94625

Практикум по синхронному переводу с русского языка на английский

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Рассчитанный на начинающих переводчиков с хорошим знанием английской грамматики, этот сборник представляет собой единую по содержанию, но смешанную по форме — письменную и устную — композицию. Условно сборник может быть поделен на три раздела: русские тексты (речи и заявления на заседаниях ООН и в других международных организацияхююю

Английский

2015-09-14

2.12 MB

1 чел.

Линн Виссон

Практикум

по синхронному переводу

с русского языка

на английский

Москва

«Р.Валент»

2002


ББК 81.2 англ. - 923

Практикум по синхронному переводу с русского языка на английский (с аудиоприложением). Издание третье, стереотипное.

Рассчитанный на начинающих переводчиков с хорошим знанием английской грамматики, этот сборник представляет собой единую по содержанию, но смешанную по форме — письменную и устную — композицию. Условно сборник может быть поделен на три раздела:

1) русские тексты (речи и заявления на заседаниях ООН и в др.международных организациях, выступления ораторов в различных аудиториях, в т.ч. университетских, ответы на вопросы интервью и др. материалы на самые разные темы, среди которых — вопросы политики, экономики, экологии, медицины, искусства и др.); 2) переводы на английский язык, причем в двух вариантах — опытном, предназначенном для черновой работы, и окончательном, так сказать, — образцово-показательном. Здесь же даются объяснения и комментарии к текстам, слова и выражения, представляющие для переводчика наибольшую трудность; грамматические и синтаксические приемы перевода одних и тех же выражений разными способами; стилистические варианты подачи материала и их анализ; 3) кассета, где тексты записаны в своем окончательном виде, с правильными английскими эквивалентами. И русские, и английские тексты произносят носители языка, кроме того, английские тексты читаются переводчиками или опытными лингвистами не только из США и Англии, но и из др. стран, где акцент и иные характерные черты отличаются от английского и американского «стандартов».

Автор учебника Линн Виссон — один из опытных синхронных переводчиков ООН, выпускница Гарварда с докторской степенью по русскому языку и литературе, была профессором Колумбийского и др. университетов Америки.

Практикум по синхронному переводу с русского языка на английский (с аудиоприложением) 3-е издание/ Л.Виссон. — М.:Р.Валент, 2002. — С. 200. - ISBN 5-93439-077-5

Тел./факс издательства: 917 41 53 e-mail: rvalent@online.ru

© Линн Виссон, 2001 © «Р.Валент», 2000-2002


От составителя

Как в своей устной форме, так и в его синхронной разновидности искусство перевода с русского языка на английский представляет собой совокупность знаний и умений, для усвоения которых нужна специальная подготовка. И она больше всего нужна в этой области русскоязычным профессионалам. Переводя на свой язык (как говорят переводчики, — «в свою сторону»), любой из них может отлично справиться со своим делом даже при пассивном знании неродного языка, что при переводе на иностранный («в обратную сторону») просто немыслимо: здесь непременным условием успеха является владение иностранным языком хотя бы на уровне его элементарно образованного носителя. Это обстоятельство ставит каждого устного переводчика, и прежде всего синхрониста, перед исключительно трудной задачей. Переводчик должен обрести не только сложный багаж — грамматику и синтаксис английского языка, но и познать его музыку — интонацию, произношение, стилистику устной речи и т.д., которые были и остаются одним из самых высоких барьеров для многих моих коллег из России.

Чтобы преодолеть этот и многие другие преграды, будущим русским переводчикам нужно, как мне кажется, значительно осовременить систему своего образования и самообразования. Речь идет, в первую очередь, о решительном отказе от старых методов советского обучения иностранным языкам, когда студенты в вузах одолевали свой предмет с «полузакрытыми ушами». Почти не общались с людьми из-за границы, а изучали их живую речь, главным образом, по печатным текстам и занимались на семинарах больше, чем в лингафонных кабинетах.

Под стать методам обучения было и оборудование. На больших магнитофонах — музыкальных шарабанах, которые появились в бывшем СССР в конце 50-х — начале 60-х гг., заниматься языковой самоподготовкой было очень неудобно, а портативные магнитофоны и уокманы с наушниками стали завозиться с Запада на 20-25 лет позже. В результате даже выпускники инязов приступали к работе без основательной звуковой тренировки. По рассказам многих из моих русских коллег, они в своих первых беседах с нами, носителями английского языка из Америки, не улавливали целый ряд слов, которые многократно видели на бумаге.

Еще хуже было положение с пособиями для переводчиков. В советское время магнитофонные пленки для лингвистических целей, насколько я знаю, никогда не запрещались, но в силу своей идеологически очищенной тематики были слишком пресной вегетарианской пищей и хранились, главным образом,


в институтских фонотеках. Аудиокурсы для изучения иностранных языков стали широко издаваться со времени перестройки, которая необычайно расширила спрос на языковых посредников между Россией и Западом. Но даже тогда специально для этих посредников не было издано ни одного учебника с систематически продуманными и хорошо озвученными упражнениями. Несмотря на достижения современной звукотехники и острую нужду в высококвалифицированных переводчиках — и с английского, и на английский, — такого пособия в России до сих пор нет.

Не лучше ситуация и в Америке, хотя она первой стала пожинать плоды информационно-технологической революции. Издательства у нас выпускают огромное количество аудиокурсов для студентов, изучающих западные, восточные и другие языки, во многих больших университетах есть хорошо оборудованные лингафонные кабинеты, ряд крупных компаний в области телекоммуникаций создал особую аппаратуру для перевода видеовстреч с деловыми иностранцами, и т.д., и т.п. А вот даже в самых вместительных конференц-залах, где проходят международные заседания, часто нет маленькой кабинки с нехитрой переводческой оснасткой — микрофонами, наушниками и переключателем каналов. Что же касается какой-либо литературы для синхронистов, не говоря уже о кассетах и CD-ROM'ax, то ее не сыщешь днем с огнем даже в самых всеядных магазинах Нью-Йорка. Между тем первоклассных переводчиков в США сегодня так же мало, как и в России, хотя в обеих странах есть необходимость увеличить число настоящих профессионалов в этой области, и в частности синхронистов, переводящих с русского языка на английский.

Представленный ниже аудиосборник является лишь первым, пробным шагом на непроторенном пути. Рассчитанный на начинающих переводчиков с хорошим знанием английской грамматики, этот сборник представляет собой единую по содержанию, но смешанную по форме — письменную и устную — композицию. Условно она может быть поделена на три раздела. Первый из них состоит из 25 русских текстов, которые предстают перед читателем сначала в напечатанном виде. По своему жанру это — речи и заявления на заседаниях в ООН и в других международных организациях, выступления ораторов перед университетской аудиторией, ответы на вопросы во время интервью и другие материалы на самые разные темы, среди которых вопросы политики, экономики, экологии, медицины, искусства и т.д.

Разумеется, русские тексты отбирались для сборника не по принципу их научной значимости, а с точки зрения их лингвистической пользы. Это относится и к лексике: читатель,


возможно, найдет здесь немало новых слов, но расширение его словаря не является основной задачей настоящего издания. Более того, при адаптации текстов составитель стремился избежать крайне редких или необычных слов, способных отвлечь внимание читателя от главных проблем перевода. С той же позиции было размечено и адаптировано все содержание сборника — опущены сугубо технические термины, не относящиеся к делу имена, заменены не очень распространенные сокращения и т.п. И, наоборот, слова и выражения, создающие для переводчика наибольшие трудности, выделены жирным шрифтом.

Второй, тоже письменный, раздел аудиосборника — иноязычный. Вслед за русским текстом дается его перевод на английский в двух вариантах — опытном, предназначенном для черновой работы, и окончательном, так сказать, — образцово-показательном. В первом и в примечаниях к нему комментируются и разбираются различные лексические, грамматические и синтаксические приемы перевода тех слов и выражений, которые выделены в русских текстах жирным шрифтом. Одновременно анализируются и другие, отмеченные дробью места, где большая часть проблем связана со стилистическими вариантами подачи материала1. Именно выбор этих вариантов является неистощимым источником ошибок, проблем, головоломок, ловушек для переводчика, если тот не знает, когда и при каких условиях перевод требует не официального оборота речи, а, к примеру, разговорной фразы.

Наконец, объяснения и комментарии к английскому переводу завершаются его окончательным, образцовым видом, который затем зафиксирован в устной форме. Именно этому посвящен последний раздел сборника — кассеты, где представлены русские тексты с их английскими эквивалентами. Как первые, так и вторые записаны с голоса носителей языка, но если русские тексты продиктованы на пленку людьми с обычным опытом публичных выступлений, то английские — переводчиками или опытными лингвистами не только из США и Англии, но и из других стран, где акценты и иные характерные черты разговорной речи отличаются от британского и американского «стандартов». Кроме того, многие и русские, и английские материалы кассет читаются мужскими и женскими голосами в двух темпах речи — медленно и быстро, с разным произношением, с различными дикцией, тембром и т.п. В результате у слушателя появляется возможность вжиться в разные типы чужой речи и

' Через дробь в текстах сборника дамы различные варианты перевода, а в скобках — те слова, которые при переводе можно опустить


вместе с тем выверить услышанное по прочитанному Я имею в виду как письменные тексты с комментариями к текстам сборника, так и страницы моего учебного пособия по синхронному переводу, которое было недавно опубликовано и в Америке (на английском), и в России (на русском)1 Хотя настоящий сборник представляет собой самодостаточное целое, в то же время он, несомненно, может служить и приложением к вышеназванному пособию

Как пользоваться аудиосборником?

Чтобы пройти курс самообучения по его материалам, можно разбить свою работу на два основных этапа

I Сначала прочитайте русский текст, обратив особое внимание на те слова и выражения, которые выделены или не выделены жирным шрифтом, но переводятся на английский в разных вариантах, указанных во втором разделе сборника Постарайтесь освоиться в работе с этими вариантами, а затем подготовьте русский текст для устной «обработки» по методике, хорошо известной всем профессиональным синхронистам А именно напишите английские варианты перевода над каждым словом и оборотом, которые вызывают у вас наибольшие трудности Чтобы случайно не запутаться в порядке слов при переводе, пометьте их цифрами I, 2, 3, 4 и тд

Для дальнейшей работы вам понадобятся два магнитофона В один из них вставляется кассета из Приложения, а в другой — чистая кассета Прежде чем начинать работу, не забудьте положить рядом с собой карандаш и бумагу они понадобятся вам для записи числительных Если русский текст на кассете читается двумя скоростями, начинайте с медленной Затем, положив этот текст перед глазами и включив одновременно оба магнитофона (один — на воспроизведение, другой — на запись), начинайте свой перевод и запишите его на чистую кассету (Это упражнение приносит пользу, хотя и меньшую, даже тем, кто не записывает свои голос из-за отсутствия второго магнитофона )

Теперь прослушайте еще раз английский текст на кассете и сравните его со своим переводом — с точки зрения произношения, стиля, синтаксиса, выбора времени глагола или по другим параметрам Любой из них по отдельности или в совокупности с другими может стать объектом внимания на следующей фазе работы, когда первоначальные процедуры прослушивания

' Lynn Visson, From Russian Into English An Introduction to Simultaneous Interpretation, 2nd edition Focus Publishing Newburyporl, MA, 1999, Лини Виссон «Синхронный перевод с русского на английский Приемы, навыки, пособия» Издание 2-е, исправленное Москва, Р Валент 2001


русского текста и воспроизведения его на английском проводятся с целью самопроверки в наиболее важных аспектах перевода Сюда обычно включаются

  1.  Предлоги и их использование
  2.  Обстоятельства времени
  3.  Отрицание
  4.  Употребление в английском определенного и неопре
    деленного артиклей
  5.  Синтаксис
  6.  Выбор слов и стилистических вариантов
  7.  Допустимые рамки отставания (т е как долго можно и
    следует ждать от начала каждого русского предложения, прежде
    чем начинать переводить его на английский)

8 Интонация и общая подача текста (умение легко и
красиво преподнести его слушателям)

В заключение выполните ваш перевод еще раз с учетом всех его аспектов, но не заглядывая в русский текст А теперь сравните результат со своим самым первым переводом Налицо — резкий контраст, несомненно свидетельствующий о прогрессе в вашей работе Ту же процедуру можно проделать и на более высокой скорости Но здесь результат может быть совсем иным, и для его проверки нужно сравнивать свою запись с записью голоса носителя английского языка, говорящего в ускоренном темпе

II Вторым этапом работы является перевод на английский без предварительного ознакомления с русским текстом Но в этом случае не нужно записывать себя на кассету с первого раза во избежание больших фрустраций поначалу перевод на слух оказывается, как правило, намного хуже ожидаемого Чтобы добиться прогресса в работе «без шпаргалки», приходится повторять упражнение многократно и всемерно расширять рамки исходного материала В частности, исключительно эффективными являются упражнения с устным переводом радио- и телепередач, предварительно записанных на кассету

При продолжении работы с русскими и английскими записями на кассетах читателю-слушателю рекомендуется не ограничиваться приведенными в аудиосборнике вариантами перевода и искать свои, новые Кроме того, вы можете проделать те же упражнения и для перевода «в свою сторону», то есть слушать английские тексты и записывать себя по-русски Понятно, что в этом случае полученный результат должен сравниваться не с английским, а с русским текстом на кассете аудиоприложения

Желаю вам успеха в работе В добрый час1

Линн Виссон


Текст 1 «Цветы»

 1

("Flowers")

(Этот текст не читается на кассете)

These are the cliches which open and close most meetings, expressions used to give the floor, express thanks or condolences, and close the meeting, which must become second nature to the interpreter. Here are a few sample "flowers:"

Председатель

Заседание открывается/Объявляю заседание открытым.

I declare the meeting open(ed)/I open the meeting

5-е заседание комитета по информации объявляется открытым. I declare open the fifth meeting of the committee on information

Председатель

Первым (следующим) оратором в моем списке значится представитель Франции, которому я предоставляю слово The first (next) speaker (inscribed) on my list is the representative of France, to whom I give the floor

Комментарии:

  1.  inscribed — adds absolutely nothing, and can easily be dropped
  2.  representative of France — at top speed, all the interpreter needs to say
    here is
    "I give the floor to France," "I recognize (the delegate of) France,"
    or, if he is really desperate "France has the floor" or just "France."

Я благодарю (уважаемого) представителя Франции за его заявление и за любезные слова, сказанные в мой адрес.

