94613

Ivan Franko

Доклад

Литература и библиотековедение

Writer, scholar, political and civic leader, publicist; like Taras Shevchenko, one of Ukraine’s greatest creative geniuses. The son of a village blacksmith, Franko graduated from the Drohobych gymnasium in 1875 and began to study classical philology and Ukrainian language and literature at Lviv University.

Английский

2015-09-14

44.5 KB

0 чел.

Franko, Ivan (pseuds: Dzhedzhalyk, Zhyvyi, Kremin, Myron, etc), b 27 August 1856 in Nahuievychi (today Ivan Franko), Drohobych county, Galicia, d 28 May 1916 in Lviv. (Photo: Ivan Franko.) Writer, scholar, political and civic leader, publicist; like Taras Shevchenko, one of Ukraine's greatest creative geniuses. The son of a village blacksmith, Franko graduated from the Drohobych gymnasium in 1875 and began to study classical philology and Ukrainian language and literature at Lviv University. His first literary works —poetry (1874) and the novel Petriï i Dovbushchuky (1875)—were published in the students' magazine Druh, whose editorial board he joined in 1875. Franko's political and publishing activities and his correspondence with Mykhailo Drahomanov attracted the attention of the police, and in 1877 he was arrested along with MykhailoPavlyk, Ostap Terletsky, and others for spreading socialist propaganda. After spending eight months in prison Franko returned to political work with even greater fervor. He helped organize workers' groups in Lviv, contributed articles to the Polish newspaper Praca, and studied the works of K. Marx and F. Engels. In 1878 he founded with Pavlyk, the magazine Hromads kyi druh, which was confiscated by the authorities but resumed publication under the names Dzvin and Molot. In 1880 Franko was arrested again and charged with inciting peasants against the authorities. After serving a three-month term, he was released but was kept under police surveillance and was forced to discontinue his university studies.

Special mention must be made of Franko's work as a translator, which he carried on throughout his life. He translated masterpieces from 14 languages by such famous authors as Homer, Dante, William Shakespeare, J. Goethe, E. Zola, B. Bjørnson, Aleksandr Pushkin, M. Lermontov, N. Chernyshevsky, A. Herzen, N. Nekrasov, A. Mickiewicz, W. Gomulicki, K. Havlíček-Borovský, J. Neruda, J. Machar, H. Ibsen, H. Heine, and others.

With his many gifts, encyclopedic knowledge, and uncommon capacity for work, Franko made outstanding contributions to many areas of Ukrainian culture. He was a poet, prose writer, playwright, critic, literary historian, translator, and publisher. The themes of his literary works were drawn from the life and struggle of his own people and from sources of world culture: Eastern cultures and the classical and Renaissance traditions. He was a ‘golden bridge’ between Ukrainian and world literatures.

Translating is also a perfect means of sharing achievements and enriching national languages, literatures and cultures (operas, artistic films). The many translations of the prose, poetry and drama works of the world's famous authors into different national languages provide a vivid illustration of this permanent process. Due to masterly translations of the works by W.Shakespeare, W.Scott, G.G.Byron, P.B.Shelley, C.Dickens, W.Thackeray, O.Wilde, W.S.Maugham, A.Christie, H.W.Longfellow, Mark Twain, J.London, T.Dreiser, R.Frost, E.Hemingway, F.C.Fitzgerald and many other authors their works have become part and parcel of many national literatures. The works by Ukrainian authors have also been translated into English and some other languages, the process being increasingly intensified after Ukraine's gaining independence in 1991. Hitherto only the works of Ukrainian classics had mainly been published in some foreign languages. Among them are first of all T.Shevchenko, I. Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, M.Kotsyubynskyi, V.Stephanyk, V.Vynnychenko, I. Bahryanyi, O.Honchar, O.Dovzhenko. Now the works of V.Symonenko, L.Kostenko, I. Drach, HryhirTyutyunnyk, V.Stus and others are also translated into various foreign languages and have become available for many readers abroad.

No less ambiguous is also the term «interpretation» which is synonymous to «translation» and is used to denote the way or manner of presenting the idea of the work in translation orally (as well as its aesthetic, religious, political, pragmatic background and other qualitative characteristics of the work under translation). These may be artistic, genre and stylistic peculiarities rendered by the translator in his particular way, which is somewhat different from that of the author's. The thing is that «interpretation», unlike «translation», admits some more freedom of the translator in his treatment (at least in certain places or cases) of the matter under translation. Hence,

the existence of free versifications (переспіви) and free adaptation (перелицювання) which are rightly treated as new creations (when they are of high artistic value). To the latter belong the famous free interpretations of Virgil's Aeneid in Ukrainian by I. Kotlyarevskyi or I. Franko's free adaptation of the German work Reineke Fuchs under the Ukrainian title «Фарбований лис», and many others both in our national literature and in world literature. Practically «adapted» (thought in a peculiar way and with the highest degree of faithfulness, i.e. interpreted according to our national literary tradition), are also Shakespearean masterpieces, Byronean writings and many other poetic and prose works. Consequently, «interpretation» may denote apart from the oral method of translation also a peculiar, pertained to a master of the pen and characteristic of him, as well as the only way of presenting a prose or poetic work in translation. («Interpretation» may also denote the style of a peculiar translator and his way of presenting a particular literary work).

