culturally biased words), which are also to be decoded, i.e., transformed Cf.: Number 10 Downing Street Даунінґ Стріт №10 (резиденція прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії), haggis зварений у жирі овечий кендюх, начинений вівсяною кашею впереміш із посіченими потрохами; кутя cooked peeled wheat, barley or rice mixed with ground poppy seeds, raisins and parceled kernels of nuts, honey and a little boiled water, etc.

Neither are there in the target language direct semantic or structural equivalents for many idioms and stable expressions of the source language. Hence, they must be decoded, i.e., transformed, Cf.: Tom, Dick and Harry перший-ліпший (з), будь-хто (з), to go to the altar одружуватися, виходити заміж; клепки не вистачає nobody home, he has got a screw loose, etc.

A considerable number of other source language units, however, may maintain their lingual form little changed or unchanged in the target language, as in many proper names and genuine internationalisms: Alfred Альфред/Ельфред, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост, Boston Бостон, president президент, affiх афікс, phoneme фонема, motor мотор, cybernetics кібернетика, export експортувати, soc/a/соціальний, nationally національно, etc. Such and the like words are, in fact, not translated in the true sense of the word but turned into the target language in their phonemic (sometimes also in their orthographic) form/structure. These and some other problems, which are of academic interest not only for the beginning translator but also for the teacher constitute the subject-matter of the succeeding chapters of this work.

91


METHODS AND WAYS OF TRANSLATING VARIOUS PROPER NAMES

There are no finally established rules yet as to how different kinds and types of English proper names should be translated into Ukrainian, though Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic structure, i.e., are transliterated in English. E.g.: Антоніна Antonina; Віра Vira; Лаврін Lavrin; Роман Roman; Авраменко Avramenko; Лавріненко Lavrinenko; Панібрат Panibrat; Іван Ivan; Тамара Tamara; Семен Semen; Петро Petro, Саливон Salyvon, etc.

Far from all Ukrainian proper names can be conveyed by way of literal translating, however. This is because some of our vowels and consonants have no equivalent sounds/phonemes in English and must be substituted for approximately similar sounds. Among these Ukrainian sounds and sound combinations are first of all those ones, which are rendered with the help of the letters or letter combinations и, й, ий, ій, я, ю, є, Ї, or partly through the letters ж, щ, х, ч, ц and palatalized consonants.

Ukraine as a newly independent state makes efforts to get rid of her former colonial past. One of the ways to assure this internationally was the adoption of the Romanization System which enabled the conveying of our personal names, family names (onomastics) and also all Ukrainian geographical names (toponymy) in accordance with some rules. Their system practically does not contain diacritics, i.e., different signs over or under the letters. The only sign of the kind being the sign ' for palatalization (cf. Щербань Shcherban', Львів L'viv) which is not difficult to add after a letter. This makes the system convenient and assured for direct and unambiguous reconstruction of any Ukrainian name form or word standing for a specifically national notion (реалія). E.g.: kutya or kutia, kobzar, varenyky, etc. The adopted Romanization System will also serve well as an aid to correct pronunciation of Ukrainian proper names by the foreigners, capable of reading the Roman letters, which more or less correctly convey the sounding forms of any Ukrainian name. The adopted Romanization System is internally consistent and based on sound linguistic principles. It is to be strictly observed by the students of foreign languages and the people responsible for its absolute implementation in this country and abroad. This is how the system is presented:

Ukrainian

1. A a

2. Б б

3. В в

4. Г г

5. Ґ Ґ

6. Д д

7. Е е

8. Є є

9. Ж ж

10. З з

11.И и

12. І і

13. Ї ї

14. Й й

15. К к

16. Л л

17. М м

18. Н h

19. O o

20. П п

21. P p

22. С с

23. Т т

24. У у

25. Ф ф

26. Х х

27. Ц ц

28.Ч ч

29. Ш ш

30. Щ щ

31. Ю ю

32. Я я

33. Ь

Romanization

А а

В Ь

V/v W/w

H h 

G g 

D d 

Е е

Ye ye

Zh zh

Z z

Y y

li

Уі/li yi/ii

Y y 

K k 

L I 

M м

N п

О о

Р р

R r

S s

T t

U u

F f

Kh kh

Ts ts

Ch/Tch ch/tch

Sh sh

Shch shch

Yu yu

Ya ya

`


A practical realization of this system can be illustrated on many Ukrainian names with the following substitution of Ukrainian letters (and sounds) for the completely, approximately or similarly corresponding English letters or letter combinations:

/и/ as у: Кирило Kyrylo, Марина Maryna, Микита Mykyta, Бобрик Bobryk, Бровари Brovary, Бобир Bobyr, Винник Vynnyk, Микитенко Mykytenko, Суми Sumy.

/и/ as ii, і or yi. The choice of a letter/letter combination in English to Romanize the sound is predetermined by its environment and position in the Ukrainian name/surname. When preceded by a vowel, the sound /j/ is to be conveyed by the letter і (as in «naive»): Заїка Zaika, Мисаїл Mysail, Українка Ukrainka, Зінаїда Zinaida, Турбаї Turbayi /or Turbaii.

When the Ukrainian letter Ї initiates the proper name/surname, the sound expressed by it has to be conveyed through the yi letter combination: Ївга Yivha, їздець Yizdets, їжакевич Yizhakevych.

The voiced /й/ sound is also to be conveyed through the letter у: Йосип Yosyp, Йовенко Yovenko.

Very often the /й/ sound in Ukrainian is used with the preceding /i/ or /и/ sound. When preceded by the /i/ sound it is conveyed in English as ii or iy: Андрій Andrii/Andriy, Гулій Hulii/Huliy, Гафійка Hafiika/Hafiyka, Матвійчук Matviichuk/Matviychuk, Павлійчук Pavliichuk/Pavliychuk, etc. When the /й/ sound is preceded by /и/ it is to be conveyed as yi: Горовий Horovyi, Гулий Hulyi, Сірий Siryi, Коломийченко Kolomyichenko, Гнідий Hnidyi.

As to the sounds expressed by the Ukrainian letters я, ю, є they are to be conveyed through the English letter combinations ya, yu, ye respectively or through ia, iu, ie Cf.: ya: Яким Yakym, Ярема Yarema, but: Забіяка Zabiyaka/Zabiaka, Мусіяка Musiyaka/Musiiaka.

The sound expressed through the Ukrainian letter я in the final position of a word or traditional proper name can sometimes be conveyed in English by the ia rarely ya letter combinations. It is mostly observed in traditional proper names like Марія, Софія, Maria, Sofia, Юлія Yulia, Югославія Yugoslavia, Малазія Malasia, but: Кенія Kenya. Some common in English and Ukrainian proper names and also foreign place names may have йа for the ia letter combinations as well: Maria Марія/Мерайя, Malaya Малайя.

It is common knowledge that present-day English despite the existence of some less hard consonants like the /I/ after the IiI, /i:/ and /ai/ sounds (cf. little, leave, like, controlling, etc.) is practically devoid of palatalization. As a result, all Ukrainian palatalized consonants usually obtain a hard pronunciation in English: Альвіна Alvina, Бенедь Bened, Василь Vasyl', Близько Vlyzko, Гринь Hryn, Кость Kost; Кусько Kusko, Луцьк Lutsk, Редько Redko. In linguistic papers these and the like proper names, however, may have a sign for palatalization ('): Al'vina, Kost', Red'ko, Bened', Vlyz'ko, Luts'k, Lots', Kozlovs'kyi, Koval', Mel'nyk, etc.

As to the Ukrainian consonant phonemes, which have no direct equivalents in the English language, they can mostly be conveyed through analogous English sounds, sometimes formed by different letter combinations. Thus, the Ukrainian /г/ sound is to be conveyed through the similar though not identical voiceless English /h/ phoneme: Гаврило Havrylo, Григір Hryhir, Гайдай Haidai, Григораш Hryhorash, Громак Hromak, Гмиря Hmyrya. This sound is also observed in such nouns/proper names as hobby гоббі, maharajah магараджа, Hyderabad Гайдерабад, Huxley Гакслі, etc.

The Ukrainian /ж/ phoneme is conveyed with the help of the zh letter combination: Жук Zhuk, Жанна Zhanna, Божій Bozhiy, Журавель, Zhuravel', Жуйхліб Zhuikhlib, Женченко Zhenchenko, Журба Zhurba, Неїжмак Neyizhmak, Вражливий Vrazhlyvyi.

The Ukrainian /x/ sound is conveyed in English through the kh letter combination: Лахно Lakhno, Остахів Ostakhiv, Хома Khoma, Химии Khymych, Харків Kharkiv, Ховрах Khovrakh, Охрімчук Okhrimchuk.

As to the similar in the Ukrainian and English languages /ч/ sound it may be conveyed in two ways. Traditionally the letter combinations ch or tch always were and are still used for the purpose: Качанів Kachaniv, Клочко Klochko/Klotchko, Костюченко Kostyuchenko/Kostiutchenko, Кочур Kochur/Kotchur, Чернушенко Chernushenko/Tchernushenko, Чорний Chornyi/Tchornyi. Though the letter combination tch is less and less often used at present.

Similarly with the Ukrainian /шч/ sound which has no equivalent in English. Traditionally it was conveyed in English through the letter combination shch (sh+ch). The Ukrainian proper nouns and especially geographical names and names of public bodies containing щ can be conveyed as follows: Щаденко as Shchadenko, Щербак as Shcherbak, Щедрій as Shchedrii, Безпощадний as Bezposhchadnyi etc.

For all other Ukrainian consonant phonemes there are corresponding letters and letter combinations in English which convey more or less similar sounds, though they may belong in both the languages to the same articulatory zones (labial, dental, alveolar, etc.). For example, the Ukrainian /б/ and /п/ phonemes are substituted for the English plosives /b/ and /p/: Борис Borys, Бойчук Boichuk, Петро Petro, Панібудьласка Panibud'laska. The consonant phonemes /д/,/т/,/н/, In/, Id, Iu/ and their palatalized variants /д'/, /т'/, /н7, /л'/, /с'/, /ц1/ are substituted respectively for the English alveolar Id/, /t/, /n/, /I/, Is/, /is/, though the latter, which is common knowledge to everybody, differ greatly by their articulatory characteristics from the Ukrainian phonemes. Cf.: Дорош Dorosh, Ткаченко Tkachenko, Німенко Nimenko, Льольо Lyolyo, Ціпко Tsipko, Цвіркун Ts'virkun, Циба Tsyba, Гороть Horot', Ковальчук Koval'chuk, Гаврись Havrys', etc.

Only approximate similarity can also be observed in most cases between the Ukrainian /в/ phoneme which is much closer when used in the initial position to the English /w/ than to its traditional substitute (in translations from the Ukrainian) /v/ phoneme as in the proper nouns like: Володимир Volodymyr, Вовчок Vovchok, Добривечір Dobryvechir, Убийвовк Ubyivovk. But Віль, of course, must be only Will. Consequently Вовченко, Вареник may also be Wowchenko, Warenyk and Вовчок also Wowchok.

When in the position between two vowels or between a vowel and a palatalized consonant, the Ukrainian /в/ sound somewhat resembles the English/v/ phoneme, however: Сиваченко Syvachenko, Винниченко Vynnychenko, Яворівський Yavorivskyi, Швайка Shvaika, Швидюк Shvydiuk/ Shvydyuk.

Undoubtedly the closest to the English consonant phonemes are the Ukrainian /к/, /ґ/ and /з/ phonemes. Cf.: Кавун Kavun, Зінаїда Zinaida, Зайченко Zaichenko, Ґудзій Gudziy/Gudzii. But there are no similar substitutes in English for our palatalized /дз'/ sound which will be read by the English native speakers as /dz/ only as in Ґедзь Gedz', Ґудзь Gudz', and others.

There is very little similarity, however, between the Ukrainian vibrant /p/ and the English /r/ phoneme belonging in both these languages to different articulatory zones. Nevertheless the English /r/ is always used in translations of proper names to substitute the Ukrainian /p/ and vice versa: Barbara Барбара, Robert Роберт, Rupert Руперт, Роман Roman, Новодворський Novodvors'kyi, Черкасенко Cherkasenko.

The methods of conveying English vowels in Ukrainian are also different. The choice of them and the sphere of their use may be predetermined by some lingual as well as extralingual factors. These are as follows: a) the position of the phoneme in the English word/ proper name; b) the environment of the phoneme; c) the origin of the proper name; d) the tradition (if any) of conveying the name in Ukrainian, when the name is common in the two languages e.g. of Biblical origin e.g.: Elias /і'Іаіжз/, Elijah, /I'laid'je/ Ілля (Ілія).

As to the possible substitutes for similar and divergent English vowel phonemes, some variants may be suggested in Ukrainian for short monophthongs formed at different tongue positions. The most common/traditional substitutes for English short monophthongs in Ukrainian the following vowel phonemes have to be investigated:

/ж/ for /a/ and lei: Angela Анджела/Енджела, Andy Енді/Анді, Amanda Аманда/Еманда, Patrick Патрік/ Петрік, Allison Еллісон, Аллісон; /Л/ for /а/, /у/ or even /о/: Ulrica Алріка (Ул/ь)ріка, Doug Даг, " Justin Джастін, Sudbury Садбері/Судбері, Ulster Ольстер;

/a/ standing in English for any vowel phoneme in unstressed position can be substituted in Ukrainian for the corresponding vowels too: Ada Ада, Alaska Аляска, Virginia Вірджінія, Rebekka Ребекка, Theodore Теодор, Salisbury Солзбері;

/о/ for lot: Dolly Доллі, Olive Олів, Oskar Оскар, Oxford Оксфорд;

/і/ for /і/: Iraq Ірак, Isabel Ізабел(а), Isolda/e Ізольда, Islam іслам;

/e/for/e/: Ebrington Ебрінґтон, Eckersl(e)y Екерслі, Edinburgh Едінбург, Eleonora Елеонора, Ellis Ел(л)іс.

It is common knowledge that either of these sounds may also convey other sounds in seemingly the same sounds environment. Cf.: Iden Айден, Ikey Айкі, or: Ede Ід, Eden Іден, English (family name) Інґліш or Енгліш.

Long vowel phonemes in all English proper names like in other words are substituted in Ukrainian for their corresponding short vowel phonemes:

/a:/ for /a/: Art Арт, Bart Барт, Clerke Кларк, Mark Марк, Carnegie Карнеґї, Gaby Габі; but Derby /da:bi/ Дербі;

/о:/for/о/: Allcorn Олкорн, Aubrey Обрі, Austin Остін, Paola Пола, Cornell Корнелл;

/u:/ and sometimes /ju:/ for /у/ю/: Cooper Купер, Judy Джуді, Muriel М'юріел(ь), Oona Уна, Ouse p. Уз, Hecuba Гекуба Purim Пюрім, Rubens Рубенс Uniat Уніат, UNESCO ЮНЕСКО;

/і:/for/і/: Aberdeen Абердін, Celia Сілія, Easton Істон, Eton Ітон, Deakin Дікін;

/э:/ for /e/ or even for /i/: Earl Ерл, Herbert Герберт, Irvin Ервін/ Ірвін; but: Pearl Harbor Перл-Гарбор/Пірл-Гарбор, Burton Бертон, Burma Бірма, Bert Берт, Burch Берч.

English diphthongs are usually substituted for corresponding Ukrainian vowel combinations, though not without exceptions:

/ai/ for /ай/: Brighton Брайтон, Idaho Айдаго, Ike Айк, Mike Майк, Pyke Пайк; but Miami Майамі;

/au / for /ay/: Down Даун, Howard Гауерд, Howell Гауел, Mowgli Мауґлі;

/ei/for/ей/, /a/: Ada Ейда, Mabel Мейбл, Mamei Меймі, Paisley Пейзлі;

/oi/for/ой/: Croydon Кройдон, Joyce Джойс, Roy Рой but: Troy Троя, Тоуе Той;

/эй/ for /oy/: Mo Moy, Owen Оуен, Rose Роуз, Snow Сноу, Sofia(Bulgaria) Софія.

Several English proper names containing the diphthong /ou/ have no /oy/ substitution for it in Ukrainian, however: Bruno Бруно, Buffalo Буффало, Toronto Т.оронто, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Рое По, Sophia Софія;

/еэ/ is substituted for/ea/: Ayrshire Ершір, Dalaware Делавар, Fairbanks м.Фербенкс, Gary м. Ґері, but: Ontario Онтаріо, Bulgaria Болгарія;

/ia/ for /і/, /ей/, /ія/: Cheshire Чешір, Madeira о-в Мадейра, Nigeria Нігерія, Victoria Вікторія, Virginia Вірджінія, Julie Джулія, Juliet Джулієт.

It is not always easy to select appropriate Ukrainian substitutes for some English consonant phonemes either. That is partly because some consonants may realize their meanings depending on their environment or position in the word (proper name). Besides, the selections of a substitute for an English consonant phoneme, may sometimes be predetermined in Ukrainian by the established tradition: so /p/ is substituted for /т/, /д/ or the sound /з/: Carmarthenshire Кармартеншір, Caruthers Карудерс/Карузерс, Brothers Брад(з)ерс;

/T/ for /т/ or /c/ sometimes /ф/ (in Greek names): Bath м. Бат, Faith Феіт/Феіс, Dartmouth Дартмут, but: Athos Афон, Carthage Карфаген/Картаґен, Korinth Коринф(т).

/N/ for /нг/: Arlington Арлінґтон, Bundung Бандунг", sterling стерлінг", Darlington Дарлінґтон, Long Лонґ, Goulding Ґоулдінґ, Springpark Спрінґпарк;

/Nk/ for /hk/: Bronx Бронкс, Sinclair Сінклер, SprinkCnpiHK, Winkie Вінкі;

/I/ for In/ or In'/: Larry Ла/еррі, Lotta Лотта, Noll Нолл, Percival Персівал(ь), Charles Чарльз, William Вільям, Clinton Клінтон, Underhill Андергіл.

Some componental phonemes may have traditionally established substitution in separate nouns. Thus,

/w/ may be ib/ or /y/: Washington Вашингтон, Wales Уельс, Westminster Вестминстер, Wilde Вайльд, Bowyear Бов'єр, Bristow Брістоу, Shaw Шоу, Snow Сноу, Mark Twain Марк Твен.

When used in various combinations, these and other English vowel and consonant phonemes are mostly conveyed in Ukrainian in accordance with the above-given reading rules. As a result, English proper names are either transcribed or transliterated (or partly anscribed and partly transliterated) in Ukrainian. Mostly transcribed names/surnames containing specific English vowel phonemes тісії are usually formed by different sound/letter combinations: Abe

уйб, Aileen Ейлін, Bab Беб, Chauncey Чонсі, Dwight Двайт, Eli

\ Ілай, Lewie Луї/Льюї, Queenie Квіні, Raiph Рейф, Russel Расл, Theobald Тіобольд/Теобальд, Uriah Юрайя/Урія.

Irrespective of the considerable divergences existing between the phonemic systems of the two languages, a number of English proper names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transliteration only: Barbara Барбара, Norman Норман, Rita Ріта, Tristram Трістрам, Victor Віктор, Adams Адаме, Barker Баркер, Collins Коллінс/з, Clark Кларк, Cronin Кронін, Wilson Вільсон, Nelson Нельсон, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост etc.

A few English proper names are transliterated with the omission or addition of a letter or two in Ukrainian. This kind of rendering becomes necessary when dealing with specifically English spelling forms of proper names and to avoid the violation of the traditionally established spelling rules of the Ukrainian language: McDonald Макдональд, Macintosh Макінтош, McEnroe Макенро, Dinah Діна, Jupiter Юпітер, Judah Юда, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Williamson Вільямсон.

Some other English proper names of people and geographical names are rendered into Ukrainian partly through transcription: Brooking Брукінґ, Huntington Гантінґтон, Liverpool Ліверпуль, Newton Ньютон, Jackson Джексон, Aberdeen Абердін, Melbourne Мельбурн, Valentine Валентайн.

Besides, the exactitude of conveying English proper names in Ukrainian may be predetermined by some lingual and extralingual factors. The main of them are: absence in Ukrainian of corresponding phonemes and orthographic means to substitute some particular English sounds/letter combinations or the established tradition according to which some names are translated. It can already be seen on the following examples: Thorne Торн, Ethan Ітан, Faith Фейс/ Фейт, Fitzclarence Фіцкларенс, Graham Гре(йе)м, Galsworthy Ґолсуорсі, Goorka Ґурка, Hugon Гюґон, Hutchinson Гачінсон/ Гатчінсон, Ptolemy Птолемей, Whistler Віс(т)лер, Wriothesley Райетслі, and sevral others.

The bulk of all other English proper names, however, are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonetical/phonological level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. The degree of exactitude of their rendering depends on the existence/non-existence of appropriate or similar sounds in the target language. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extralingual factors. For example, the well-known names as Adam, David can be translated into Ukrainian as Адам and Давид (Biblical or historical) or as Едем and Девід (common people's names). Similarly with Matthew, Paul, Rachel and some others which can be correspondingly rendered either as Матфей/Матвій, Павло, Рахіль or as Метью, Пол, Ре(й)чел, Pope John Paul II Папа Іван Павло Другий, etc.

Mostly translated, however, are the names of kings, queens, princes, princesses, tsars and tsarinas. These exceptions from the general rule are observed in the following names: King Charles/ George, Henry Король Карл/Георг, Генріх; Queen Elisabeth/Mary Stewart королева Єлизавета/Марія Стюарт; King James I (John, William) король Яків І (Іоанн, Вільгельм); Princess Ann/Margaret принцеса Анна/Маргарита; цар Олексадр/Микола/Павло Tsar Alexander/Nicolas/Paul.

Among the names of kings, queens, tsars, etc. are also some which are transliterated in the target language. These are mostly peculiar national names with no corresponding equivalents in other languages: King Horn король Горн; Prince Robert принц Роберт; цар Борис/Іван Tsar Boris/Ivan; король Болеслав King Boleslav, князь Мстислав Prince Mstyslav.

Nicknames of people are almost always translated irrespective of the language they come from: King Charles the Great король Карл Великий; King Edward the Confessor король Едуард Сповідник; King Richard the Lionheart/Lionhearted король Річард Левине Серце; Prince William of Orange принц Вільгельм Оранський; князь Мстислав/Святослав Хоробрий Prince Mstyslav/ Svyatoslav the Brave; князь Ярослав Мудрий Prince Yaroslav the Wise; цар Василь Темний Tsar Basil the Blind; цар Іван Грозний Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Contrary to this rule is the wrong translation in our mass media of Prince Charles of Wales as принц Чарльз, instead of принц Карл (according to the historically established tradition).

Indian chiefs' names and family names of American Indians, which became known mainly from J.F.Cooper's novels are translated, as a rule, too: (the) Arrowhead Гостряк Стріли; Dew of June, Червнева Роса; Chingachgook the Big Serpent Чінгачгук Великий Змій; the Deerslayer (the Pathfinger) Звіробій (Знайдислід, «Слідопит»); the Leather Stocking, Hawk's Eye Шкіряна Панчоха, Соколине Око; John Running Deer, Джон Тікаючий Олень; Pete Brown Feather, Піт Руда Пір'їна. But: князь Осмомисл Prince Osmomysl, Олександр Невський Alexander Nevskii.

The so-called generalizing or characterizing names used by many authors in their belles-lettres works to point out some determinant (usually negative) feature of their characters are mostly not translated but only transcribed or transliterated. Such are the characters, for example, from Ch. Dickens' works: Mrs. Porkenham (cf. pork and ham ласа/любителька добре поїсти, гурманка пані Поркенгем); Doctor Slammer (cf. to slam the door грюкати/грюкнути дверима лікар Слеммер); Тгасу Tupman (cf. tup-male sheep, ram баран, тупоголовий) Трейсі Тапмен; Nathaniel Winkle (cf. winkle sea snail used as food) морський равлик Натаніель Вінкель; Miss Witherfield (cf. wither, fade) в'янути, сохнути (в'януча стара діва) Міс Візерфільд

Some nicknames of this kind may naturally be translated, especially when used in humorous stories as, for instance, in Stephan Leacock's Guide the Gimlet of Ghent: A Romance of Chivalry: Carlo the Corkscrew Карло Штопор, Beowulf the Bradawl Беовульф Шило, Conrad the Coconut Конрад Кокосовий Горіх. But: Mrs. Afterthought місіс Афтерсот and not пані Розумна Заднім Розумом.

It must be emphasized that in recent decades there has been a general tendency in translation practice to transcribe or transliterate foreign proper names and not to translate them. In conformity with the tendency some proper names of people and place names which had hitherto been translated are now transcribed or transliterated. So Michael Faraday is no more Михайло Фарадей but Майкл Фарадей; George Washington is Джорж (and not Георг) Вашінгтон; Alessandro Volta is no more Олександр but Алессандро Вольта; Salt Lake City is no more місто Солоного Озера but місто Солт Лейк-Сіті; Leicester and Worcester are no more Лейсестер and Ворчестер but Лестер and Вустер; Hull is no more Ґуль but Галл, etc. This tendency should also be observed when dealing with some other proper names, including geographical ones. The latter, as may have been noticed, are conveyed in Ukrainian/English in the same way as the proper names of people, i.e., they are traditionally transliterated or transcribed: Arkansas Арканзас (ріка) but Аркенсо (штат США); Belfast/Chicago Белфаст/Чикаго, Dublin/Ottawa Дублін/ Оттава, San-Francisco Сан-Франциско, Бахмач Bakhmach, Бровари Brovary, Горлівка Horlivka, Ізмаїл/Канів Ismail/Kaniv, Лисянка Lysianka/Lysyanka, Суми Sumy, etc.

A considerable number of English geographical names are also rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only: Buckinghamshire Бакінгемшир, Capetown/Ohio Кейптаун/Огайо, Dashwood Дешвуд, Dundee-Данді, Freetown Фрітаун, Newfoundland Ньюфаундленд, Seattle Сіетл, Sutherland Сазерленд, Greenfield Ґрінфілд.