I thank the (distinguished) representative of France for his statement, and for his kind words addressed to me

Комментарии:  

  1.  уважаемого — if translated — and it can often be dropped — should
    be rendered as
    "distinguished," never as "respected "
  2.  за любезные слова, сказанные в мой адрес — the form for this cliche
    is
    "kind words addressed to me." If the speaker is going too quickly,
    "addressed to me" can safely be dropped

' Подробнее о так. называемых «Цветах» — см  в книге Лини Виссон «Синхронный перевод с русского на английский»  М , «Р Валент»


Господин Председатель! Mr. Chairman.

Watch out for Госпожа Председатель1 This can be rendered as "Madam Chairwoman," though some of the more "politically correct" delegates may say "Madam Chairperson" or even "Madam Chair " The latter, however, sounds a bit like a call to a piece of female furniture.

Я хотел бы воспользоваться этой возможностью, чтобы выразить свое удовлетворение по случаю Вашего избрания на этот высокий пост и пожелать Вам всяческих успехов в Вашей работе

I should like to take advantage of/to use/this opportunity to express/voice/state my (our) satisfaction on (the occasion of) your election to this high/responsible/important/post/office/position and to wish you all/(all possible) every success/all the best (in your work)

Комментарии:

  1.  For the entire sentence If the speaker is going fast, a simple translation
    is  "I should like to congratulate you on your election " The idea, after
    all, is basically that the speaker is pleased that the chairman has been
    elected   It is rarely worth wasting time on choosing the precise adjective
    or term in these "flowers "
  2.  выразить "state" is the simplest choice  "voice" and "express" are
    stylistically more elegant  "On the occasion" adds nothing
  3.  высокий — tends to send interpreters scurrying for lofty-sounding
    synonyms "Important" is the basic idea here
  4.  пожелать Вам всяческих успехов — "Wish you every/all success" is
    perfectly adequate, if time permits,
    "in your work" can be added

Моя делегация присоединяется к предшествующим ораторам в выражении глубоких соболезнований и сочувствия к народу вашей страны, понесшему огромные человеческие потери и материальные разрушения в результате активного извержения вулкана

My delegation associates itself with/joins (the) previous speakers in expressing sincere/heartfelt condolences and (deep) sympathy to the people of your country who have suffered/endured/borne/experienced

huge/colossal/enormous/

casualties/loss of life/ and

damages/devastation/destruction

as a result of the recent volcanic eruption/eruption of the

volcano

Комментарии:

1) глубоких соболезнований — condolences and sympathy are sincere or

heartfelt (more colloquial) in  English   While sympathy can be deep, condolences cannot, and therefore a different adjective is needed here


2) человеческие потери should not be translated as "human losses," which sounds awkward and is confusing, does this mean that human lives were lost 01 that humans endured losses? "Casualties" is an extremely useful word covering all kinds of disasters, wars, and accidents, it can indicate that people were both killed and injured (wounded, in a war situation)

Я считаю своим долгом с прискорбием сообщить нашей комиссии о безвременной и трагической кончине нашего коллеги — Джона Смита От имени нашей комиссии прошу его коллег передать наши искренние соболезнования родственникам покойного

It is my duty/I am bound/I am obliged with great sadness to inform/tell/our commission of the untimely and tragic passing/death/demise of our colleague John Smith On behalf of our commission I would like to ask his colleagues to convey our most sincere/heartfelt condolences to the bereaved family/Mr Smith's family/his family

Комментарии:

  1.  я считаю — can safely be omitted  If the speaker didn't think this was
    his duty, why on earth would he be doing it?
  2.  безвременной — in speeches such as this a death is always "untimely."
  3.  кончине — "passing" is euphemistic and a softer term than "death"
    unless,   of course,   Smith  was  assassinated   or  committed   hara-kiri
    "Demise"   has   a   slightly   literary   nuance,   and   is   sometimes   used
    sarcastically, so one should be careful with this word
  4.  родственники покойного — "the bereaved family" is the shortest and
    most polite way of dealing with this phrase Otherwise the interpreter may
    find himself mumbling strange-sounding phrases about "the relatives of
    the late person "

Сейчас я предлагаю представителям встать и соблюсти минуту молчания, посвященную молитве или размышлению

I now invite representatives to stand and observe one (a) minute of silent prayer or meditation

Комментарии:

1) предлагаю — "invite" is the only possible verb here, one does not "suggest" in such a situation

Прежде чем закрыть это заседание, я хотел бы поблагодарить всех членов Подкомитета за добросовестный подход к работе Комитета и поддержку и содействие, оказанные мне при выполнении возложенных на меня функций


Before closing the meeting (before adjourning), I would like to thank all the members of the Subcommittee for their hard/ conscientious/work/professional attitude/seriousness with which they took the work/serious approach to the work of/the committee and for the help/assistance given/rendered/shown me in carrying out my duties

Комментарии:

1) прежде чем закрыть это заседание —  "before adjourning"  is the

shortest and clearest translation

2) добросовестный — of course can be translated as "conscientious," but
"hard" is a good deal shorter

3) оказание — "rendered"  is formal/literary, while "shown" saves a
syllable and is perfectly clear

В заключение позвольте подтвердить желание государств содружества продолжать разностороннее и плодотворное сотрудничество с Вами ради торжества дела мира, безопасности, справедливости и прогресса на Земле

In conclusion allow me to reaffirm/reiterate/once again emphasize/stress/state again/the wish/desire/hope of the states of the commonwealth to continue wideranging/multifaceted/varied/ comprehensive and fruitful/positive cooperation with you to ensure/achieve/bring about/lead to/ (the victory of/the reign of)/ (the cause of) peace, security, justice (fairness) and progress (on this earth/on our planet

Комментарии:

  1.  подтвердить — does not have to be rendered literally "State again" or
    "stress" is quite sufficient
  2.  желание — in English is often hope or wish as well as desire
  3.  ради — does not require translation   "For the sake of adds nothing
    except extra syllables
  4.  ради торжества дела мира, безопасности, справедливости и прогрес
    са на Земле — A great deal can be omitted here   "The victory of (do
    not use triumph unless the context is very formal, as this sounds pompous)
    and "the cause of can ordinarily be dropped   "To bring about/ensure
    peace, security and justice throughout the world" is perfectly clear   The
    Russian
    на земле can be confusing to Anglophones   If this is not a
    gathering about outer space involving a discussion of life on other planets,
    it is perfectly obvious which planet is meant

В заключение хотелось бы выразить признательность Вам, господин Председатель, за успешное руководство работой сессии, руководителям рабочих групп, и также сотрудникам вашего отдела за содействие успешному проведению сессии

11


In conclusion allow me to/I should like to express my/ our gratitude to you, Mr Chairman, for your successful/skilled leadership/outstanding/wise guidance of the work of this session, as well as to the leaders of the working groups, and also to the staff of your department/to your colleagues/associates for the successful/ positive conclusion/excellent conduct of/this session

Заседание закрывается The meeting is adjourned

Комментарии:

1) успешное руководство — this is a standard cliche, and the interpreter immediately knows that what is meant is a compliment. Successful/skilled leadership/outstanding/wise guidance are all perfectly acceptable, and these are expressions the interpreter should have memorized and ready There is no excuse for spending time here searching for the perfect adjective — unless the speaker suddenly engages in criticism of the chair man's leadership style, which would be most unusual1

Текст 2 О несамоуправляющихся территориях (ООН, 1999 г.)

Господин Председатель,

Прежде всего мне хотелось бы вновь поблагодарить организаторов семинара в лице постоянного представителя Сент-Люсии за гостеприимство и четкость в проведении этого важного мероприятия

Что касается оценки семинара как такового, то он, безусловно, служит полезной цели, которая состоит в проведении обстоятельного обмена мнениями с представителями несамоуправляющихся территорий В этой связи хотелось бы отметить весьма ценные с информативной точки зрения выступления представителей Гуама и Восточного Тимора

Наряду с этим вынуждены отметить, что некоторые из ведущих экспертов были явно не готовы к разговору по существу, а выступления других скорее походили на чтение лекций, в которых звучали откровенно азбучные истины.

Вместо этого, как нам представляется, следовало бы подумать о насыщении семинаров более содержательными идеями В качестве иллюстрации этого вывода хочу высказать предложение, что для участников семинара было бы куда интереснее ознакомиться с деталями хода урегулирования в Западной Сахаре и Восточном Тиморе Не сомневаюсь, что если бы мы запросили

12


подготовленные Секретариатом проект автономии для Восточного Тимора или документы по подготовке референдума в Западной Сахаре, то дискуссия на семинаре оказалась бы значительно более приближенной к реалиям сегодняшнего дня

Убеждены, что при подготовке региональных семинаров мы должны проявлять больше творческих подходов.

В заключение хотелось бы изложить нашу позицию относительно предложения об одобрении доклада семинара Мы считаем целесообразным придерживаться практики последних лет и принять к сведению материалы этого мероприятия Такой подход объясняется очень просто нам не хотелось бы, чтобы выводы и рекомендации такого рода мероприятий, в том числе идеи, высказанные экспертами и представителями неправительственных организаций, получали статус полновесных рекомендаций после того, как соответствующий доклад нашего спецкомитета будет одобрен Генеральной Ассамблеей Нам следует весьма осторожно относиться к вопросу о переводе тех или иных документов из одного статуса в качественно другое положение

Вместе с тем мы готовы пойти навстречу пожеланиям тех членов комитета, которые хотели бы обеспечить максимально широкое распространение материалов семинара в Сент-Люсии В этой связи мы были бы готовы принять к сведению доклад семинара и издать его в качестве приложения к докладу комитета Таким образом будут решены обе задачи, а именно сохранен официальный статус доклада семинара, и создана возможность для ознакомления с идеями, звучавшими на этом мероприятии

* * *

Mr President,

First of all I would like once again/once more to thank the organizers of the seminar, that is/I mean/namely/the permanent representative of St Lucia for the hospitality and superb organization shown us at/which characterized this important meeting/gathering

As regards our view of/an assessment of/to sum up the seminar, it clearly/obviously/unquestionably has served a useful goal/is very useful/that is/namely/of providing/to provide for/conduct a substantive/full/exchange of views with representatives of the non-selfgoverning territories Here/in this connection/therefore/I would like to mention/take note of/flag/refer to/indicate the highly informative statement/speeches by the representatives of Guam and East Timor

13


At the same time I/we would/should also/like to/must/point out that some of the leading/most important/outstanding/experts were obviously/clearly/evidently not prepared/ready for substantive talks/ discussion, and the statements of others were reminiscent of/resembled/smacked of lectures, filled with evident/obvious/well-known/simplistic/concepts/ideas/platitudes/self-evident truths/truisms.

Instead of that/in fact/indeed/as we see it/thought should have been given to/it would have been worth making/the seminars more substantive/worthwhile As an example, I would like to/may I/suggest that it would have been much more interesting for the seminar participants to learn about the details of the settlement process in the Western Sahara and in East Timor I have no doubt/it is clear to me/that if we had asked for/had we asked for/requested/the draft on autonomy for East Timor or the documents on the referendum in the Western Sahara prepared by the Secretariat, the seminar discussion would have been much more/realistic/in tune with today's realities/relevant to contemporary events.

We are convinced that in preparing the regional seminars we need to engage in more creative thinking/take a more creative approach.

In conclusion I would like to state our position regarding the proposal for approval of the seminar report We find/deem/believe it advisable/expedient/to follow/maintain/keep to/stick to/the practice of/the tradition of/to do/what we have done in/previous years and to take note of the materials used at the seminar Such an approach is simple/there is a simple reason for this/the reason for this is clear we would not like the conclusions and recommendations of this kind of activity/project, including the ideas expressed/voiced by experts and representatives of NGOs to be given the status of full-fledged recommendations following/after the adoption of our report/of the report of our special committee/by the General Assembly We should act with great care/restraint/be extremely cautious/in regard to/regarding the issue of changing the qualitative status of any documents

At the same time, we are ready to go along with/satisfy the wishes of/accommodate/those members of the committee, who wish to/wishing to ensure/provide/arrange for the broadest possible distribution of the materials from the St Lucia seminar Therefore/For this reason we would be ready to take note of the seminar report and to issue/publish it as an addendum/annex to the report of the committee This will resolve both issues/questions retaining/maintaining/keeping the official status of the seminar report and providing an opportunity to learn of/see/become familial with/spread the ideas expressed/discussed/heard at this meeting/gathering


Комментарии:

  1.  прежде всего — can be rendered as "first of all," "above all," or, more
    formally, "first
    and foremost " In this case it in fact means "at the outset"
    or "here and now."
  2.  в лице — does not require translation   In fact, an attempt to interpret
    it could lead to a very clumsy sentence  "In the person of is unnecessary
    The idea is that the speaker wishes to thank the main person responsible,
    i e the permanent representative
  3.  четкость — here does not translate as ' accuracy" or "precision " The
    speaker is referring to the
    good/superb organization of the seminar

4) безусловно   —   does   not   require   a   literal   translation   such   as
"unconditionally " What is meant is
"clearly, obviously."

5) в этой связи — is not always best translated as "in this connection "
To   save   time,   "here"   is   often   quite   sufficient,   it   can   also   mean
"therefore."

6) в   которых  звучали   откровенно  азбучные   истины   —   these   are
platitudes, truisms, or self-evident ideas or facts.

  1.  содержательными идеями — the interpreter is well advised to forget
    about the literal meaning of "content" in this word, as
    "contentfull" is not
    an English expression  
    "Substantive" or "informative" are what is meant
  2.  ознакомиться — the literal meaning of "get to know," "get acquain
    ted  with"   often   does  not  work,   particularly  when   the  subject   is  a
    document
    "Read," "get" or if necessary "familiarize themselves with" are
    better choices
  3.  хода урегулирования "ход" here means progress, though it can also
    be
    course, development, path or flow, depending on context "Урегулиро
    вание" is nearly always "settlement" rather than "regulation "

  1.  более приближенной к реалиям сегодняшнего дняthis means
    "more to the point," "more realistic"  rather  than  literally "closer to
    realities."
  2.  проявлять больше творческих  подходов  —  translating  the  verb
    literally is asking for trouble, as in English one
    takes an approach — and
    an approach in the singular
  3.  целесообразный   —   presents  constant   problems   for   interpreters
    "Advisable," "expedient" or "to the point" usually work  "Purposeful" has
    a narrower range of applications but may occasionally fit the sentence,
    anything involving "goals" should be avoided
  4.  мы считаем... целесообразным придерживаться — you can, of
    course, interpret this as "We find it advisable to keep to/maintain," 01 any
    other of the verbs suggested here  If the speaker is going fast, however, the
    simplest solution is to say "we find it advisable
    to do what we have done
    in previous years," saving a good number of words in the process  The
    interpreter should always keep in mind the short and strong verbs "make,
    do, go," which often provide far better and simpler translations than do
    lengthy verbal constructions
  5.  