Translating is also a perfect means of sharing achievements and enriching national languages, literatures and cultures (operas, artistic films). The many translations of the prose, poetry and drama works of the world's famous authors into different national languages provide a vivid illustration of this permanent process. Due to masterly translations of the works by W.Shakespeare, W.Scott, G.G.Byron, P.B.Shelley, C.Dickens, W.Thackeray, O.Wilde, W.S.Maugham, A.Christie, H.W.Longfellow, Mark Twain, J.London, T.Dreiser, R.Frost, E.Hemingway, F.C.Fitzgerald and many other authors their works have become part and parcel of many national literatures. The works by Ukrainian authors have also been translated into English and some other languages, the process being increasingly intensified after Ukraine's gaining independence in 1991. Hitherto only the works of Ukrainian classics had mainly been published in some foreign languages. Among them are first of all T.Shevchenko, I. Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, M.Kotsyubynskyi, V.Stephanyk, V.Vynnychenko, I. Bahryanyi, O.Honchar, O.Dovzhenko. Now the works of V.Symonenko, L.Kostenko, I. Drach, HryhirTyutyunnyk, V.Stus and others are also translated into various foreign languages and have become available for many readers abroad.

Two sisters, both respected academics and members of the teaching profession, have conceived a monumental project for their retirement years: the translation into English of selected prose works of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Ukrainian women authors. Six sizeable volumes have already appeared in print. As they indicate in the Introduction, it was the "indomitable spirit" of their mother, a Ukrainian immigrant to Canada, that inspired them to undertake such a huge task.

The following writers are represented in the series: Olena Pchilka (1849-1930), Natalia Kobrynska (1855-1920), Dniprova Chayka (1861-1927), Lyubov Yanovska (1861-1933), Olha Kobylianska (1863-1942), Hrytsko Hryhorenko (1867-1924), Yevhenia Yaroshynska (1868-1904), and Lesya Ukrainka (1871-1913). The volumes here reviewed are a continuation of the above series of translations which started appearing in 1998. Some forty selections have been included in these two volumes.

The translator and editor further explain why and how the individual works have been chosen. Until recently, very few such selections have been available in other languages. The series contains a whole range of works from vignettes to short novels and has as its aim to acquaint the wider circle of readers in English with the part of Ukrainian literature written by women. The interpretation is from a woman's perspective. Volumes I to IV have a larger number of selections from two authors each, while volumes V and VI deal with works of six or seven of them. Translations in volume V form an anthology devoted to the lives of children and adolescents. In those days, children were not treated fairly by society. They had the status of their parents and, in the lower classes, it was difficult for them to break out from the perennial cycle of economic and social inequality. Volume VI underlines the social values, among them the institution of marriage in the society of the time. The law regarding marriage were not to be questioned by women: it was next to impossible for a married woman to shape her life independently from her husband. The writers of the time, however, were not constrained with what we currently call "political correctness." They could, and did on occasion, write with derision about individuals and ethnic groups and classes of society.

Historically, the times when these authors created were not conducive to the development of the Ukrainian national language. Especially in the part of Ukraine that was under Russian jurisdiction, there existed an official ban on publishing in Ukrainian. The individual writers, both men and women, if they wanted to see their works in print, had to find ways of arranging for their publication outside the Russian Empire. If the Russian literature of the nineteenth and early-twentieth century was permeated with the idea of social consciousness, the Ukrainian one had to champion national freedom, in addition to the social freedom. These elements are reflected in various ways in the works selected.

The authors' feminist tradition was evident. They knew each other. Some of them cooperated on joint projects such as Pershy Vinok (The First Garland)—on of the first almanacs of writings by women from both Eastern and Western Ukraine produced anywhere. It was published in 1887. They were all members of the intelligentsia and had the best education available to women at the time. This included an extensive knowledge of languages like German, Russian, Polish, Romanian, since they lived under various foreign regimes and influences. Lesya Ukrainka, for example, had a reading knowledge of a dozen or so languages, and even wrote in some of them. It was not uncommon for individual writers to be proficient in French as well. One could mention here Aleksandra Sudovshchykova-Kosach, using the masculine pseudonym of Hrytsko Hryhorenko, who did a number of literary translations from French into Ukrainian and vice versa. She reminds this reviewer, to some extent, of the French feminist writer Aurore Dudevant (1804-1876), better know as George Sand, who penned dozens of novels and stories about the lives of French peasants—a field Hryhorenko pursued in Ukrainian.