Many English place names, along with other geographical and proper names, are conveyed in Ukrainian partly with the help of transcription and partly via transliteration. This can be observed in the two-syllable names in the examples below. The first (1) group of the geographical names has the initial syllables transliterated and the closing syllables transcribed, whereas the second group (2) contains geographical names with the initial syllables transcribed and the closing syllables transliterated:

(1) (2)

Birmingham   Бірмінгем Brighton         Брайтон

Kingstown      Кінгстаун Greensboro    Ґрінзборо

Midway          Мідвей  Houston         Г'юстон

Sheffield         Шеффілд Wyoming        Вайоминґ (штат США)

A few geographical names and some proper names of people have a traditionally established orthographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language: the Arctic Ocean Північний Льодовитий океан; Maine Мен (штат США); Mexico Мехіко; New Orleans Новий Орлеан; Ulster Ольстер; Texas Техас (штат США), Lake Superior Озеро Верхнє.

Names of seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of countries having the structure of word-combinations are always translated: the Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean Атлантичний/Тихий/ Індійський океан; the Grampians (Appalachians) Грампіанські (Аппалацькі) гори; the Gulf of Mexico (Salonika) Мексиканська (Салонікська) затока; the Isthmus of Suez/Panama Суецький (Панамський) перешийок; New South Wales Новий Південний Уельс (Австралія); Strait of Magellan/Gibraltar Магелланова/ Ґібралтарська протока; Карпати/Карпатські гори the Carpathians/ Carpathian Mts.); Закарпаття Transcarpathia (Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine); Краснодарський/Ставропольський край Krasnodar/Stavropol Territory; Південо-український зрошувальний канал the South Ukrainian Irrigation Canal; Азовське/Каспійське море Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea; Керченська Протока/Карські Ворота Strait of Kerch/Kara Strait; Курільські/Оркнейські о-ви Kuril(e) Islands/Orkney Islands, Stratford-on-Avon Стратфорд-на-Ейвоні, Ростов-на-Дону Rostov-on-Don.

The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally translated from English into Ukrainian and vice versa: Cape of Good Hope/ Cape May мис Доброї Надії/мис Кейп-Мей, Саре Verde Islands O-ви Зеленого Мису; Golden Gate Золоті Ворота (протока поблизу м.Сан-Франциско); Grand Bank(s) Велика Мілина (поблизу о-ва Ньюфаундленд); Great Slave Lake Велике Невільничне озеро; Northern Highlands Північне-шотландське нагір'я; the Rocky Mountains/the Appalachians Скелясті гори/Аппалачі/Аппалацькі гори.

Still other geographical names having single word and word-combination structures require some identifying element in the target language (an appositional noun, an adjective, etc.). These elements explain the nature and the real meaning of the geographical name in the target language: the Azores/the Seychelles Азорські/ Сейшельські о-ви; Idaho Falls місто Айдаго-Фолз; New England Нова Англія, Maine штат Мен, Massachusetts штат Массачузетс, Connecticut штат Коннектіка(у)т, Rhode Island (штат) Род-Айленд, Vermont штат Вермонт; Saint Vincent/Saint Helena Island о-ви Сент-Вінсент/Святої Єлени; the Saint Lawrence p. Святого Лаврентія; Sutherland Сазерленд (графство Шотландії); Буг/ Десна/Рось the Buh/the Desna/the Ros' (rivers in Ukraine); Верховина Verkhovyna (upland pastures in the Carpathians); Донбас Donets Basin/Donets coal field(s); Поділ Podil (lower part of Kyjy city, a city district); Херсонщина/Львівщина/Полтавщина Kherson/ Lviv/Poltava region/ oblast.

Foreign geographical names as well as many proper names of people are often reproduced in English not in the spelling form of the source language but in the traditionally established spelling form of the target language: Аахен (Germ. Aachen) Aix-la-Chapelle; Антверпен (Dutch Antwerpen) Antwerp; Варшава (Pol. Warszawa) Warsaw; Венеція (Ital. Venezia) Venice; Вогняна Земля (Span.) Tierra del Fuego; Гаага (Dutch den Haag) the Hague; Генуя (Ital. Geneva) Genoa; Італія (Ital. Italia) Italy; Кельн (Germ. Кціп) Cologne; Ліворно (Ital. Livorno) Leghorn; Лотарінгія (Fr. Lorraine) Lorraine; Майнц (Germ. Mainz) Mayence; Maas (Germ. Maas) Meuse; Мюнхен (Germ. Мьпспеп) Munich.

Ukrainian geographical names should be translated into English as close to their source language form as possible unless other of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ананьїв Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Богуслав Bohuslav; Виноград Vynohrad; Моринці Moryntsi; Запоріжжя Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; Кам'яний Брід Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Жуляни Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Чернігів Chernihiv; Щигри Shchyhry/Scyhry; Київ/Одеса Kyiv/Odesa; Хутір Михайлівський Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія Asia Minor, Середня Азія Central Asia, Неаполь (It. Napoh) Naples, Hebrides Гібриди/Гібридські острови (also Western Isles), etc.

of their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ананьїв Ananiiv/Ananyiv; Богуслав Bohuslav; Виноград Vynohrad; Моринці Moryntsi; Запоріжжя Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; Кам'яний Брід Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Жуляни Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Чернігів Chernihiv; Щигри Shchyhry orScyhry; Київ/Одеса Kyiv/Odesa; Хутір Михайлівський Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія Asia Minor, Середня Азія Central Asia, Неаполь (It. Napoli) Naples, Hebrides Гібриди/Гібридські острови (also Western Isles), etc.

CONVEYING THE NAMES OF COMPANIES, CORPORATIONS, FIRMS

1. Traditionally, most names of companies (corporations, firms, etc.) are transcribed or transliterated and shortly explicated at the same time. This method is also employed when rendering the names of publishing houses, titles of most newspapers and magazines or journals, and of some public bodies. The translation may be performed either with the employment of a shorter or more extended explication. The former is practised when the name of the company (corporation, firm) is well-known or when translating at language level; the latter is resorted to when translating at speech/text level: Associated Biscuit Manufacturers англійська компанія по випуску хрустких коржиків «Ессошіейтед біскіт менюфекчерерз; T.Wall & Sons Co. Ltd. англійська компанія по виробництву м'ясомолочних продуктів і морозива «Т. Волл енд санз компані лімітед», but: General Motors/Standard Oil корпорація «Дженерал Моторз/Стандард Ойл».

It is much easier to translate the names of companies/corporations when their product is indicated as in the following examples: British-American Tobacco Co. об'єднана англо-американська компанія тютюнових виробів «Брітіш-американ тобекко компані»; British and Commonwealth Shipping компанія по забезпеченню морських перевезень між Великою Британією та її колишніми колоніями «Брітіш енд коммонвелс шіппінґ»; Campbell Soups Co. компанія по виробництву консервованих страв «Кемпбелл супе компані»; Coca-Cola Co. Inc. об'єднана компанія по виробництву безалкогольних напоїв «Кока-кола компані інкорпорейтід»; China Ventretech Investment Corp. китайська інвестиційна корпорація

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«Вентретек інвестмент корпорейшин»; West Texas Intermediate Co. американська нафтова компанія «Вест Тексаз Інтермідіат Компані»; Volkswagen (VW) AG німецька акціонерна компанія по випуску легкових автомобілів «Фольксваґен Акціонер Ґезельшафт».

Ukrainian companies, firms and other state and private bodies performing the same or similar functions are translated according to the same rule (they are transliterated or transcribed and explicated at the same time). For example: Київська фірма «Світанок» Kyiv Svitanok civil services firm; виробниче об'єднання «Краснодонвугілля» «Krasnodonvuhillya Coal Production Amalgamation; Укргазпром Ukrainian Ukrhazprom natural gas importing and extracting body; «Київоблпобутрадіотехніка» Kyiv region Kyivoblpobutradiotekhnika home radio engineering services body (firm); акціонерне товариство «Білицька меблева фабрика» Bilychi Joint-Stock Furniture Factory Association; CD «Вента» (парфуми та косметика з Болгари) Bulgarian Venta Joint Venture (perfumes, makeup); Львівська взуттєва фірма «Прогрес» Lviv Prohres footwear firm.

2. Translation of the names of British/American publishing houses is performed according to the same rules: Associated Book Publishers лондонська книжково-видавнича фірма «Ассошіейтід бук паблішерз»; Cambridge University Press англійське видавництво наукової та довідкової літератури при Кембріджському університеті «Кембрідж юніверсіті прес»; Edward Arnolds (Publishers) Ltd. лондонське видавництво навчально-педагогічної та наукової літератури «Едвард Арнольдз (паблішерз) лімітед»; Harper & Row (USA) видавництво різної літератури «Гарпер енд Роу» (США).

Not infrequently, however, the names of British (American, etc.) publishing houses are scarcely indicated or not mentioned at all. Nevertheless in Ukrainian translation the identifying noun видавництво should necessarily be added: Penguin Books лондонське видавництво «Пенґвін букс»; Raphael Tuck & Sons Ltd. лондонське видавництво літератури з образотворчого мистецтва «Рафаель Так енд санз лімітед»; J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. видавництво підручникової та довідкової літератури «Дж. М. Дент енд санз лімітед»; Slavic Gospel Press (USA) американське видавництво Біблій слав'янськими мовами «Славік Ґоспел Прес»; Randon House (USA) видавництво художньої літератури «Рендом Гаус» (США); Rand McNelly {USA) видавництво шкільних підручників

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«Ренд Макнеллі» (США) ; Beacon Press (USA) американське видавництво підручників «Бікон Прес».

Names of Ukrainian publishing houses are rendered into English similarly: with the corresponding identifying noun Publishers or Publishing House added to it: видавництво «Український письменник»/»Дніпро» Kyiv/ Ukrains'kyi Pysmennyk/Dnipro Publishers (Publishing House): видавництво «Музична Україна» Muzychna Ukraina (musical works and notes) Publishers/Publishing House; видавництво «Школа» Shkola/Skola Publishers/Publishing House (primary and secondary school manuals, reference books, dictionaries); видавництво «Либідь» Kyiv Shevchenko University Lybid' Publishers (scientific literature and higher school manuals).

  1.  Transcribed or transliterated and mostly shortly explicated
    in the target language are also the names of news agencies: (the
    British) Reuters (News Agency) англійське інформаційне аґентство
    «Рейтер»;
    UPl/France Presse інформаційне агентство ЮПІ (США),
    Франс-Прес (Франція); інформаційне агентство Дінау Укрінформ
    Ukrainian Dinau Ukrinform News Agency; інформаційне аґентство
    Тарс/Новості
    Russian TASS/Novosti News Agency; but китайське
    інформаційне аґентство Сінь-Хуа
    Chinese Communist New China
    News Agency.
  2.  Names of theatres, cinemas, hotels are also mostly repro
    duced through transcription or transliteration and explication at the
    same time: Comedy Theatre театр «Комеді»; Dairy Lane музичний
    театр «Драрі/Друрі-Лейн»;
    Commercial Theatre «Комерційний
    театр» (розрахований виключно на касовий збір);
    the Continental
    «Континенталь» (назва кількох лондонських кінотеатрів, у яких
    демонструються переважно зарубіжні фільми);
    the Empire
    кінотеатр «Емпайер» (великий лондонський кінотеатр); Большой
    театр
    the Bolshoi Theatre or: the Moscow Bolshoi Opera and Ballet
    Theatre; Київський державний український драматичний театр ім.
    Івана Франка
    the Kyiv State Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre;
    (Київський) театр музкомедії
    the (Kyiv) Musical Comedy Theatre;
    (Київський) театр юного глядача
    the (Kyiv) Young Spectators Thea
    tre; кінотеатр «Київ»/ «Славутич» the Kyiv city Kyiv/Slavutych Cin
    ema Hall.
  3.  Names of hotels are translated in the same way as the names
    of cinema halls. When the names originate from common nouns (or
    word-combinations) they may be transcribed, transliterated and expli
    cated or translated: the Royal Court Hotel
    готель «Роял корт»; the
    Mitre Hotel
    лондонський готель «Майтер» (Митра); готель «Київ»/

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«Русь»/ «Україна» the Kyiv/ RusV Ukraina Hotel; the Opryland Hotel/ Restaurant (Nashville, Tennessee) готель/ресторан «Опріленд» (CLLJA, м. Нешвіл, штат Теннессі); the Westin Hotel (Calgary, Canada) Калґерський готель «Вестін» (Канада), готель «Колос»/ «Берізка»/ «Затишок» the Kolos, Birch Tree (Cosy Nook), Hotel; Лисянський готель «Колос» the Lysyanka Kolos Hotel.

The same way of translating is employed when dealing with the names of restaurants: the Banff Springs Restaurant (ab. Calgary) ресторан «Бенф Спрінґс», the Anatole Restaurant (Dallas) ресторан «Анатоль»; ресторан «Москва»/ «Дніпро»/ «Київ» the Moskva/ Dnipro/ Kyiv restaurant; ресторан «Вітряк»/«Мислівський» the Vitryak (Windmill)/Myslyvskyi (Hunter's) restaurant.

6. Names of newspapers, journals, and magazines require a special approach on the part of the translator. The thing is that in English some more extended explication may be needed for a particular foreign newspaper (magazine, journal) than in Ukrainian: газета «Голос України» the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada Holos Ukrainy newspaper; «Народна Армія» the Ukrainian army Narodna Armiya/Armia paper/newspaper; «Независимость» a Ukrainian Russian language Nezavisimost newspaper/paper, «Молодь України» the Ukrainian youth Molod' Ukramy newspaper; «Буковина» the Bukovyna region(al) Bukovyna newspaper/daily; «Вечірній Київ» the Kyiv city Verchirniy Kyiv evening newspaper, but газета «День» The Ukrainian Day newspaper (published also in English).

Very often the body to which the paper belongs or which sponsors its publication may be indicated too: орган міністерства народної освіти України газета «Освіта» Ukraine's Ministry of Public Education and Culture Osvita weekly; газета Спілки українських письменників «Літературна Україна» the Ukrainian writers Union Literaturna Ukraina weekly.

Names of Ukrainian journals (magazines) are translated in the same way as the titles of newspapers: журнал «Вітчизна» Ukrainian writers' Vitchyzna/Vitcyzna (Fatherland) literary journal; журнал «Перець» Ukrainian humorous and satirical Perets (Pepper) weekly magazine; журнал «Жінка» Ukrainian Zhinka (woman) monthly/magazine журнал «Мовознавство» Ukrainian linguistic Movoznavstvo journal or: Ukrainian linguists' Movoznavstvo journal; журнал «Іноземні мови» Ukrainian teachers of foreign languages Inozemni Movy journal; журнал «Сучасність» Ukrainian Suchasnists' (modern literature and politics) journal.

The titles of English newspapers, journals and magazines are

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traditionally less explicated in Ukrainian (like in Russian) translation: the New York Times газета «Нью-Йорк тайме»; Observer англійський соціально-політичний тижневик «Обсервер»; Washington Post газета «Вашингтон пост»; Business Week (орган ділових кіл США) журнал «Бізнес вік». The definite/indefinite article used before the titles of English newspapers/journals is mostly omitted in Ukrainian translation: The Teacher «Тічер» (щотижнева газета вчителів Великобританії); The Seaman «Сімен» (альманах профспілки моряків Великобританії); but: News of the World «Ньюс оф зе ворлд» (англійська недільна бульварна газета).

Several titles of foreign newspapers and journals may also be translated into English. Among them are the following: «Новое время» the Russian New Times English language journal; «Красная звезда» The Russian Army paper The Red Star (in Russia's English press, however, only Krasnaya Zvesda); «Полярная звезда» the Decembrists journal The North Star; but «Женьмінь-жібао» the Chinese Communist/ Peijing People's Daily.

7. Translation of the names of streets, avenues and squares is predetermined by several factors. Alongside the established tradition, the most important of these factors is the meaning of the component parts making up the name. When used in contextul environment, the names of streets, avenues, roads, and squares may often be simply transcribed or transliterated, since the nouns «street», «avenue», «road» or «square» are familiar to many Ukrainians: Dean Street Дін-Стріт; Milton Street/Oxford Street Мільтон Стріт/Оксфорд-Стріт; Wall Street/Fleet Street Волл-Стріт/Фліт-Стріт; Farringdon Road Фаррінгдон-Роуд.

When used out of context, however, the names of streets, avenues and roads require in Ukrainian an additional explanatory noun вулиця (бульвар, провулок): Midland Park Road вул. Мідланд-парк роуд; Narrow Lane вул. (пров.) Нерроу-лейн; Portobello Road вул. Портобелло-Роуд; Threadneedle Street вул. Треднідл-Стріт (центр Сіті), but Wall Street Вол-Стріт.

The streets (avenues) with numbers instead of the proper names always have the number translated and not given in figures: Sixth/Seventh Street Шоста/Сьома вулиця (Нью-Йорк); First (Third, Ninth) Avenue Перша (Третя, Дев'ята) авеню. The names of streets with no appositional «street/avenue» nouns in English must be added вулиця in Ukrainian translation: Cheyne Walk вул. Чейні-вок (у районі Челсі); the Mall/Pall Mall вул. Мел/Пел Мел (у центрі Лондона); Unwin Place/Portland Place вул. Анвін-Плейс/вул.

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Портленд-Плейс.

Ukrainian names of streets (roads, avenues) are translated according to the common rule, the proper name being transliterated (rarely transcribed) and the explaining common noun вулиця, бульвар, провулок is translated: Андріївська/Польова вулиця Andriivska/ Polyova Street; бульвар Лесі Українки/Шевченка Lesya Ukrainka/ Shevchenko Avenue. In recent years, however, especially in the local English press more and more often our вулиця, бульвар, etc. are transliterated in English: vulyts'a/vulytsia Kostel'na, vulytsia Bohdana Khmelnyts'koho, ploshcha Peremohy, ploshcha Tolstoho, but майдан Незалежності Maidan Nezalezhnosti, etc.

When the noun вулиця, бульвар, провулокіз not used in Ukrainian, it should naturally be added in the English translation: Андріївський Узвіз Andriivskyi Uzviz Road/vulytsia; Лиса Гора/ Ярославів Вал Lysa Hora/Yaroslaviv Val Street/vulytsia; Нижній/ Верхній Вал Nyzhniy/Verkhniy Val Street (Road) or vulytsia.

The names of streets and squares given in honour of social, political or historical events/personalities, along with the names formed from regular common nouns, qualitative or relative adjectives, are mostly translated. This way of translating is especially common in written language when it is not connected directly with oral communication: бульвар Дружби народів The Friendship of Nations (Peoples' Friendship) Avenue/Bulvar; вулиця Верховної Ради/ Грушевського Verkhovna Rada/Hrushevs'koho Street/vulytsia (in English newspapers published in Ukraine).

The names of English squares are also mostly transcribed and explicated (by adding площа) whether the noun «square» is mentioned or not: Clerkenwell Green/Percy Circus пл. Кларкенвел-Ґрін/Персі-серкус; Elephant and Castle пл. Елефант енд Касл; Grosvenor Square (Hanover Square) пл. Ґросвенор-Сквер (Геновер-Сквер).

Some names of squares may be either transcribed/transliterated or translated from the English language as well: Parliament Square пл. Парлемент-Сквер/ Парламентська площа; Trafalgar Square пл. ТрафальІ'ар-Сквер/Трафальґ'арська площа; George Washington Square пл. Джорджа Вашингтона/Майдан Джорджа Вашингтона.

Names of Ukrainian squares are rendered in a similar way though they are more often translated into English. It happens when the name of the square originates from a common noun or is a stable word-combination denoting some historical or revolutionary event:

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площа Богдана Хмельницького/Толстого Bohdan Khmel'nytskyi/ Tolstoi Square/Ploshcha; Контрактова площа Kontraktova Square/ Ploshcha; Голосіївська пл. Holosiivska Square/Ploshcha and also: Bohdana Khmel'nytskoho Square/Ploshcha.

Sometimes in oral and written practice both transliteration or transcription as well as regular translation may be employed. This becomes inevitable when the name of the square/street originates from a common noun or when it is necessary to avoid some misunderstanding. Besides, there may arise a need to clarify the lexical meaning of a proper name (or a component part of it) in the target language: пл. Перемоги (Київ) Peremoha (Victory) Square/Ploshcha; пл. Возз'єднання (Київ) Vozyednannya (Reunification) Square/ Ploshcha; Музейний провулок Muzeinyi Provulok (by-street).

Certainly of interest for our students may be the rule of translating such peculiar notions as житловий масив and адміністративний район in a city. Thus, Васильківський/Яготинський район is Vasyl'kivs'kyi/Yahotyns'kyi district/rayon, Шевченківський район м. Києва is Shevchenkivs'kyi district of Kyiv. Any житловий район in any city is always a residential area: (the) Syrets/Nyvky residential area in Kyiv Shevchenkivs'kyi district, the Oleksiyivka residential area in Kharkiv, the Kharkivs'kyi Masyv residential area (in Kyiv).

8. Names of public bodies, however, are mostly translated. These include political parties, trade unions, national and international bodies of different rank and functions: the British Conservative party консервативна партія Великої Британії; the Democratic (Republican) party демократична (республіканська) партія, the Labour (Liberal) party лейбористська (ліберальна) партія; Християнсько-демократична партія України the Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine orthe Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party/Ukrainian Christian Democrats; українська селянська партія the Ukrainian Farmer's Party, спортивне товариство «Динамо» Dynamo sports society, Асоціація легкоатлетів України Ukrainian Light Athletics Association. Similarly treated are also various names of English/American trade unions which may sometimes go under the names «association», «society», «organization», «brotherhood» or simply «union», which should always be translated as профспілка: the AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labour- Congress of Industrial Organizations) АФП-КВП (Американська Федерація Праці - Конгрес Виробничих Профспілок); Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers об'єднана профспілка робітників машинобудівної промисловості Великої Британії; British Transport and General

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Workers Union профспілка робітників транспорту і некваліфікованих працівників Великої Британії; United Mine Workers Association/United Miners об'єднана профспілка шахтарів (США).

Some trade unions of the USA are amalgamated with those of Canada. This is always indicated by the word «International» which should not erroneously be taken for міжнародний/міжнародна and consequently has to be translated as об'єднана профспілка США і Канади: International Ladies Garment Workers Об'єднана профспілка робітників по пошиттю жіночого верхнього одягу США і Канади: International Longshoremen Association об'єднана профспілка портових вантажників (докерів) США і Канади.

Names of Ukrainian trade unions are translated in the same way as the English (or American) ones. They may also be rendered in their full official wording or somewhat shortened (without using the words «trade union»): профспілка робітників гірничорудної промисловості України Ukrainian Mines Workers Union or Ukrainian Miners; профспілка машинобудівників України Ukrainian Engineering Workers Union/ Ukrainian Engineers; профспілка працівників освіти, вищої школи і наукових установ Ukrainian Public Education, Higher School and Scientific Institutions Workers (Trade) Union. Similarly translated are also names of international organizations as International Monetary Fund (IMF) Міжнародний Валютний Фонд; ЄЕС (European Economic Council) Економічна Рада Європи (Рада Європи); Дніпровський Центр українсько-польських культурних, наукових і ділових зв'язків The Dnieper area Center for Ukrainian and Polish Cultural, Scientific and Business Relations, etc.

9. Special attention should be paid to the translation of the names of institutions, enterprises, geographical objects, etc., bearing honorary names. In English the honorary name precedes the enterprise/body which bears it, whereas in Ukrainian/Russian it always follows the name of the enterprise/body: Humboldt State College Державний коледж ім. Гумбольдта; George Washington Library Бібліотека ім. Джорджа Вашинґтона; Lafayette/Longfellow College Коледж ім. Лафаєтта/Лонґфеллло; but: Cape Kennedy/ Vandenberg мис Кеннеді/Ванденберга, бібліотека ім. Котляревського the Kotlyarevskyi library; Національна бібліотека України ім. академіка Вернадського Ukrainian Academician Vernadskyi National Library.

Note. Names of literary and scientific/peace prizes are mainly

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translated in two ways - with the preservation of the name which the prize bears or with the transformation of the noun into a corresponding relative adjective: Nobel Prize Нобелівська премія (премія імені Нобеля); Pulitzer Prize Пулітцерівска премія (премія ім. Пулітцера); Taras Shevchenko Prize Шевченківська премія (премія ім. Т.Г. Шевченка); Rylskyi Translation Prize перекладацька премія ім. Максима Рильського.

English honorary names, therefore, are mostly transformed into relative adjectives in Ukrainian, whereas Ukrainian relative adjectives must be translated, where possible, as corresponding English nouns. This rule should also be observed when translating the names which contain the often used adjective державний. The latter, however, may sometimes be omitted in English, which should not be treated as a translator's mistake. The thing is that belonging of important institutions to state property in all countries is considered self-evident. As a result, two faithful translations of this kind of names are possible: Київська державна кіностудія ім. О.Довженка, Kyiv State Dovzhenko Film Studio, 2. the Kyiv Dovzhenko Film Studio; Львівський державний університет ім. Івана Франка. 1. Lviv I.Franko State University, 2. Lviv I.Franko University or: 1. Kyiv State Taras Schevchenko National University 2. Kyiv Taras Schevchenko National University.

The honorary names originating from common nouns or from those denoting historical/revolutionary events may be conveyed in two ways: 1) translated only or 2) transliterated/transcribed and explicated in brackets at the same time. Especially often this kind of names were used in Soviet times. Cf. Дзвонковецький колгосп «Смерть капіталізму»/ «Тихе життя» (Корнійчук) the Dzvonkove Smert' Capitalizmu (Death to capitallizm /Tykhe Zhyttia (Quiet Life) collective farm; Львівська фірма кондитерських виробів «Світоч» Lviv Svitoch (Torchlight) Confectionery Firm. Some names of our institutions which have recently changed their official status may be used with the definite article in the English translated variant1: Горлівський державний педагогічний інститут іноземних мов The Horlivka Foreign Languages Teachers' Training Institute (now University); Київський медичний університет ім. Богомольця Kyiv Bohomolets Medical University; Музична школа ім. М.Лисенка The M.Lysenko Musical School. It should be emphasized that the NNN-.NNNN-, etc. asyndetic word-groups are preferred in newspaper style

1 See: Povey J., Walshs I. An English Teacher's Handbook of Educational Terms. 2nd Rev. Ed - M : Vyssaja Skola, 1982.

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whereas in spoken language or in belles-lettres works prepositional phrases are used to convey such and the like names of institutions: колишній Києво-Святошинський радгосп «Шляхом перемог» (the) former Kyiv Svyatoshyn Shlyakhom Peremoh (On the Road to Victories) state farm (newspaper style), but (the) Shlyakhom Peremoh (On the Road to Victories) state farm in Kyiv Svyatoshyn district (spoken English or belles-lettres style). When translating such and the like often used today complicated names of different institutions, the student should strictly stick to the rule: in English the honorary name, functioning as a relative adjective, follows the place name substituting the Ukrainian possessive and relative adjective formed from the place name. For example: Київський державний педагогічний університет імені М.Драгоманова Kyiv State M.Drahomanov Teachers Training University.