такой подход объясняется очень просто — no need to translate the
verb literally The point is not that the explanation process is simple, but
that the reason for it is simple

такого рода мероприятий — "activities" or 'projects" are much more
idiomatic than "undertakings "

16) пойти   навстречу   —   can   often   be   simply   rendered   as   "to
accommodate " "To meet halfway"
sometimes works, "to compromise"
may be too strong and have a nuance of giving in or giving up one's
position

  1.  в этой связи — see № 6
  2.  приложение — can be "addendum" or "appendix," depending on the
    specific   organization   involved   and   how   it   chooses   to   label   such
    supplements
  3.  будут решены обе задачи Задача is often not best rendered as
    "task," which can sound like doing the dishes   
    "Issue,"  "question,"
    "problem,"   
    or  even   "goal"   can  work  ("two  goals  will   have  been
    achieved")
  4.  на этом мероприятии — see № 14 What is meant here is the specific
    meeting/seminar, not an "undertaking" of some sort

On Non-selfgoverning Territories (UN, 1999)

(Текст читается с американским акцентом)

Mr President,

First of all I would like once again to thank the organizers of the seminar, namely the permanent representative of St Lucia, for the hospitality and superb organization shown us at this important meeting

As regards our view of the seminar, it obviously has served a useful goal, of providing for a substantive exchange of views with representatives of the non-selfgoverning territories Here I would like to take note of the highly informative statements by the representatives of Guam and East Timor

At the same time we should point out that some of the most important experts were clearly not prepared for substantive discussion, and the statements of others resembled lectures, filled with obvious truisms

As we see it, it would have been worth making the seminars more substantive As an example, may I suggest that it would have been much more interesting for the seminar participants to learn about the details of the settlement process in the Western Sahara and in East Timor 1 have no doubt that had we requested the draft on autonomy for East Timor or the documents on the referendum in the Western


Sahara prepared by the Secretariat, the seminar discussion would have been much more relevant to contemporary events

We are convinced that in preparing the regional seminars we need to take a more creative approach

In conclusion I would like to state our position regarding the proposal for approval of the seminar report We believe it advisable to keep to the practice of previous years and to take note of the materials used at the seminar The reason for this is clear we would not like the conclusions and recommendations of this kind of project, including the ideas voiced by experts and representatives of NGOs, to be given the status of full-fledged recommendations following the adoption of the report of our special committee by the General Assembly We should act with great restraint regarding the issue of changing the qualitative status of any documents

At the same time, we are ready to accommodate those members of the committee who wish to provide for the broadest possible distribution of the materials from the St Lucia seminar For this reason we would be ready to take note of the seminar report and to publish it as an annex to the report of the committee This will resolve both issues maintaining the official status of the seminar report and providing an opportunity to spread the ideas discussed at this meeting

Текст 3

Выступление о конфликте на Ближнем Востоке (ООН, 1985 г.)

Господин Председатель1

Наша делегация разделяет озабоченность по поводу продолжающейся трагедии на оккупированном израильской военщиной юге Ливана Приведенные в выступлениях представителя Ливана факты и поступающие ежедневно из района событий тревожные сведения свидетельствуют о крайне опасном характере обстановки на оккупированном юге этой страны и подтверждают обоснованность обращения ее правительства за помощью

Уже без малого три года израильская военщина бесчинствует на части ливанской территории, оккупированной в результате агрессии 1982 года С тех пор практически ни на один день не

ослабевает разгул террора и насилия в отношении ливанцев и палестинцев Мобилизуя для карательных операций пехотные подразделения, израильские захватчики блокируют населенные пункты и проводят в них обвальные обыски, облавы и аресты,


подвергая мирных граждан унижениям, пыткам, издевательствам и побоям Особую жестокость массовые карательные операции приобрели в последние месяцы, на что вновь обратил внимание в своем сегодняшнем выступлении представитель Ливана

Многочисленные факты, приведенные в ходе нашего заседания, со всей очевидностью свидетельствуют о грубом нарушении Израилем, как оккупирующей державой, соответствующих норм международного гуманитарного права Необходимо обеспечить уважение территориальной целостности и независимости Ливана, положить конец произволу и насилию израильских оккупантов в отношении гражданского населения

Mr  President,

Our delegation shares the concern/is also concerned regarding the continuing tragedy in the south of/southern Lebanon which is occupied by the Israeli military (clique) The facts cited in the statements of the representative of Lebanon and the alarming/ worrisome information regarding events/the reports deceived daily from the region/concerning the alarming events there also confirm/ reaffirm/back the grounds/reasons for the government's appeal for help

For nearly three years now/For almost three years/the Israeli military have been behaving outrageously/doing as they please/violating accepted norms of behavior in (that part of) the territory of Lebanon/Lebanese territory which was occupied as a result of the acts of aggression of 1982 Since then not for a single day has there been a/practically/virtually every day there has been no lessening of/decline in/weakening of/abatement of/letting up of the wave of/outbursts of/raging terror and violence directed at the Lebanese and Palestinians By mobilizing infantry units for punitive operations the Israeli aggressors are blocking populated areas and are conducting mass searches, roundups/raids and arrests, subjecting the (peaceful) civilian population to various kinds of humiliation, tortures, abuse and beatings Particular/special cruelty was shown/demonstrated in carrying out these mass punitive operations during the last few months, and this was again indicated/pointed to/raised/flagged by the representative of Lebanon in his statement today

Numerous facts cited during our meeting have clearly (with utter clarity) attested to/demonstrated/revealed/borne witness to the crude/flagrant/gross violation by Israel as the occupying power of the relevant norms of international humanitarian law There is a need to provide for/ensure respect for the territorial integrity and independence of Lebanon, and to put an end to the arbitrariness and violence of the Israeli occupiers directed at/arbitrary and violent treatment by the Israeli occupiers of the civilian population

18


This is a highly charged, emotional statement, which requires an appropriate choice of words It also presents some difficult syntactic problems.

Комментарии:

  1.  военщиной — is stronger than just "the military," it has the implication
    of a clique or group within the military
  2.  поступающие ежедневно из района события тревожные сведения 
    if the interpreter does not have a text and cannot wait before stating the
    sentence, he can restructure as follows "that which is being received daily
    from the legion — namely, the alarming reports," or  "what is coming in
    daily from the legion, that is, the alarming information about events   "
  3.  в результате агрессии — English needs "acts of aggression,'  which
    sounds a good deal better than just "aggression "
  4.  практически ни на один день — can be turned around to "virtually
    every day"
    rather than playing with tricky double negatives
  5.  "Abuse" is a very useful word for "издевательство" and "унижение,"
    as "mockery" or  "humiliation" often do not sound idiomatic in such
    contexts in English
  6.  необходимо — can often be tendered as "there is a need to" 01 simply
    as
    "we must."
  7.  Care should be taken with в отношении. It is more idiomatic to drop
    it and to speak of the
    "violent treatment of the civilian population" rather
    than of the "violence directed at the civilian population " Often
    в отно
    шении can be translated as 'towards," "regarding," or "concerning "

Statement on the Conflict in the Middle East (UN, 1985)

(Читается в нормальном темпе с канадским акцентом и в быстром темпе с американским акцентом)

Mr  President,

Our delegation is also concerned regarding the continuing tragedy in southern Lebanon, which is occupied by the Israeli military clique The facts cited in the statements of the representative of Lebanon and the alarming reports received daily from the region also confirm the reasons for the government's appeal for help

For nearly three years now, the Israeli military have been violating accepted norms of behavior in Lebanese territory which was occupied as a result of the acts of aggression of 1982 Since then virtually every day there has been no letting up of the raging terror and violence directed at the Lebanese and Palestinians By mobilizing infantry units for punitive operations the Israeli aggressors are blocking populated areas and are conducting mass searches, raids and arrests,


subjecting the civilian population to various kinds of humiliation, tortures, abuse and beatings Particular cruelty was demonstrated in carrying out these mass punitive operations during the last few months, and this was again raised by the representative of Lebanon in his statement today

Numerous facts cited during our meeting have clearly revealed the flagrant violation by Israel as the occupying power of the relevant norms of international humanitarian law There is a need to ensure respect for the territorial integrity and independence of Lebanon, and to put an end to the arbitrary and violent treatment by the Israeli occupiers of the civilian population

Текст 4

Специальное торжественное заседание

Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, по случаю Года ООН, посвященного терпимости (1995 г.)

Господин Председатель!

Тематика объявленного Генеральной Ассамблеей года отнюдь не случайна. Принимая 50 лет назад Устав ООН, государства-члены Организации торжественно заявили в его преамбуле о своей решимости «проявлять терпимость и жить вместе друг с другом, как добрые соседи »

Сегодня можно с уверенностью сказать, что Организация смогла за достаточно короткий исторический отрезок времени не только разработать существенные нормы международного права в области прав человека, но и создать имплементацион-ные механизмы, осуществляющие контроль за выполнением государствами своих обязательств по соглашениям в области прав человека Не менее значимым представляется и набор морально-политических обязательств, принятых на себя государствами в форме деклараций и резолюций ООН Последовательное осуществление указанных документов нацелено на предотвращение ситуаций, ведущих к конфликтам, и снижению напряженности

Но, к сожалению, история последних лет показывает, что падение тоталитарных режимов и переход к демократии сами по себе не приводят к установлению обстановки мира, стабильности и безопасности Нарастающая волна нетерпимости и насилия, политического, религиозного и националистического экстремизма захлестнула целые регионы мира Нас особенно беспокоит, что наряду с такими «традиционными» формами дискриминации


сейчас появляются ее новые, более изощренные формы Это прежде всего так называемая «тонкая дискриминация», при которой произвол и беззаконие в отношении этнических меньшинств преподносятся как возведенная в норму закона «историческая справедливость» Примерами такого рода могут служить меры, предпринимаемые отдельными государствами для лишения части собственного населения права на гражданство, чтобы затем на этом основании ограничить доступ людей к управлению государством, их права на занятие должностей в системе государственной службы, на создание ассоциаций, урезать объемы причитающихся этим людям социальных пособии, пенсий, дискриминировать в вопросах приватизации жилья и многих других аспектах повседневной жизни, включая свободу передвижения.

Обстановка на нашей планете за прошедший год, объявленный нами в качестве Года терпимости, не стала более спокойной Однако определенные тенденции позволяют говорить о том, что усилия мирового сообщества в направлении создания обстановки терпимости не пропали даром сохраняет динамику ближневосточное урегулирование, участники конфликта на территории бывшей Югославии ведут трудные переговоры о послевоенном укладе жизни, продвинулись вперед процессы репатриации беженцев

С нашей точки зрения, это позволяет надеяться, что и в дальнейшем терпимое отношение к оппонентам как внутри страны, так и на международной арене будет служить основой для поиска взаимоприемлемых компромиссов во имя мира и безопасности на нашей планете Диалог как путь к выработке взаимоприемлемых решений для самых разных действующих лиц, будь то государства, отличающиеся по укладу своей жизни, или этнические, религиозные, языковые группы, различные политические партии и движения внутри страны, продолжает утверждаться

Терпимость должна рассматриваться не как некая доктрина всепрощения конца XX века, а как одно из средств утверждения универсальных стандартов в сфере прав и свобод человека, содействия установлению равенства и недискриминационных отношений в ненасильственной борьбе идей При этом мы хотели бы подчеркнуть, что в нашем понимании принципы терпимости не могут и не должны восприниматься как форма пассивного залога идеалов мира и демократии перед лицом тех, кто сеет рознь, разжигает ненависть и призывает к насилию Эти принципы должны стать руководством к действию для

21


средств массовой информации и государственных структур, системы образования, неправительственных организаций и политических партий. А случаи их нарушения должны не только осуждаться, но и, в конкретных случаях, пресекаться, причем с использованием авторитета международного сообщества и властью правоохранительных органов соответствующих государств.

Господин Председатель!

Принципы терпимости особенно важны для многонациональных государств. В современных условиях демократизации и развития плюрализма мнений в рамках политических систем этих государств действует большое число политических партий и движений, на их территории проживают различные народы и этносы, а население в целом исповедует широкий спектр религий. Именно для лиц, как в капле воды отражающих проблемы международного сообщества, концепция толерантности и равноправия является не только значимой теоретически, но и должна применяться на практике во всех сферах жизни, включая социальные отношения, способы построения государственных структур и проведения внутренней политики. К чему могут привести дестабилизационные процессы в этих государствах, наглядно видно на примерах бывшей Югославии и Руанды, где общество скатилось в пропасть гуманитарного коллапса.

Народы этих государств — а много ли на нашей планете государств моноэтнических — нуждаются, и подчас остро, в помощи мирового сообщества в таких сферах, как разработка программ преодоления и противодействия ксенофобии и экстремизму, рекомендаций по недопущению использования средств массовой информации для призывов к насилию, исходящих от экстремистских групп, защита от терроризма, укрепление законности, развитие деятельности по общественной информации в сфере прав человека. В ситуациях же радикальных изменений политических систем крайне важной оказывается и способность государств следовать нормам толерантного политического поведения, при котором сохраняется ответственность перед всеми гражданами и законами.

Господин Председатель!

В наше непростое время на смену опасностям межблоковой напряженности пришла опасность дестабилизации общественных систем в силу внутренних причин. Именно внутренние конфликты в государствах бросают сейчас основной вызов глобальной безопасности. Но внутренние противоречия вполне естественны для любого общества. Неестественными можно признать лишь те ситуации, в которых стороны решают использовать для

22


их разрешения насилие, дискриминацию, прибегать к использованию оружия. Принципы толерантности противостоят этим тенденциям, и мы согласны их развивать в сотрудничестве с самыми широкими кругами международной общественности.

В заключение хотел бы выразить уверенность в том, что идеи, возникшие в ходе проведения Года терпимости, найдут свое выражение в новых инициативах на благо мира, прогресса и социального развития. Нам на пороге третьего тысячелетия остается только подтвердить свою заинтересованность в достижении этих целей и объединить наши усилия.

Благодарю Вас, Господин Председатель.

Mr. President,

The General Assembly's (proclaimed/announced) choice of a theme for this year is/by no means/certainly/definitely not fortuitous. By adopting/when they adopted the UN Charter 50 years ago the member states of the organization solemnly declared in the preamble their determination "to practice tolerance and to live in peace with one another as good neighbors..."

