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Seven Wonders of the World

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Культурология и искусствоведение

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Seven Wonders lists about the Middle Ages Modern lists Modern wonders Tourist travel wonders Natural wonders Underwater wonders New Seven Wonders External links Seven Ancient Wonders Other wonders...

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2015-09-14

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Seven Wonders of the World


Contents

1 Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 

2 Seven Wonders lists about the Middle Ages 

3 Modern lists 

3.1 Modern wonders 

3.2 Tourist travel wonders 

3.3 Natural wonders 

3.4 Underwater wonders 

3.5 New Seven Wonders 

4 See also 

5 References 

6 Further reading 

7 External links 

7.1 Seven Ancient Wonders 

7.2 Other wonders 


Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum of Maussollos, Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) is a widely-known list of seven remarkable constructions of classical antiquity. It was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim. Later lists include those for the Medieval World and the Modern World.

The historian Herodotus and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (ca 305240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of "seven wonders" but their writings have not survived, except as references. The earliest extant version of a list of seven wonders was compiled by Antipater of Sidon, who described the structures in a poem around 140 BC:

I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, 'Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand.'

Antipater, Greek Anthology IX.58

A later list, under various titles like De septem orbis spactaculis and traditionally misattributed to the engineer Philo of Byzantium, may date as late as the fifth century AD, though the author writes as if the Colossus of Rhodes were still standing.

These are given in the table below:

Wonder

Date of construction

Builder

Notable features

Date of destruction

Cause of destruction

Great Pyramid of Giza

2650-2500 BC

Egyptians

Built as the tomb of Fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu.

Still standing

-

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

600 BC

Babylonians

Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high (although some archaeological findings suggest otherwise).

After 1st century BC

Earthquake

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

550 BC

Lydians, Persians, Greeks

Dedicated to the Greek goddess Artemis, it took 120 years to build. Herostratus burned it down in an attempt to achieve lasting fame.

356 BC

Arson

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

435 BC

Greeks

Occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple that was built to house it, and was 40 feet (12 meters) tall.

5th-6th centuries AD

Fire

Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus

351 BC

Persians, Greeks

Stood approximately 45 meters (135 feet) tall with each of the four sides adorned with sculptural reliefs. Origin of the word mausoleum.

by AD 1494

Earthquake

Colossus of Rhodes

292-280 BC

Hellenistic Greece

A giant statue of the Greek god Helios roughly the same size as today's Statue of Liberty in New York.

224 BC

Earthquake

Lighthouse of Alexandria

3rd century BC

Hellenistic Egypt

Between 115 and 135 metres (383 - 440 ft) tall it was among the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many centuries.

AD 1303-1480

Earthquake

The Greek category was not "Wonders" but "theamata", which translates closer to "must-sees". The list that we know today was compiled in the Middle Ages—by which time many of the sites were no longer in existence. Since the list came mostly from ancient Greek writings, only sites that would have been known and visited by the ancient Greeks were included. Even as early as 1600 BC, tourist graffiti was scrawled on monuments in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings.

Antipater's original list replaced the Lighthouse of Alexandria with the Ishtar Gate. It wasn't until the 6th century AD that the list above was used. Of these wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been definitively proven. Records show that the other five wonders were destroyed by natural disasters. The Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of Alexandria, Colossus, and Mausoleum of Maussollos were destroyed by earthquakes. There are sculptures from the Mausoleum of Maussollos and the Temple of Artemis in the British Museum in London.

Seven Wonders lists about the Middle Ages

Seven Wonders lists about the Middle Ages are existing historical lists for which there is no unanimity of opinion about origin, content or name.[1] These historical lists go by names such as "Wonders of the Middle Ages" (implying no specific limitation to seven), "Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages", "Medieval Mind" and "Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages". The lists are more properly seen as a continuing type or genre in the Seven Wonders tradition than a specific list.

It is unlikely the lists originated in the Middle Ages. Brewer's calls them "later list[s]"[2] suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages. This is supported because the word medieval was not even invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a "Middle Age" did not become popular until the 16th century. Further, the Romanticism movement glorified all things related to the Middle Ages, or more specifically anything pre-Enlightenment era, suggesting such lists would have found a popular audience in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some items found on some of the lists are not technically from the Middle Ages (according to modern historical standards), but we know the lists were not created by modern medieval historians, so such standards did not apply.