Similarly translated are also names of newly formed on the basis of former collective/state farms enterprises. Cf. Семенівське КСП (колективне сільськогосподарське підприємство) Semenivs'ke Cooperative Agricultural Enterprise; Рідкодубське приватне с/г Товариство The Ridkodub Private Farmers' Association/Joint Stock Agricultural Association, etc.

Any other approach to translation of such and the like word-group structures, including the descriptive translation, which is sometimes employed by inexperienced translators, will be stylistically incompatible and therefore wrong. Care should be taken to avoid the stylistically unjustified expression «the named after» which is to be used only in explanatory versions, as in the sentence «After Ukraine's gaining independence many state institutions were named after our most prominent patriots Hrushevskyi, Vynnychenko, The Heroes of Kruty, Petlyura, and many others.» Hence, the Lviv V.Stefanyk library, the Symyrenko Horticultural Research Centre and never «the named after» Symyrenko Horticultural Research Centre or «the named after» V.Stefanyk Lviv library. It must be repeatedly emphasized that the placement of the honorary name in English translations is strictly predetermined and can not be changed deliberately unless required by the speech situation (style) and content.

Topics for Self-Control and Class/Home Reviewing

  1.  The main rules of conveying different English sounds in
    Ukrainian translations of proper nouns.

Rules and methods of Romanization of different Ukrainian

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proper nouns in English (names/family names of people, place names, etc.).

  1.  Methods of conveying the nicknames of people in English
    and Ukrainian (the general rule and exceptions).
  2.  Methods of translating the nationally generalizing names of
    people as Mr.Knowall,
    Панібудьласка, etc.
  3.  Rules of translating the names of companies, corporations,
    firms and their equivalent bodies in English and Ukrainian.
  4.  The rule of translating the names of institutions bearing hon
    orary names in English and Ukrainian.
  5.  The rule of translating the names of hotels, guest houses,
    hostels in English and Ukrainian.
  6.  Rules of translating the names of streets, squares, and resi
    dential areas from Ukrainian into English.
  7.  The rule of translating the names of English/Ukrainian pub
    lishing houses, news agencies, etc.

10. Rules of translating the names of public bodies into Eng
lish and Ukrainian.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Translate the following English proper names and surnames into Ukrainian. Substantiate your way of translation. Model: John Джон (common name), Іван/Іоан (Biblical name, name of the Pope, king or prince).

  1.  Abel, Adrian, Albert, Aloysius, Alvin, Ambrose, Ananias,
    Anthony, Athelstan(e), Augustus, Aurelius, Balthas(z)ar, Barnard,
    Bartholomew, Basil, Caleb, Christopher, Clarence, Cyril, Cyrus, Doug
    las, Duncan, Edmund, Elijah, Emil(e), Enoch, Erasmus, Eugene,
    Evan, Evelyn, Gabriel, Gaylord, Gerald, Giles, Griffith, Gustavus,
    Harold, Hilary, Hugh, Ian, Ivor, Jacob, James, Joachim, Job, Jonathan,
    Joshua, Lawrence, Leigh, Leonard, Luke, Mark, Matthew, Meredith,
    Miles, Moses, Nicolas, Noah, Orville, Paul, Peter, Philenion, Ralf,
    Sam(p)son, Silas, Simon, Solomon, Stewart, Timothy, Titus, Van,
    Virgil, Vivian, Walter, Zachariah, Zeke.
  2.  Abigail, Adaline, Alberta, Agnes, Alexandra, Angelica,
    Annabella, Aurora, Beryl, Camilla, Caroline, Charity, Daisy, Delia,
    Eileen, Eleanor, Enid, Eudora, Eva (Eve), Georgia, Grace, Hannah,
    Helen(a), Honey, Hope, Ida, Irene, Ivy, Jacqueline, Janet, Julia,
    Katherina(e), Leonora, Una, Lolita, Lucia, Lydia, Marianne, Martha,
    Mina, Myra, Nabby, Nadine, Orrie, Pamela, Patience, Paula, Pheny,

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Regina, Rita, Sandra, Sawnie, Serena, Tabitha, Theresa, Una, Vera, Vida, Viola, Virginia, Wilhelmina, Winifred, Zenobia, Zoe.

c). Adams, Ade, Bamber, Seattle, Bingham, Bloye, Caldocot, Carliie, Cheeseman, Cohen, Cowie, Dalglish, Disney, Dooling, Eaton, Ellsworth, Evans, Fawley, Foche, Fowler, Gaulit, Gifford, Greaves, Gilmour, Hare, Hawley, Hooligan, Horrocks, Hurstwood, Irving, Julian, Kane, Keyworth, Knighton, Knickerbaker, Layman, Mathews, Maw, McEnrol, Methuselah, Meno, Merriweather, Nawrat, Ockham, O'Connor, Ogle, O'Grady, Otway, Palmer, Paisley, Plowdon, Pooley, Priscott, Quaker, Ramsay, Reeve, Rotthwell, Rushworth, Sounders, Sivers, Sowers, Statham, Teall, Thorndike, Drey, Uriah, Urduahart, Van Allen, Van Buren, Vane, Wainwright, Wallace, Warwick, Watt, Yaspan.Zangwill.

Exercise II. Translate the following Ukrainian proper names and surnames into English. Define the way they are rendered (transcribed, transliterated, partly transliterated or partly transcribed, etc.).

  1.  Амросій, Аркадь, Архип, Богдан, Валентин, Валерій,
    Василь, Володимир, В'ячеслав, Георгій, Дем'ян, Дорофій, Йосип,
    Мар'ян, Михайло, Олексій, Охрім, Пантелеймон, Пилип, Тиміш,
    Филимон, Хома, Юрій, Юхим, Яким.
  2.  Анастасія, Борислава, Василина, Віра, Галина, Ганна,
    Євпраксія, Жанна, Зінаїда, Іванна, Катерина, Ксенія, Лариса/Леся,
    Лепестина, Люба, Людмила, Марися, Надія, Оксана, Онисія,
    Павлина, Раїса, Соломія, Таїсія, Уляна, Фросина, Юлія,
    Юхимина, Явдоха, Ярослава,
  3.  Андрійчук, Архипенко, Богданець, Вирвикишка,
    Віталієнко, Горпищенко, Григораш, Де, Дем'янчук, Дерипаско,
    Добридень, Дорожченко, Жлуктенко, Жуйхліб, Іллюк, Кирп'юк,
    Марущак, Неїжмак, Непийпиво, Нетреба, Нетудихата, Охрім'кж,
    Ольжич, Павлюченко, Печиборщ, Панібудьласка, Підкуймуха,
    Підопригора, Реп'ях, Тягнирядно, Убийвовк, Федюнишин, Ховрах,
    Цьох, Юрчишин, Янченко.
  4.  Suggest possible methods of translation into Ukrainian for
    the following English generalizing/characterizing names:

Mrs. Bundle, Mr. Gila Bend, the Giggler, Mr. Happness, Curly Bull, Run Bill Pilgrim, Whistling Dick, Shark Dodson, Lord Rubudub, Lady Singsung, Pennifeather (from K.Vonnegut's works), Mr. Knowall (Maugham), Gimlet of Ghent, Beowulf the Bradawl, Mr. Sparrow, Don Back, farmer Meadowlark, philosophical Philip, Tom Lackford Promoter, Mr. Beanhead, Mr. Newrich, Lord Oxhead, Rollothe Rumbottle

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(from S.Leacock's works). Mrs. Trotter, Mrs. Struggles, Alfred Jingle, Mr. Mallard, Mr.Walker, Mr.Copperfield, Mr.Gradgrind (from C.Dickens's works); Mr. Crabtree/Backbite, Mrs. Sneerwell (Sheridan).

e) Suggest your versions for the nicknames of the U.S. and Canadian sports clubs and translate the sentences into Ukrainian: 1) In sports many victories were never enjoyed for long and the losses lingered. 2) The New York Yankees sprayed champagne after John Wetteland closed out the World Series, but he soon departed to the Texas Rangers as a $24 million free agent. 3) Jimmy Key took the Baltimore Orioles' money. Jim Leyritz, whose home run fumed the Series, was traded to the Anaheim Angels. 4) Michael Jordan lifted the Chicago Bulls to a fourth National Basketball Association title. 5) John LeClair scored twice as the Philadelphia Flyers stretched the National Hockey League's longest current unbeaten run to 13 games with a 4-2 victory over the slumping Calgary Flames. 6) Tommy Albelin and Sandy McCarthy, with his first goal of the season, led the Flames. 7) The loss left the Panthers in a first-place tie with Philadelphia in the Atlantic Division. 8) The Blues had not beaten the Bruins since 1994. 9) NBA Roundup: Shaquille O'Neal scored 28 points in 28 minutes and Eddie Jones had 20 points and seven steals as the Los Angeles Lakers beat the Philadelphia 76ers. 10) Isaiah Rider scored 19 points while playing less than three quarters as the host Trail Blazers routed the Spurs.

Exercise III. Identify the methods of translation of the following holy names, festivities, and remembrance days of the Orthodox Church into Ukrainian. Use the English-Ukrainian dictionaries or part В of this exercise for the purpose.

A.Nativity Vigil, Nativity of Christ, Mother of God, First Martyr Stephan, St.Basil the Great/New Year, Jordan Dinner, Theophany, John the Baptist, Three Hierarchs, Meeting of the Lord, Meat Fare Sunday, All Souls Saturday, Cheese Fare Sunday, Great Fast, Sunday of Orthodoxy, Cross Veneration, Sunday Great Fast, Annunciation, Great Thursday/Friday, Easter Sunday/Monday, Saint Thomas, Ascension, Peter's Fast, Pentacost, Holy Spirit, Apostles Peter and Paul, Blessed Olha, Patron Saint Day, Saint Volodymyr, Prophet Elijah, Baptism of Ukraine (August 14, 988), Transfiguration, Dormition, Beheading of St. John the Baptist, Cross Elevation, Protection Mother of God, Remembrance Day, Synaxis of Archangel Michael, Autumn Nativity Fast, Entry Mother of God, Apostle Andrew, Saint Nicholas the Thaumaturgist, Conception of Mother of God.

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В. Святий Вечір, Різдво Христове, Первомученика Стефана, Пресвята Богородиця, Святого Василя Великого/Новий Рік, Йорданська Вечеря, Богоявлення, Іоан Хреститель, Трьох Святителів, Стрітення Господнє, М'ясопусна Неділя, Поминальна Субота, Сиропусна Неділя, Неділя Православ'я, Великий Піст/ Хрестопоклоніння, Благовіщення, Страсний Четвер/П'ятниця, Великодня Неділя, Світлий Понеділок, Провідна Неділя/Проводи, Вознесіння, Петрівка, Трійця /День Св.Трійці, День Св. Духа, Св. апостолів Петра і Павла, Блаженної Ольги, Храмове Свято, Св. Володимира, Пророка Іллі /Спасівка, Хрещення України, Преображення, Успіння Пресвятої Богородиці, Усічення глави Св.Іоана Хрестителя, Воздвиження (Чесного) Хреста, Покрова (Св.Богородиці), Поминки, Собор Архангела Михаїла, Пилипівка, Введення Пресвятої Богородиці, Св. Апостола Андрія Первозванного, Св. Миколая Чудотворця, Зачаття Пресвятої Богородиці.

Exercise IV. Translate the following geographical names into Ukrainian and define the method each of them is rendered in part a) and part b):

  1.  the Channel Islands, the Cheviot Hills, Christmas Island,
    the Commander Islands, the Crocodile River, Everglades National
    Park (USA), the Grand Falls, Grand Falls (town), the Great Slave
    River, the Great Sandy Desert (Australia), the Great Victoria Desert,
    Hudson Bay, Idaho Falls, Kerch Strait, Maritime Territory (Russia),
    Near Islands, the Niagara Falls, the White Nile, the White Mountains,
    the Yellow River.
  2.  1. The Rocky Mountains (the Rockies) are considered young
    mountains: of the same age as the Alps in Europe, the Himalayas in
    Asia, and the Andes in South America.
    2. There are 48 areas in the
    Rocky Mountains set aside by state and federal governments for
    national parks. Among the world-wide known are Yellowstone Na
    tional Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, Mesa Verde National Park,
    and, of course, Grand Canyon National Park. In the Sierra Nevada
    Mountains area best-known is the Yosemite National Park.
    3. The
    Appalachians are old mountains with many coal-rich valleys among
    them.
    4. The Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains
    catch the largest share of rain off the Pacific Ocean.
    5. At the border
    of the Pacific Ocean lie the Coast Ranges, relatively low mountains.
    6. The Grand Canyon cut by the Colorado River in the high Colorado
    Plateau, is
    1.6 kilometers in depth. 7. North of the Central Lowland
    are the five Great Lakes and West of the Central Lowland are the

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Great Plains. 8. The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers, like the Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, or the Ganges, Amur, and Yangtze in Asia. 9. The winding Mississippi River and its various branches drain a great basin extending from the Appalachians to the Rockies about one-third the land of the United States. 10. Curving through the heart of the whole western half of the Central Basin is the Missouri River, chief western branch of the Mississippi, once the most destructive river in the United States. 11. The Missouri rises high among the snows of the Rocky Mountains. 12. Like the Mississippi all rivers - east of the Rockies finally arrive at the Atlantic. For this reason the crests of the Rocky Mountains are known as the Continental Divide. 13. The Rio Grande is the foremost river of the Southwest between Mexico and the United States. 14. The skyscrapers of New York, the steel mills of Pittsburg and the automobile assembly lines of Detroit which are symbols of industrial America form the «melting pot» of the country. 15. Detroit, heart of automobile industry, began as a waggon-making town, using wood from the forests that covered the peninsula between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. 16. The cargo tonnage which passes between Lake Superior and Lake Huron about equals the combined capacity of the Panama and Suez Canals. 17. From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across New York State flows the Hudson River which falls to New York harbour. 18. Great Salt Lake to the north of Salt Lake City in the State of Utah, contains an estimated six thousand millions of tons of soda.

Exercise V. Define the methods in which the following geographical names below have to be translated into English.

Алабама (p.), Алабама (штат США), Азорські острови, Апандські острови, Алжир (країна і столиця), Альпи, Амазонка, Азовське море, Аральське море, р.Буг, Говерла, Арктика, Атлантика, Багамські о-ви, Бенґальська затока, оз. Верхнє, Гавайські о-ви, Ґобі (пустеля), Ґрампіанські гори, оз. Гурон, м. Данді/Дербі, р. Дунай, Кривбас, м.Едінбурґ, оз. Ейре, м. Житомир/Запоріжжя, Ірландське море, м. Кельн, Лестер, Ліворно, Лідс, Маґелланова протока, гори Маккензі, острів Мен, р. Міссурі, р. Прип'ять, м. Мюнхен, м. Новий Орлеан, р. Огайо, оз. Онтаріо, Оркнейські о-ви, Піренеї, м. Ростов-на-Дону, Сахара (пустеля), Невада (пустеля і штат), Керченська протока, Кримський перешийок, ос. Святої Єлени, Сейшельські о-ви, Соломонові о-ви, р. Темза, м. Ворик, м. Франкфурт-на-Майні, м.Аахен.

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Exercise VI. Translate the names of the following English and American trade unions into Ukrainian:

1. ACTW, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers (USA).

2. AUEW, Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers (USA).

3. AAEE, American Association of Electrical Engineers. 4. AAA, Ameri
can Automobile Association.
5. ASLEF, Associated Society of Loco
motive Engineers and Firemen.
6. NUT, National Union of Teachers
(Gr. Br.).
7. SE, Scottish Electricals. 8. TGWU, Transport and General
Workers Union (Gr. Britain
). 9. UPOW, Union of Post Office Workers
(Gr.  Br.).  
10.  UMWA,  United Mine Workers of America.
11. UAWU, United Auto Workers Union. 12. USWA, United Shoe Work
ers of America.
13. UTWA, United Textile Workers of America. 14. The
AFL
- CIO, the American Federation of Labour - the Congress of In
dustrial Organizations.
15. UPS, United Parcel Service (USA).

Exercise VII. Translate the following names of Ukrainian trade unions into English. Define the method they are to be rendered:

1. Профспілка працівників будівельної промисловості України. 2. Профспілка працівників енергетичної промисловості України. 3. Профспілка працівників гірнично-рудної промисловості України. 4. Профспілка працівників м'ясо-молочної промисловості України. 5. Профспілка працівників машинобудівної промисловості України. 6. Профспілка працівників охорони здоров'я України. 7. Профспілка працівників освіти, вищої школи та наукових установ України. 8. Профспілка працівників суднобудівної промисловості України. 10. Профспілка працівників хімічної промисловості України.

Exercise VIII. Translate the names of the following English public bodies into Ukrainian:

a) 1. Amateur Athletic Association. 2. The British Field Sports Society. 3. Royal Geographical Society. 4. New Economic Foundation. 5. Greenpeace. 6. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. 7. Boy Scouts Association. 8. British Association for the Security and Cooperation in Europe. 9. British Institute of Public Opinion (Gullop Poll). 10. British Medical Association. 11. CPDS, Centre for Political and Diplomatic Studies (Oxford). 12. IATEFL International Association for Teaching English as a Foreign Language 13. Central Office of Information. 14. Department of Education and Science. 14. Department of Employment. 15. Duke of Humphrey's Library (Oxford Univ.) 16. Inner London Education Authority. 17. London County Council. 18. London Stock Exchange. 19. (Public) Record Office.

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20. Royal Exchange. 21. Royal Mint. 22. Royal National Institute for the Blind/Deaf. 23. Joint Nature Conservation Committee environmental protection (Gr. Br.) 24. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. 25. UN Security Council. 26. CBIE Canadian Bureau for International Education. 27. The Democratic Party. 28. The Republican Party (USA). 29. The Royalist Party. 30. The Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine. 31. The Lovers of Beer Party (Ukraine). 32. The Women Admirers Party (Ukraine).

b) Find Ukrainian equivalents for the English public bodies below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. There is a broad consensus that the Social Security system needs reform, but little agreement on what should be done, and many of the important organizations in the debate are formulating their strategies. 2. The AFL-CIO, which has focused on Wall Street as an adversary in the campaign ahead, is seeking to protect a financial safety net for low-income workers, as well as to maintain a central role for government in public benefit programmes. 3. Even the AFL-CIO, however, favours investing Social Security money in the stock and bond markets, although it wants the money controlled by the government, and not put in the hands of private investors. 4. The Hong Kong Aircrew Officers' Association said pilots had been complaining of a loud buzzing in their ears that forced them to quickly change to another frequency to maintain contact with air-traffic control. 5. The strike was called by the Histadrut Trade Union Federation to protest tax increases, budget cuts and privatization plans of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government. 6. The meeting of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) ended Friday in Copenhagen. 7. The Ukrainian Union of Businessmen became a member of the International Organization of Employers (ЮЕ). 8. Abraham Katz, president of the U.S.Council for International Business and deputy chairman of the ЮЕ executive committee, noted at the meeting that the success of reforms in Ukraine is defined by the level and speed of investments, both domestic and foreign. 9. Residents of the Bukit Gombak public housing estate in the central part of the main island of Singapore have a powerful inducement to end their support for the opposition and vote for the candidate of the governing People's Action Party. 10. Janice Shields of the U.S.Public Interest Research Group and Chris Privett of the American Society of Travel Agents, blamed airline pricing policies for the wide range of prices, saying «there may be up to 100,000 fare changes a day». 11. Mr. Rajavi married Maryam,

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a metallurgical engineer who had been a student leader in Tehran, and together they established the National Liberation Army, the military wing of the National Council of Resistance, a coalition of Iranian opposition groups abroad. 12. The International Monetary Fund's 2nd European Department mission to Ukraine yesterday conducted meetings with the government officials. 13. The European Union - Ukraine joint committee ended its four-day meeting in Brussels. The Ukrainian delegation was led by Roman Shpek, the head of National Agency for Reconstruction and Development (NARD). 14. 86 percent of the apartments in the high-rise blocks of Bukit Batok are being built and sold at much less than free-market rates by the government's Housing and Development Board. 15. Vancouver International Airport operated at only 10 per cent capacity Sunday and was struggling to get planes moving Monday. 16. National Railway trains were at a standstill, according to the Canadian Wheat Board, which sends most of its grain by train to the port of Vancouver.

Exercise (/.Translate the names of companies (corporations) below and define the method they are to be rendered:

  1.  1. Allied Breweries. 2. British Aircraft Corporation. 3. British
    Leyland Motor Corporation.
    4. British National Oil Corporation.
    5. British Overseas Airways Corporation. 6. British Shoe Corporation.
    7. Educational Supply Association. 8. Elswick-Hopper Cycle & Motor
    Co.
    9. General Electric Co. Ltd. 10. Ashanti Goldfields Company Ltd.
    (Ghana)
    11. Philips Records Co. 12. Radio and Allied Industries Co.
    13 Rugby Portland Cement. 14. Standard Telephones and Cables.
    15 Triplex Safety Glass Co. 16. Typhoo Tea Ltd. Co. 17. ABC (Ameri
    can Broadcasting Company).
    18. CBC (Columbia Broadcasting Sys
    tem).
    19. NPR (National Public Radio).
  2.  Suggest the methods of translation into Ukrainian of
    the names of English and foreign companies in the sentences
    below.

1. Ask a middle-aged working man in the north of England what he and his friends contemplated doing when they left school 20 years ago and you get only two answers: They would work in the shipyards or the coal pits, for companies with names like Swan Hunter, British Shipbuilders, Cammell Laird and British Cod. 2. Ask a secondary-school graduate now where he or she is likely to wind up working and you will hear very different-sounding names: companies called Samsung, Daewoo, LG Electronics, Chunghwa Picture Tubes, Woo One, Tatung or maybe Poong Jeon or Sung Kwang. 3. It is a sign of one of the most dramatic changes in modern industrial

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history: the growing dependence of Britain, a rich country that once ruled a great empire, on South Korea and Taiwan, once poor, developing countries, to solve the chronic problems of unemployment left behind when the coal mines and the shipyards closed.

Exercise X. Suggest all possible ways of approach to translating into Ukrainian the following titles of newspapers, magazines (journals):

1. Contemporary Review (literary-political monthly, Lnd.). 2. Contemporary Life (British farmer's weekly). 3. Daily Express, Daily Mail, The Daily Telegraph (and Morning Post), The Economist (all of conservative orientation). 4. Daily Mirror, Daily Sketch. 5. The Evening News, The Star, Evening Standard (Conservative dailies, Lnd.)., Scotsman (Edingb.), Yorkshire Post, Financial Times (Conservative), The Times (Lnd.). 6. Punch (satirical and humorous weekly), 8. The Guardian International. 9. Mainichi Shimbun (Japan). 10. Hong Kong Standard. 11. Korea Times (South Korea). 12. Ottawa Citizen (Canada). 13. Australia News. 14. USAToday. 15. Kyiv Post (Ukraine).

Exercise XI. Translate the following sentences containing the titles of American news media into Ukrainian:

1. American newspapers get much of their news from two news agencies - AP (Associated Press ) and UPI (United Press International). 2. The record for a Sunday paper in the United States is held by The New York Times. One issue on a Sunday in 1965 contained 946 pages, weighed 36 pounds, and cost 50 cents. 3. In 1986 a total of 9,144 newspapers (daily, Sunday, weekly, etc.) appeared in 6.516 towns in the United states. 4. Most of the daily newspapers are published, rain or shine, on Christmas, Thanksgiving, or the Fourth of July (Independence Day). 5. Among the twenty newspapers with the largest circulation only two or three regularly feature crime, sex, and scandal. 6. The paper with the largest circulation, The Wall Street Journal, is a very serious newspaper indeed. 7. The Wall Street Journal can be found throughout the country. Yet, one wouldn't expect The Milwaukee Journal to be read in Boston, or The Boston Globe in Houston. 8. Three of the better- known American newspapers The New York Times, The Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times not only collect but also sell news, news features, and photographs to hundreds of other papers in the U.S.and abroad. 9. In one famous example, an expose of the CIA in The New York Times, also appeared in 400 other American newspapers and was picked up or used in some way by hundreds more overseas. 10. «Picked up» is not quite right. Such stories are copyrighted and other newspapers

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must pay for their use. 11. Some American papers are of international excellence, namely: The Christian Science Monitor, The (Baltimore) Sun, the St. Louis Dispatch, The Milwaukee Journal. 12. In a large international survey of newspaper editors, The New York Times was ranked by most as world's top daily. 13. Among the largest daily U.S.newspapers (1986) also are: (New York) Daily News, USA Today, The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, The New York Post, The Detroit News, The Detroit Free Press, The Chicago Sun Times, (The Long Island) Newsday, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Boston Globe. 14. There are more than 4,000 monthly, and over 1,300 weekly magazines in the USA.15. Quite a few of them have international editions, are translated into other languages or have «daughter editions» as National Geographic, Reader's Digest, Cosmopolitan, Vogue, Time, Newsweek, Scientific American, and Psychology Today. 16. Some American periodicals treat serious educational, political, and cultural topics at length. The best-known of these include The Atlantic Monthly, Harvard Educational Review, Saturday Review, Consumer Reports, The New Republic, National Review, Foreign Affairs, Smithsonian (published by the Smithonian Institution in Washington, D.C.), and, of course, Family Circle, Woman's Day, or National Enquirer.

Exercise XII. Translate the titles of the following Ukrainian and foreign newspapers, magazines and journals into English:

A. «Народна газета», «Українське слово», «Слово
Просвіти», «Освіта» «Голос України», «Урядовий Кур'єр»,
«Київська правда», «Літературна Україна», «Комерсант»,
«Молодь України», «Демократична Україна», «Сільські вісті»,
«Народна армія», «Київські Відомості», «Независимость»,
«Чорноморський моряк», «Шевченків край» (Звенигородська
райгаз.), журнали: «Дзвін», «Березіль», «Україна», «Вітчизна»,
«Дніпро», «Київ», «Всесвіт», «Слобожанщина» (письм. журнал,
Харків), «Холодний Яр» (письм. журнал, Черкаси), «Сучасність»
(літ.-політ. журнал), «Мовознавство», «Іноземні мови», «Слово і
час», «Іноземна філологія» (Львівський університет), «Теорія і
практика перекладу» (КНУ-т ім.Т.Шевченка).