Today we can state with confidence that the Organization has been able within/over a relatively/rather/short period of time/of history not only to draw up/work out/produce substantive norms of international law in the field/area of human rights/in the human rights field/but also to create/establish a mechanism for implementation/for carrying out/controlling/monitoring/to carry out/ monitor/control implementation by states of their obligations/ commitments under agreements in the human rights field. Equally important/of equal significance are the (set of) moral and political obligations undertaken/shouldered by states in the form of UN declarations and resolutions. Continuous/constant/unflagging/unceasing implementation of these documents is designed to prevent/aimed at preventing situations leading to conflicts and to promote/at promoting a lessening of tensions.

Unfortunately, however, the (history of the) last few years has/ have shown/proved that the fall/collapse of totalitarian regimes and the transition to democracy do not of themselves/alone/single-handed/ lead to the establishment/creation of (conditions for) peace, stability and security. A growing/rising/increasing wave of intolerance and violence, and of political, religious and national extremism has swept over/engulfed entire regions of the world. We are particularly concerned that/by the fact that along with such "traditional" forms of discrimination new and more sophisticated forms are emerging/

23


appearing/coming to light. This involves/includes/means/ is/first and foremost/primarily/above all so-called "subtle discrimination," in which arbitrary will and lawlessness regarding ethnic minorities is presented as the legalization of "historic justice." Examples include measures taken by individual states to deprive part of their own populations of the right to citizenship, in order subsequently (by so doing/on this basis) to restrict/limit access to the management of state affairs/ affairs of state/the governing process, their right to take office/to occupy posts in the state civil service, their right of association/to form associations, to cut back on/decrease/reduce the quantity/volume of social benefits given/accruing/allotted/assigned to these people, including pensions, to discriminate regarding privatization of housing, and many/numerous other aspects of daily life, including freedom of movement.

Our global situation/the situation on our planet over/during the past year, which we have proclaimed as the Year of Tolerance, has not become calmer/more peaceful. However, certain/some trends do allow/make it possible for us to say that the efforts of the international community to create a climate/an atmosphere of tolerance are not in vain/futile: the Middle East peace process has not lost/has maintained its momentum, the parties to the conflict on the territory of the former Yugoslavia are conducting/carrying out/holding difficult negotiations regarding post-war (living) conditions, and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees.

From our point of view, this allows for hope that in the future, too, an attitude of tolerance/a tolerant attitude towards opponents both within the country and internationally/both at home and abroad/ both on the domestic and the international scene/will serve as a basis for seeking mutually acceptable compromises for the sake of/to bring about/achieve/peace and security on our planet. Dialogue, as a way/means/path to produce/find/come up with/achieve/reach/mutually acceptable decisions for a huge range of individuals/all kinds of people, or for states which have different life styles/ways of living, for ethnic, religious and linguistic groups, and for various political parties and movements within a country continues to gain acceptance/maintain their positions.

Tolerance must be considered not as a kind of doctrine of universal/general forgiveness at the end of the XX century, but as one of the ways/means to reaffirm universal standards in the area of/regarding human rights and freedoms, and to assist in/promoting/ advancing the establishment of equality and non-discriminatory relations/attitudes in the struggle/battle of ideas. Moreover/In so doing/we would like to emphasize/underline/stress that as we see it/in

24


our understanding the principles of tolerance cannot and must not be perceived/viewed/seen as a kind of passive guarantee/earnest of the ideals of peace and democracy regarding/in dealing with/in coping with/when faced with those who sow discord, incite to/fan the flames of hatred and call to violence. These principles must be the guidelines/stimuli for action by the mass media and the state system/institutions, the system of education, NGOs and political parties. And violations must not only be condemned; in specific cases they must be stopped/halted/ended/terminated, using/bringing to bear the authority of the international community, and the power of the law enforcement agencies of the respective/individual/states.

Mr. President,

The principle of tolerance is particularly important for multinational states. In today's conditions of democratization and the development of pluralism (of views/opinions), within the framework of the political systems of these states a considerable/large number of political parties and movements are functioning/active, their territories are home to/on their territories are active/ functioning/ various peoples and ethnic groups, and the population as a whole professes a wide range of religions. And it is precisely for those individuals, who so clearly reflect the problems of the international community, that the concept of tolerance and equality in all spheres of life is not only of theoretical significance/import/meaning, but must also be implemented/applied in practice in all spheres of life including social relations, ways of building the state system and of implementing/carrying out/conducting domestic policy. What destabilizing processes can lead to in these states is clearly visible through such examples/in such cases as the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, where society has slid/fallen/drifted/into/landed in/into the abyss of a humanitarian collapse.

The peoples of these states and there are plenty/a plethora of multi-ethnic states on our planet need and sometimes badly need help/assistance from the international community in such areas as drawing up/establishing programs to overcome and counteract xenophobia and extremism, recommendations to prevent the use of the mass media for the incitement to violence which comes from extremist groups, protection against terrorism, the strengthening of legality/the rule of law/, and the development of activities on public information in the human rights field. In particular, in situations of radical changes in political systems it is critically important/of critical/crucial importance that states be able to follow/abide by/capable of following/abiding by norms of tolerant political behavior and simultaneously maintain their responsibility to all citizens and to the legal system.

25


Mr. President,

In the difficult period in which we live/in our complex times the dangers of interblock tensions have been replaced by the danger of the destabilization of social systems as a result of domestic factors/causes. It is in fact/precisely domestic/internal conflicts within states which are now presenting/laying down/posing a special/particular challenge to global security. 'But internal contradictions are completely natural/inherent to any society. The only situations which are abnormal/deviate from the norm are those in which the sides take a decision to make use of violence, discrimination and resort to the use offeree (in the search for a solution). The principles of tolerance are countered/opposed by these trends, and we have agreed to develop them in cooperation with the broadest possible range of public opinion/social groups/international backing.

In conclusion I would like to express/voice our confidence that the ideas which have come to light/emerged during the Year of Tolerance will find form in/be developed in/expressed in initiatives designed to serve the cause of peace, progress and social development. (For us) On the threshold of the third millennium all that remains (for us) is to reaffirm our interest in/commitment to/achieving these objectives and to unite/to pool/in uniting/pooling our efforts.

Thank you, Mr. President.

Комментарии:

  1.  не случайна "not fortuitous" sounds a lot better than "is not
    accidental" or "is no accident." Another possibility would be antonymic
    translation: "this choice is a deliberate one."
  2.  принимая More often than not Russian gerunds require a qualifier
    in English:
    "by adopting," "in adopting," or a phrase defining temporal
    circumstances: "when they adopted."
  3.  разработать while "work out" is the dictionary translation, "draw
    up," "produce"
    or "develop" are often better renderings.
  4.  не менее значимыми can be rendered as "just as important" or
    "equally important" rather than literally as "no less important."
  5.  история последних лет can be translated as "the history of the last
    few/of recent years"
    or "history" can simply be dropped: "the last few
    years have shown/proved."
  6.  усилия международного сообщества не пропали даром the efforts
    of the  international community have  not been  in
    vain/futile/come to
    naught,
    or, antonymically, "have achieved something."
  7.  ...ведут трудные переговоры о послевоенном укладе жизни, продви
    нулись вперед процессы репатриации беженцев —
     in a sentence of this

26


type with several clauses separated by commas, "and" must be inserted before the last clause on the list — "and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees." If the interpreter fails to realize that this is the final clause, and has failed to insert "and," to produce a grammatical sentence he can add "etc."

  1.  именно для лиц, как в капле воды отражающих проблемы междуна
    родного сообщества
    this expression is awkward in literal translation.
    "those individuals who so clearly/precisely reflect" comes much closer.
  2.  мы согласны их развивать — this calls for a compound present tense:
    "we are in agreement" or "we have reached agreement to" rather than
    simply "we agree to."

Special Meeting of the UN GA (General Assembly) on the UN Year of Tolerance (1995)

(Читается с американским акцептом)

Mr. President,

The General Assembly's choice of a theme for this year is certainly not fortuitous. By adopting the UN Charter 50 years ago the member states of the organization solemnly declared in the preamble their determination "to practice tolerance and to live in peace with one another as good neighbors..."

Today we can state with confidence that the Organization has been able within a relatively short period of history not only to produce substantive norms of international law in the area of human rights, but also to create a mechanism to monitor implementation by states of their commitments under agreements in the human rights field. Equally important are the moral and political obligations undertaken by states in the form of UN declarations and resolutions. Constant implementation of these documents is designed to prevent situations leading to conflicts and to promote a lessening of tensions.

Unfortunately, however, the last few years have shown that the collapse of totalitarian regimes and the transition to democracy do not alone lead to the creation of peace, stability and security. A growing wave of intolerance and violence, and of political, religious and national extremism has engulfed entire regions of the world. We are particularly concerned by the fact that along with such "traditional" forms of discrimination new and more sophisticated forms are emerging. This involves first and foremost so-called "subtle discrimination," in which arbitrary will and lawlessness regarding ethnic minorities is presented as the legalization of "historic justice." Examples of this include measures taken by individual states to deprive part of their own populations of the right to citizenship, in

27


order subsequently to restrict access to the management of affairs of state, their right to hold office in the state civil service,' their right of association, to reduce the quantity volume of social benefits given these people, including pensions, to discriminate regarding privatization of housing, and many other aspects of daily life, including freedom of movement.

The global situation over the past year, which we have proclaimed as the Year of Tolerance, has not become more peaceful. However, some trends do allow us to say that the efforts of the international community to create a climate of tolerance are not in vain: the Middle East peace process has maintained its momentum, the parties to the conflict on the territory of the former Yugoslavia are holding difficult negotiations regarding post-war (living) conditions, and progress has been made regarding the repatriation of refugees.

From our point of view, this allows for hope that in the future, too, an attitude of tolerance towards opponents both at home and abroad will serve as a basis for seeking mutually acceptable compromises to bring about peace and security on our planet. Dialogue, as a way to reach mutually acceptable decisions for a huge range of individuals, or for states which have different life styles, or for ethnic, religious and linguistic groups and various political parties and movements within a country continues to gain acceptance.

Tolerance must be considered not as a kind of doctrine of universal forgiveness at the end of the XX century, but as one of the ways to reaffirm universal standards regarding human rights and freedoms, and to advance the establishment of equality and non-discriminatory relations in the struggle of ideas. Moreover, we would like to emphasize that in our understanding the principles of tolerance cannot and must not be seen as a kind of passive guarantee of the ideals of peace and democracy in dealing with those who sow discord, fan the flames of hatred and call to violence. These principles must be the guidelines for action for the mass media and the state institutions, the system of education, NGOs and political parties. And violations must not only be condemned; in specific cases they must be stopped, bringing to bear the authority of the international community, and the power of the law enforcement agencies of the individual states.

Mr. President,

The principle of tolerance is particularly important for multinational states. In today's conditions of democratization and the development of pluralism, within the framework of the political systems of these states a large number of political parties and

28


movements are active, their territories are home to various peoples and ethnic groups, and the population as a whole professes a wide range of religions. And it is precisely for those individuals, who so clearly reflect the problems of the international community, that the concept of tolerance and equality in all spheres of life is not only of theoretical significance, but must also be implemented in all spheres of life including social relations, ways of building the state system and of conducting domestic policy. What destabilizing processes can lead to in these states is clearly visible in such cases as the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, where society has fallen into the abyss of a humanitarian collapse.

The peoples of these states — and there are a plethora of multiethnic states on our planet — need — and sometimes badly need — assistance from the international community in such areas as establishing programs to overcome and counteract xenophobia and extremism, recommendations to prevent the use of the mass media for the incitement to violence which comes from extremist groups, protection against terrorism, the strengthening of the rule of law, and the development of activities on public information in the human rights field. In particular, in situations of radical changes in political systems it is critically important that states be able to abide by norms of tolerant political behavior and simultaneously maintain their responsibility to all citizens and to the legal system.

Mr. President,

In our complex times the dangers of interblock tensions have been replaced by the danger of the destabilization of social systems as a result of domestic factors. It is in fact internal conflicts within states which are now posing a particular challenge to global security. But internal contradictions are completely natural to any society. The only situations which are abnormal are those in which the sides take a decision to make use of violence, discrimination and resort to the use of force. The principles of tolerance are countered by these trends, and we have agreed to develop them in cooperation with the broadest possible range of international backing.

In conclusion, I would like to express our confidence that the ideas which have emerged during the Year of Tolerance will be developed through initiatives designed to serve the cause of peace, progress and social development. On the threshold of the third millennium all that remains is to reaffirm our commitment to achieving these objectives and to uniting our efforts.

Thank you, Mr. President.

29


Текст 5

Выступление Евгения Примакова перед Генеральной Ассамблеей ООН (1997)

Уважаемый господин Председатель!

Разрешите искренне поздравить Вас, представителя дружественной Украины, с избранием на этот ответственный и почетный пост. Уверены, что под Вашим председательством Генеральная Ассамблея сумеет достичь значительных результатов.

До вступления человечества в XXI век остается чуть более 800 дней. С исторической точки зрения это — поистине спринтерский отрезок, и поэтому вполне естественной выглядит потребность посмотреть, что нас ждет впереди.

Год назад, выступая с этой трибуны, я говорил о начавшемся процессе перехода к многополярному мироустройству. События истекшего года подтверждают это. Растет многообразие политического, экономического, культурного развития стран. Идет поиск на национальном и региональном уровне их новой самобытности. Складываются новые центры экономического и политического влияния в мире, и одновременно усиливается взаимопереплетение интересов различных государств и народов.

Горизонты, открывающиеся перед мировым сообществом, выдвигают новые требования. Это:

— утверждение идеалов взаимозависимости и партнерства в
межгосударственных отношениях;

предотвращение  возникновения   новых   разделительных
линий, блоковых образований закрытого характера;

неукоснительное соблюдение всеми  принципов и  норм
международного права.

И я бы отдельно назвал проблему не только создания условий для экономического и социального прогресса всех стран, но и поддержания экологического равновесия.

Нужно сразу же сказать, что переход от конфронтационного двухполюсного мира к многополярной системе сам по себе не решает этих проблем. Более того, реалисты отдают себе отчет в том, что хотя мы все дальше уходим от устойчивых стереотипов эпохи идеологической конфронтации, количество рисков и угроз в мире не становится меньше.