Typically representative of the seven:[1][3][4][2]

  •  Stonehenge 
  •  Colosseum 
  •  Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa 
  •  Great Wall of China 
  •  Porcelain Tower of Nanjing 
  •  Hagia Sophia 
  •  Leaning Tower of Pisa 

Other sites that have been mentioned include:

  •  Cairo Citadel[5] 
  •  Ely Cathedral[6] 
  •  Taj Mahal[7] 
  •  Cluny Abbey[8] 

Modern lists

In the tradition of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, many other lists of wonders have been proposed, including both human feats of engineering and wonders of Nature. However, these lists are rather informal, and there is no consensus on any particular list.

Modern wonders

The American Society of Civil Engineers compiled another list of wonders of the modern world:[9]

Wonder

Date Started

Date Finished

Locations

Channel Tunnel

December 1, 1987

May 6, 1994

Strait of Dover, between England and France

CN Tower

February 6, 1973

June 26, 1976

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Empire State Building

January 22, 1930

May 1, 1931

New York, New York, USA

Golden Gate Bridge

January 5, 1933

May 27, 1937

Golden Gate Strait, north of San Francisco, California, USA

Itaipu Dam

January 1970

May 5, 1984

Paraná River, South America

Delta Works

1953

May 10, 1997

Netherlands, Europe

Panama Canal

January 1, 1880

January 7, 1914

Isthmus of Panama, Central America

Tourist travel wonders

The following list of the top seven tourist travel wonders (not including pilgrimages) was compiled by Hillman Wonders:[10]

  •  Great Pyramids of Giza 
  •  Great Wall of China 
  •  Taj Mahal 
  •  Serengeti Migration 
  •  Galapagos 
  •  Grand Canyon 
  •  Machu Picchu 

Natural wonders

Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list of seven natural wonders of the world, as there has been debate over how large the list should be. One of the many lists was compiled by CNN:[11]

  •  Grand Canyon 
  •  Great Barrier Reef 
  •  Harbor of Rio de Janeiro 
  •  Mount Everest 
  •  Polar Aurora 
  •  Parícutin volcano
  •  Victoria Falls 

Underwater wonders

This list of underwater wonders is of unknown origin but has been repeated sufficiently often to acquire a degree of notability:[12] [13]

  •  Palau 
  •  Belize Barrier Reef 
  •  Great Barrier Reef 
  •  Deep-Sea Vents 
  •  Galapagos Islands 
  •  Lake Baikal 
  •  Northern Red Sea 

New Seven Wonders

Two "New Seven Wonders" lists have been promoted since 2000.

In 2001 an initiative was started by Swiss organization New Open World Corporation (NOWC) to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments (ongoing).[14] Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006.[15] The results will be announced on 7 July 2007.

In November 2006 the American national newspaper USA Today in conjunction with the American television show Good Morning America revealed a list of "New Seven Wonders" as chosen by six judges.[16] The wonders were announced one per day over a week on Good Morning America. An "eighth wonder" was chosen on November 24 from viewer feedback.[17]

Number

Wonder

Location

1

Potala Palace

Lhasa, Tibet, China

2

Old City of Jerusalem

Israel

3

Polar ice caps

Polar regions

4

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument

Hawaii, United States

5

Internet

N/A

6

Mayan ruins

Yucatán Peninsula, Mesoamerica

7

Great Migration of Serengeti and Masai Mara

Kenya and Tanzania

8

Grand Canyon (viewer-chosen "eighth wonder")

Arizona, United States

See also

  •  Eighth Wonder of the World 
  •  Seven Blunders of the World -- a list by Mahatma Gandhi 
  •  New Seven Wonders of the World 


References

  1.  ^ a b Hereward Carrington (1880-1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the Carington Collection (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, page 14.
  2.  ^ a b I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
  3.  ^ Edward Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things (1904), page 280.
  4.  ^ Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201.
  5.  ^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades (2001, page 153))
  6.  ^ The Rough Guide To England (1994, page 596))
  7.  ^ Palpa, as You Like it, page 67)
  8.  ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, v.16 (1913), page 74 
  9.  ^ American Society of Civil Engineers Seven Wonders 
  10.  ^ Hillman Wonders 
  11.  ^ CNN Natural Wonders 
  12.  ^ Underwater Wonders of the World 
  13.  ^ 2nd list of Underwater Wonder 
  14.  ^ New Seven Wonders 
  15.  ^ Finalist Page 
  16.  ^ New Seven Wonders panel 
  17.  ^ ABC Good Morning America "7 New Wonders" Page 


 

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