B. Foreign Newpapers: «Жіцє Варшави»; «Парі Суар»
(Франція), «Франкфуртер Альґемайне», «Зюддойче Цайтунґ»
(Німеччина), «Паезесера», «Ґазеттаделло спорт», «Ла Републіка»
(Італія), «Известия», «АргументьІ й фактьі»» (Росія), «Борба»
(Югославія), «Правда» (Словаччина).

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Translate the following names of news agencies into English: Агентство Великої Британії Рейтер (Ройтер), агентство Франс-Прес, Новості/АПН, Укрінформ, ДІНАУ Укрінформ, «Карпати» (Україна), агентство ПАП (Польща), агентство Ніппон судзін (Японія), агентство Сіньхуа (Китайська Нар. Респ.), Дойче Нахріхтена^ентур (Німеччина), С1-ЕН-ЕН, Ассошіейтед Прес (США).

Exercise XIII. Translate the names of the publishing houses into Ukrainian and define the method of translation employed in each case.

  1.  1. A.& Black (Ltd.). 2. Andre Deutsch (soc. and polit. lit.,
    Indep.).
    3. J.Bartholomew & Son Ltd. (geogr. maps, atlases, Edinbr.).
    4. Chapman & Hall (sci. and techn. lit., Lnd.). 5. W.& R.Chambers
    Ltd. (dictionaries, manuals, reference books, Scotl.).
    6. J.M.Dent &
    Sons Ltd. (manuals reference books, guides', etc.) 7. William Collins
    Sons&Co Ltd. (Dictionares, Lond).
    8. Lund Humphries (dictionaries
    manuals, etc,. Lnd.).
    10. University of London Press. 11. Oxford Uni
    versity Press.
    12. The World Publishing Company (diet., sci. works.
    USA).
    13. Inter Vasity Press (sci. works, Illin. Univ. USA). 14. Macmillan
    (sci. and hist, works, USA).
    15. University of Oklahoma Press (USA).
    16. Academic International Press (USA). 17. Harward University Press
    (USA).
    18. University of Wisconsin Press. (USA). 19. Longman (sci.
    works, fiction, Ind.).
    20. Foreign languages Publishing House (Mosc.).
    21. Oxford University Press, Penguin Books (G.Brit.).
  2.  Suggest the way of translating into English the following
    names of Ukrainian publishing houses:
    «Будівельник», «Веселка»,
    «Вища школа», «Наука», «Дніпро», «Глобус», «Каменяр»,
    «Карпати», «Музична Україна», «Смолоскип», «Феміна»,
    «Український письменник», «Лан», «Знання», «Школа»,
    «Україна», «Молодь», «Либідь» (Київський у-т), «Наукова думка»
    (Акад. наук),
    «Баба Ґаламага» (прив. худ. літерат., Київ).

Exercise XIV.Translate the following sentences containing the names of well-known international corporations into Ukrainian:

1. Sony Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp. will invest 50 billion yen ($412.2 million) in a venture to make liquid-crystal-display panels. 2. Bankers Trust New York Corp. agreed to buy call options on 15 billion yen of Nippon Credit Bank Ltd. stock over the next three years. The options, if exercised, would raise the U.S.company's equity stake in Nippon Credit to nearly 4 per cent. 3. Japan's vehicle exports rose 42 per cent in August from a year earlier to 369,659

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helped by a combination of a weaker yen and strong demand for sport-utility vehicles. It was the 15th consecutive monthly increase. 4. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and Hong Kong Telecommunications Ltd. plan to extend their newly launched experimental high-speed line to Thailand in November. 5. Matsushita Electric Philippines Corp. will begin increasing the local content of US products because of concerns over the weakness of the Philippines peso. 6. Fletcher Challenge Ltd. of New Zealand's Canadian subsidiary sold its U.S.paper mill, Blandin Paper Co., to UPM-Kymmene Corp. of Finland for $650 million. 7. Cable and Wireless PLC bought an additional 5.75 percent stake in Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd. from Hutchison Whampoa Ltd. for 458.6 million Hong Kong dollars ($59.3 million).

Exercise XV.Translate the following Ukrainian names of enterprises and public bodies into English:

1. виробниче об'єднання «Закарпатліс»; 2. виробниче об'єднання «Донбас-антрацит»; 3. київська фірма побутових послуг «Світанок», 7. виробниче об'єднання «Укрмеблі»; 5. Укргазпром; 6. Укрмашинекспорт; 7. Виробниче об'єднання «Київукркабель»; 8. Фонд державного майна України; 9. творче виробниче об'єднання УТН; 10. Петровський машинобудівний завод (Донецьк); 11. Дніпропетровська фірма «Взуття»; 12. Нікопольський завод молочних продуктів; 13. виробничо-закупівельне підприємство «Хміль» (Житомир); 14. Ґенеральне аґентство з туризму Закарпатської області; 15. державне підприємство Туристичний комплекс «Пролісок»; 16. «Нафтохімік Прикарпаття»; 17. Івано-Франківське спеціалізоване управління механізації будівництва; 18. Білоцерківське виробничо-торгівельне трикотажне підприємство; 19. Ізмаїльська виробничо-комерційна фірма «Істр»; 20. Керченський металургійний комбінат; 21. «Львівоблплодоовоч»; 22. Акціонерне товариство «Глиноземний завод» (Миколаїв); 23. «Львівелектромаш»; 24. «Донецькнафтопродукт»; 25. «Будмаш» (Прилуки); 26. фірма матеріально-технічного забезпечення і збуту продукції «Донецьквугілля»; 27. державне підприємство роздрібної торгівлі «Вишенька» (Донецьк); 28. Українсько-російське спільне підприємство «Донецьковоч»; 29. туристична фірма «Гамалія»; ЗО. фірма по виробництву побутової техніки «Домогосподарка»; Лисичанське КСП; 31. Семенівське с/г товариство «Добробут», 32. КТТУ, Київське трамвайно-тролейбусне управління.

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Exercise XVI. Translate the names of London hotels, hostels, inns and accomodation campuses into Ukrainian. Model:

Central House hotel сімейний готель «Сентрал гаус»; Acton Grange guest house пансіон «Ектон Ґрендж».

1. Lincoln House hotel, Glynne Court hotel, Duke of Leicester (hotel), Royal Adelpphi hotel, Olympic House hotel, Atlantic Hostel, Prince William hotel; 2. Hyde Park Rooms hotel, The Victoria inn, Green Court hotel, Half Moon hotel; 3. Pearl hotel, Fife Kings guest house, Forest View hotel, Sleeping Beauty motel, Elm Hotel, Fountain House hotel, High Trees Gatwick guest house; 4. Wembley Park hotel, International students house, Oxford Street Youth hostel; 5. University of Westminster (hotel), Cartwright University halls, Allen Hall summer hostel, International student residence, Hotel Saint Simeon, Holland House youth hostel, Hampstead Heath Youth hostel; 6. King's College London Hamstead campus, Ralf West Hall of residence.

Exercise XVII. Translate the following names of Ukrainian hotels, halls of residence, and guest houses into English.

1. Готель «Золотий колос», готель «Київ»/«Україна», готель «Дніпро»/«Славутич», готель «Київська Русь»/«Турист», готель «Братислава»/«Мир» (всі київські), готель Київського державного технічного університету будівництва й архітектури, готель Академії праці й соціальних відносин. 2. Будинок відпочинку «Берегове» (Закарпаття), пансіонат «Перемога» (Ворзель), будинок відпочинку «Будівельник» (Саки, Крим), будинок відпочинку «Водоспад» (Яремче, Закарпаття). 3. Пансіонат «Колос» (Пуща Водиця), пансіонат «Водник», пансіонат «Кооператор» (Закарпаття), пансіонат «Маяк» (Київський політехнічний інститут), пансіонат «Верховина» (Закарпаття), пансіонат «Аркадія» (Одеса), пансіонат «Джерело» (Пуща Озерна).

Texts for Independent Oral and Written Translation

Exercise XVIII. Translate the passages А, В, С, D in viva voce into English. Suggest appropriate ways of Romanization of different Ukrainian proper nouns in them.

А. Козацькому роду нема переводу.

Нізащо б не впізнали сьогодні запорожці серед димогарних труб заводів і фабрик та териконів, що нагадують віддалік єгипетські піраміди, свою Луганщину і землі, які вони

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обживали 300 з гаком років тому вздовж берегів Сіверського Дінця, Лугані, Айдару, Деркула, Кам'янки. Саме вони заснували багатотисячний зимівник Кам'яний Брід - звідки й пішов у ріст Луганськ. Можна назвати й інші козацькі поселення: Рубіж (нині Рубіжне), Сватова Лучка (Сватове), Новий Псков (Новопсков), Білолуцьк, Щастя, Макарів Яр. Прямих нащадків запорозьких козаків на Луганщині тисячі, їх легко впізнати, наприклад, за прізвищами, про які дізнаємося в обласному адресному бюро. Між нас живуть: Нейздіймишапка і Покиньборода, Непийпиво і Святодух, Небийпідколіно і Молибога, Сороксобак... Донедавна був і носій такого чудернацького прізвища, що одразу й не вимовиш (прямо хоч до книги Гіннесса подавай) -Нашвидкоручтягнирядно!

B. Острог. Це місто древнє, одне із перших міст Південно-
Західної Руси-України. Вперше в історичних джерелах він
згадується під 1100 роком в Іпатіївському літописі. Основне
визначне місце Острога - княжий замок, зразок давньоруського
оборонного зодчества. Ансамбль замку зберіг основні будівлі.
Зараз у залах цієї унікальної архітектурної пам'ятки краєзнавчий
музей. У 30-ті роки заблищали позолотою всі п'ять бань величної
Богоявленської церкви. Оновлене і перше опорядження споруди.
У затишному сквері стоїть стела у вигляді розгорнутої книги, яка
встановлена 1978 року, до 400-річчя з часу заснування
Острозької слов'яно-греко-латинської академії і друкарні. Тут наш
першодрукар Іван Федоров випустив п'ять видань книг, у тому
числі унікальну «Острозьку Біблію», яка вийшла в світ 12 серпня
1581 року і стала великою подією у вітчизняній культурі. За
художнім оформленням Острозьку Біблію відносять до
книжкового мистецтва епохи Відродження.

C. Літопис Григорія Граб'янки. «Велика війна Богдана
Хмельницького» видано в Українському науковому інституті
Гарвадського університету. Це одна з найвідоміших козацьких
хронік, свідчення розвитку української свідомості та культури в
минулому. Твір, написаний 1710 року, вперше опубліковано в
Петербурзі наприкінці
XVIII століття. Нинішнє видання містить
вступ англійською та українською мовами, фотоілюстрації й
велику бібліографію.

D. Поліглоти. Німець Шютце, що помер перед другою
світовою війною, говорив аж... 270 мовами. 230 мов знав
даньський учений минулого століття РасмусХрістіян Раск, 140-
професор Львівського університету Анджей Гавронський, близько

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100 - академік М. Марр, 80 - видатний археолог Генріх Шліман, понад 60 - український науковець і письменник Агатангел Кримський.

Знання іноземних мов здавна вважалося за невід'ємну ознаку духовної культури. Київський князь Володимир Мономах писав у своєму «Поученні»: «Що знаєте доброго, того не забувайте, а чого не знаєте, того навчайтесь - як батько мій, перебуваючи вдома, знав п'ять мов, від того бо честь в інших країнах». Кількома іноземними мовами володіли видатний полководець і державний діяч України Богдан Хмельницький і гетьман Іван Виговський.

Чимало поліґлотів (від грецького «полі» - багато, глотта» - мова) є і в наш час. У Римському університеті працює професор Карло Тальїавіні, який досконало володіє 35 мовами, викладає 25-ма, а всього знає їх понад 120. «Батько» кібернетики Норберт Вінер вивчив 13 мов, професор Тартуського університету Пауль Арісте та викладач Московського Андрій Залізняк, родом з Чернігівщини, знають десь по 40 мов. До двох десятків знав їх український письменник-перекладач Микола Лукаш. Він автор чудових перекладів «Фауста» Ґете, «Декамерона» Боккаччо, «Дон Кіхота» Сервантеса та інших шедеврів світової літератури. Поліглоти визнають, що процес вивчення іноземних мов дуже складний, і в кожного з них свої власні методи.

UNITS OF INTERNATIONAL LEXICON AND WAYS OF RENDERING THEIR MEANING AND LINGUAL FORM

By internationalisms are meant such language units which are borrowed from one and the same source language by at least three genealogically different languages in the same or similar lingual form and identical meaning (cf. долар, атом, інтерес, директор, база, стадіон, театр, фізика, etc.). International, however, may be not only words and phrases/word-groups, but also morphemes - prefixes, suffixes and even inflexions, nothing to say about root morphemes as the English or Ukrainian words fund фонд, gas ґаз, lord лорд, ohm ом, park парк, pound фунт, smog смоґ and many others.

These morphemes are conveyed with the help of the translator's transcription (i.e. either transliterated or transcribed) sometimes, through, the combination of boh these methods may be and is employed.

Among the most often occurring international affixes in English

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and Ukrainian are the following:

  1.  Prefixes: апІі-/анти-, ех-/екс-, inter-Днтер-, tгапs-/транс-, ul-
    Іга-/ультра-;
    as in antibody антитіло, export (v. експортувати,
    international інтернаціональний, transmission трансмісія,
    ultraviolet ультрафіолетовий.
  2.  Suffixes: -ar/-ap, -er/-ep, -ізt/-ист/-іст, -ззіоп/-сія, -йоп/-ція,
    etc. as in quasar/квазар, actor/актор, volunteer/волонтер,
    humanist/гуманіст, constitution/конституція, agression/
    агресія,
    humorist/гуморисі, etc.
  3.  Inflexions: -ит/-ум, (memorandum меморандум). -us/-yc, (ra
    dius радіус), -а/-а (formula формула), etc.

The lexicon of each developed language comprises a very large layer of foreign by origin words, word-groups/phrases and even a small number of sentences. These lexical and syntactic level units have been acquired by the borrowing languages to designate notions hitherto unknown in them. The bulk of these borrowed morphemes, lexemes and syntaxymes are found in many languages of a culturally, historically, and often geographically common area as Europe, the Middle East or the Far East. They are used to designate notions belonging to different domains of human knowledge or activity.

Hence, there is distinguished: a) the social and political terminology comprising the most commonly used political, economic, philosophical, historical, sociological units of lexicon (audit, bank, constitution, parliament, party, president, barter, sophism, etc.). Here also belong terms designating international law, diplomacy, numerous literary terms (cf. drama, poet, metaphor, epithet, hyperbole, etc.); b) natural history/sciences terminology (physics, mathematics, genetics, chemistry) used not only in special but also in scientific and popular works and in mass media (chemical/physical reaction, genes, pneumonia, etc.); c) numerous technical terms (names of machines and their parts: motor, carter, starter, accelerator, battery), as well as names of different means of transport (bus, metro, taxi) and communication (fax, telegraph, telex, radio, e-mail), etc.

These and other words and phrases of the kind are referred to as internationalisms, or more precisely genuine internationalisms. The latter never considerably change their lingual (orthographic or sounding) form nor their internationally established meaning. (Cf.: motor мотор, audit аудит, therapeutic терапевтичний).

The main characteristic feature of genuine internationalisms, whether single words or words-combinations, is their semantic singularity. It means that their lexical identity and orthographic similarity

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in the source language and in all target languages remains unchanged both at language level (when taken separate) and at speech level, i.e., when used in texts/speech.

Apart from many thousands of genuine international words and word-combinations, which retain in several languages an identical or similar lingual form and identical meaning, there exists one more group of international lexis called translation loan units of lexicon. These have also a generally common structural form (of word, word-combination) but rarely a similarity in their orthographic form or sounding. Loan internationalisms are mostly different terms designating scientific and technological notions, in the main: brake гальмо, citric add лимонна кислота', lead oxide окис свинцю; specific gravity питома вага; surplus value додана вартість; nonconducting непровідність; agreement узгодження; government керування, juxtaposition прилягання (gram.), etc.

Along with these two groups of word internationalisms there also exist many stable international phraseological/idiomatic expressions in each language's lexicon. Their fund is constituted by the so-called absolute and near equivalents having a common language of origin - Greek, Latin or modern. Absolute and near international equivalents of this subgroup retain in different languages of a geographical area the same (or nearly the same) denotative and connotative meaning, the same expressive force and picturesqueness: Heel of Achilles ахіллесова п'ята; sword of Damocles дамоклів меч; to cross/pass the Rubicon перейти Рубікон; the die is cast жереб кинуто; after us the deluge після нас хоч потоп; the fair sex прекрасна стать; tilt at windmills «воювати з вітряками» («донкіхотствувати»); the tree of knowledge дерево пізнання, etc.

The use of international idioms is restricted in all languages to belles-lettres, partly to social and political texts and to conversational speech style. These idioms are also occasionally used in didactic style and are practically not used in scientific and technical matter texts.

A separate subgroup of genuine internationalisms constitute proverbs, sayings and set expressions which are used in their foreign/original lingual form (they are predominantly of Latin, French, English, German origin). Due to centuries long usage they have become regular mots often referred to as barbarisms: sine qua non неодмінна умова; status in statu держава у державі; repetitio est mater studiorum (Lat.) повторення - мати навчання; sotto voce

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тихо (впівголоса); finita la commedia (Ital.) настав кінець, крах (справі кінець); da ist der Hund begraben! (Germ.) ось де собака закопаний! O.K., all right (Engl.) усе гаразд; c'est la vie (Fr.) таке життя.

The number of these idiomatic/stable word-combinations unlike the fund of genuine internationalisms and translation loans remains practically unchanged. That is mainly because idioms/phraseological expressions penetrate into different languages through scholastic, literary and cultural channels, as a rule. This may be conditioned by some extralingual factors, which may facilitate in some important political situations their spontaneous appearance and penetration into several languages during a short period of time. For the last half a century there have appeared few stable expressions of this kind, e.g.: «the fifth column» (1936, Spain), «Iron Curtain» (1947), «peaceful coexistence» (1950's), «cold war» (1946, USA), «permissive society» (1967, Gr. Br.) and a few others.

The structural form of international idioms in most languages is identical or similar. The occasional absence of identity in their structural form is explained by the divergences in the grammatical systems and forms of expression in the source language and in the target language (cf. the heel of Achilles/Achilles' heel ахіллесова п'ята, the Pillars of Hercules/Hercules' Pillars (Herculean Pillars) геркулесові стовпи or стовпи Геркулеса).

Identification of International Lexicon Units

As has been noted, the units of genuine international lexicon are identified on the basis of their common in different languages lexical meaning and identical or only similar lingual form. Loan internationalisms, on the other hand, are identified mainly on the basis of their common sphere of use, their lexical meaning, functional significance and party - structural form.

The identification of genuine or loan internationalisms presents no difficulty so far as the monosemantic language units are concerned. That is explained by the terminological nature of the signs, which are used to signify social, political, scientific, technological, cultural and other notions (cf. parliament, theatre, theory, poet, arithmetic, artillery, botany, phoneme, suffix, theorem, proton, volt, decimal fractions, space probe, management, motor, computer, internet, electricity, etc.). These and many other internationalisms are monosemantic words or word-combinations.which constitute a peculiar layer of lexicon in quite different languages. They are characterized by a similarity of their lexical meaning, by an identity or similarity

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in their orphographic and sounding form, by their denotative meaning and sometimes by their motivation. The meaning of these and a lot of other international words and phrases/word-groups of the kind does not change in any other contextual environment. Consequently, their nature is constantly monolithic.

The identification of the international meaning of some lexemes becomes much more difficult, however, when dealing with polysemantic language signs, which are a common feature in present-day English but less common in Ukrainian. That is because in English a lot of lexemes may often have one and the same lingual form for several notions, which is shown below in the vectorial representation of meanings pertained to the noun conductor:

Conductor

 кондуктор

провідник

провід

громовідвід

диригент

керівник1

 genuine internationalism international loan word international loan word international loan word pseudo-internationalism pseudo-internationalism

As can be seen, only one out of six lexemes above has a common lingual form and meaning in English and Ukrainian («кондуктор»). The same vectorial disposition of denotative meanings can be observed in several other polysemantic English words of the kind. Hence, in order to avoid mistakes in translation, one must carefully study the contextual environment of such and the like language signs. Though sometimes the corresponding vectorial meanings of polysemantic words can be identified already at word-combination level. Cf.: a fit of depression/depression fit приступ/припадок депресії: depression of trade занепад/застій у торгівлі; the structure of the sentence структура речення; a multi-storied structure багатоповерхова споруда (будова/будівля).

Naturally, not every adjunct (identifying word or word-group) forming a word-combination with a polysemantic word, can discriminate the real nature and meaning of the lexeme. Because of this care should be taken when translating such polysemantic words, which may have under the same lingual form either a genuine or a

1 An illustration of this pseudo-international meaning of the noun conductor can be seen in the following excerpt from The Economist journal (February 28, 1998): A spectacular example of Oxford Health Plans once fastest-growing HMO in America. The conductor Stephen Wiggins was forced to resign as chairman on February 24th.

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pseudo-international, e.i., common, non-international meaning, the latter being realized in a definite context only. A few more examples of such words may be useful:

dramatic

industry

 

{

художній мистецький артистичний

театральний драматичний

хвилюючий яскравий раптовий непередбачений

індустрія

промисловість галузь промисловості старанність працьовитість

 

Civil

громадський цивільний

ввічливий чемний

практичний

Practical

доцільний фактичний

 революція переворот

Revolution < оберт (навколо осі)  сівозміна (с/г) кругообіг

Apart from the polysemantic words with several meanings, one of which is genuine international and the rest pseudo-international, i.e., non-international as in the examples above, there are also quite a few words in present-day English and Ukrainian which have an identical orthographic form but quite different lexical meaning: accu-rate точний, правильний, влучний but not акуратний: billet ордер на постій, приміщення для постою but not квиток; compositor складач (друк.) but not композитор; data дані but not дата; decade десятиріччя but not декада; decoration нагорода, прикраса but not декорація; Dutch голландський but not данський: fabulist байкар, вигадник but not фабуліст; intelligence розум, кмітливість but not інтелігенція: momentous важливий but not моментальний; matrass колба but not матрац (mattress): obligation зобов'язання but not облігація; potassium калій but not поташ; prospect перспектива but not проспект; production виробництво, випуск but not only продукція: replica точна копія but not репліка; spectre привид but not спектр, etc.

As can be ascertained, these English words quite accidentally coincide in their lingual form with some other borrowed words in Ukrainian. Thus, «replica», for example, has quite a different denotative meaning in Ukrainian than our репліка (cue, remark). So is the deno-

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tative meaning of many other words, whose number by far exceeds that on the above-given list. These and the like pseudo-international words are often referred to as «false friends of the translator» (удавані друзі перекладача).

Unlike common lexical units, whose orthographic and sounding forms never coincide in the target language and in the source language, the lingual form of genuine international lexemes in all languages is always either identical or similar. It does not mean that the structural form of genuine internationalisms is necessarily always transplanted to the target language as it is observed in simple lexemes like drama, poet, opera, suffix, lord, kimono, sari, kiwi, motor, proton (драма, поет, опера, суфікс, лорд, кімоно, сарі, etc.).

More often the same genuine international lexemes in English and Ukrainian may have a different morphological structure. In Ukrainian they usually take derivational and often also inflexional affixes which is rarely observed in present-day English. As a result, most of genuine international words in Ukrainian are structurally more complicated than in English (cf. apathy-апат/я, dietic-дієтичний, form -форма, exploit - експлуатувати, economic-економічний), etc.

Some genuine international words, however, may be structurally more complicated in English than in Ukrainian: Cf.: Greek: analysis аналіз, diagnosis діагноз, sclerosis склероз, academician академік, geographer географ, mathematician математик, philosopher філософ, geologist геолог; Latin: appendicitis апендицит, tuberculosis туберкульоз, rheumatismus ревматизм, etc.

Hence, the structural models according to which different logico-grammatical classes of internationalisms are adopted in English and in Ukrainian mostly differ. On this ground relevant for the identification, as well as for the translation of any international word, remains its root morpheme, i.e., its sense bearing seme. Taking this into account, lexemes like anti-trade, arch-enemy, inventor consisting of international affixes and having common root morphemes are to be treated as non-internationalisms, i.e., as pseudo-internationalisms. The international nature/status of a source language lexeme is considered to be fully retained, when the root morpheme or at least the sense and lingual form (part of it) can be rendered in the target language. Consequently, the compounds consisting of a genuine international and a common root morpheme as school-male, coal-gas, washing-тасш'пе. etc. are to be defined in English as partly international, i.e., mixed-type lexical units. Similarly in Ukrainian: Газосховище, радіохвилі, водно-спиртовий.

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WAYS OF CONVEYING THE LEXICAL MEANING OF GENUINE INTERNATIONALISMS

From what has been pointed out concerning the nature and componental structure of genuine internationalisms becomes clear, that a faithful rendering of their lexical meaning often requires considerable attention on the part of translators. At any rate, in the process of their translation several factors have to be taken into consideration both at language level and at speech level. These factors imply the lingual form, the lexical meaning, the structure, the source of origin and the orthographic presentation of internationalisms in both the languages. As a result, expresing of meaning of some internationalisms may not always be termed «translation» proper since it is a regular and complete transplantation of the source language units to the target language (cf. atom атом, plan план, professor професор, algebra алґебра, poetnoem, etc). Besides, translating of international lexemes may sometimes depend on the established model stereotype according to which they are generally adopted in the target language. Taking into account various peculiarities of meaning and form of international lexemes, several ways of conveying their meaning can be suggested.