Многонациональных государств в мире достаточно много. Мы

решительно поддерживаем инициативы, направленные на предотвращение   их   насильственной   дезинтеграции    Формулой

30


решения подобных конфликтов в современном мире и, конечно же, в XXI веке может и должно стать сочетание необходимости сохранения территориальной целостности таких государств с наделением максимальными правами национальных меньшинств. Отступление от любого из этих принципов «двуединой формулы» чревато не просто продолжением, но и опасным развитием таких конфликтных ситуаций.

Хочу также обратить особое внимание на такую опасную черту

региональных конфликтов, как их способность порождать террористическую волну и выплескивать ее подчас далеко за пределы самой конфликтной зоны. Например, многие боевики, обрушившие кровавый террор на целый ряд стран, возросли на почве продолжительного и все еще полыхающего вооруженного конфликта в Афганистане.

Мы решительно выступаем за борьбу против терроризма, в какую бы личину — будь-то в Ирландии или в Израиле — он ни облекался. Сегодня успеха в этой борьбе не добиться без объединения сил всех государств для противодействия этому величайшему злу. Мы за то, чтобы нигде и ни в какой форме не было государственной поддержки терроризму. Вместе с тем нельзя навечно зачислять некоторые государства — члены ООН в изгоев международного сообщества вне зависимости от перемен в их политике или просто как заподозренных в связях с террористами.

В современном мире не может быть монополии какого бы то ни было государства на разрешение любого конфликта. Это в полной мере относится и к самому застарелому конфликту на Ближнем Востоке, где создалась тупиковая ситуация в урегулировании. Как говорится, «одной рукой в ладоши не хлопнешь». Для того, чтобы развязать тугой ближневосточный узел, нужны широкие международные усилия.

Через объединение усилий пролегает самый прямой путь к разрешению не только застарелых, но и сравнительно новых конфликтов. Хочу в этой связи привлечь внимание к миротворческим усилиям России в регионе СНГ. Тем не менее, мы не тянем одеяло на себя.

Миротворческая роль России не замыкается на урегулировании конфликтов вокруг ее границ, а носит более широкий характер. Наша страна отправила своих миротворцев в различные «горячие точки» под флагом ООН, участвуя в 9 из 17 ооновских операций по поддержанию мира. В этой связи хотел бы остановиться на действиях по принуждению к миру. Особенно в условиях определенной децентрализации ОПМ к этому должны относиться

31


чрезвычайно осторожно. Мы твердо стоим на том, что акции силового характера могут осуществляться исключительно по решению Совета безопасности ООН и под его непосредственным контролем, как это и предусмотрено в Уставе Организации.

При переходе к многополярному миру в XXI веке огромное значение имеет создание таких условий, которые сделают стабильным новое мироустройство. Для этого необходимо завершить разборку завалов прошлого, прежде всего наследия десятилетий массированной гонки вооружений.

Мы проходим здесь свою часть пути и полны решимости идти дальше. Вместе с США ритмично осуществляем сокращение стратегических вооружений. Между президентами России и США Б.Н.Ельциным и Б.Клинтоном достигнуто понимание относительно основных параметров договоренностей в этой области.

Однако уже сегодня жизни уносят обычные вооружения. Уносят в локальных конфликтах, а зачастую и там, где бои уже закончены. В этой связи мы полностью отдаем себе отчет в отношении гуманитарного измерения минной проблемы. Считаем, что ликвидация минной угрозы для людей, прежде всего гражданского населения — задача назревшая. Мы — за энергичные, поэтапные усилия по ее решению.

Благотворное влияние на улучшение европейского климата уже оказывает рожденный, можно сказать, в мучительных поисках компромисса Основополагающий Акт об отношениях России с НАТО.

Это — документ высокого международного звучания, и ему, несомненно, надлежит сыграть существенную роль в европейской политике. Подписание этого документа, естественно, не снимает нашего негативного отношения к расширению НАТО, которое, с одной стороны, абсолютно не исходит из существующей реальности, а с другой — чревато созданием новых разделительных линий.

Считаю абсолютно необходимым упомянуть о еще одном вкладе в укрепление добрососедства в Европе. Речь идет о подписанных не так давно договорах России с Украиной и Белоруссией, позволивших нашим государствам сделать важные шаги вперед в плане развития взаимовыгодных равноправных отношений, укрепивших стабильность в регионе.

Свое выступление я начал призывом спроецировать возможности мирового сообщества на проблемы сегодняшнего дня и перспективы грядущего века. А закончить хочу известной мудростью: «Пессимисты являются лишь сторонними наблюдателями — мир

32


меняют оптимисты». Мы — оптимисты и верим, что ООН сумеет сыграть положительную роль в поступательном развитии мирового сообщества.

* * *

Mr. President,

Allow me to most sincerely congratulate you/to express my most sincere congratulations to you, a representative of Ukraine, with which we have friendly relations, on your election to this important and distinguished post. We are convinced/sure/certain that under your presidency/leadership the General Assembly will be able to achieve significant results/make significant progress.

In a little more than 800 days mankind will enter upon the 21st century/Until mankind enters upon the 21st century there remain little more than 800 days. From a historical point of view/From the point of view of history this is really no more than/merely/just a single sprinter's lap, and it is quite natural that there is a need to/and the need to look at what lies ahead of us is therefore quite natural.

A year ago, speaking from/in my speech from this same rostrum, I spoke about/to/referred to the beginning of/emerging of/start of/the process of a transition to a multipolar world order. The events/ developments of the past year have confirmed/reaffirmed this. There has been a growth of diversity in the political, economic and cultural development of countries. There is a search (underway)/A search is taking place at the national and regional levels for new identities. There is/a forming/an emergence/growth of new centers of economic and political influence in the world together/along/coupled with/ in parallel with/and simultaneously/an increase in the/ intermeshing/ interweaving/reciprocal involvement of the interests of various states and peoples.

The horizons opening up to the international community are giving rise to/producing/setting/posing new/challenges/demands/ needs. These are:

assertion of the ideals of interdependence and partnership in
interstate relations;

prevention  of the  emergence/appearance  of new  dividing/
demarcation lines and closed/exclusive blocs;

strict/unswerving compliance with/adherence to/by all to the
principles and norms of international law.

I would cite as a separate issue/problem not only the creation/ establishment of conditions for the economic and social progress of all countries, but also the maintenance of the environmental/ecological balance.


It should be made clear at the outset/I wish to stress/that the transition from a confrontational bipolar world to a multipolar system cannot by itself/alone/resolve these problems. Furthermore/moreover, realists are well aware that although we are moving farther away from oversimplified stereotypes of the era of ideological confrontation, the number of (existing) risks and threats in the/in today's/world has not decreased.

There are quite a few/quite a number of multinational states in the world. We strongly/firmly support the initiatives intended/designed to prevent their forced disintegration. The formula for the resolution of such conflicts in today's/the contemporary/our modern world, and, of course, in the XXI century, can and must be a combination of the need to preserve the territorial integrity of such states with the granting of the broadest/maximum possible rights to national minorities. Abandonment of/digressing from/dropping any of the principles of the "two-track formula" would be fraught with/risk/ entail both a continuation and a dangerous escalation/intensification of such conflict situations.

I also would like to call to your attention/draw your attention to/a dangerous aspect/feature/characteristic of regional conflicts their ability/capacity to trigger/cause/give rise to/spark/unleash a wave of terrorism and to spread/extend it far beyond the borders of the actual conflict zone. For example, many fighters/militants who launched/ started/caused bloody campaigns of terror in a great number/wide range of countries began/started with/emerged from/originated in/ grew out of the continuing and still raging armed conflict in Afghanistan.

We firmly/strongly  support  the  campaign  against  terrorism,  in

whatever form/guise/trappings/in all forms (it may take). Today success in this struggle/campaign is impossible without/can only be achieved by all states pooling/uniting their efforts to counteract/ combat this vicious/horrendous scourge/evil. We are opposed to government backing of terrorism in any place and in any form/We believe, that in no place and in no form whatsoever should there be government support for terrorism. At the same time certain/some/ individual UN member states should not be forever/once and for all written off/stigmatized/labeled as/placed in the category of outlaws/ rogue states/pariahs within the international community regardless/ irrespective of changes in their policies or simply due to/because of their suspected links to terrorists.

In today's/the present-day world there can be no monopolies of any state (whatsoever) on efforts at resolving any and all conflicts/ conflict resolution. This is certainly fully applicable/this can certainly


be applied to/this also goes for the longest-standing/oldest/most drawn-out conflict in the Middle East, where there is a stalemate/ deadlock/impasse in the settlement process/the settlement process is deadlocked. As the saying goes, "it takes two hands to clap/one hand won't create applause." Untangling the tough/tight Middle East knot/resolving the knotty/difficult Middle East conflict will require broad international efforts/Wide-ranging international efforts are needed to break the Middle East stalemate.

A pooling/uniting of efforts can/will provide the best solution/most direct means/most effective way to resolve both long-standing and relatively new conflicts. Here/in this regard I would like to draw to your attention/call your attention to the peacekeeping efforts of Russia in the CIS region. Nevertheless, we are not trying to take advantage of the situation/get more than our fair share here.

Russia's peacekeeping role is not limited/confined to conflict settlement efforts around its borders, but is broader/than that/in nature. Our country has sent its peacekeepers to various hot spots/flash points under the UN flag, and they are participating/taking part in 9 of 17 UN peacekeeping operations. Here/in this connection/ I would like to comment/dwell on/refer to peace enforcement actions. In particular, in the decentralized conditions of/given the decentralization of some peacekeeping operations/PKOs great caution/prudence must be used/exercised/demonstrated. We firmly believe that actions offeree can only/be taken/carried out/solely upon authorization by the UN Security Council and under its direct supervision/control, as provided for in the Charter of the Organization/the UN Charter.

As we move/make the transition towards a multipolar world in the XXI century it is of the greatest/enormous/critical importance to create conditions conducive to/which will bring about/stability/of the new world order/which will make the new world order stable. For that purpose/to that end/to do so there is a need to finish off with/ demolish/overcome/put an end to the hurdles/obstacles of the past and above all the legacy of decades of the massive arms race.

We have been doing our part here and are determined to continue. Together with the US we have been steadily carrying out reductions of/reducing strategic weapons. The presidents of Russia and the US, Boris Yeltsin and Bill Clinton/Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton/ have reached an understanding regarding the basic parameters of/for the agreements in this field/area.

However, at this time/today (it is) conventional weapons (which) are killing people/causing casualties/claiming victims in local conflicts,


and often in situations in which the fighting has/the hostilities have stopped/ceased. Here we are fully aware of the humanitarian aspect of the problem of mines. We believe/consider that the elimination of the mine threat, above all to the civilian population, is long overdue/is urgent. We favor/advocate energetic/active and phased efforts to resolve this problem.

A beneficial/favorable/positive impact/influence on improving the European climate/atmosphere has already been exerted/demonstrated by a thing/something which was born of/produced by a painful/arduous quest/search for compromise, namely/that is/the Founding Act on relations between Russia and NATO. This is a document of great international importance/significance/resonance, and it undoubtedly/ unquestionably/indisputably will play an essential/pivotal/substantive role in European politics. The signing of this document, of course/ naturally/however, has not changed our negative view of/attitude towards the expansion of NATO, which, on the one hand, totally ignores current realities/has nothing to do with the present state of affairs/is not based on today's realities and on the other is fraught with the risk/danger of/is likely to create new dividing lines.

It is my duty to/I am (duty) bound to/I cannot fail to/I find it imperative to mention/yet another contribution to strengthening good-neighborly relations in Europe. I am referring to/I have in mind/ the recently signed agreements between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, which have enabled/allowed/made it possible for our states to make real progress/take major steps forward/in developing mutually beneficial/advantageous and equitable relations/relations on an equal footing, which have strengthened stability in the region.

I began my statement/intervention with an appeal to encourage/ call for the international community to (use its potential) resolve current/today's problems and to look forward to the coming century. And I would like to conclude with the well-known saying/maxim/ adage, "Pessimists are only passive observers/bystanders; the world is changed by optimists/it is optimists who change the world." We are optimists, and believe that the UN will be able to play a positive role in the development/evolution of the international community.

Комментарии:

1) дружественной Украины "friendly Ukraine" is possible, and may be the only solution if the interpreter is rushing, but it does not sound good in English. "With which we have friendly relations" is much longer but also much more idiomatic.


  1.  спринтерский отрезок the Russian text does not say "a single" or
    "one," but the image is unexpected, and adding the adjective will make
    the meaning clearer to the listener.
  2.  начавшемся процессе In this sentence the past active participle
    needs to be rendered as a noun. "The having been begun" process will not
    work in English.
  3.  идет поиск на...  this can be rendered as "There  is a search
    underway/going on" rather than saying "A search is going on" which
    sounds rather awkward.
  4.  не только создания... но и поддержания when there is time this
    construction can be translated as "not only... but also;" to save time,
    "both... and" can often be used.
  5.  многонациональных государств в мире достаточно много — "there
    are quite a few/quite a number of/multinational states in the world" is fine
    if the interpreter has a text. Otherwise, if the interpreter has jumped in
    and started with "Multinational states" before hearing the rest of the
    sentence, he will have to wriggle out of this syntactic bind. "Multinational
    states in today's world... are many/exist everywhere/abound" would be
    possible solutions.
  6.  хочу также обратить особое внимание на такую опасную черту ре
    гиональных конфликтов, как...
    in such a construction the interpreter
    is better off rendering
    "такую" as "a" (dangerous feature) rather than as
    "such,"   which   will   require   a   "such...   as"   construction   and   may
    unnecessarily complicate the sentence.
  7.  возросли на почве... конфликта в Афганистане — "на почве" does
    not need literal translation. "In the soil of has agricultural connotations
    which are not all to the point. "Originated in" or any of the other variants
    given sound more idiomatic.
  8.  мы решительно выступаем за борьбу против терроризма — "We
    firmly support/back" will do for the initial phrase.

  1.  борьбу против терроризма it bears repeating that in many political
    contexts "campaign" sounds better than the old war-horse "struggle."
    Борьба is best translated as here as "campaign" rather than "struggle" or
    "fight."
  2.  мы за то, чтобы нигде и ни в какой форме не было государствен
    ной поддержки терроризму
    if the interpreter has no text and starts in
    immediately after
    Мы за то, чтобы нигде he will have to do some fancy
    syntactic footwork to get out of this one. "We are in favor" could then be
    followed by "never and in any form whatever (having/allowing for)"

    since a verb will have to be inserted here —  "any state support of
    terrorism." This sentence is an excellent example of why it is sometimes
    better to wait a few extra seconds to see where a sentence is going rather
    than starting in immediately and creating a syntactic jungle.