The translator and editor of the series were faced with a difficult task of how to tackle the idioms, the regional colloquial language, the terms and phrases coined from other Slavic and non-Slavic languages, for example, German and Yiddish. Ditties, poems, some of them in other languages, like Polish, were translated in rhymed prose or verse. Local measures for distances, weights, size were rendered into Canadian terms to be better understood by the North American reader. Feminine surnames derived from adjectival forms were preserved rather than converted to the masculine forms as is the custom in English. The translators decided on the criterion of "readability" to guide them in their task. Thus, their versions contain standard idiomatic English with addition of occasional explanations of words and phrases in brackets. Some standardized forms are chosen for all selections although there might have been a regional discrepancy in the meaning of certain words. Thus, for instance, the word "pan" is rendered through "lord," rather than through "master," and the word "gimnzaiia" appears as "high school," instead of "lycée" or "secondary school." This, however, does not detract from the readability. Occasionally, the translators choose a non-appropriate meaning of the word. For example, in Ukrainian the same noun and adjective is used for the term "south" and "noon." On page 129, vol. V, it follows from the text of the story that there was the "midday sun," and not the "southern sunshine." It is unavoidable that in the text of such length there appear some proofreading lapses or typographical errors, but they are very rare.

On the whole, these are excellent translations in a field whose recognition has been long overdue in Ukrainian, since other priorities had been more pressing. Such additions are most welcome and the translators are to be congratulated for undertaking such a great task. The works show that Ukrainian women authors occupy a high place not only in their own literature, but also in European literature. They may be favourably compared with what is the best in world writing as well.



 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

30677. Философские вопросы бытия в лирике С.А. Есенина (на примере 3 -4 стихотворений по выбору экзаменуемого). Тема жизни и смерти в стихотворении «Мы теперь уходим понемногу…» 14.68 KB
  Тема жизни и смерти в стихотворении Мы теперь уходим понемногу В своей философской лирике Есенин ставит множество вопросов обращенных в первую очередь к самому себе: чем я жил что я успел для чего пришел в этот миЕсенин всегда ощущал себя частью этого мира. Часто он находил отклик своим мыслям в мире природы поэтому его философская лирика темно переплетается с пейзажной и наполнена аналогиями между законами человеческой жизни и законами природы. Жизненный путь пройден природа завершила свой кругСоотношение весны человека и...
30679. Тема подвига и самопожертвования в русской литературе 14.15 KB
  Подвиг самопожертвование могут восприниматься писателями поразному. Человек совершает подвиг не только в исключительные моменты своей жизни но и в семейнобытовом социальном философском плане. Если бы не слова князя Андрея никто бы не узнал о его подвиге.
30680. Тема России в лирике Блока. Чтение наизусть «Река раскинулась. Течет, грустит лениво…» 14.97 KB
  Течет грустит лениво Тема Родины России занимала в творчестве Блока особое место и была для него поистине всеобъемлющей. В стихотворении Осенняя воля 1905 отчетливо прослеживаются лермонтовские традиции творчества Блока:Выхожу я в путь открытый взорамВетер гнет упругие кустыБитый камень лег по косогорамЖелтой глины скудные пластыЛирический герой Блока не случайный прохожий а один из сыновей России идущий знакомым путем и сопричастный горькой судьбе тех кто умирает не любя но кто стремится к слиянию с родиной: Приюти ты в...
30682. Тема чести в произведениях отечественной классики XIX века 18.92 KB
  Проблема чести была актуальна во все времена но особенно ярко это проявилось в литературе 19го века.Тема чести – одна из основных в романе А. Кодекс дворянской чести требовал чтобы герой отдал за императрицу свою жизнь и Гринев был готов на это.
30683. Тематика и художественные особенности «Сказок» М. Е. Салтыкова-Щедрина 15.75 KB
  СалтыковаЩедрина Известно что СалтыковЩедрин начал писать свои политические сказки еще в шестидесятые годы и что именно эти небольшие по объему произведения стали вершиной его творчества итоговым произведением. Одной из самых известных сказок СалтыковаЩедрина является “Повесть о том как один мужик двух генералов прокормилâ€. Спасенные и разбогатевшие генералы проявляют свою “благодарность†высылают ему пятак серебром да рюмку водки “веселись мужичинаâ€Во многих других сказках Салтыкова можно встретить применение...
30684. Тип «гордого человека» и его воплощение в произведениях отечественной литературы 14.8 KB
  Гордость – один из семи смертных грехов. Все эти герои несмотря на разнообразие их характеров обладают одной ведущей чертой – гордостью. Своей гордостью и эгоизмом он приносит несчастья многим героям даже совершает убийство друга на дуэли. Любовь и гордость находятся на разных полюсах.
30685. Людмила Улицкая «Дочь Бухары» 42.42 KB
  Бухара – так прозвал двор анонимную красавицу – не терпела чужих взглядов а пока забор не был выстроен ни одна соседка не упускала случая проходя заглянуть в притягательные окна. Женился на головешке азиятской Одно слово – Бухара Видно Паша еще не прониклась до конца духом полного и окончательного интернационализма. Я сама родилась от младшей жены – не поднимая глаз сказала Бухара. С его уходом Паша окончательно переехала в докторский флигель а Бухара пошла работать по своей почти утраченной специальности.