1. Literal Translating of Genuine Internationalisms. It should be pointed out that the lingual form of all componental parts in genuine international words and phrases is more often completely transplanted, when they originate from languages, whose orthographic systems have been arranged on phonetical principles. Hence, the authenticity of literal translating from languages as Latin, Greek, Italian, Ukrainian, partly Russian and Spanish will be always higher than that from the English or French languages, whose orthographic systems are based on the historical and etymological principles. It does not mean, however, that a less exact literal transplantation should be regarded as less faithful or inferior. Any of them is faithful enough when it conveys the form and meaning of internationalisms. In this view literal translating of genuine internationalisms should not be regarded as a mechanical substitution of each letter of the source language lexeme for a corresponding letter of the target language. In many a case a letter may be dropped or added (substituted for another) in the target language when it is not in full conformity with its sound or spelling systems. Nevertheless, there are many letter-to-letter transliterated genuine internationalisms in English and Ukrainian. Latin: angina анґіна, dentist дентист, symposium симпозіум,

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gladiator гладіатор, microscope мікроскоп, rector ректор; Greek: poet поет, micron мікрон, electron електрон, stadium стадіон, drama драма, theatre театр; Italian: macaroni макарони, pizza піцца, concerto концерт, duet дует, solo соло; Spanish: armada армада, tango танґ'о, El Dorado ельдорадо, embargo ембарго, etc.

It would be wrong to assume that genuine internationalisms from other than the above-mentioned languages can not be fully or almost fully transliterated. Literal translating can faithfully convey the lexical meaning of many English, French, German and also other than European by origin lexemes: English: bulldog бульдог1, club клуб, mister містер, shelf шельф, shilling шилінґ, shrapnel шрапнель; French: chef шеф, festival фестиваль, chiffon шифон, franc франк; Germ.: Diktat диктат, Deutsche Mark дойч марк; Portugese: cobra кобра, flamingo фламінго; Czech: robot робот; Hindi: brahmin брамін, khaki хакі, sari сарі; Japanese: kimono кімоно, tsunami цунамі; Arabic: algebra алгебра, atlas атлас, harem гарем; African: banana банан, baobab баобаб, zebra зебра; Australian aboriginal: dingo дінго, kiwi ківі, etc.

Literal translation of some of these and other genuine internationalisms may not be fully trusted, perhaps, as it has been performed not directly from the original languages but through English, which is an intermediary language here. The existence of literal forms of genuine internationalisms from these languages, however, is beyond any doubt like those from Ukrainian (cf. steppe, Cos-sack/Kozak, hryvnia); or Russian (balalaika, samovar, vodka, etc.). Nevertheless, in many genuine internationalisms there is no absolute literal/orthographic coincidence in the source language and in the target language: basin басейн, monsoon мусон, waltz вальс, wine вино, salt сіль, степ steppe, devil диявол, muscle мускул, etc.

These divergences in the literal rendering are to be explained either by the influence of the intermediary languages or by the peculiarity of the target language admitting or not admitting the source language orthographic representation (cf. brahmin брамін, class клас, diet дієта, molecule молекула, etc.) or foreign signs by the target language.

2. Translating via Transcribing/Conveying the Sounding Structure

Many genuine internationalisms are also faithfully rendered into the target language in their sounding form. This kind of translating provides the rendition of the lexical meaning of a lot of internationalisms originating from English, French and some other languages, which have

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their orthographic systems based on other than phonetical principles. Cf.: English: boom бум, box бокс, yeans джинси, knock-out нокаут, leader лідер, га/с/рейд, round раунд, frac/стрек; French: boulevard бульвар, bouquet букет, bourgeoisie буржуазія, bureau бюро, drape драп, prize приз, pince-nez пенсне, etc.

The English and French international lexemes above belong to the lexico-grammatical class of nouns. But the number of genuine internationalisms, whose lexical meaning is faithfully conveyed in their unchanged original lingual form is small. More units of the layer of lexicon in English and Ukrainian do not fully coincide in their orthographic, sounding and morphological (structural) form. This is to be explained by the differences in the phonetic and morphological systems of the two languages and also by the possible influence of a third language as an intermediary between the source/target language and the language from which the international lexeme originates. To render faithfully the denotative meaning and the lingual form of these genuine internationalisms other ways of translating are to be employed.

3. Translating by Practical Transcribing

International morphemes and lexemes are adopted in all languages according to the historically established traditions of their own. These find their expression in stereotype models for each lexico-grammatical class of words. As a result, any international word, whatever the language of its origin and irrespective of the source language, from which it is translated, will have one and the same lingual and structural form in the target language. Thus, whether it is bankruptcy in English, bankerott in German, banqueroute in French or bancarotta in Italian, it will always remain «банкрутство» in Ukrainian. Hence, only some degree of likeness is retained between the lingual form of bankruptcy and its Ukrainian equivalent «банкрутство». The adopted word has obtained in the target language an orthographic, sounding and morphological/structural form, which is only similar to that of English, French, German, or Italian. This kind of adopting internationalisms is traditionally called «practical transcribing» or translator's transcription.

Hense, some internationalisms may retain still less similarity/ likeness in their lingual form when they are translated from English into Ukrainian: bacne/огбакалавр, cocoa какао, crown корона/крона, dance танець, giant пїант, grade градус, nocus-росизфокус, mother-of-pearl перламутр, mosque мечеть, о/У олія, outpost аванпост, papa/папський, pound фунт (from German Pfund), etc.

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The number of internationalisms making up this group is comparatively small in the two contrasted languages. The bulk of international lexemes, when conveyed by way of practical transcribing, still retain a considerable degree of lingual and structural similarity in the two languages. These are first of all nouns of Greek and Latin origin and also some adjectives, adverbs and verbs. They may often differ considerably in their morphological structure, mostly taking additional affixal morphemes in Ukrainian: ambition амбіція, apathy апатія, condenser конденсатщ, devil диявол, diplomacy дипломатія, hierarchy ієрархія, lecturer лектор., vegetarian вегетаріанський, condense конденсувати, criticize критикувати, stabilize стабілізувати, seriously серйозно, economic економічніш, etc.

Translating of genuine and mixed-type international compounds is performed on the basis of and in accordance with the lingual form and structure of their componental parts. As a result, English international compounds can be rendered in the following ways:

  1.  with the help of corresponding compounds having the same
    international root morphemes as in the source language:
    electro-
    biology
    електробіологія, f/Vm-acfor кіноактор, gas-meter газометр,
    motor-cyclist мотоцикліст, radio-active радіоактивний, six-footer
    шестифутовий, etc.
  2.  by word-combinations consisting of the same componental
    parts as in the international English compound words but of different
    than in the source language morphological structure and nature of a
    componental part of speech:
    dance-music (N+N) танцювальна (adj.)
    музика, gas-collector газовий (а.) колектор, nerve-centre нервовий
    (а.) центр,
    olive-coloured оливкового (а.) кольору, police-station
    поліційне (а.) відділення, radio-active element радіоактивний (а.)
    елемент,
    telegraph-line телеграфна (а.) лінія, etc. Thus, only ra
    dio-active and
    радіоактивний are adjectives in both languages.

Mixed-type compounds consisting of international and common Ukrainian root morphemes are translated in accordance with their complex nature. Their equivalents in Ukrainian, however, may be both compound words and word-combinations consisting of international and non-international (as in the original) component parts (or even simple words): gas-mask протигаз, taxi-cab таксі, river-basin басейн річки, toilet-table туалетний столик, torpedo-boat торпедний катер, turning-point поворотний пункт, etc.

4. Descriptive Translating of International Lexemes Many genuine international lexemes are semantically condensed and can be translated into the target language only in a de-

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scriptive way. Depending on the nature of the lexemes, their translation may have two somewhat different realizations:

  1.  the lingual form of the source language lexeme/s can be
    retained as the main lexeme/s of the target language word-combina
    tion/sentence: civilizable той (та.те), що піддається цивілізуванню/
    цивілізації;
    classifiable той (та,те), що піддається класифікації;
    barony 1 .володіння барона; 2.титул барона; energize викликати
    (збуджувати) енергію;
    examinee той, що екзаменується/складає
    іспит;
    golf-club 1. клуб гравців з ґольфу; 2. ключка для гри в ґольф;
  2.  the lingual form of the internationalism is not or can not be
    retained in the target language. It happens when the internationalism
    has not been adopted yet by the target language. Thus, the noun
    epi
    logue
    is a genuine internationalism in many European languages but
    the adjective
    epilogic derived from it, though semantically quite pellu
    cid, is unknown in Ukrainian. Besides, some internationalisms can be
    substituted in the process of translation with the aim of achieving ex
    pressiveness (for the reasons of style) or for the sake of explaining
    their denotative meaning:    
    deputize (v)   виступати  (бути
    представником) від когось;
    epilogic заключний, кінцевий; park (park
    ing)
    ставити машину на стоянку; percenter лихвар («процентник»);
    twopenny нікчемний/копійчаний (вартий двох пенні).

5. Translating by Way of Synonymous Substitution An international lexeme of the target language can be often substituted in the process of translation for another international lexeme of synonymous or close to it (or of the same) meaning. The substitutions are mostly performed in larger context, though sometimes they may also be carried out at language level. This kind of substitution becomes possible due to the existence in the target language of internationalisms borrowed by it at different previous historical periods. Such international lexemes are of the same logico-grammatical/ lexico-grammatical class. The faithfulness of translation achieved through this kind of synonymous substitutions may be usually established in a text only, though it may partly be traced at the word-group level as well. This can be seen from the following examples: athletics гімнастика and not атлетика, diagram схема and not діаграма, phase період and not фаза, fashion paper журнал мод and not журнал фасонів, base фундамент and not база, committee комісія and not комітет, gangster бандит and not ґанґстер, standard еталон and not стандарт; ангар garage and not hanger, бульвар avenue and not boulevard, графік plan/diagram and not graph, естрада variety and not estrade, party line політичний курс and not партійна лінія, national

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есопотународне господарство and not національна економіка. The use of such and the like forms of internationalisms is always predetermined, naturally, only by context.

Translating of Loan Internationalisms

Forming a common fund of lexicon in different languages of a geographical area, the loan units usually retain an identical/similar surface structure, i.e., form of a word, word-combination or sentence. Like genuine internationalisms, they are constantly appearing in different languages as a result of unceasing progress in various domains of science, technology and culture. A great many of international loans have long become an integral part of each language's lexicon. Despite all that, they preserve in each national language the unity of their componental parts, i.e., their structural peculiarly, an absolutely identical notional meaning and a common sphere of functioning: loud-speaker: Germ. Lautsprecher, Ital. altoparlante, Ukr. гучномовець, Russ. громкоговоритель; steam-engine: Germ. Dampfmaschine, Ital. macchina a vapore, Ukr. парова машина, Russ. паровая машина; long/short waves (radio), Germ, lange/kurze Wellen, Ital. onde lunge/corte, Ukr. довгі/короткі хвилі, Russ. длинньїе/короткие волньї, etc.

A bulk of international loan words and expressions are used to designate various grammatical, lexicological, stylistic and other notions. Depending on their nature, as well as on their denotative meaning and their sphere of functioning, international loan units can be rendered into Ukrainian in one of the following three ways:

a) by direct translation of the componental parts without changing considerably their structural form cf.: coefficient of efficiency коефіцієнт корисної дії, conjugation/declension дієвідмінювання/ відмінювання (слів); genitive/dative case родовий/давальний відмінок; personal/possessive pronouns особові/присвійні займенники; prepositional government прийменникове керування; compound nominal predicate складений іменний присудок; literal/ verbal translation буквальний/дослівний переклад, etc.

Note. It is worth mentioning that some Ukrainian or Russian loan internationalisms may be genuine internationalisms in other languages and vice versa. Thus, підмет, присудок and other parts of the sentence are genuine internationalisms in English, German, Italian and in some other West European languages. Cf.: the subject, the predicate, the object; German: der Subjekt, das Pradicat, das

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Objekt; Italian: il soggetto, il predicate, etc. Consequently, these and other loan internationalisms are practically rendered only with the help of the phonological level units, i.e., they are transcribed or transliterated in these three languages.

  1.  with the help of componental translation and some replace
    ments, omissions or substitutions arising from the national peculiari
    ties of the target language, i.e, depending on its stylistic mode of
    usage. Thus, the equivalent of the English set expression
    foreign
    trade is not іноземна торгівля but зовнішня торгівля, and living
    standardis not життєвий стандарт but життєвийр/вень. Similarly
    in other cases with single loan internationalisms. Cf.: homogeneous
    parts of the sentence однорідні члени речення but not частини
    речення; structure of matter is будова матерії but not структура
    матерії, national anthem is державний гімн but not національний
    гімн. Similarly with national serviceman військовослужбовець а не
    національний службовець
    and parts of speech are частини мови,
    but not члени мови.
  2.  with the help of descriptive translation as in the examples
    like: digital computer цифрова обчислювальна машина; compound/
    complex sentence складносурядне/складнопідрядне речення; in
    volution (math.) піднесення до ступеня; pluralia tantum іменники,
    що вживаються тільки в множині;
    singularia tantum іменники, що
    вживаються тільки в однині;
    evolution (mathem.) винесення з-під
    радикала (витягнення кореня),
    common fraction (mathem.) простий
    дріб.

Suggested Topics for Self-Testing and Class Discussion

  1.  Types and kinds of genuine internationalisms as to their
    form/structure and lexical meaning in English and Ukrainian.
  2.  The main way of distinguishing between the genuine
    internationalisms and loan internationalisms.
  3.  The lingual form (expression) and meaning of some words
    being the genuine internationalisms in one contextual environment
    and pseudo-internationalisms (non-internationalisms) in some other
    environment.
  4.  Express your point of view on the term and notion of «par
    tial» or «half-internationalism». Use some examples from Exercise
    III below to justify or reject the use of the suggested term.

5. Expand on the ways of translation of the genuine

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internationalisms and exemplify: a) the method of their transliteration only; b) the method of their transcription only; c) the method of their transliteration and partial transcription or vice versa (as in compound words); d) the method of the translator's transcription; e) the descriptive method. Use the exercises below to illustrate the above-mentioned methods of conveying the meanings of internationalisms.

  1.  Identify and exemplify the pseudo-internationalisms referred
    to as «the false friends of the translator». Use the exercises on the
    forthcoming pages for the purpose.
  2.  Name the main criterion of distinguishing the genuine
    internationalisms from loan internationalisms. Exemplify the latter
    on simple lexemes/words and lexico-syntactic units (word-groups)
    from different domains of social sciences.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. State whether the words below are genuine or pseudo-international. Substantiate your judgements:

adressee, adequate, admiral, algebraic, allergy, Alpine, annulment, archive, bamboo, botanist, bronchitis, capillary, cockatoo, cybernetics, dissymetric, ellipsis, epochal, evacuee, fantasia, geometer, hierarchical, hypotaxis, iambus, inductor, lectureship, morphemic, morphologist, non-metal, parallelepiped, parataxis, professorate, quixotry, reduction, rhematic, sable, scenery, sonorant, stereometry, subcommittee, sublieutenant, substantival (gram.), synthetic, systemic (gram.), technologist, utilize, vacuum, voltameter, waffle, zinc, xylonite.

Exercise II. Identify the genuine international and the pseudo-international (non-international) meanings in the following lexemes:

accumulator, accuracy, ambition, analyst, autocrat, balance, barbarity, buffet; calendar, civil, code, colours, co-ordination; damask, desperation, diminutive, dramatic, dynamic; effective, elementary, expedition; faction, fiction, film, figure, front; gentleman; harmonious, humanity, hypothetical; imitation, instrument; juridical; liberal, locomotive; marshal, medicine, minister; nation, natural; objective, officer, original; pamphlet, paragraph, petition, press, pygmy; racing, record, revolution; scene, storm; tank, tattooing, terror, twist; vector, vulgar; wag(g)on; zodiacal; frigit zone.

Exercise III. Translate the following English compounds. Point out which of their lexical equivalents in Ukrainian are com-

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pound/simple words or word-combinations and which are partially/fully international or pseudo-international:

  1.  air-mechanic, administer, arch (n), barman-club-law, cof
    fee-bean, dessert-knife, gas-main, lieutenant-colonel, mine-layer,
    motiveless, paper-cutter, phrase-book, soda-fountain, soda-water,
    submachine-gun, sugar-cane, tiger's-eye, cane-sugar, motoring,
    mythicize, narcotism, number, orchestric;
  2.  day-school, field-hospital, fire-bomb, fire-brigade, fish-tor
    pedo, hand-grenade, opium-eater, horsemaster, seeding-machine,
    stamp-album, steam-turbine, stock-farm, telegenic, teleshow, talk
    ing-film, tape-machine, travel-bureau, washing-machine, zenith-dis
    tance;
  3.  boxing-match, consul-general, electro-dynamic, figure-art
    ist, flag-captain, grammar-school, office-copy, orange-coloured, palm-
    oil, party-club, press-corrector, press-box, radio-controlled, station-
    master, sugar-refinery, tram-line, yacht-club.

Exercise IV. Translate the words and word-groups below into Ukrainian and identify which of them are genuine international or loan international, and which pseudo-international.

1. conjugation, co-ordination, subordination, the indicative (imperative, subjunctive) mood, syllabification (phonet.), proof-reader, spelling-book, versification; 2. The law of gravitation, the theory of relativity; addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, decimal fractions, equations, identity, root extraction (math.); 3. decontamination, engineering, hothouse effect, myopia, piston, storage-battery, traffic rules, welding; 4. horse power, income tax, black soil, land improvement, cereals, legumes; 5. growth rate, latitude, longitude, mass media, national economy, precipitation, weather forecast; 6. decathlon, pentathlon, fencing, penalty area, penalty kick, snow boarding, wrestling (sport); weightlessness, purification, traffic-light.

Exercise V. Translate the English words and word-groups below into Ukrainian. Point out which of them are loan internationalisms and which - pseudo-internationalisms (non-internationalisms):

a) abacus, actual, conductivity, corner-stone, copyright, decontaminate, equilibrium, ever-frost, refrigerator, hypersonic, ignition, jet-fighter, non-conductor, gymnasium, quadrilateral, ropedancer, sabre-rattling, second-class, self-preservation, shock-worker, self-defence, sleeping-bag, smoke-screen, smoking-carriage, sparking-plug, standard-bearer, subtitle, summarise, summation, superconductivity, supernatural, supersonic, superstructure, syndetic, thermostable,

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thrashing-machine, tightrope-dancer, toolroom, turn-screw; argument, billet, bombard, buffet, brilliance, complexion, cream, cymbals, dispute, electric eye, ferment (v), genii, gastronome/r, implicitly, intelligence, liquor, locomotion, nocturnal, observation, occupant, officiant, partywall, replica, satin, satirize, technology, tripartite, unintelligible, zero-gravity, diesel locomotive, alternative current, .direct current, ionic rectifier, rate of exchange.

Exercise VI. Render the meaning of the English simple/ compound words below by substituting where possible the international lexemes for their synonymous international components in Ukrainian:

Model: jazz-band джаз(овий) оркестр, phrase-book словник ідіом.

1. athlete, school practice, cabin, configuration, debate, drawing-paper; 2. fashion-paper, gangster, guerrilla, idol; inch, jumper, lingo, motorist, music-case, music-hall, music-paper, navigation officer, new-fashion, occupational; 3. ration, saboteur, scenery, sound locator, storage-battery, symbol, tank, tank-truck, torpedo-boat, title-holder, training-college, variety, voluntaryism.

Exercise VII. Analyse and translate the international lexemes below. Define the possible ways of translating which help equivalently render the lexical meaning of the following genuine international words:

archaize, barbarize, blitzkrieg, cadet, caravanning, club (v), cocaine, compressible, congressional, corona, demonstrable, diagnose (v), disreputability, doctorate, electrifiable, epigrammatist, examinee, film (v), geologize, golf (v), incontrollable, landscaper, ladyship, lordship, mayoralty, monographer, monologize, navigable, outflank, overproduce, over-active, papery, pension (v), pulse (v), radio (v), robotics, realizable, schoolable, sportsmanship, studentship, syllabicate, teleview (v), uncivilizable, vandalize, verse (v), yacht (v).

Exercise VIII. Suggest corresponding Ukrainian variants for the following English sports terms which are genuine or loan internationalisms:

1. to feel fit; 2. modern pentathlon/decathlon, pantathlete/ decathlete; 3. aquatic sport, diving, sailing, rowing; 4. mountaineering; 5. cycling; 6. wrestling; 7. jumping; 8. tumbling; 9. weightlifting; 10. fencing; 11. skating, ski-jumping; 12. remedial (curative) gymnastics; 13. five-km event, to forge ahead, to move into the lead; 14. to win on points, to set up a record; 15. individual championship; 16. to make public the list of players; 17. track-and-field athletics,

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medium/middle distance race, long-distance race, steeple-chase, relay-race, cross-country race, line-up, marathon race, high/Іоng jump, pole vault, discus/hammer throwing, javelin throwing, shot-put, trial run, running on the curve, joggling, final/speed race; 18. double game/ singles game, to deliver the ball, the right to serve, the toss/to toss, the racket; 19. left back/right back, right half-back/left half-back, outside right/outside left, right centre forward/left centre forward, left-centre back/right-centre back, goalie, to kick/hit the ball, to cheer for some team; 20. throw from running (the ball) at full speed, unhindered shooting, bouncing shot, two-hand overhead throw, a shot in the long/farther corner of the goal, a shooting for goals; 21. breast stroke/butterfly stroke, back stroke, front crawl stroke, to float/to float on back, competitive swimming, indoor/outdoor pool, inhalation/exhalation; 22. horizontal bar, sports gymnastics, callisthenics, tumbling, hoop, club, ribbon, skipping-rope; 23. to dodge the opponent, to keep the puck on the ice, to drop the puck, to work the puck, to pull out the goalie, face-off, to pull the opponent; 24. figure skating, speed skating, long-distance race, sprint, single skating, straight run, run in the curve, free skating, ice-dances; 25. giant slalom, downhill run, ski-jumping, relay race, ski-lift.

Exercise IX.Suggest possible ways of translation into English for each international word and proper name in the passage below.

ХТО ЩО ВИГАДАВ

1. Змивними туалетами користувалися ще за 2 тисячі років до нашої ери жителі острова Кріт. Каструлю-скороварку для швидкого приготування їжі під тиском винайшов француз Дені Папен (1679). Пневматичні шини, на яких їздять усі машини світу, були вперше застосовані для кінних екіпажів ще 1845 року в Англії Робертом Томпсоном. Для велосипеда такі шини вперше використав 1888 року ірландець Джон Данлоп. 2. Ручний фотоапарат веде свою історію від 1888 року, коли його винайшов у США Джордж Істмен (це прізвище залишилось у назві відомої фірми «Істмен-Кодак»), 3. Заслуга винаходу швейної машинки належить американцеві Еліасу Гоу (1846 рік), а не Ісааку Зінгеру, який лише вдосконалив її і пустив у масове виробництво (1851 року). 4. З початком ери електрики на межі нашого й минулого століть з'явилися і вентилятор (винайшов Ш.Вілер, США, 1882), пилосос - Гюберт Буг (Англія, 1891), пральна машина - Елва Фішер (США, 1906), електричний холодильник вперше виготовили

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в Чикаго на фірмі «Домеле» (1913). Замок-блискавку вигадав 1891 року Вільям Джадсон, того ж року Кінґ Джіплет (США) запатентував безпечну бритву. Автором рецепту кока-коли є Джон Пелбертон (США, 1896), а мікрохвильової пічки- Персі Спенсер (1947). Понад 1000 винаходів належить Томасу Алва Едісонові: фонограф (1877), лампа розжарювання, удосконалений телеграф і телефон (1879), перша електростанція (1882) тощо. 5. Німець Ґабріель Фаренгайт вигадав 1714 року ртутний градусник. Норвежець Ерік Ротгаим-автор аерозольного балончика (1926). Відомий французький мандрівник і дослідник Жак-Ів Кусто разом з Емілем Каньяном мають патент на аквалані1 (1943). А таблеткою аспірину ми зобов'язані німецькому вченому Феліксові Гофманові. 6. Українці мають також світові винаходи. Прокопович П.І. придумав рамковий вулик (1828); Засядько О.Д. запровадив бойову порохову ракету (1817), а Кондраткж (Шангей) Ю.В. запропонував багатоступеневу космічну ракету (1929), В.Смакула (1936) - прилад нічного бачення.

TEXTS FOR INDEPENDENT CLASS AND HOME TRANSLATION

Exercise X. Identify the possible ways of faithful conveying the terms and units of international lexicon in the passages below and translate them into Ukrainian.

1.   Macroeconomic Policies

Macroeconomic policy management has a large impact on investor confidence in the reforming country. Economic volatility raises uncertainty for investors, who look for stability and predictability. The basic elements of macroeconomic policy management for effective reform are the following.

Fiscal Policies. An important indicator of prudent fiscal management is a low, predictable rate of inflation. A lack of control over inflation points to macroeconomic and fiscal unbalances. The most extreme manifestation of this problem, hyperinflation, leads to the introduction of shock programs as a basis for stabilization. When countries impose shock programs, recessions often result, posing difficulties for local workers and consumers. By bringing inflation under control, countries establish a necessary precondition for stability and growth. The stabilization programs implemented by the survey countries had this fundamental objective in mind. For example, Argentina endured many bouts of high inflation, followed by wage and price freezes to arrest them. The controls only halted inflation temporarily,

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as the root cause - excessive spending by the public sector - was not addressed. Now that public spending has been brought under control with the Cavallo Plan, Argentine inflation has subsided. Real positive interest rates (i.e., interest rates higher than the rate of inflation) are important in maintaining stability in the balance of payments and are a key element of sound fiscal management.

Appropriate Exchange Rates. Appropriate exchange rate policy adjusts the value of the local currency on a steady, predictable basis, which, again, contributes to economic stability and investor confidence. Countries that experience high rates of inflation typically have overvalued exchange rates, because adjustments in the value of the local currency lag behind the rate of inflation. However, local currencies that are overvalued hurt exports, which are more expensive in international markets compared to the exports from countries with cheaper currencies. Exchange rate reform usually entails a devaluation of the local currency, making the country's export more competitive in terms of price and the country itself more attractive for private investment.

Prices and Wages. As noted earlier, price and wage controls are often used to control inflation. While they may have the desired effect in the short-term, they almost always unravel and end up creating more inflation. When governments repeatedly employ wage and price freezes, consumers and businesses adjust their behavior in anticipation of the next round of controls by hoarding goods, raising wage demands or raising prices, leading to yet higher inflation. In Poland, prices and wages were set by the government for many years under the system of central planning. One of the first steps of the Balcerowicz Plan was to free all wages and prices as of January 1, 1990. This step marked a major event in the Polish transition to a market-oriented economy.