37


38

 

  1.  зачислять... в изгоев takes some reworking. The idea is that these
    countries are being permanently labeled or branded as being beyond the
    pale   of  civilized   behavior.   "Rogue   state"   is   becoming   increasingly
    accepted in political parlance as a translation of
    изгой in this sense.
  2.  одной рукой в ладоши не хлопнешь if the interpreter has a text or
    time for reflection, "one hand can't clap" is shorter and more idiomatic.
  3.  через объединение усилий пролегает самый прямой путь... this is
    a good example of the basic principle "Think nominative." Starting the
    sentence  as   "Through   the   uniting  of   will   lead  to  a  very  awkward
    construction. By making the accusative noun the nominative subject, i.e.
    "A
    pooling/uniting of efforts will provide...," the interpreter starts off down
    a logical instead of a zigzag path towards completing a normal English
    sentence.
  4.  тем не менее,  мы не тянем одеяло на себя of course, the
    interpreter can say "We're not pulling the whole blanket over to our side,"
    but this will sound very odd and stylistically out of place. The idea is that
    of only taking a fair share, asking for what is legitimately ours.
  5.  под флагом ООН, участвуя... —  English requires an explanatory
    phrase before the gerund: "and they are participating."

17) поддержание   мира,   принуждение   мира   —   this   relatively   new
peacekeeping vocabulary is sometimes translated in different ways, but the
distinctions between the types of operations are important.
Поддержание
мира
in an ordinary sentence can be the "maintenance of peace" but an
ОПМ  (PKO)   is  an  операция  по  поддержанию  мира  (peacekeeping
operation). "Peacebuilding" is
миростроительство, and the odd-sounding
принуждение к миру is "peace enforcement."

  1.  огромное значение имеет создание таких условий... starting the
    sentence with "It is"
    "It is of the greatest importance to create such
    conditions/that such conditions be created" is a lot easier than trying to
    work around "Of great significance is the creation of such conditions,"
    etc.  "It is" and "There is" are two of the most useful tools in the
    interpreter's verbal kit.
  2.  между президентами России и США Б.Н.Ельциным и Б.Клинтоном
    достигнуто понимание
    there are two problems here. First of all, the
    interpreter should once again think nominative. Starting the sentence with
    "The Presidents of Russia and the US... have reached an understanding"
    will make for a much smoother sentence than the clumsy "Between the
    presidents of Russia and the US...an understanding has been achieved."
    In interpretation into English initials should not be used, as this is not
    accepted  practice.   Either "President   Boris Yeltsin and  President  Bill
    Clinton" or "President Yeltsin and President Clinton" will do.

20) жизни уносят —  "lives are swept away"  is extremely awkward.
"People arc being killed" or "victims are claimed" or "casualties are being


caused" are possibilities. And here a continuous present tense i.e. "are being killed" is absolutely necessary, since a continuing process is being described. Обычные вооружения are always translated as "conventional" weapons or arms.

  1.  задача назревшая this can be a task or problem which is long
    standing, to which a solution  is long overdue, or simply an  "urgent
    problem."
  2.  Благотворное влияние на улучшение европейского климата уже ока
    зывает рожденный, можно сказать, в мучительных поисках компромис
    са Основополагающий Акт об отношениях России с НАТО. —
    This is a
    good   example   of   how   Russian   syntax   demands   transformation   and
    restructuring to produce an idiomatic English sentence. "A positive impact
    on improving the European climate has already been exerted by..." and here
    comes a passive participle. The best immediate solution for the interpreter
    is to insert right before the participle a word such as
    "something," "a thing,"
    or even "that," and continue: "exerted by something/a thing/that which was
    born of/produced by an arduous quest for compromise"—
    and right before
    the noun which finally makes its appearance
    "Основополагающий Акт об
    отношениях России с НАТО" —
    insert a phrase such as "namely," "I am
    referring to, "I mean,"
    e.g. "exerted by something which was produced
    by an arduous quest for compromise, namely the Founding Act on relations
    between Russia and NATO." This question of how to move ahead following
    a past passive participle while waiting for the noun is one of the most
    common and most difficult problems which Russian-English interpreters
    constantly encounter.
  3.  чревато созданием While the standard translation of чревато is
    "fraught with," often "risks," "runs the risk of," "is likely to" or even
    simply   
    "may,"   аз   in   "may  create"   are   equally  good   or  even   better
    solutions.
  4.  речь идет о подписанных не так давно договорах — the expression
    Речь идет poses constant problems for interpreters. In this context it has
    the sense of
    "I am referring to" or "I mean;" in other contexts "Речь идет
    о том, что"
    often means "The point is."

  1.  равноправных   отношений   —   "equal   relations"   does   not   work.
    "Equitable  relations"  will  do   in  a   hurry,   but   
    "relations  on  an  equal
    footing" or "as equal partners"
    is much more idiomatic.
  2.  свое выступление я начал  призывом...  —  clearly,   "I began my
    statement/intervention"
    is the most logical choice. But if the interpreter
    has  rushed   in  with   "My  
    statement"   he  can  get  out  of this  one  by
    continuing "My
    statement began with an appeal to...," omitting the "I"
    and still producing an idiomatic sentence.

39


Statement by Evgeny Primakov to the UN General Assembly (1997)

(Текст читается с американским акцентом)

Mr. President,

Allow me to most sincerely congratulate you, a representative of Ukraine, with which we have friendly relations, on your election to this important and distinguished post. We are certain that under your presidency the General Assembly will be able to make significant progress.

In a little more than 800 days mankind will enter upon the 21st century. From the point of view of history this is really just a single sprinter's lap, and it is quite natural that there is a need to look at what lies ahead of us.

A year ago, speaking from this same rostrum, I referred to the beginning of the process of a transition to a multipolar world order. The events of the past year have reaffirmed this. There has been a growth of diversity in the political, economic and cultural development of countries. There is a search at the national and regional levels for new identities. There is a growth of new centers of economic and political influence in the world together with an increase in the reciprocal involvement of interests of various states and peoples.

The horizons opening up to the international community are posing new challenges. These are:

assertion of the ideals of interdependence and partnership in
interstate relations;

prevention   of the   emergence  of new  dividing   lines  and
exclusive blocs;

strict   compliance   with   all   the   principles   and   norms   of
international law.

I would cite as a separate issue not only the creation of conditions for the economic and social progress of all countries, but also the maintenance of the environmental balance.

It should be made clear at the outset that the transition from a confrontational bipolar world to a multipolar system cannot by itself resolve these problems. Moreover, realists are well aware that although we are moving farther away from oversimplified stereotypes of the era of ideological confrontation, the number of risks and threats in today's world has not decreased.

There are quite a few multinational states in the world. We firmly support the initiatives intended to prevent their forced disintegration.


The formula for the resolution of such conflicts in our modern world, and, of course, in the twenty-first century, can and must be a combination of the need to preserve the territorial integrity of such states together with the granting of the broadest possible rights to national minorities. Abandonment of any of the principles of the "two-track formula" would risk both a continuation and a dangerous escalation of such conflict situations.

I also would like to call to your attention a dangerous characteristic of regional conflicts their ability to unleash a wave of terrorism and to spread it far beyond the borders of the actual conflict zone. For example, many militants who launched bloody campaigns of terror in a great number of countries emerged from the continuing and still raging armed conflict in Afghanistan.

We strongly support the campaign against terrorism, in whatever form. Today success in this struggle can only be achieved by all states uniting their efforts to counteract this horrendous scourge. We are opposed to government backing of terrorism in any place and in any form. At the same time some UN member states should not be once and for all written off as rogue states within the international community regardless of changes in their policies or simply because of their suspected links to terrorists.

In today's world there can be no monopolies of any state on efforts at resolving any and all conflicts. This is certainly fully applicable to the oldest conflict in the Middle East, where the settlement process is deadlocked. As the saying goes, "it takes two hands to clap." Resolving the difficult Middle East conflict will require broad international efforts.

A pooling of efforts can provide the most effective way to resolve both long-standing and relatively new conflicts. Here I would like to draw to your attention the peacekeeping efforts of Russia in the CIS region. Nevertheless, we are not trying to take advantage of the situation.

Russia's peacekeeping role is not confined to conflict settlement efforts around its borders, but is broader in nature. Our country has sent its peacekeepers to various hot spots under the UN flag, and they are participating in 9 of 17 UN peacekeeping operations. Here I would like to comment on peace enforcement actions. In particular, in the decentralized conditions of some peacekeeping operations, great caution must be exercised. We firmly believe that actions of force can only be carried out upon authorization by the UN Security Council and under its direct supervision, as provided for in the UN Charter.

41


As we move towards a multipolar world in the twenty-first century it is of the greatest importance to create conditions conducive to stability of the new world order. To that end there is a need to overcome the obstacles of the past and above all the legacy of decades of the massive arms race.

We have been doing our part here and are determined to continue. Together with the US we have been steadily reducing strategic weapons. Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton have reached an understanding regarding the basic parameters for the agreements in this field.

However, today conventional weapons are causing casualties in local conflicts, and often in situations in which the hostilities have ceased. Here we are fully aware of the humanitarian aspect of the problem of mines. We believe that the elimination of the mine threat, above all to the civilian population, is long overdue. We advocate active and phased efforts to resolve this problem.

A positive impact on improving the European climate has already been exerted by something which was born of a painful quest for compromise, namely the Founding Act on relations between Russia and NATO. This is a document of great international importance, and it undoubtedly will play a pivotal role in European politics. The signing of this document, however, has not changed our negative attitude towards the expansion of NATO, which, on the one hand, totally ignores current realities, and, on the other, is likely to create new dividing lines.

It is my duty to mention yet another contribution to strengthening good-neighborly relations in Europe. I am referring to the recently signed agreements between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, which have made it possible for our states to make real progress in developing mutually advantageous relations on an equal footing, which have strengthened stability in the region.

I began my statement with an appeal to encourage the international community to resolve today's problems and to look forward to the coming century. And I would like to conclude with the well-known saying, "Pessimists are only passive observers; it is optimists who change the world." We are optimists, and believe that the UN will be able to play a positive role in the evolution of the international community.

42


Текст б

Выступление Э.А. Шеварднадзе в Гарвардском университете (1991 г.)

Чтобы чувствовать себя уверенно в мире, в котором будет падать роль ядерного оружия, нам нужно знать, как мы сможем защититься от ядерного терроризма. В настоящее время существуют весьма точные неядерные вооружения, способные хирургическими ударами сорвать планы возможных террористов. Разумеется, эта проблема заслуживает самого серьезного рассмотрения.

Мы не должны забывать и другой благоприятствующий фактор — нашу способность достаточно точно знать, что происходит в мире с точки зрения военной активности. Эта прозрачность мира будет только нарастать, а с нею повышаться наша уверенность, что все меньше и меньше будет неожиданностей, что все больше мы будем знать о происходящем в самых далеких уголках земного шара.

Было бы неверным представлять дело так, будто все опасности проистекают от ядерного, химического или бактериологического оружия. Просто этот ряд опасностей мы должны постараться свести к нулю, ибо они очень дорого могут стоить человечеству.

Честно говоря, меня беспокоит то, что мы стали более терпеливыми к угрозе, скажем, ядерной катастрофы. Да, мир изменился. В нем нет более того острого военного противостояния, которое вызывало острый стресс буквально у каждого человека.

Сейчас положение иное — политически и психологически. Но при всем том десятки тысяч ядерных зарядов остаются в арсеналах ядерных держав. К сожалению, замедлились темпы разоруженческих процессов. После первоначальных ярких успехов топчутся на месте переговоры по стратегическим ядерным вооружениям, по запрещению химического оружия, неоправданно задержалась ратификация Договора по обычным силам в Европе.

Закончилось уничтожение всех ракет средней и меньшей дальности, подпадающих под действие договора. Но образовался и разрыв в работе конвейера, работающего по уничтожению ракет. А военные заводы ведь продолжают работать, пусть даже не на прежнюю мощность.

Нельзя оставить недостроенным то здание нового мира, которое мы совместно взялись создать. Если мы не будем каждый день что-то надстраивать, то это здание придет в упадок, начнет деградировать.

43


Этого нельзя допустить. Наши дети не простят нам упущенных шансов, ибо они получат в этом случае не такое хорошее образование, не лучшую медицинскую помощь и другие социальные услуги.

Мы стоим еще в самом начале пути в наших поисках того, как можно упорядочить торговлю обычным оружием, создать региональные структуры безопасности, учредить механизмы по предотвращению возникновения кризисных ситуаций. Всем надо приспособиться к новым реалиям, к новому облику мира.

Ведь сегодня он радикальным и даже неузнаваемым образом отличается от того, каким он был даже несколько лет тому назад. Позади остались не только «холодная война», длительные вооруженные конфликты в разных регионах мира. Сегодня мы говорим о единой Германии, как об элементарном факте жизни.

Но разве все это было возможным еще пару лет назад? Представить себе подобное было трудно.

Мир становится единым в своих действиях, в своих желаниях избавиться от тяжкого наследия прошлого.

Среди этого наследия и ядерные испытания, ядерные арсеналы. В новой обстановке, на новом витке сознания общности человечества от них пора, можно и надо избавиться.

Ученые во всех странах должны помочь людям осознать происшедшее, понять суть изменений и сказать, какую дорогу нам нужно избрать, чтобы не заблудиться в лесу жизни и политики.

Нам всем нужен прогноз на будущее. Надо объединить для этого силы, выступающие за мир, свободу и демократию.

Спасибо за внимание.

* * *

То feel confident/sure/to ensure a feeling of confidence in a world in which/the role of nuclear weapons will be diminished/will decline/nuclear weapons will play a less important role/will be less important/, we need to know how to defend/protect ourselves from nuclear terrorism. At the present time/now/currently there are/there exist highly accurate non-nuclear weapons, which through surgical strikes have the ability/capability/capacity to thwart/block/undermine the plans of possible/potential terrorists. Naturally/of course,/this problem merits/deserves the most serious consideration.

We must/should not forget still/yet another positive factor: our ability to know with reasonable accuracy/quite/rather accurately what is taking place/happening/occurring/in the world from the point of view of/as regards military activity/as far as military activity is concerned. This transparency of the world will clearly/certainly

44


continue to grow, along/together/with our enhanced/increased confidence that there will be less and less unexpected/surprise factors/ elements, and that we will know more and more/increasingly more about what is taking place/happening/occurring/in the most remote corners of the globe/everywhere/throughout the world.