Ukrainian Cosmonaut Aboard Space Shuttle

The historic first flight of a Ukrainian citizen aboard an American spacecraft was a major theme of recent consultation in Kyiv between officials of the Ukrainian National Space Agency (NSAU) and the U.S.space agency NASA.The visit was the fifth by a NASA delegation to Ukraine this year.

In press conference NSAU General Director Oleksandr Nehoda and NASA Deputy Administrator Arnold Nikogosyan outlined the program under which Kadenyuk personally conducted 12 of 16 biology experiments scheduled for the November mission. The experiments focused on the growth and reproduction of cells in space. Kadenyuk's

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objective was to learn more about gravity's effect on life. The results of his work played an important role in the development of space technology, especially for long-term flights.

NEWS ITEMS FOR CLASS TRANSLATION AT SIGHT (IN VIVA VOCE)

Exercise XI. Translate the texts Into Ukrainian. Define the ways of conveying internationalisms and proper names in them. 1. Biometrics: Changing Face of Identity Methods

On a hot summer day recently, Johnny Johnson, a travelling salesman 100 miles from home, stopped at a Texaco station to cash a paycheck because someone here knew his face. Or rather, a certain machine knew his face. Mr. Johnson fed his check into a device that looked like an automated teller machine, and smiled for the pea-sized camera. The device, developed by a check-cashing chain called the Mr. Payroll Corp., compared Mr. Johnson's face with the picture it had on file. They matched and Mr. Johnson was given his cash. This machine is one of a new batch of devices that identify people through various bodily characteristics - faces, hands, fingers, eyes, voices, perhaps even smells - using a range of technologies known as biometrics, or the statistical measurement of biological phenomena. Biometrics has long been the province of spy thrillers and gee-whiz prophecies. But until recently it has rarely been used except to guard, say, the entrance to a nuclear plant or sensitive areas at the Central Intelligence Agency. This raises privacy concerns because these devices collect a lot of personal data. Already, there is a growing backlash against the use of fingerprints when issuing drivers licenses and cashing checks. But biometrics also has real potential to protect against thieves and impostors. One of the fastest growing financial crimes is the theft of identity, with a criminal stealing personal information - like a Social Security number - to tap into someone else's credit or bank account. «You can say that biometrics is inherently personal and therefore inherently violates my privacy,» said Ben Miller, editor of Personal Identification News, a leading trade magazine. «But biometrics can be a phenomenal enhancer of privacy.»

Exercise XII. Translating the texts into English, define the possible ways of conveying internationalisms and proper names in them.

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A. Вік обчислювальної машини

Досі вважалося, що першу обчислювальну машину, яка вміла додавати й віднімати, сконструював 1642 року Блез Паскаль. Ця машина використовувалась у Франції для підрахунку податків. Однак недавно стало відомо, що першу обчислювальну машину побудував 1623 року Вільгельм Шикард, професор математики та астрономії університету міста Тюбінген поблизу Штутгарта. 20 вересня 1623 року (в рік народження Паскаля) Шикард повідомив свого друга Кеплера про створення обчислювальної машини, яку сам автор назвав «Обчислювальним годинником».

Б. 1901 року поблизу Пелопонеського півострова (Греція) на глибині 60 метрів виявлено уламки судна, яке затонуло близько 2000 років тому. Серед цих уламків було знайдено обчислювальну машину, в якій збереглося 20 зубчастих коліщат. Виявлення цієї обчислювальної машини, збудованої в І столітті до н.е., підказує, що дальші сліди обчислювальної машини треба шукати як у грецькій античній культурі, так і в арабській, звідки походить назва 'абак', що означає 'лічильник'.

B. Слова американських індіанців в українській мові
З Америки після відкриття її Христофором Колумбом 1492

року, хоч її, як тепер відомо, не раз відкривали й до того, вивозили не тільки золото. Завезено з Америки (головно іспанцями, які першими колонізували її) також низьку індіанських слів. Серед найбільш уживаних є: томат, шоколад, какао, які в мові мексиканських індіанців звучали так: таматль, чоколатль, какауатль. Дещо забуті нині слова табака (нюхальний тютюн) і табакерка походять від індіанського тобако. Слово ураган на перший погляд може здатися русизмом, але це не так. Воно походить від індіанськогохуракан (також імпортоване іспанцями). Однією з індіанських звичок, яку спостерігали європейці, було жування листя рослини під назвою кока. Звідси слово кокаїн -назва наркотичної речовини. Слова хіна, хінін (відомий засіб проти малярії з кори хінного дерева) походять від індіанського словак/на-'кора'.

Індіанського походження слово кураре - назва рослинної отрути, яка застосовувалась індіанцями для змазування стріл, а тепер використовується в медицині. Від перуанських індіанців запозичене відоме всім слово каучук - цей матеріал одержували з соку особливих рослин. Тваринний світ Америки представлений у нашій мові такими словами індіанського походження: пума,

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яґуар, гагара, кайман, опосум (сумчастий ссавець), (уанако (тварина, схожа на верблюда), іґуана (велика ящірка). Запозичені індіанські назви птахів: кондор - американський гриф, ара - рід папуг, нанду-американський страус, колібрі. Є в українській мові і назви рослин індіанського походження: ананас (від нана), маїс (інша назва кукурудзи), їстівні рослини маніока, ямс. Від індіанців запозичене слово тотем (у перекладі - «його рід») - тварина, рослина, предмет або явище природи, що є релігійним символом роду. З пригодницьких романів нам відомі слова: томагавк -бойова палиця або сокира, пирога - вузький довгий човен, каное - також човен, пампа або пампаси - степ, вігвам - житло на зразок намету, кіпу- вузликове письмо. Як бачимо, наша мова увібрала в себе культурні здобутки багатьох народів і зберігає сліди опосередкованих контактів з багатьма мовами світу.

Г. Новий британський словник англійської мови

Найновіший і найповніший Оксфордський словник англійської мови, що побачив світ весною 1998 року, складається із 22 томів (кожен по одній тисячі сторінок) і важить 62,5 кілограми. Видавництво «Оксфорд Юніверсіті Прес», що засноване ще 1584 року, подає новий словник як свою «найґрунтовнішу» працю. Він містить 616.500 «словоформ», яким дано визначення, а також 2.412.400 цитат, що підказують, як англомовні автори використали ці форми і коли вперше вжили кожне слово.

Звичайно, при такому гігантському обсязі роботи по підготовці словника були використані найсучасніші методи й обладнання. Англійське відділення провідної в світі комп'ютерної фірми «Ай-Бі-Ем» і гігантська ЕОМ із США забезпечили технічні засоби, а науковий відділ обчислювальної техніки університету Ватерлоо в Онтаріо (Канада) допоміг у розробці проґрамного забезпечення. І все одно «перенесення» в пам'ять ЕОМ словникового запасу англійської мови з 1150 року до наших днів зайняло у редакторів Джона Сімпсона і Едмонда Вайнера цілих п'ять років.

Д. Історія виникнення Інтерполу

Хто знає, коли виник би Інтерпол, якби не випадок, що стався з правителем князівства Монако Альбертом І, який увійшов до анналів історії ще й як засновник знаменитого казино в Монте-Карло.

В останні роки свого життя монарх полюбляв посидіти в ігровому залі цього казино, стежачи за охопленими азартом людьми. Одного разу він побачив біля стола з рулеткою молоду

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і вродливу жінку. Вони познайомились, і жінка, яка назвалася німецькою княгинею Софією, повідомила Альберту, що втекла з батьківського дому з коханим, але грошей у них немає, і своє майбутнє вони намагаються забезпечити великим виграшем в рулетку. Спочатку їм щастило, але потім фортуна відвернулась, і гроші знову закінчились. Розчулений цією невеселою розповіддю, монарх вирішив допомогти молодим людям. Його зустрічі з прекрасною німкенею ставали дедалі частішими, а прогулянки в стародавньому парку княжого замку - дедалі довшими. Але повернувшись одного разу після такої прогулянки, Альберт побачив, що його сейф з грішми і коштовностями відчинений і зовсім випотрошений. Зникла і чарівна Софія із своїм коханим.

Наступне поліцейське розслідування показало, що довірливий князь став жертвою міжнародного злочинного угрупування. Дуже розсердившись, старий монарх почав енергійно домагатися, щоб кримінальні служби різних країн об'єднали свої зусилля. Незабаром відбулася перша конференція поліцейських детективів європейських країн, а потім, 1923 року, виник і Інтерпол.

Е. Нові окуляри

Світове визнання здобули реабілітаційні окуляри, сконструйовані завідуючим кафедрою психіатрії Луганського медінституту, доктором медичних наук А.П. Чуприковим. Вони удостоєні диплома Міжнародної виставки винаходів і нових технологій у галузі медицини, що проходила в Женеві. Окуляри створюють кольорофотостимуляцію сітківки ока, а через неї заспокійливо діють на обидві півкулі головного мозку. Полегшуючи тим самим стан хворого, ці процедури з метою підняття настрою і здобуття душевної рівноваги після стресів, можуть приймати і здорові люди. Особливо корисні окуляри тим, чия діяльність пов'язана з великим емоційним напруженням.

UNITS OF NATIONALLY BIASED LEXICON AND WAYS OF THEIR TRANSLATION

Each nation in the course of its historical development acquires a great number of features characteristic of the nation only and not pertained to any other, even to a genealogically related nation. The distinguishing features find their reflection in different aspects of material and spiritual life and are materialized in separate

151

UNITS OF NATIONALLY BIASED LEXICON AND WAYS OF THEIR TRANSLATION

Each nation in the course of its historical development acquires a great number of features characteristic of the nation only and not pertained to any other, even to a genealogically related nation. The distinguishing features find their reflection in different aspects of material and spiritual life and are materialized in separate

151words and word-groups designating national customs, traditions, folk rites and feasts, administrative or political systems, etc. They may also designate peculiar geographical, geological or environmental conditions of a nation's life. No less peculiar may also be the cultural or religious traditions of a nation often expressed through certain proper names or names of saints(cf. Ukrainian Івана Купала, Маковія, or Ireland's St. Patrick, Scottish tartan, American Uncle Sam or the British John Bull, the British Lion).

Culturally biased, i.e., nationally specific are often elements in a governmental or election systems of a country (cf. the administration, secretaries and undersecretaries or primary elections in the

U.S.A.).

The monetary systems in most countries contain some nationally peculiar units as well (cf. shilling, penny, rouble, dollar, hryvnia). Culturally biased are mostly the titles of address and the ways of conduct, and, at last but not at least, some articles of clothing / footware (cf. the Scottish kilt, tartan, the Ukrainian вишиванка, кептар or the American Indians' moccasins).

Most peculiar are always national meals, beverages and even partaking of food, established as a result of a nation's agricultural traditions and consumption of peculiar products. The nationally biased notions as non-equivalent units of lexicon are also observed in some national systems of weights and measures (cf. English mile, ounce, Ukrainian верства, пуд). All in all, these notions are found in all languages, for example, in English: county, borough, butterscotch, custard, muffin, toffee, bushel, chain, furlong, inch, mile, pint, penny, shilling, pound, lady, mister, sir; lobby, speaker, teller (Parliament), Lord Chancellor, Number 10 Downing Street, Whitehall, etc. Ukrainian: кобзар, веснянка, коломийка, козак, запорожець, кептар, копа (яєць), пуд, січ, свитка, хата, лежанка, весільний батько, троїсті музики, вечорниці, борщ, вареники, галушки, кутя, медок, ряжанка, опришок, плахта, гривня; Russian: тройка, квас, щі, самовар, колхоз, совет (советский), спутник, Дума. The penetration of a nation's culturally biased specific notions into other national languages is realized in different historical periods through various channels and in most different conditions. The latter include first of all trade contacts in the process of which many notions are borrowed as designators for produce which they signify. The designators may be regular labels (or trade marks) like bacon, champagne, jam, jeans, Coca-Cola, corn-flakes, macaroni, vodka, spaghetti, sweater, tweed, whisky, pizza, etc.

Some other peculiar national notions /culturally biased notions can penetrate into the target language in the process of traditional bilateral economic and cultural contacts which may be maintained at different levels. The contacts in their turn may as well be multilateral which often facilitates an international circulation of some specific national notions pertaining to a certain language (or a number of languages). That was the way in which many a specific national term has become widely known (cf. Cossack/Kozak, steppe, bandoure/ pandore, hopak, polka, waltz, beefsteak, pudding, lunch, etc.).

Still other specific national notions become world-wide known through literary/historic works, through the press or by way of other mass media like the radio or television (cf. oasis, boycott, hryvnia, Labourist, pagoda, barter, management, picket, taboo, Tory, rickshaw, sauna, Soviet, etc.).

These and other specific national terms (and notions) found their way to different languages and in the course of some historical period many of them became internationalisms. Although some nationally specific notions signifying important or historical events or magnificent scientific/technological achievements may spread all over the world almost immediately, as it happened in 1825 with the Decembrists and later on with the Sovietisms like kolkhoz, kulak, collectivization, Gulag, cosmonaut and many others.

Therefore, the more important the specific notion is for a certain nation or the world as a whole and the more often it is used in everyday life of a community, the greater is the chance of its becoming an internationalism.

This is not the fate, however, of the overwhelming majority of other specific national notions in all languages, since the borders of a target language are open at any time only for the most important source language specific national notions. Hence, many specific notions referring to localisms i.e. being of exclusively local nature and circulation, remain within the boundaries of the national languages. They may sometimes be known even to a greater part of the national community. These may be archaic notions like the Ukrainian бунчук, виборний, осаул, тулумбас, сіряк or localisms like кулеша, плачинда, верета, пательня, бануш, etc. Besides, many other rather wide-spread and well-known specific notions within a national community may often be of minor importance for the target language communities, which live under different economic, social, cultural or geographical conditions. Our ordinary reader, for example, would pay little if any attention to the highly specific and unique for

153every Englishman notions like latkes, kedgerel (meals), proctor or whip (Parliament), the Eton and Harrow match, Charring Cross, the East End, or Bloomsbury. These culturally biased names are often mentioned in English fiction, especially in the works by the British authors as Conan Doyle, J.Galsworthy, A.Cronin and others. Hence, the names have to be explained to our readers in the footnotes or in commentaries to the novels, e.g.:

They were off immediately, Автомобіль зразу ж рушив, і without interference, swinging      вони без перешкод поїхали з out of the East End in the             Іст-Енду в напрямку до direction of Bloomsbury               центрального району (A.Cronin)                                    Лондона - Блумзбері.

When the war broke out he had    Коли вибухнула війна, він just left Eton... (J.Galsworthy)       щойно закінчив /тон (середня

школа для привілейованих).

The real meaning of the place names, having so much to say to any Londoner, is scarcely hinted to in the translations above. The East End, however, was and remains the workers' .part of London, whereas Bloomsbury as the central part of it was known during the late 19th - the beginning of the 20th century for the group of poets critical of bourgeois moral and aesthetics. Eton, the private secondary school for well-to-do families in Great Britain, is also well-known in the country, though it may be unfamiliar to our readers. Hence, an additional explanation of the proper names in the target language becomes necessary. Many other culturally biased English and Ukrainian national notions are also to be explicated in this way, e.g.: bingo б/нго   (азартна   гра   типу   лото,   популярна   серед пристаркуватих і одиноких людей, особливо жінок)', gin джин (ялівцева горілка, використовується для приготування коктейлів); mackintosh тканина «макінтош» (водонепроникна); Merseyside Мерсісайд (Ліверпуль з навколишніми містами й поселеннями обабіч гирла р. Мерсі); muesly, (food) «мюзлі» (страва на сніданок із подрібнених пшеничних та інших зерен з сухими фруктами, горіхами, родзинками тощо); пуд pood measure of weight equal to 16,38 kg; рушник rushnyk, embroidered towel used in every folk rite in Ukraine; суботник subotnyk, voluntary unpaid work for the public good in the former USSR on days off (usually on Saturday).

The proper meaning of some other specific national units of lexicon can be rendered without preserving their original lingual form: moonlighter підробітник - той, хто підробляє у вільний час, переважно вечорами (від moonlight місячне світло); teller - 1. уповноважений, що агітує в день виборів на виборничій дільниці голосувати за кандидата своєї партії 2. обліковець голосів в англійському парламенті чи на будь-яких зборах; whip організатор партійної фракції в англійському парламенті.

The meaning of the above-given English and Ukrainian specifically biased national notions has not been conveyed by way of translation proper. They have simply been explained in the target language. Sometimes each or some of the components, making up the unit of specific national lexicon, can also be directly translated. And yet it may turn insufficient for faithful rendering of their sense. Then an explanation of the specific national notion is added: alphabet soup «азбучний суп» (суп з макаронів, що мають форму літер абетки); bilateral school «двобічна школа» (поєднує в собі два типи шкіл: напр., технічну й сучасну середню); the upper sixth старший шостий (випускинй шостий клас у середніх школах Великої Британії}. Many specific national notions, which have to be explicated in English, exist in Ukrainian as well: виховна година educational lesson (on good behaviour and morality of students in school); учнівські правила school regulations/rules of pupils' conduct/behaviour at school; класний журнал register/form register and record book; студком students' committee in Ukrainian higher educational establishments.

Very often, however, it may be difficult for a foreign student to guess the genuine meaning of a specific national unit of lexicon even from the seemingly transparent lexical meaning of its component parts. To avoid misunderstanding or ambiguity a further explication becomes inevitable: Athens of the North Північні Афіни (Едінбурґ); bipartite system двотипова система освіти Великої Британії (передбачає існування шкіл двох типів: класичних і середніх сучасних); cubbing полювання на лисиць (у якому беруть участь початкуючі мисливці й молоді собаки-гончаки); question time день запитань (у палаті громад від 14.45до 15.30 щодня від понеділка по четвер; відповіді дають прем'єр-міністр і міністри); privy purse «приватний гаманець» (асигнування з державного бюджету на утримання монарха Великої Британії).

Not infrequently national specific units of the source language lexicon belonging to the social and political domain can be recognized by the target language speakers due to the existence of partly similar notions in their mother tongue. These kinds of notion are available in English and in Ukrainian as well: new penny/shilling новий пенні/шилінг, the Order of Merit орден «За заслуги»', Scout leader вожатий бойскаутів] медаль «За бойові заслуги» the Medal for Combat Valour; «Орден Ярослава Мудрого» the Order of Yaroslav the Wise; «Орден княгині Ольги» the Order of St. Princess Olha; класний керівник class tutor/form master; табель успішності й поведінки pupil's report/record card; залік з англійської мови an English (language) test; складати залік з чогось to take a test in/ on some subject.

Despite the fact that the referential meaning of such and the like units of specific national lexicon may be either similar or at least closely related in English and Ukrainian (cf. class tutor/form master and класний керівник, залік test), they are still far from identical in their particular meaning. As a result, they can scarcely be substituted for each other in the target language, which points to the notions being nationally biased by their nature.

This is not so with many other notions which only at first sight seem to be different in English and Ukrainian but in reality they are quite similar and can usually be substituted for each other: box (in Christmas box) різдвяний подарунок (cf. новорічний подарунок); Department of Education and Science (Gr.Britain) міністерство освіти (і науки); Department of Industry міністерство промисловості; Department of Energy міністерство енергетики; extension course курси підвищення кваліфікації; extramural education заочне/вечірнє навчання; distant education дистантне навчання.

Apart from these there are a lot more units of lexicon which have generally the same referential meaning in both the languages in question. For example: pancake, financial year, pie and many others can be fully substituted at language level for Ukrainian млинець/ оладок, фінансовий рік, пиріг, etc. The difference between the notions in the two language is confined to some insignificant details. Thus, the financial year in Gr.Britain begins on April 1 and ends on March 31 the next year; pies are stuffed with minced steak-and-kid-ney meat or with onions/sweet mincemeat (mixture of currants, raisins, sugar, candied peeled apples, suet, etc.) and not with peas, beans, ground poppy seeds, soft cheese/curds or boiled rice as in this country. But: pop-corn кукурудзяні баранці is practically identical in English and Ukrainian.

The details are, naturally, essential for our students to know and should not be ignored, as they reflect the peculiarities of each nation's customs, traditions or its way of life. The notions like these, on the other hand, may be common in the English and Ukrainian or some other languages exclusively, which finds its explanation in the bilateral or multilateral influences to which all languages are constantly exposed as a result of cultural, political and trade contacts between their nations. Hence, the similarity if not identity in some meanings of a number of English and Ukrainian specific units of lexicon can not be treated as culturally/nationally biased, i.e., specific. Though it is not excluded that some of these notions may become specifically national in reference to certain languages of other than the European area.

A considerable number of nationally specific/culturally biased units of national lexicon have found their way to other languages in the lexical meaning and lingual form of the source language. It has happened as a result of borrowings and a long use of the source language units in the target language. Among the borrowings of the kind are some Ukrainian units of culturally biased/specific national lexicon as well. The most well-known of them are the mentioned already Cossack/Kozak, steppe and also borshch, Kyiv chicken, oblast, vulytsia, hryvnia. The English/American units of specific national lexicon, which have become internationalisms are many more. Amongst them are such well-known notions as бойкот, віскі, джентльмен, джинси, клуб, леді, мотель, нокаут, пікнік, пінчер, раунд, рекордсмен, ринґ, смокінґ, спікер, тариф, фут, ярд, джаз, рок-ен-рол, гот доґ.кока кола, чіпси, миля, Скотланд Ярд, etc.

As it may be observed, the units of culturally biased/specific national lexicon are rarely similar by their nature and meaning in either of the two languages. Consequently, there must also exist various approaches to expressing their meanings in the target language.

WAYS OF RENDERING THE MEANING OF THE NATIONALLY BIASED UNITS OF LEXICON

The choice of the way of approach to expressing the denotative meanings of the units of specifically national lexicon is strictly predetermined by some definite factors, which may be both of a lingual and extralingual nature. To these belong first of all the semantic and structural complexity (or similarity) of the units of the culturally biased specific national lexicon of the source language. As a result,

157the methods of translating may also be predetermined by the specific notion being new and not yet quite known as well as by its long tradition of usage in the target language. The choice of the method of translating may partly be influenced by the sphere of circulation of the specific notion in the source language. Last but not least this choice can also depend on the translator himself and upon the aim or purpose of translating/interpreting. Hence, one may consequently assume the existence of several ways of conveying the lexical meanings of the culturally biased units of national lexicon. Each of these ways can be considered quite reliable, if it provides the faithful expression of the main and specific sense of the source language unit in the target language.

Since the nature, the structure, the sphere of employment and the denotative meaning of different culturally biased units of national lexicon are rarely of the same semantic «extension», their methods of translating can not be uniform either. Taking into account or rather depending on the afore-mentioned factors, the following methods of conveying the meaning of specifically national units of lexicon can be recognized as quite reliable:

I. By Transcription or Transliteration Exclusively

The units of the nationally specific lexicon, whose meanings

are rendered at the phonological level, usually belong to genuine

internationalisms and comprise social and political units of lexicon in

the main (cf. lord, lady, mister, shilling, kozak, hryvnia, etc.). This can

_.o be observed on the following examples: New classified rates per word       Нові тарифи на рекламу в for ads in hryvnias in the Kyiv       гривнях за слово в газеті Post. «Київ Пост»

«It's a poor coloured woman's place and you are a grand gentleman from Cape Town.» (RAbrahams) «You're a supercilious half-baked snob.» (Cronin) Andrew put out some bottled beer and asked Christine to prepare sandwiches. (Ibid.)

Це кімната для бідної

кольорової жінки, а ти ж

великий джентльмен із

Кейптауна.

Ти насправді зарозумілий і

обмежений сноб.

Ендрю дістав кілька пляшок

пива і попросив Крістін

приготувати йому сандвічі.

2. By Transcription or Transliteration and Explication of Their Genuine Nationally Specific Meaning

In many a case the lingual form of a unit of nationally specific lexicon conveyed through transcription or transliteration can not provide a full expression of its lexical meaning. Then an additional explication of its sense becomes necessary. It happens when the unit/ notion of the culturally biased lexicon is introduced in the target language for the first time or when it is not yet known to the broad public of the target language readers/listeners. The explanation may be given either in the translated passage/speech flow, where the culturally biased unit is used or in a footnote r- when a lengthy explication becomes necessary: They took her to the Tower of London. (Jerome K.Jerome) Downing Street is guarded outside by a single policeman. (London Illustrated) As the dawn was just breaking he found himself close to

Covent Garden. (O.Wilde) He said that Wall Street and Threadneedle Street between them could stop the universe. (R.AIdington)

Вони показали їй стародавню лондонську фортецю Тауер. Резиденцію прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії охороняє один полісмен. Щойно стало розвиднятися, а він уже був неподалік від ринку Ковент-Ґарден. Він сказав, що Волл-Стріт і Треднідл-Стріт1 удвох (об'єднавши сили) спроможні зупинити всесвіт.

It goes without saying that the transcribed or transliterated forms of Downing Street, Covent Garden or Threadneedle Street can not be sufficient for many foreign readers to obtain a fairly correct idea of what really each of them denotes. Hence, some explication of their specific connotative meaning in footnotes becomes inevitable. Footnotes or lengthy explications should always be used when the culturally biased notions are not yet well-known in the target language. For example, surfing when only transliterated/transcribed as серфінґ will not express its denotative meaning which it in reality is - «the sport of riding waves into shore on a surfboard». Hence, a combined translation must be resorted to: серфінґ (ковзання на широкій овальній дошці по високій морській хвилі до берега); similarly with snow boarding which denotes спуск із гори на широкій лижві.

The kind of explication, naturally, can be acceptable in a dictionary but scarcely acceptable in a broader text. That's why foot notes become helpful here, though a frequent usage of them should be avoided as well, since footnotes may divert the reader's attention from the content of the passage/work in which the specific national notions occur.

1 Треднідл-Стріт - вулиця в лондонському Сіті, де розташовані кілька головних банків Великої Британії.