It would be wrong to view the issue/to see things/as though all dangers are derived/stem from nuclear, chemical or bacteriological weapons. We must simply try to wipe out/eliminate/rid ourselves of this category of/set of/these kinds of dangers, which otherwise may make mankind pay a very high price/may prove very costly to mankind.

Frankly speaking, I am concerned by the fact that we have become more tolerant of such threats as that of nuclear disaster. Yes, the world has changed. It no longer is fraught with/contains/is characterized by that drastic/acute/military confrontation which imposed/caused terrible/enormous/drastic/acute stress on/for/each and every/literally each and every/individual/luiman being.

Today/Now the situation is different, politically and psychologically. Nevertheless, (dozens of) thousands of nuclear warheads remain in the arsenals of the nuclear powers. Unfortunately, the rate/pace of progress in disarmament/the disarmament process, has slowed (down). After the first/initial striking successes, we see stalling/there is now a process of marking time/in negotiations on strategic nuclear weapons, on the prohibition of chemical weapons, and there has been an unwarranted delay in the ratification of the treaty on conventional forces in Europe.

The destruction of all intermediate and shorter range missiles has been completed, missiles covered by the treaty. But a gap has now appeared/emerged in the work of the assembly line for destroying missiles. And military plants are continuing their operations, although not at/at less than/their former capacity.

We cannot leave unfinished that edifice/building/construction of a new world, which we have jointly undertaken to create. If we do not, every single day, add something to that structure/continue the building process,/the building will start to collapse and deteriorate/ decline and fall.

That/cannot be allowed (to happen)/must not happen/must not be.

Our children will not forgive us lost opportunities, for then they will not be getting such a good education, or the best medical care, or other social services.

We are still at the very beginning/first stages of our search for ways to organize the trade/traffic in conventional weapons, to

45


establish regional security arrangements/systems, to establish/set up machinery/mechanisms to prevent (the emergence/outbreak of) crisis situations. We must all adapt to new realities, to/the new face of the/a changed/different/world.

For today, it is radically and even unrecognizably/staggeringly different from what it was only a few years ago. We have left behind both the Cold War and protracted/drawn-out/lengthy armed conflicts in various regions of the world. Today we speak of a united Germany as of an elementary/basic fact of life.

But would/could all this really have been possible just a couple of/even two years ago? It would have been difficult to imagine something like this/of this sort/something similar.

The world is becoming one in its actions, in its desire/hope/ wish to rid itself of the onerous/burdensome legacy of the past.

That legacy includes nuclear tests and nuclear arsenals. In a new situation, at a new level of awareness of mankind's sense of community/of what mankind has in common/shares, it is time to/there is a need to get rid of them/it is high time and it is our obligation to get rid of them.

Scientists/scholars/academics/thinkers/in all countries must help people to become aware of/what has happened/the significance of events, to understand the thrust/point/of the changes and to point out/indicate/what road we need to take to avoid losing our way in the forest/thickets of life and politics.

We all need a prognosis for the future. For that, we need to unite those forces which are championing/advocating/advancing peace, freedom and democracy.

Комментарии:

  1.  в настоящее время "now" is much shorter than "at the present
    time" if the interpreter is rushed.
  2.  с точки зрения is often not literally "from the point of view of," but
    rather "as regards, concerning."
  3.  о происходящем в самых далеких уголках земного шара — a simple
    translation  of
    происходящем   is   "events,"   and  with  a  fast  speaker
    "everywhere" will save a lot of time for "самых далеких уголках земно
    го шара."
  4.  было бы неверным the best solution here is "It would be wrong."
    "Incorrect" should be avoided; this sounds like a schoolteacher correcting
    a student.

46


  1.  острого военного противостояния, острый стресс — the interpreter
    should not automatically think of "acute" for
    "острый," as more often
    than not this can mean
    "drastic," "critical," "urgent," "burning," or a
    good many other adjectives.
  2.  десятки тысяч ядерных боеголовок "tens of thousands" would
    sound very awkward in English, and "dozens of thousands" (since dozen
    is often a translation of
    десятка) is even worse. The idea is that there are
    lots and lots of them, and simply "many thousands" of nuclear warheads,
    or just "thousands of is quite enough.
  3.  топчутся на месте переговоры the negotiations are stalled, not going
    anywhere, marking time, at a standstill
    will all do here.

8) неоправданно   —   here   "unwarranted"   works   much   better   than
"unjustified," which would require an explanation
unjustified for what
reason?

9) здание придет в упадок — edifice is much better than building, both
because it is stylistically more literary and because "building" could be the
gerund of the verb "to build" as well as a noun.

  1.  этого нельзя допустить — "this must be prevented," "this must not
    happen,"
    would work as well as "this cannot be allowed."
  2.  в этом случае the idea here is "if that happens," (which is a
    possible translation), rather than the literal and more clumsy "in that
    case." Or the interpreter could just say "Then," which is much shorter
    than the other variants.
  3.  мы стоим еще в самом начале пути "path" as a translation for
    путь should be avoided insofar as possible, as it is hackneyed and often
    does not fit the context. Here the idea is that we are at the very beginning
    or first/initial stage of the search.
  4.  позади остались не только холодная война here the sentence can
    safely be translated in an active mood:
    "We have left behind." "And" must
    be  inserted  between  "Cold  War"  and   "protracted  conflicts."   If the
    interpreter fails to do so, he can add "etc." after "in various regions of the
    world" to finish the sentence.
  5.  но разве все это было возможным "really" can render the force
    of
    разве.
  6.  ученые во всех странах the word ученый often presents problems.
    Since the question of destroying weapons has been discussed, "scientists"
    is a valid translation. But the context here is a broad one, of understanding
    the significance of events, and so
    "scholars," "academics," (in particular
    since this speech was given in a university setting) or "thinkers" would
    also work.
  7.  чтобы не заблудиться в лесу жизни и политики "forest of life" is
    a possibility, but "thickets"
    (рощи) sounds better in English, and has
    more of a connotation of a dark, impenetrable mass in which one can lose
    one's way.

47


  1.  прогноз the best choice here is "prognosis," which is stylistically
    neutral.   "Forecast"   suggests  the   weather  
    (прогноз   погоды)  while
    "predictions" is too vague and could equally well apply to fortune telling.
  2.  надо объединить can be rendered in the active mood as "We need
    to unite,"
    which will sound stronger and this is the end of the speech
    than "There is a need to unite."
  3.  выступающие за мир, свободу и демократию — though "favor" is
    often a useful translation of
    выступать, here it is too weak. This is the
    end of the speech and needs something more ringing and much stronger.
    "Champion" would set an appropriately forceful tone.

Speech by E.A. Shevardnadze, Harvard University, 1991

(Читается в нормальном и быстром темпах с американским акцентом)

То feel confident in a world in which the role of nuclear weapons will be diminished, we need to know how to protect ourselves from nuclear terrorism. Currently there are highly accurate non-nuclear weapons, which through surgical strikes have the capability of thwarting the plans of potential terrorists. Naturally, this problem merits the most serious consideration.

We must not forget yet another positive factor: our ability to know with reasonable accuracy what is taking place in the world as far as military activity is concerned. This transparency of the world will clearly continue to grow, along with our increased confidence that there will be less and less unexpected elements, and that we will know more and more about what is taking place throughout the world.

It would be wrong to see things as though all dangers stemmed from nuclear, chemical or bacteriological weapons. We must simply try to eliminate this category of dangers, which otherwise may make mankind pay a very high price.

Frankly speaking, I am concerned by the fact that we have become more tolerant of such threats as that of nuclear disaster. Yes, the world has changed. It no longer is characterized by that drastic military confrontation which imposed enormous stress on each and every human being.

Today the situation is different, politically and psychologically. Nevertheless, thousands of nuclear warheads remain in the arsenals of the nuclear powers. Unfortunately, the pace of progress in the disarmament process has slowed. After the initial striking successes,

48


there is now a process of marking time in negotiations on strategic nuclear weapons, on the prohibition of chemical weapons, and there has been an unwarranted delay in the ratification of the treaty on conventional forces in Europe.

The destruction of all intermediate and shorter range missiles covered by the treaty has been completed. But a gap has now emerged in the work of the assembly line for destroying missiles. And military plants are continuing their operations, although at less than their former capacity.

We cannot leave unfinished that edifice of a new world, which we have jointly undertaken to create. If we do not, every single day, add something to that structure, the building will start to collapse, and decline and fall.

That must not happen. Our children will not forgive us lost opportunities, for then they will not be getting such a good education, or the best medical care, or other social services.

We are still at the very first stages of our search for ways to organize the trade in conventional weapons, to establish regional security arrangements, to establish mechanisms to prevent crisis situations. We must all adapt to new realities, to a changed world.

For today, it is radically and even unrecognizably different from what it was only a few years ago. We have left behind both the Cold War and protracted conflicts in various regions of the world. Today we speak of a united Germany as of a basic fact of life.

But could all this really have been possible just two years ago? It would have been difficult to imagine something of this sort.

The world is becoming one in its actions, in its desire to rid itself of the onerous legacy of the past.

That legacy includes nuclear tests and nuclear arsenals. In a new situation, at a new level of awareness of mankind's sense of community, it is high time and it is our obligation to get rid of them.

Academics in all countries must help people to become aware of the significance of events, to understand the point of the changes and to indicate what road we need to take to avoid losing our way in the thickets of life and politics.

We all need a prognosis for the future. For that, we need to unite those forces which are championing peace, freedom and democracy.


Текст 7 Защита гражданского населения

в вооруженных конфликтах (1998 г.)

Господин Председатель,

Несмотря на усилия международного сообщества по предотвращению вооруженных конфликтов и минимизации их последствий для гражданского населения, такие конфликты продолжают вызывать гибель тысяч мирных граждан. Немалое число среди них составляют дети, женщины и другие уязвимые группы населения, включая беженцев и перемещенных лиц. Жертвами вооруженных конфликтов становится и персонал, оказывающий гуманитарную помощь. В ходе вооруженных конфликтов в различных районах мира применяются изощренные методы уничтожения людей, изуверская практика обращения с ранеными, больными, мирным населением, поощряются массовые депортации, захват заложников, творятся надругательства над телами погибших.

Нужно предпринять дополнительные усилия по задействованию значительного потенциала политических и международно-правовых средств защиты жертв вооруженных конфликтов и ужесточить рамки дозволенности при ведении боевых действий. Важно добиться того, чтобы все стороны вооруженного конфликта добросовестно выполняли международные стандарты в области гуманитарного права, установленные Гаагскими и Женевскими конвенциями. Международное сообщество не должно мириться с действиями тех, кто игнорирует международные стандарты по защите гражданского населения, использует насилие и террор в отношении мирных граждан и гуманитарного персонала.

От Совета Безопасности требуется активная политическая поддержка деятельности гуманитарных организаций, в т.ч. в вопросах обеспечения защиты гражданского населения в ходе вооруженных конфликтов. Необходимость такой поддержки, однако, отнюдь не должна рассматриваться с силового угла, под углом зрения некой безальтернативности задействования военно-силовых рычагов. Сила — крайнее средство воздействия на конфликтующие стороны, имеющееся в руках международного сообщества. Прибегать к ней можно только когда использованы, причем безуспешно, все политико-дипломатические рычаги.

Далеко не каждый гуманитарный кризис, даже когда страдает гражданское население, может быть квалифицирован таким образом. Как показывает опыт (например, Сомали), недостаточно обоснованное и просчитанное, а тем более неудачно реализованное международное силовое вмешательство «гуманитарного

50


характера» чревато резким обострением конфликта со всеми не-

гативными последствиями, в т.ч. и для гражданского населения.

Серьезную озабоченность вызывают попытки продвигать под-

ход, согласно которому наличие гуманитарного кризиса в той или другой стране является достаточным основанием для одностороннего вооруженного вмешательства в обход Совета Безопасности.

Проблема защиты гражданского населения в вооруженных конфликтах имеет комплексный характер и требует комплексного подхода со стороны международного сообщества, с упором именно на политико-правовые методы. Мы поддерживаем усилия, направленные на дополнительную защиту отдельных групп населения, прежде всего детей, в ходе вооруженных конфликтов. Не раз Россия выдвигала гуманитарные инициативы, в том числе о необходимости создания системы мониторинга и быстрого реагирования международного сообщества на нарушения норм международного права. Важное значение мы придаем и реализации концепции о необходимости национального или международного уголовного преследования лиц, ответственных за военные преступления и преступления против человечности.

Свой вклад в утверждение норм международного гуманитарного права призваны внести и проводимые в России мероприятия, посвященные столетию Первой конференции мира.

Mr.President,

Despite the efforts of the international community to prevent/ avert armed conflicts and to minimize their consequences for the civilian population, such conflicts continue to cause the deaths of thousands of/these civilians. These number/include a considerable number of children, women and other vulnerable groups of the population, including refugees and displaced persons. Victims/ casualties of armed conflicts also include personnel/individuals rendering humanitarian assistance/employees of humanitarian organizations. During armed conflicts in various parts of the world/ globe/use is made of/sophisticated methods for killing people,/ sophisticated methods for killing people are used, as well as/and there is also/brutal/horrendously cruel treatment/abuse of the wounded/ injured, the sick, the peaceful citizens/the civilian population, mass deportations are common/spurred on, hostages are taken/there is hostage-taking/and the bodies of the dead/corpses are profaned.

There is a need/for/to undertake/additional efforts to activate/ involve the significant/major/important potential of political and


international-legal means for protecting the victims of armed conflicts and tightening the parameters/norms/bounds of what is permissible/ while waging/carrying out/conducting hostilities. It is important to see to it that all sides to an armed conflict conscientiously implement/ apply/comply with the international standards of humanitarian law laid down by/inscribed in/found in the Hague and the Geneva conventions. The international community must not put up with/ accept/the actions of those who ignore international standards for the protection of the civilian population and make use of violence and terror against the civilian population and humanitarian personnel.

The Security Council must provide active political support for the activity of the humanitarian organizations, inter alia/including providing for the protection of the civilian population during armed conflicts. The need for such support, however, should definitely/ certainly not/in no way/be considered from an "angle of force,"/in terms of the use offeree, as a kind of lack of alternative to the use of armed force. Force is the means of last resort for exerting an impact on/attempting to influence the parties to the conflict, (which is) available to the international community. It should be resorted to only/when there has been no success with the use of all political and diplomatic means/when all political and diplomatic means have failed.