A combined translation may often be resorted to when a short excerpt or sentence contains some specific notions of the kind: A number of restaurants and caf-    У Києві чимало ресторанів та eterias in Kyiv specialize in varenyky (dumplings), kulish (a thick meal stew) and other dishes. (News from Ukraine) No. 11 Downing Street is

guarded outside by a single policeman too. (London Illustrated)

кафетеріїв, що спеціалізуються на приготуванні вареників, кулішу та інших страв. Будинок N 11 на Даунінг стріт (резиденція міністра фінансів Великої Британії) охороняється знадвору також одним полісменом

Anybody in this country can see from the definition above that вареники are not simply dumplings, i.e., small balls of dough which can be cooked in soup or stew but a piece of flat dough wrapped around some salted/sweetish curd with fresh egg boiled and served hot with butter and sour cream. Varenyky can also be dumplings wrapped around mashed potatoes/stewed sauerkaut, etc. And also boiled and served hot with butter or small pieces of fried bacon and onions respectively1. Neither is куліш something like a thick meal stew. Besides, kulish apart from some other features, not reflected in the translation above, is not always and not in all regions of Ukraine prepared thick, it may also be thin (soup-like).

3. By Descriptive Explaining/Explication Only For some reason or other the orthographic form of a considerable number of sense units belonging to the nationally specific lexicon of the source language can not be rendered into the target language. That happens mostly when the transcription/transliteration can not be helpful in expressing the sense of the culturally biased national unit, or when it might bring about an unnecessary ambiguity in the target language narration/text cf.: matron завгосп у навчальному закладі (суміщає економку і медсестру); Pilgrim Fathers Батьки-прочани - перші колоністи з Англії, що прибули 1620 року до Північної Америки на вітрильнику «Мейфлауер»;

1 Note: in some American restaurants Ukrainian varenyky are called ravioli (Ital.).

prorogation офіційне розпорядження монарха про відновлення/ закінчення сесії парламенту Великої Британії; quartermaster старшина-стерновий у морській піхоті (and also квартирмейстер) в англ. армії.

It goes without saying that such lenthy explications of «матрона» or «Батьки прочани» as well as «квартирмейстер» may be considered superfluous, as their use in translation would aggravate to some extent the elucidation of their proper meanings.

There is no need to emphasize, however, that such lengthy explanations of specifically national notions are always required in the text of the translation/interpretation. And not are all culturally biased/specific units of national lexicon are so «heavily» loaded with information so that they have to be explicated in a footnote. Quite often an explanation within the target language text may be sufficient enough too, as in the following examples: 1 thought of Phuong who would Я думав про Фуонґ, яка зараз

be haggling over the price of fish in the third street down on the left before going for her elevenses to the milk-bar. (G.Greene)

No coffins were available, so they wrapped George in a blanket and in the Union Jack. (RAIdington)

The Tommies were numbered, formed fours, right turned and marched away. (Ibid.)

I've got some shepherd's pie for lunch today - that you used to like so much. (A.Cronin)

He's upset because we don't run Jim Crow buses. (B.Gerry)

Усі бачили, як ми у церкві на рушник стали. (П. Мирний) Пісок був теплий, як нагріта лежанка. (С. Руданський)

відчайдушне торгується за рибу на третій вулиці, в центрі лівої частини міста, перш ніж зайти до молочного бару біля одинадцятої і сяк-так/нашвидкоруч поснідати У них не було готових домовин, тож вони замотали Джорджа у ковдру та в прапор Великої Британії.

Рядових солдатів

порахували, вишикували по

чотири, повернули праворуч і

відвели геть.

Але ж я приготувала

картопляну запіканку з

м'ясом і цибулею, яку ти

колись так любив.

Він дуже засмутився,що в нас

не ходять автобуси тільки

для негрів.

Everybody saw me and you

being married in the church.

The sand was warm like a clay

stove of a country cottage.

161As can be seen, not all the details constituting the semantic structure of the translated above units of specific national lexicon have been fully conveyed in English and Ukrainian translations. Thus, the «clay stove» does not sufficiently explicate the proper role of лежанка, for any stove predominantly implies its being used for cooking. In reality, however, the «clay stove» was designed in Ukrainian country cottages (khata) for heating and wanning purposes only. Similarly with the former (historical) specific American racists' contemptuous unit «Jim Crow buses», which is not simply автобус для негрів because «Jim Crow» was a contemptuous name for a Negro. When translated into Ukrainian simply as негр (автобус для негрів) the collocation would loose its connotative (contemptuous) meaning which is inherent in it. The same uan be said about the Ukrainian culturally biased notion of рушник which is certainly not quite equivalent to the descriptive meaning of «embroidered in national colours towel», because it is an indispensable item in every folk rite like birthday, weddings or burials. Besides, рушник is used in Ukraine on any other solemn or ceremonial occasion. That is why its translation in the above sentence is not fully faithful. To convey the complexity of meaning contained by the national lexicon units of the kind, footnotes may be resorted to as well. That is one more proof of the difficulties which the student sometimes has while dealing with some specifically national units of lexicon, which are always culturally biased notions.

4. By Translation of Componental Parts and Additional Explication of the Units of the Nationally Biased Lexicon

The proper meaning of some specific units of the national lexicon can be faithfully rendered by way of regular translation of all or some of their componental parts and explication of the denotative meaning pertaining to the source language unit. The combined approach in the treatment of this group of specific national lexicon units is called forth by the complexity of meaning inherent in the source language units. It is also due to the inadequacy of componental translation, which does not reveal the essentials that are absolutely indispensable for correct comprehension of the real meaning of the culturally biased lexical units of the source language.

Due to this way of rendering the meanings of this kind of units practically involves two simultaneous performances. The first is a regular translation of the main, if not all, componental parts and the next, which follows it, is a more or less exhaustive explanation of the essence pertained to the specific national element of the source language. The extent of the explanation in the target language is predetermined by the nature of the specific unit of national lexicon, by the purpose of translation, and also by some characteristic possibilities of the text in which the unit is used. When translating at language level (out of context) the explanation may be practically unrestricted: Battle of Britain Битва за Англію (повітряні бої англійської авіації з гітлерівськими бомбардувальниками над територією Великої Британії, особливо в районі Лондона і Південної Англії 1940-1941рр.); bull's eye бичаче око (круглий великий різноколірний м'ятний льодяник); collective membership тимчасове колективне членство в лейбористській партії (наприклад, на час виборів) профспілок, кооперативних товариств; члени цих організацій автоматично стають членами лейбористської партії); ginger ale, імбірний ель/імбірне ситро (базолкогольний газований напій); inner Cabinet «внутрішній кабінет» (кабінет у вузькому складі) до якого входять керівники найважливіших міністерств на чолі з прем'єр-міністром.

Such and the like explanations can not, naturally, be made in the text of a translation, hence they are given usually in the footnotes:

«Well, I can tell you anything        «Ну, я тобі можу розповісти that is in an English bluebook,      все, що написано в англійській Harry.» (O.Wilde) «Синій книзі. »1 Labour Day was past, but            День Праці2 був позаду summer still pressed down on      (минув), а літня спека the city. (M.Wilson)                       продовжувала зморювати. Frances wanted very little: а         Франсіс хотіла зовсім небагато: salad, toast melba, no wine,         салат, грінки «мельба»3, без only ice water. (A.Cronin)              вина, а тільки воду з льодом.

When the lexical meaning of the unit of specific national lexicon is not so complex, it is usually explained in the target language text. The explanation, of course, is not always as exhaustive as it can be in a footnote:

Keep your fingers crossed for       Щоб мені була вдача, склади me! (M.Wilson) навхрест (хрестиком) _______                                пальці!.

1 «Синя книга» - збірник документів, що видається з санкції парламенту Великої Британії в синіх палітурках.

2 «День Праці» - офіційне свято в США (відзначається у перший понеділок вересня).

3 На ім'я австралійської співачки Н. Мельби.

163(I) Knew the Professor before he turned into a wooly West-Ender. (A.Cronin) Though veneered by his thirty years in the Civil Service - he had worked his way from boy clerk to principal - Gill was human underneath. (A.Cronin) I will be in the Ladies Gallery tomorrow night at half past eleven. (O.Wilde) Левкові чи не вперше за своє парубкування стало чомусь тоскно. (М. Стельмах) Згадав він поради свої... і сільські весілля, на яких він грав весільного батька. (М. Коцюбинський)

Я знав цього професора ще до того, як він став багатієм аристократичного Вест-Енда. Пройшовши за тридцять років служби в державному апараті від розсильного до завідуючого відділом, Джіл у душі і все ж залишався людиною. Завтра о пів на дванадцяту я буду на жіночій гальорці в палаті громад. It was probably for the first time in all his mature boyhood that Levko felt somewhat dull. He recollected the pieces of advice he had once given - and the rural weddings at which he would perform the honorary duty of the missing bridegroom's or bride's father.

A fuller and more detailed explanation of the kind of nationally specific notions as given above is not desirable, since it would considerably extend the text of the translation. That is why the student should be warned not to unnecessarily enlarge the explanation of the culturally biased notions, unless required for their exhaustive and correct comprehension. Laconism, therefore, should be the prevailing principle when dealing with the kind of specific national elements, but not to the detriment of explicitness/lucidity and faithfulness of translation.

5. By Ways of Word-for-Word or Loan Translation

When the componental parts making up the units of the nationally specific lexicon are at the same time the main transparent bearers of their proper sence expressed through their meaning, a faithful translation of such sense units may be achieved either by way of word-for-word translation or by way of loan translation. Each of these ways can be well exemplified in English and Ukrainian.

A.Translated word-for-word are the specific national units of lexicon as first (second, third) reading перше (друге, трете) читання (офіційне внесення законопроекту в англійський парламент); secondary grammar school (середня граматична школа); стінгазета wall newspaper; студентське наукове товариство Students' Scientific/Research Society; щоденник (учнівський) student's record book.

В. The denotative meaning of many units of the specific national lexicon may be rendered by way of loan translating as well: from English: Salvation Army (USA, Gr. Britain) Армія порятунку; the Order of the Garter/of the Bath орден Підв'зки/Лазні; the Order of St. Michael and St. George орден св.Михаїла і св.Георгія; fan club клуб прихильників/уболівальників (артиста, спортсмена тощо); from Ukrainian: орден Ярослава Мудрого the Order of Yaroslav the Wise/Yaroslav the Wise Order; орден св. княгині Ольги Київської the Order of St. Olga Princess of Kyivan Rus. The denotative meaning of these and many other English/Ukrainin specific units of national lexicon of the kind will undoubtedly be correctly understood by the target-language speakers. And yet neither of the two ways of translating can often provide an exhaustive expression of all the extralingual details of meaning inherent in most of the units in the source language. Thus, the aim and purpose of issuing our «wall newspaper», which was a regular practice in all state institutions of the former USSR as well as in this country today would scarcely be understood by the British or Americans. Neither do most of our people understand the whole complexity of meaningful semes pertained, for example, to the British Order of the Bath. Hence, such culturally biased notions are to be explicated more detailed in the target language. .

A considerable number of specific units of the national lexicon, both in English and in Ukrainian, consist of the component parts with seemingly transparent lexical meaning. But when conveyed verbally or word-for-word, however, they may lose their proper meaning together with their nationally specific nature. That happens, because the real connotative meaning inherent in the seems, bearing the national peculiarity can not be achieved via these methods of translation. For example, the «House of Lords» when translated as будинок лордів completely perverts the real meaning of the collocation as «House» here, like in the «Upper House» (or simply the «House» when capitalized) always preserves the connotative meaning of палата. Likewise with the «House of Commons» where both components are also endowed with a nationally peculiar meaning and can not be translated as будинок простих людей but only as «Палата громад».

This method of translating is also widely employed when dealing with former Sovietisms as «Герой Соціалістичної Праці», «соціалістичне змагання», etc. Here too the verbal translating of «праця», «змагання» like other notions of the kind would completely distort the proper sense of the collocations which they are components of. The variant *Hero of Socialist Work* would also be inadequate stylistically, because the componental part «work» belongs to the neutral style lexicon. Similarly in case with the former term «socialist competition» in which the noun component had nothing to do with the meaning or «competition» proper. Therefore, a faithful translation of the kind of units of lexicon is predetermined by the correct choice of equivalent units for the semes bearing the national peculiarity. The latter may be expressed both verbally/word-for-word and by means of translation loans, which should be resorted to when verbal translating ruins the national peculiarity of the source language culturally biased units. The number of English genuine translation loans in Ukrainian and Ukrainian in English is considerable. So is the number of verbal and word-for-word translations, as can be seen from some of the examples below: English: cornflakes кукурудзяні пластівці; English Industrial Revolution промисловий переворот в Англії (18-19 століть); skyscraper хмарочос;,supermarket універсальний магазин (універсам); brain washing промиваная мозку (ідеологічна обробка); oat-flakes вівсяні пластівці (геркулес). Ukrainian: карбованець karbovanets', гривня hryvnia, Верховна Рада Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's Parliament), Герой України Hero of Ukraine; заслужений діяч мистецтв України the Merited Worker of Arts/Ukraine's Merited Worker of Arts; голова районної/обласної Ради народних депутатів, Chairman of the District/Region Rada of People's Deputies; медаль за трудову доблесть the Medal for Labour Distinction; орден Богдана Хмельницького 1,11,111 ступеня the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi (First, Second, Third Degree).

It is worth mentioning that some of the above-given and other Ukrainian units of the kind may be translated into English either as asyndetic structures or as syndetic (prepositional) word-groups. The latter are absolutely predominant in conversational English, the former are more common in written (or official) language: заслужений учитель/артист України the Honoured Teacher/Artist of Ukraine or Ukraine's Honoured Teacher/Artist; медаль «За трудову відзнаку» the medal for Labour Distinction or the Labour Distinction Medal. But: герой України Hero of Ukraine.

6. Translating by Means of Semantic Analogies

Despite the differences in economic, social, political, cultural and in many cases also geographical/environmental conditions, under which the nation of the source language and that of the target language develop, some peculiar notions in both the languages may be identical or similar/analogous in their meaning and functioning. It happens due to the existence of common routine or habitual actions, common occupations, social services, food, etc., in these two language communities.

The appearance of analogous units in the national layer of lexicon of different languages may also be the result of bilateral or multilateral contacts and influences to which the nations may have been exposed for centuries. Consequently, similar/analogous national notions in different languages may appear as a result of direct or indirect (through an intermediary language) borrowings. No wonder that analogous units of national lexicon directly correlate in the source language and in the target language in their denotative meaning and mostly in the common sphere of their functioning - social, cultural, political, etc. Though far from all the analogies ever possess the absolute complexity of meanings inherent in the source language units. The connotative divergences and sometimes the spheres of use may not always fully coincide in the target language as can be seen from the following few examples. English: the City/Town Board of Education міський відділ освіти; pop com кукурудзяні баранці; gingerbread імбірний пряник, коврижка; shop-steward цеховий староста (голова профкому); stewed fruit узвар/компот; Well done! Well done! (sports) Мо-лод-ці! Мо-лод-ці!; come! come! Вгамуйся, заспокойся/ цить, цить, не плач. Ukrainian: залік preliminary/qualifying test/examination; дипломна робота graduation essay/project; курсова робота yearly essay/project; доцент principal lecturer/ reader, associate professor; курси вдосконалення refresher course; підвищення кваліфікації in-service training course; кватирка hinged window pane/pilot window; консультація tutorial.

No doubt some of the English /Ukrainian units in the list above are only functionally approximate analogies (cf. доцент principal reader/lecturer reader, associate professor, кватирка hinged window pane). Their complete denotative meaning can naturally be understood only from a larger context. Functionally analogous are also some nouns in the forms of address in both the languages as shown below:

Sir, she, being his wife will not,     Пане, їй, як дружині, згідно according to custom, mention      звичаю не можна називати ім'я his name. (M.R.Anand) свого чоловіка.

Грай, кобзарю] Лий, шинкарю] (Т. Шевченко) «То, прошу панів, наше пасовисько...» (І. Франко) «Oh, I beg your pardon. I'm terribly sorry, gentlemen» (Ibid.)

Innkeeper, pour! Play, minstrel, play!

Please, sirs, that's our pasture.

«Ax, перепрошую вас, дуже перепрошую, панове...»

As can be seen, the choice of an appropriate analogy in the target language is greatly influenced by the national/cultural traditions (cf. пани sirs/gentlemen; кобзар minstrel). The use of various analogiesin the target language is largely because of the existence of many translations and often repeated usage of them. Especially strong is the influence of translation of belles-lettres works and films, let alone the large scale Study of the source language at our schools as a foreign language. Under the influence of these and other factors the co-occurrence of some units of particular national lexicon in the target language may increase considerably. These units may soon become well-known to the majority of the target language speakers. It is in this way that many English and American culturally biased notions have become familiar in this country and some our culturally biased words (notions) have penetrated into the English and other languages. Many of these units of the specifically national lexicon have become regular internationalisms (cf. hryvnia, kozak, Kyiv chicken, borshch, etc.). Similarly the notions like долар, шилінґ, Торі, бренді, фунт, etc, and now also бартер, ваучер, дискета, транш, дефолт, аудит, саміт, комп'ютер, менеджмент, рокенрол, поп-музика and many others from the English/American culturally biased lexicon belong not only to our active vocabulary. They have penetrated into other languages as well despite the fact that they are still clearly recognized by the target language speakers as foreign borrowigns.

Sometimes a faithful translation of analogous units of the peculiar national lexicon can be achieved only with the help of an additional explications as in the examples like special school спеціальна школа (початкова або середня школа для дітей із психічними/ фізичними вадами); summer school літня школа (курс лекцій, семінарів, практичних занять для підвищення кваліфікації іноземних вчителів та студентів); caravanning проводити літній час/відпустку, подорожуючи в будиночку-причепі на колесах. - •

It is easy to notice that the denotative meaning of the first two of the above-given culturally biased units of national lexicon are practically identical in English and Ukrainian. The difference is in a few extralingual details only. Thus, «summer school» in Gr. Britain is not free of charge. Besides, it functions during the summer holidays when the rooms in schools and universities are not occupied by the students. One can assume, therefore, that the notions like these are only conventionally different . They are closer to regular semantic equivalents, though not devoid of some extralingual details in the source language. Our students must be aware of such differences when dealing with the kind of units of the specifically national lexicon of the source language. This can not be said, naturally, about caravanning, which is a purely American phenomenon as yet.

EXERCISES FOR CLASS-WORK AND HOMEWORK

Exercise I. Pick up the units of the English specifically national lexicon in the sentences below. Define their sphere of usage and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. You know as I do that some students are capable of making you, the teachers, look bad. These are atypical students. Some of our best lessons fall flat because of these students. (A.Dodding) 2. Some ignorant jackass on Fleet Street has got together a list of cures by Stillman. (A.Cronin) 3. Sir Robert was surprised and said that this Argentine scheme (Canal Company Scheme) was known to be a commonplace Stock Exchange swindle. (O.Wilde) 4. At this point of the story enters the Great Detective, specially sent by or through Scotland Yard. (St. Leacock) 5. You must certainly send it (the painting) next year to Grosvenor. (O.Wilde) 6. He himself had a job in Whitehall «of national importance». (R.AIdington) 7. Do you realize he's the first Distinguished Service Cross we've had in this town? (U.Gow, A.Dusseau) 8. The serious part of the dinner comprised roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, being served as sweet course before the meal. (Bennet) 9. Carrie established a little portable gas stove for the preparation of small lunches, oysters, Welsh rarebits, and the like... (T.Dreiser) 10.1 can't tell one tune from another. I don't know «Home Sweet Home» from «God save the King». (S.Leacock) 11. An alderman from Hampshire was reported as saying that «the recommended increase in school-joining age would possibly be raised to six years». (Herald Intern. Tribune) 12. «Come, come» he said, «you are flurried, Mr. Lockwood». (E.Bronte) 13. And potbellied little coloured children fought hunger and sleepness while Lanny tried to

169teach them the three R's. (P.Abrahams) 14. The lady looked somewhat surprised. His Lordship arrived first escorting Mrs. Mallaby. (A.Christie) 15. Down Whitehall, under the grey easterly sky, thelow-ers of Westminster came for a second in view. 16. And, removing their hats, they passed the Cenotaph. (J.Galsworthy) 17. She was busy loading the table with high tea. 18. He was afraid that as K.C.he would get no work. (S.Maugham) 19. Mr. Huges was on the Bench. (Gordon) 20. I can get you a seat in the Distinguished Strangers' Gallery. (.J.Galsworthy)

Exercise II. Definite the ways in which the Ukrainian units of the national lexicon are translated (or should be translated) intoEngflsh.

A. 1. President Leonid Kuchma issued a decree obliging college graduates to work in the State sector after graduation. 2. The Ukrainian Nuclear Power Industry Workers' Union addressed their demand to President Leonid Kuchma, Verkhovna Rada, and the Cabinet ol Ministers. 3. Resulting from the sale of 60 per cent of an emission of municipal loan bonds totalling 15.000 hryvnias, the Kharkiv municipality will purchase 20 used Mercedes minibuses. 4. She is one of the 20 top ballet stars who will take part in the Christmas season of international ballet at London Albert Hall, opening on Boxing Day. 5. Photo reproductions in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg show huge burial mounds of Chernihiv princes and boyars of the 11th-12th centuries. 6. The desire to create, invent and experiment leads schoolchildren of Lviv and the Lviv Region to the «Evrika» Junior Academy of Sciences». 7. In 1931 Arkadiy Filipenko was enrolled at the robitfak, worker's faculty, under the Lysenko Music and Drama School. 8. His first teacher - a kindly old herdsman - taught him to play on a simple reedpipe, sopilka, when he was only nine. 9. Then music and songs were performed by the Trio of Bandore Players. 10. Both families call the groom and the bride «knyaz and knyahynya» (prince and princess), the best men are «boyaryns», the bridesmaids are «druzhky». 11. The occasion was celebrated by Ukrainian-families with kutya (boiled peeled barley or wheat/rice with honey ar»d ground popy seeds). 12. There are several types of pysanky. one when the egg is painted in one colour; when with the aid of a special sharp tool one scratches the pictures on the painted egg (such-an egg is called «dryapanka» or «scrobanka»); when one puts thin fayers of wax on the egg while dipping the latter in paint, usually going from light colors to dark («krapanka»); when the egg is painted with oil paint («malyovanka»); and, finally, when with the help of a special instrument one draws a picture with wax, then fills it with different colours.

B. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following traditional folk rites, customs, and religious feasts of our people:

1. commemoration of ancestors; 2. Whitsuntide/Whitsunday, Pentacost; 3. the feast of Presentation; 4. to bless water; 5. stuffed cabbage (leafs); 6. Holy supper; 7. pious and righteous; 8. Epiphany; 9. the feast of the Annunciation; 10. Warm Alexis; 11. miracle-workers; 12. Willow Sunday/Palm Sunday; 13. «Passion Friday»; 14. Holy Shroud; 15. the Easter Matins; 16. the High mess; 17. unleavened bread; 18. Seeing off Sunday; 19. Forty Martyrs; 20. water nymphs; 21. Maccabees' Day; 22. the Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord; 23. the Feast of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin; 24. Twelfth-day; 25. the pre-Christmas fast; 26. The Birthday of the most Holy Mother of God; 27. The Elevation of the Holy Cross; 28. The Feast of Intercession of the Most Holy Mother of God; 29. The Archangel Michael's Day; 30. St. John the Baptist.

C. Read the Ukrainian passage below, identify the culturally biased notions in it and translate it into English.

Іран живе за власним відліком часу і має свій календар (сонячна хиджра), яким встановлено новий рік 20 березня -дня переходу пророка Могаммада з Мекки в Медину 621 року. Хоча Іран є однією з мусульманських країн, проте святкування Нового року (Ноуруза) походить ще з доісламських часів. Ноуруз (в буквальному перекладі «новий день») припадає на період весняного рівнодення, що означає з давніх давен у багатьох народів пробудження природи. Наші пращури, дажбожителі, теж пов'язували з весною своє новолітування. За іранським звичаєм на святковому столі має бути сім речей, назви яких починаються з літери «с» (за перським правописом): часник, гроші (щоб наступний рік був багатий), яблука тощо. Обов'язково присутні дзеркало (аби в ньому було видно лише добро), живі рибки у воді (символ життя), Коран (священна книга мусульман) і миска з зеленими паростками пшениці. І у нас, в Україні, існує звичай до Великодня посеред столу разом із пасками ставити проросле збіжжя. Традиційними до Ноуруза вважаються також добре знайомі українцям писанки. Цей давній звичай фарбувати або розписувати яйця має глибокі корені, що беруть свій початок з дохристиянських та доісламських часів (в Ірані, як і в Україні, яйце є символом життя). І хоча техніка розпису яєць в Ірані відрізняється від виготовлення традиційних українських писанок,

171сам факт свідчить про спільне в культурі двох народів.

Exercise III. Read carefully the sentences containing some American/British nationally peculiar notions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

A. 1. USAir has gone to «sporks», a combination of fork and spoon to cut down on the number of utensils used. The USA Today asked some Road Warriors who are best described as «grumpy gourmands» because they probably eat more meals on jets than at home. Here's what they say: «The scrambled eggs were OK, moist with decent flavour. The waffles were almost soggy. The coffee was good, but they always serve it in a Styrofoam cup, which drives me crazy.» (J.Y.Oakton) 2) «Breakfast was a Cheddar cheese omelette, it not only appeared to be stable - as compared to some that swim in unidentifiable liquid - but it also tasted like Cheddar cheese and eggs. It was enough cholesterol to have caused a block in my arteries, but it was good.» 3) «I had the grilled chicken, it was a good portion, but it was dry with a fake, smoked flavour. The salad was fresh and cresp. But it was served in a bowl, not on a plate. The wheat roll was moist and served with real butter. For dessert, I had chocolate cake. But, it was too sweet, which was good.» (K.W.) 4) «I had two choices for breakfast: cold cereal or an omelet. I had Quaker Oat Square, a small carton of 2 milk, low-flat peach yoghurt, orange juice and a banana.» 5) «This time, the plate had an ample amount of grapes, pineapple and orange slices, but only one strawberry. I didn't eat the yoghurt or the dry cereal, but I did have a warm blueberry muffin.» 6) «They served a health-food concoction that tasted like the cardboard box it came in. It was a sort of corn-flavored, crispy, chiplike thing, it had no flavour at all. We also had fruit. I like that they serve milk, but I hate that low-fat stuff, it insipid - all airline food is insipid.»

B. Translate the list of meals of a common American restaurant.

1. Traditional barbeque foods: smoked brisket and ham, or turkey; pig picking pork, smoked chicken wings, baby back ribs (half-slab, full slab), spare ribs (short ends, long ends); grilled chicken and greens; Texas chicken, a boneless breast grilled with spicy Texas sauce, topped with thinly sliced smoked brisket and melted Cheddar cheese; burnt ends, smoked apple sausage or brisket. Smoked ribs... tender meaty ribs basket with maple - mustard, glaze, slow roasted and then lightly grilled; hickory chicken... 1/2 chicken smoked and basted with the original BBQ (barbecue) sauce; burnt ends... tender chunks of twice-smoked brisket drenched in our famous sauce;

Texas-size beef ribs marinated, slow-smoked and flame-grilled. 2. Garnishes: BBQ baked beans, cole slaw and potato salad, whole wheat, white bread or buns, pickled and barbecue sauce. 3. Apetizers: cheese and assorted crackers, French onion soup, onion straws, corn fritters (hot and fresh long ends), a hickory-grinned chicken breast sliced and served atop, fresh veggies and greens, with our honey-mustard dressing; assorted relishes; vegetable tray with dip. 4. Accompaniments: dirty rice, tossed salads. 5. Desserts: creamy cheesecake, chocolate peanut butter, ice-cream pie; old fashioned cheesecake, apple fritters served hot with powdered sugar and sweet honey butter.

Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:

голова колгоспу/сільради, дружинник, суботник, січовик, січові стрільці, запорожець, герої Крутів, тризуб, універсали (Центр. Ради); залік, залікова книжка, відкритий урок, педрада, табель успішності, похвальна грамота/лист, курсова/дипломна робота; кобза, кобзар, бандурист, гопак, повзунець(танець), веснянки, коломийки, боярин, дружка, весільний батько, бублик, вареники, галушки, голубці, бабка, коржі з маком/шулики, борщ, куліш, ряжанка, узвар, грубка, лежанка, піч (у хаті), скриня, свитка, кожух, кептар, вишиванка, плахта, чобітки, льох, хата, гривня, карбованець, десятина, «бігунець», профорг студентської групи, крашанка, писанка, думи, «Ще не вмерла Україна».

Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrainian.

A. №10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Commons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Parliament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, bacon, Yorkshire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, farthing, guinea, sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, modern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leggings, stretches, tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.

B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the meaning of peculiarly American government offices and their principal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of translation which you employ for the purpose.

The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia

173and America has no «government» but only an «administration» or to be more precise, a «president's administration». The latter in its turn has no ministries and consequently no «ministers» but departments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thirteen departments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Department, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as announced by the presidential secretary. The only exception is the Justice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attorney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list include only four departments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Commerce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other departments in the U.S. administration government have Under Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy ministers in other countries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Interior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Department which include building roads, and overseeing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).

Exercise VI. Pick out the nationally specific English notions in the text below and then translate them in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The former Beatle Paul McCartney was awarded a knighthood in the New Year's honours list. Among other showbiz figures receiving honors. Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer of «Evita», «Phantom of the Opera» and «Jesus Christ Superstar» becomes Lord Lloyd Webber allowing him to sit in the House of Lords. Among others recognized: The actress Joan Collins, best known for her role as Alexis in the television show «Dynasty», received an QBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), white the playwright Alan Ayckbourn was knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose best-sellers include «The Day of the Jackal», becomes a Commander of the Order of the.BriBsh Empire, which entitles him to add the initials CBE after his name. The racing driver Damon Hill, the current Formula One world champion, was given an QBE for services to auto racing, Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parliament below and translate it point by point in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life

1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first constitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10,1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and traditions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Palace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.

2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belonging to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Hereditary Peers. Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).

The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.

3. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the «front benches», the «cross benches» and the «back benches».

4. There are nine Royal British orders of Knighthood. The highest of them is the order of the Garter, which was founded by King Edward III in 1348. It consists of two parts - a collar gold chain worn around the neck with St. George killing the Dragon, and an eight-pointed star with the words Honi sort qui таї у pense (in French) meaning: Shame on them who think badly. The order is conferred to

175the members of the Royal family and 25 knights. The only commoner to have received the order was Sir Winston Churchill in 1957. This order gives the bearer the right to be buried in Westminster Abbey. The next important order is that of the Bath established during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413). The name of the order comes from the ceremony of bathing (the symbol of purity) before being given. There are three different degrees of the order, the highest being the first: 1) G.C.B. (Grand Cross of the Bath); 2) K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the Bath), 3) C.B. (Commander of the Bath). The highest military award in Great Britain is the Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 to mark the victory in the Crimean War. It is a bronze Maltese Cross with a Lion in its centre and the inscription «For Valour» under it. The cross is made from the metal of the Russian guns captured in Sevastopol during the Crimean War in 1855. 5. Several traditional ceremonies are held in the capital of Great Britain attracting the attention of many Londoners and their numerous domestic and foreign quests. One of them observed every day is the changing of the Household Guards quartered in the Chelsea and Wellington Barracks near the Buckingham Palace. The Brigade of Guards of the Queen (and the Royal family body-guards) consists of two regiments representing the nationalities of the United Kingdom. The English Grenadiers wear the bear skin caps twenty inches high. The Scots Guards wear a wide black ribbon on the back of their uniform colour 15 cm wide and 25 cm long.

All the Guards wear scarlet or red tunics and black trousers except the Scots Guards wearing their traditional regimental cloth. The Irish Guards wear a triple row of brass buttons and distinctive plumes. The second ceremonial event which can be seen at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays is Mounting the Guard. In this ceremony the Household Cavalry (the Royal .and Life Guards) take part. They wear breast and back shiny plates made of steel armour. The third ceremony is observed only once a year on the second Saturday in June at ab. 11.15a.m. and is called Trooping the Colour. The ceremony marks the «official» birthday of the Queen and presents an inspection parade of the Queen's own troops. This spectacular ceremony with the Queen riding side-saddle on a highly trained horse ahead of the Guards is watched by many hundreds of

people.

Among other old traditions the most prominent are the ceremony of the Keys which is over 700 years old (since 1215 when King John was forced to sign the Magna Charta) and Lord Mayor's Show. The latter goes back to the mayoralty of Richard (Dick) Whittington, who was mayor four times (1396,1397,1406 and 1419). The Lord Mayor rides from the City in a splendid six horses-spanned coach through the streets of London and stops at Law Courts where he is presented to the Lord Chief of Justice, who hands him his sword of office after receiving a solemn promise to carry out his duties faithfully. The procession4hen continues to Westminster, and then returns to the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor.

TEXTS FOR INDEPENDENT CLASS AND HOME TRANSLATION

Exercise VIII. Read the stories A, B, C, D, E below, pick out the units of the English culturally biased lexicon and translate the stories into Ukrainian.

A. AN ENGLISHMAN'S DAY

An Englishman's day - and who better to describe it than an Englishman's wife? It begins when, ignoring me, he sits down to breakfast with his morning paper. As he scans the headlines (or the racing results) there is nothing he likes better than his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar (porridge if he lives in the North) followed by fried bacon and eggs, marmalade and toast, the whole accompanied by tea or coffee. But whether he in fact gets such a meal depends on the state of my housekeeping budget! After breakfast, except on Sundays and (in many cases) Saturdays which are holidays, he sets off to work by train, tube, car, motor scooter, motor bike or even on his own two feet. The time he sets out depends in large degree upon whether he is what might colloquially be termed a «striver» (one who works himself), a «driver» (one who sees..that others works) or a «thriver» (one who profits from others work). If he is a «striver», he will jostle along with thousands like him on the 7.20, probably still reading his paper (or somebody else's) and studying the successes (or otherwise) of his favourite team.

The «drivers» customarily depart about an hour later while the «thrivers» travel up to the City in great style about an hour later. But be he «striver», «driver» or «thriver»-, he will enjoy his tea or coffee break around about 11. The tea or coffee is usually brought to the factory bench or office desk.

Then, at mid-day, everything stops for lunch. Most offices and small shops close for an hour, say from 1 to 2, and the city pavements are thronged with people on their way to cafes. Factory workers usually eat in their canteens.

The usual mid-day meal usually consists of two courses - a meat course accompanied by plenty of vegetables, followed by a sweet dish, perhaps fruit pudding and custard with tea or coffee to finish. Most Englishmen like what they call «good plain food, not messed about with». They must be able to recognize what they are eating. Otherwise they are likely to refuse it. Usually they like beef steaks, chops, roast beef and Yorkshire pudding and fried fish and chipped potatoes.

They are in the main not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course. Then back to work again, with another break in the middle of the afternoon, once again for tea or coffee, sometimes with a cake or biscuit.

The working day finishes at time between 4 and 6, with the «thrivers» usually first home and the «strivers» last. On arrival home, many Englishmen seem to like to inspect their gardens before their evening meal.

This goes under various names - tea, high tea, dinner or supper depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it. Usually a savoury meat course is followed by stewed fruit or cake and tea. His evening meal over, the Englishman might do a bit of gardening and then have a walk to the «local» for a «quick one». The «local» means the nearest beer house while a «quick one» means a drink (alcoholic, of course!) taking anything from half-an-hour to three hours to imbibe! There is plenty of lively, congenial company at the «local» and he can play darts, dominoes, billiards or discuss the weather or the current situation.

But if the Englishman stays at home, he might listen to the radio, watch television, talk, read or pursue his favourite hobby. Then at any time between 10 and 12 he will have his «nightcap» - a drink accompanied by a snack - and then off to bed ready for tomorrow. (S. Andrews)

B. You Say Pasta, We Say Noodle It's too soon to declare peace in the world's pasta wars. But the combatants finally sat down together at the table. U.S. pasta-makers have been angered over European Union subsidies, which sometimes made Italian pasta cheaper than American brands on U.S. grocery shelves. Afew months ago, the U.S. International Trade Commission decided there was merit to American pastamakers' com-

plaints about being hurt by Italian and Turkish imports. No settlement has been reached yet. Italy's MenconLwas quick to recall how national pride was pricked earlier this year by a claim from some U.S. experts that pasta could be bad for some people, especially the overweight. Focusing on the common goal of increasing pasta consumption, savvy spaghetti sellers aren't overlooking any market. C. Fast Food Burgers

Two quick service restaurants specializing in burgers are attracting locals and foreigners alike. If you're looking for a tasty, cheap meal in a convenient location, Kentucky Beirut Chicken and Boston Burger, both located in the center of Kyiv, measure up Kentucky Beirut Chicken wins on the burger front. Their Lebanese-seasoned burgers - it's a secret recipe, - are crave-indicing. They come on crisp buns with a variety of fixings that are in the plate option. A plate is like getting a full meal deal at McDonald's, only in Kyiv it includes a hamburger or cheesburger, French fries, pickles and coleslaw. KBC's drawback is Boston Burger's saving - French fries. While KBC's tend to be soggy and too cool, Boston Burger's are perfect, string-like morsels. Boston Burger's hamburgers are fine, but they're missing a special touch. They're simply a bland hunk of meat, with wilted lettuce and ketchup. KBC has an advantage in that it cooks as food is ordered, whereas Boston Burger premakes a bunch of sandwiches, which means they sometimes are served lukewarm and not-so-fresh. Until the Big Mac makes its way to Kyiv, Boston Burger and Kentucky Beirut Chicken will fill that fast-food burger whole in your stomach.

D. the Candymaker's Witness

A candymaker in Indiana wanted to make a candy that would be a witness, so he made the famous throughout America Christmas Candy Cane on which he incorporated several symbols for the birth, ministry and death of Jesus Christ.

He began with a hard candy stick of pure white, which symbolizes the Virgin Birth and the sinless nature of Jesus; and hard to symbolize the Solid Rock, the foundation of the Church, and the firmness of the promises of God. This candy cane was made in the form of the letter «J» to represent the name of Jesus, who came to earth as our Savior. It could also represent the staff of the «Good Shepherd» with which he reaches down into the ditches of the world to lift out the fallen lambs who, like all sheep, have gone astray.

Thinking that the only white candy was somewhat plain, the candymaker stained it with red stripes. He used three small stripes to show the stripes of the scourging Jesus and the large red stripe was for the blood that was shed by Christ on the cross so that we could have the promise of eternal life.

Unfortunately, in America the candy became known only as a sweet Candy Cane - a meaningless decoration seen at Christmas time. But the meaning is still there for those who «have eyes to see and ears to hear».

E. Scotland

It is one of those places where civilization has not tramped all before it. Scotland has uniqely combined the untouched beauty of nature with the kind of facilities that guarantee comfort.

Your impressions from Scotland very much depend on you, on how open you are to new cultures and traditions of this country. Start your trip with the cities and then go deep to the Highlands. Step by step you will be unweiling the quiet magic of this miraculous place and falling in love with its unforgettable authenticity, which gets smoothly with modernity. Tartan is no longer just an echo from the past. Any bank or football team has its own tartan. Any local family can have a tartan by just registering it at the Scottish tartan Society. And it is not only fashion that reflects a changing consciousness. Over the last 10-15 years Scots seem to have become more conscious of their national identity, just as we Ukrainians have. They do not only debate their more independent status, but wear kilts more often - for weddings and for parties, even for work. They feel proud and comfortable on these double-pleated skirts, even when they have to pay something in the region on of 600 USD for a full outfit.

Exercise IX. Translate the passage below into English. Explain the ways you employed to convey faithfully the notions of the specifically Ukrainian national lexicon. 1. Кобзар О.М. Вересай

Старий уже був Грицько Вересай. Він брав кобзу і простував на церковний майдан Калюжинців. Поводирем сліпого ставав малий онук Остапко, що мусив жербати, бо кріпацького хліба вистачало сім'ї лише до Різдва. У М'ясниці гуляли весілля, на які запрошували Остапкового батька Микиту Вересая, котрий гарно грав на скрипці. Після тяжкої хвороби 4-річний хлопчик осліп. Дід переконував онука, що для закріпаченої людини - то захист, хоч не бачитеме, що діється на нашій зболеній землі. А через десятиліття саме пісня «Про правду і неправду» понесла славу Кобзаря Остапа Вересая по Україні і за її межі. Коли влітку 1874 року в Києві відбувався визначний в історії кобзарства III

Археологічний з'їзд, на який з'іхалися учені з усієї Европи, французький професор Н. Рамбо назвав знаменитого виконавця народних дум і пісень «Гомером в українській свиті». Завдяки своєму мистецтву Остап Микитович побував у царському палаці в Петербурзі - прийшов зі скаргою на тяжку долю селянина, наївно думаючи, що цар допоможе.

Спливли роки. У Сокиринці на Чернігівщині, як до Канева на могилу великого Шевченка, приходять люди вклонитися співцеві..

2. Мандрики

Це печиво пекли у Петрівський піст або на Петра. На це свято годилося шанувати пастухів і підпасків, їх частували і дарували мандрики («мандриги») - сирні пампушки. Вірили: хто з'їсть їх у Петрівку, того весь рік минатиме лихоманка. Після Петра вже переставала кувати зозуля, що й породило приказку: «Зозуля мандрикою вдавилась». Особливо смачними були мандрики із сиру, відтопленого із сколотини (маслянки), тобто сироватки, яка залишилася після збитого із сметани масла.

3. Обряд з кашею

Щоб відзначити таку важливу для сім'ї подію, як хрещення дитини, у хаті влаштовували святковий обід, відомий у народі під назвою «христини». За північноукраїнською традицією баба-повитуха приносила круто зварену кашу, накривала її хлібом-сіллю або млинцем і пропонувала розбити горщик тому, хто покладе більше грошей. Гості скидали їх новородженому - «на мило», «на воза», «на коня», «на люльку», «на віночок». Дарували й полотно на пелюшки, хустинки.

Хрещений батько клав більші гроші і розбивав горщик качалкою або тричі підіймав його і за останнім разом ударяв об кут стола. Якщо каша 'ціла, не розвалилася, - це на достаток і щастя, її годилося скоро схопити і з'їсти, «щоб дитина говорила скоріше», «щоб дитя на ноги хваталося швидко». Частування кашею було насичене й іншими діями, супроводжувалося примовками, наприклад: «Роди, Боже, жито й пшеницю, а куму й кумі дітей копицю». Хлопчику бажали, «щоб орач був, щоб не злодій був». Дівчинці - «щоб хлопці поважали й любили» і т.ін. Обряд з кашею - багатозначний ритуал. У ньому реалізувалася ідея входження дитини в сім'ю.

181TRANSLATION OF IDIOMATIC/PHRASEOLOGICAL AND STABLE EXPRESSIONS

Idiomatic or phraseological expressions are structurally, lexically and semantically fixed phrases or sentences having mostly the meaning, which is not made up by the sum of meanings of their component parts1. An indispensable feature of idiomatic (phraseological) expressions is their figurative, i.e., metaphorical nature and usage. It is this nature that makes them distinguishable from structurally identical free combinations of words Cf.: red tape (free word-comb.) червона стрічка - red tape (idiom) канцелярський формалізм (бюрократизм); the tables are/were turned (free word-comb.) столи перекинуті/були перекинуті - the tables are turned (idiom) ситуація докорінно змінилася; супротивники помінялися ролями/місцями; play with fire гратися з вогнем (free word-comb.) гратися з вогнем (біля багаття) - наражатися на небезпеку (idiom).

On rare occasions the lexical meaning of idiomatically bound expressions can coincide with their direct, i.e., not transferred meaning, which facilitates their understanding as in the examples like: to make way дати дорогу; to die a dog's death здохнути як собака; to receive a hero's welcome зустрічати як героя; wait a minute/a moment зачекайте хвилинку/ один момент; to tell (you) the truth правду казати/правду кажучи; to dust one's coat/jacket витрусити пальто/ піджака - дати духопеликів.

Some proper names can also be endowed with figurative meaning and possess the necessary expressiveness which are the distinguishing features of idioms2: Croesus, Tommy (Tommy Atkins), Yankee, Mrs. Grundy, Jack Ketch, etc. These, proper names have acquired their constant meaning and can not be confused with usual (common) proper names of people. As a result their transferred meaning is conveyed in a descriptive way. So Mrs. Grundy means світ, люди, існуюча мораль; Jack Ketch кат; Croesus Крез, надзвичайно багата людина; Tommy Atkins англійський солдат; Yankee (in Europe) янкі/американець, etc.

Idiomatic/phraseological expressions should not be mixed up with different fixed/set prepositional, adjectival, verbal and adverbial

1 See: Кунин А.В. Фразеология английского язьїка. - М.: Международ. отношения, 1972. Martin H. Manser A Dictionary of Contemporary Idioms. - London, Pan Books Ltd, 1983.

2 See: CollinsV.N.ABook of English Idioms. -Л.:Учпедгиз, 1950. Англо-український фразеологічний словник Склав К.Т. Баранцев. - Київ: Рад. шк., 1969. phrases the meaning of which is not an actual sum of meanings made up by their constituent parts either: by George, by and by, for all of, for the sake of, cut short, make believe; or compounds like: topsy-turvy, higledy-piggledy; coordinate combinations like: high and dry, cut and run, touch and go; Tom, Dick and Harry, etc. These and a lot of other stable expressions can very often be treated as standardized collocations. Their meaning can be rendered in a descriptive way too, like that of genuine idiomatic expressions: fifty-fifty так собі; ні добре ні погано; О.Квсе гаразд, на належному рівні; cut short обірвати, присікти/припинити щось (поїздку), обірвати (розмову).

Such and the like stable expressions, like most of other standardized collocations, have usually a transparent meaning and are easier to translate than regular idioms (the so-called phraseological fusions). Meanwhile it is next to impossible to guess, for example, the meaning of the English idiom Hobson's choice from the seemingly transparent meanings of its componental parts. Only a philological inquiry helps establish the meaning of the name and the real sense of the idiom - «no choice whatsoever», «acceptance of what is offered» жодного вибору.

Similarly treated must also be many other English and Ukrainian picturesque idioms, proverbs and sayings, which have national literary images and reflect the traditions, customs, the way of conduct or the mode of life of a nation. Their meaning, due to absence of similar idioms in the target language, can be rendered descriptively, i.e. through a regular explication. The latter, depending on the semantic structure of the source language idiom, may be sometimes achieved in the target language with the help of a single word. Cf.: English: an odd/queer fish дивак; Canterbury tale небувальщина, вигадка; blue bonnet («синій берет») шотландець; ніде курці клюнути crammed; зубами тертяка вибивати to be chilled. Most often, however, the meaning of this kind of idioms is conveyed with the help of free word-combinations: to dine with Duke Humphrey залишитись без обіду (нічого не ївши); to cut off with a shilling позбавити когось спадщини. Similarly in Ukrainian: ноги на плечі to go quickly (or very quickly) on one's feet; зуби з'їсти на чомусь to have great experience in something; кивати/накивати п'ятами to run away quickly/hurriedly.

It goes without saying that none of the phraseologisms above can be translated word-for-word since their constituent images would lose their connotative, i.e., metaphorical meaning in the target language. So, пообідати з герцоґом Гамфрі or обрізати шилінґом

половина

in their

could be understood by the Ukrainian language spe& „u на плеч/ literal meaning. The same can be said about our idiom ^ ^/Ould never та й гайда, i.e., *with one's legs on the shoulders whid1 ^ language be understood, when translated literally, by the Eng'1   n mechani-native speakers. Therefore, the componental images ^ rjpg about a cally transplanted to the target language, may often " complete destruction of the idiomatic expression.        , jdioms may The choice of the way of translation of this kind ° у tne exist-be predetermined by the source language context of tjC/stable ex-ence/absence of contextual equivalents for the idiorn^ pelow units pression in the target language. Thus, in the exampl^ ^e ne|p of a of this kind can be translated into Ukrainian either witf1  jca| expres-single word or with the help of a standardized phrased0 sion: to give a start здригнутися; to give ft підбадьорювати, морально підтримувати когось; tf7 sel (facet) жінка (прекрасна стать; жіноцтво; слаб1^ людства), the Holy Mother Богоматір. 0|location af-Not infrequently the meaning of a standardized csynonymous ter V.V.Vinigradov like that of a regular idiom may hav^ ^Ojce Of ^ne single word equivalents in the target language. The ^e standard-equivalent is predetermined then by the meaning of ntence where ized collocation/phraseologism and by the style of the 5^0зпечувати; it is used: to make sure упевнитись (пеконатися), з& ^раплятися; to make comfort втішатися; to take place відбуватись-the world and his wife усі.                                           5 which have Similarly treated are also traditional combinatio11 equivalents in the target language several stylistically neutral fr0 дати, йти на (words or word-combinations) as: to run a risk ризи^У Op ризик, to apply the screw натиснути (на когось); to   .^, potato швидко позбутися когось, обірвати стосУ припинити знайомство.                                              ue idiomatic/ Faithful translating of a large number of picture5^cnjevec| on|y phraseological expressions, on the other hand, can be > language a by a thorough selection of variants having in the tar0 picturesque-similar to the original lexical meaning, and also th^1 j on common

jm_

the mean-gener-

a раптово

ness and expressiveness. This similarity can be in the source language and in the target language c° ages as well as on the structural form of them. As a f05 ing of such idioms is mostly guessed by the student5'

ally facilitates their translation.

A few examples will suffice to prove it. English

grass widow

(widower) солом'яна вдова (вдівець); not to see a step beyond one's nose далі свого носа нічого не бачити; measure twice and cut once сім раз одміряй, а раз відріж; not for love or money ні за які гроші/ ні за що в світі; Ukrainian: не знати/тямити ні бе, ні ме, ні кукуріку (not to know chalk from cheese); вночі що сіре, те й вовк all cats are grey in the dark, який батько, такий син, яка хата, такий тин (яблучко від яблуні далеко не відкочується) like father, like son; not a cat's/dog's chance жодних шансів/можливостей, etc.

It often happens that the target language has more than one semantically similar/analogous phraseological expression for one in the source language. The selection of the most fitting variant for the passage under translation should be based then not only on the semantic proximity of the idioms/phraseologisms but also on the similarity in their picturesqueness, expressiveness and possibly in their basic linages. The bulk of this kind of phraseological expressions belong to the so-called phraseological unities. (Vinogradov). Here are some Ukrainian variants of the kind of English phraselogisms: either win the saddle or loose the horse або пан, або пропав; або перемогу здобути, або вдома не бути; many hands make work light де згода, там і вигода; гуртом і чорта побореш; гуртом і батька добре бити; громада т великий чоловік; a man can die but once від смерті не втечеш; раз мати народила, раз і вмирати; раз козі смерть; двом смертям не бути, а одної не минути; hastle makes waste/the more haste, the less speed тихше їдеш - далі будеш, поспішиш -людей насмішиш, хто спішить-той людей смішить.

A number of phraseological units, due to their common source of origin, are characterized in English and Ukrainian by partial or complete identity of their syntactic structure, their componental images, picturesqueness and expressiveness (and consequently of their meaning). Such kind of idioms often preserve a similar or even identical word order in the source language and in the target language. Hence, they are understood and translated by our students without difficulties: to,cast pearls before swine кидати перла перед свиньми; to be 00/77 under a lucky star народилася під щасливою зіркою; to cherish/warm a viper in one's bosom пригріти гадюку в пазусі; to be/fall between Scilla and Charybdis бути між Сціллою і Харібдою/ між двох вогнів.

One of the peculiar features of this type of idiomatic expressions is their international nature. Only few of them have phraseological synonyms of national flavour, being thus restricted to corre-

185spending speech styles, whereas international idioms predominantly belong to the domain of higher stylistic level: Genuine Internationalisms National/Colloquial Variants

The apple of discord яблуко The bone of contention. The розбрату, яблуко чвар                 bone of discord Strike the iron while it is hot           make hay while the sun shines куй залізо, доки гаряче                 коси коса поки роса

neither fish nor flesh ні риба ні м'ясо to cross the Styx канути в Лету; піти в непам'ять

ні Богові свічка, ні чортові шпичка; ні пава, ні ґава to turn one's toes up простягти/витягнути ноги

National/colloquial variants of international idiomatic substitutes, therefore, always differ considerably by their picturesqueness, expressiveness and their lexical meaning. They are only semanti-cally analogous to genuine equivalents, which may sometimes lack absolute identity in the source language and in the target language (to cross the Styx канути в Лету; to drop from the clouds з неба впасти; neither fish nor flesh ні пава ні ґава).

As can be seen, some international idiomatic expressions slightly differ in English and Ukrainian either in their structural form and lexical idiomatic meaning or in the images making up the idioms. Thus, the idiomatic expression to fish in troubled waters has in English the plural of wafers whereas in its Ukrainian equivalent has a singular form, wheras the component to fish is detalized and extended to ловити рибку (рибу) в каламутній воді; the Society of Jesus is