By no means all humanitarian crises/Not every humanitarian crisis/even when the civilian population is suffering, can be characterized/categorized in this way/manner. As experience has shown (e.g./for example Somalia), an insufficiently grounded/poorly justified/and miscalculated, and in particular unsuccessfully/poorly implemented international intervention involving the use of/with/ using/ force of a "humanitarian nature" is fraught with consequences for/is likely to lead to a/is highly conducive to a drastic/severe exacerbation/aggravation of the conflict with all of the (ensuing) negative consequences, inter alia for/including those affecting the/ civilian population.

A source of serious concern is the attempts to advance the idea that the existence of a humanitarian crisis in one or another country is a sufficient reason/provides sufficient grounds/for unilateral armed intervention bypassing/sidestepping the Security Council.

The problem of the protection of the civilian population in armed conflicts is a wide-ranging/complex one/issue and requires a comprehensive/broad approach from/on the part of/the international community, with emphasis specifically on political-legal methods. We support efforts aimed at additional protection for individual groups of the population, above all children, during armed conflicts. Russia on several occasions has put forward humanitarian initiatives, including


some regarding the creation/establishment of a system of monitoring and of rapid response by the international community to violations of norms of international law. We attach great significance to/we consider important as well/the implementation/application of the concept of the need for national or international criminal prosecution of individuals responsible for war crimes and crimes against mankind.

A contribution to the reaffirmation of the norms of international humanitarian law will also be made by the activities in Russia devoted to/marking the centenary of the First Peace Conference.

Комментарии:

  1.  по предотвращению "avert" is an often forgotten and very good
    synonym for the overused "prevent."
  2.  тысяч мирных граждан "peaceful citizens" sounds odd. As opposed
    to  what   
    —   violent   citizens?   "These"   —   since   they   have just   been
    mentioned
    civilians is fine.
  3.  Starting with "немалое число" can lead to an awkward sentence, unless
    the interpreter begins with
    "Quite a few of them are children, women, etc."
    Without a text that would be a reasonable solution.
  4.  жертвами... становится и персонал this и needs translation also,
    or as well as.
  5.  мирным гражданским населением again, "the civilian population"
    is quite sufficient; no need to add peaceful. If you must use "peaceful,"
    then "peaceful citizens" is better than "peaceful civilians."
  6.  телами погибших corpses is a lot shorter than "bodies of the dead."
  7.  важно добиться того — can be safely shortened to "It is important
    that."
  8.  по защите гражданского населения, использует насилие the word
    "and" needs to be inserted between these clauses. The interpreter who has
    forgotten to do so, or not realized that this is the last clause in the
    sentence (until it is too late!) can then add after "against the civilian
    population and humanitarian personnel in addition/also/as well."
  9.  от Совета Безопасности starting with the preposition is asking for
    trouble. It is much easier to "think nominative" and make the Security
    Council the subject of the sentence.

  1.  активная политическая поддержка деятельности this is much
    easier to do if the noun is turned into a verb
    "providing support for..."
    and omitting "В вопросах in в вопросах обеспечения.
  2.  сила — крайнее средство воздействия this is obviously "last
    resort," not "extreme means."

12) чревато need not always be translated as "fraught." Here чревато рез
ким обострением
will work well as "is highly conducive to" or "likely to lead
to." Or the verb "risks" can work: risks provoking a deterioration of...

53


  1.  серьезную озабоченность this construction nearly always needs "a
    source of
    when it is in initial position in a sentence.
  2.  комплексный характер, комплексного подхода in the first example
    "complex" can work as a translation, though the idea is rather one of broad
    or far-ranging. In the second case, however, "complex" is simply wrong,
    as what is meant is a
    "comprehensive" approach to the issue.
  3.  не раз — should always be translated with great care, to avoid any
    possible confusion with
    "ни paзy" particularly if a speaker is mumbling.
  4.  важное значение мы придаем и реализации a simple "We also
    deem/find/consider important the implementation,"
    will do it, forgetting
    the
    "значение." "Also" will take care of "и."
  5.  и проводимые в России мероприятия another case of an и which
    means also.
    "Мероприятия," as in so many other cases, is better rendered
    as activities than as undertakings.

Protection of the Civilian Population in Armed Conflicts (UN, 1998)

(Читается в нормальном темпе с индийским акцентом, в быстром — с британским акцентом)

Mr. Chairman,

Despite the efforts of the international community to avert armed conflicts and to minimize their consequences for the civilian population, such conflicts continue to cause the deaths of thousands of these civilians. These include a considerable number of children, women and other vulnerable groups of the population, including refugees and displaced persons. Victims of armed conflicts also include employees of humanitarian organizations. During armed conflicts in various parts of the globe sophisticated methods for killing people are used, and there is also brutal treatment of the wounded, the sick, the peaceful civilian population, mass deportations are common, hostages are taken, and corpses are profaned.

There is a need to undertake additional efforts to activate the significant potential of political and international-legal means for protecting the victims of armed conflicts and tightening the bounds of what is permissible while waging hostilities. It is important to see to it that all sides to an armed conflict conscientiously comply with the international standards of humanitarian law laid down by the Hague and the Geneva conventions. The international community must not put up with the actions of those who ignore international standards for the protection of the civilian population and make use of violence and terror against the civilian population and humanitarian personnel.


The Security Council must provide active political support for the activity of the humanitarian organizations, including providing for the protection of the civilian population during armed conflicts. The need for such support, however, should definitely not be considered in terms of the use offeree, as a kind of lack of alternative to the use of armed force. Force is the means of last resort for exerting an impact on the parties to the conflict available to the international community. It should be resorted to only when all political and diplomatic means have failed.

By no means all humanitarian crises, even when the civilian population is suffering, can be characterized in this manner. As experience has shown (for example Somalia), a poorly justified and miscalculated, and poorly implemented international intervention involving the use offeree of a "humanitarian nature" is likely to lead to a severe exacerbation of the conflict with all of the ensuing negative consequences, including those affecting the civilian population.

A source of serious concern is the attempts to advance the idea that the existence of a humanitarian crisis in one or another country provides sufficient grounds for unilateral armed intervention bypassing the Security Council.

The problem of the protection of the civilian population in armed conflicts is a complex one and requires a comprehensive approach on the part of the international community, with emphasis specifically on political-legal methods. We support efforts aimed at additional protection for individual groups of the population, above all children, during armed conflicts. Russia on several occasions has put forward humanitarian initiatives, including some regarding the establishment of a system of monitoring and of rapid response by the international community to violations of norms of international law. We attach great significance as well to the implementation of the concept of the need for national or international criminal prosecution of individuals responsible for war crimes and crimes against mankind.

A contribution to the reaffirmation of the norms of international humanitarian law will also be made by the activities in Russia marking the centenary of the First Peace Conference.

Текст 8 Ядерный терроризм (ООН, 1999 г.)

Господин Председатель,

Прежде всего позвольте мне выразить глубокое удовлетворение в связи с тем, что Вы продолжаете занимать пост председателя

55


нашего  комитета.   Российская  сторона  очень высоко оценивает

усилия, которые Вы предпринимаете в целях разработки новых эффективных международно-правовых инструментов, в том числе в области борьбы с терроризмом. От имени российской делегации хотел бы также приветствовать остальных членов бюро и все собравшиеся здесь делегации и выразить надежду, что благодаря их профессионализму и нацеленности на практическую работу стоящая перед нами задача создания новых действенных механизмов противодействия террористической деятельности будет успешно выполнена.

Господин Председатель,

Трудно переоценить важность вопросов, которыми занимается наш комитет. Терроризм превратился сегодня в одну из наиболее болезненных мировых проблем, выступая серьезным дестабилизирующим фактором не только в отдельных странах, но и во всем мире. Весьма тревожной тенденцией в развитии современного терроризма является высокий уровень технической оснащенности наиболее опасных террористических группировок, что само по себе было бы невозможно, если бы террористы не имели надежных и хорошо замаскированных источников финансирования. Активно финансируемые террористические организации приобретают, в частности, дополнительные возможности доступа к современным технологиям и новейшим вооружениям для их использования в террористических целях, в том числе (что наиболее опасно) к оружию массового уничтожения (ОМУ). Примечательно, что в мире растет осознание опасности, которую несет терроризм с использованием ОМУ, и необходимости объединения усилий в борьбе с ним. Наша работа над проектом Конвенции о борьбе с ядерным терроризмом уже дала импульс активному обсуждению в рамках неправительственных организаций и научных кругов идеи выработки других международно-правовых инструментов, направленных на борьбу с другими разновидностями терроризма с использованием ОМУ — химическим и биологическим.

Мы призываем предпринять энергичные усилия с тем, чтобы завершить на этой сессии комитета разработку практически согласованного проекта Конвенции. Компромисс по сфере охвата проблем в этом документе возможен. Нужно лишь стремление активно поработать над теми письменными и устными предложениями делегаций, высказанными на предыдущей сессии рабочей группы. Нельзя забывать, что перед нами проект антитеррористического документа, который не имеет целью затрагивать вопросы, регулируемые или которые должны быть урегулированы другими нормами международного права.

56


Подготовленный рабочей группой проект Конвенции соответствует модели, апробированной в других универсальных договорах в этой сфере, и закрепляет достаточно эффективные механизмы взаимодействия правоохранительных и судебных органов государств, включая правовую помощь, выдачу, обмен информацией и т.д. Если нам не удастся достигнуть консенсуса по проекту Конвенции о ядерном терроризме, это не будет способствовать укреплению единого фронта государств в борьбе с терроризмом и пошлет ложный сигнал террористическим организациям.

Российская делегация считает актуальной разработку этого международного договора, призванного восполнить явный пробел в существующем международно-правовом режиме антитеррористического взаимодействия.

Благодарю, г-н Председатель.

* * *

Mr. Chairman,

Allow me at the outset/first of all/to express/voice (our) great satisfaction/pleasure at seeing you continue to preside over/chair our committee. Russia/the Russian side/delegation highly values/has great esteem for/deeply appreciates/the efforts you are making to produce/ draw up/create/establish new effective international instruments, including those/aimed at combating/designed to combat/to combat terrorism. On behalf of the Russian delegation I would also like to welcome the other members of the bureau and all (of the) delegations (present) here, and voice the hope that/through their professionalism and practical approach, the task/work/issues facing us, that of crafting new effective mechanisms to combat terrorist activity, will be successfully carried out/implemented. Their professionalism and practical approach to the task/work/issues facing us will help successfully to bring about/establish/craft/new and effective mechanisms to combat/counteract terrorist activity.

Mr. Chairman,

It would be hard to overstate/overstress/overemphasize/the importance of the questions/issues/facing our committee/which our committee is facing/is handling/is tackling. Terrorism today has become one of the most pressing/acute global problem, and is a serious destabilizing factor/element not only/both in individual countries, but/ and in the entire world. One of the most/alarming/disconcerting/ dangerous trends in the development of contemporary/today's terrorism is the/way in which the most dangerous terrorist groups/

57


units are equipped with high-tech equipment/sophisticated technical level of the equipment of the most dangerous terrorist groups/units which would be impossible if the terrorists did not have/which are only possible when/if the terrorists have reliable and well concealed/ disguised/covered-up/hidden sources of financing. Heavily/actively /well financed terrorist organizations are acquiring increased/ additional/ new opportunities for access to state of the art/sophisticated technologies and to the very latest/newest weaponry/types of arms for their use for terrorist purposes, including (and this is most dangerous) weapons of mass destruction. It is indicative/noteworthy/ significant/ that there is increased awareness now/in today's world of the danger implicit in terrorism which uses WMDs (weapons of mass destruction), and the need to unite/pool efforts to combat this (movement). Our work on a draft convention on the campaign against nuclear terrorism has already given an impetus to active discussion among nongovernmental organizations/NGOs and in academic circles of the idea of drawing up/producing/crafting other international-legal instruments to combat other types/kinds of terrorism which use WMDs, both chemical and biological.

We call for active/intensive efforts to conclude at this session of the committee work on an agreed upon draft of the Convention. A

compromise regarding the scope of/areas covered by this document is possible. This only requires/all that is needed is intensive work on those written and oral proposals by delegations which were put forward/made at the previous session of the working group. We must not/cannot forget that we have before us a draft of an anti-terrorist document which is not intended/designed to impinge upon/deal with issues which are regulated or should be regulated by other norms of international law.

The draft Convention prepared by the working group corresponds to the model/type/accepted by/adopted for/other universal agreements/treaties in this field, and reinforces/backs/strengthens rather effective mechanisms for interaction between the law enforcement agencies and court systems of states, including legal assistance, extradition, exchange of information, etc. If we are not able/Our failure/to achieve consensus on the draft Convention on nuclear terrorism,/that will not promote/advance a strengthening of a united front of states in the fight/campaign against terrorism and will send the wrong signal to terrorist organizations.

The   Russian   delegation   considers   as   extremely   important/

relevant/work on this international treaty/agreement/document, designed to fill an obvious/evident gap in the existing international-legal regime for anti-terrorist interaction/the continuation of work on

58


this international treaty/agreement/document, designed to fill an obvious/evident gap in the existing international-legal regime for anti-terrorist interaction, of the greatest importance/urgency/ relevance.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

This rather formal speech is packed with cliches and commonly used fixed expressions, to which the interpreter's response should be nearly automatic.

Комментарии:

  1.  прежде всего позвольте мне this cliche can be kept as brief as
    possible: "allow me first to..." There is no need to translate
    "занимать
    пост":
    "continue to preside" expresses the idea.
  2.  российская сторона here the translation depends on context, and
    on who is speaking. If an ambassador or high-placed official is speaking,
    "Russia"  is fine.   If the context  is a  low-ranking official  in  a small
    subcommittee,  
    "The Russian delegation"  would be  more appropriate,
    rather than suggesting that the delegate is speaking for the entire country.
  3.  российская сторона очень высоко оценивает усилия — "has a high
    assessment of," a commonly used translation, is extremely unidiomatic.
    Often this can be simply rendered by
    "appreciates."
  4.  в целях разработки — в целях can be skipped, as it adds nothing; it
    is obvious that this is the purpose of the exercise.
  5.  благодаря их профессионализму how the interpreter begins this
    clause will determine the rest of the sentence. The second variant would
    be possible if the interpreter had the text, since
    успешно appears towards
    the end of the sentence.
  6.  трудно переоценить важность вопросов, которыми... — time can be
    saved by dropping
    которыми, a word which is obligatory for the Russian
    grammatical construction but can be skipped in English: "the questions
    facing our committee."
  7.  одну из наиболее болезненных мировых проблем, выступая серьез
    ным дестабилизирующим фактором...
    any attempt to translate высту
    пая
    as a gerund will lead to a very awkward sentence. It basically means
    "is" here, and should be translated as such.
    "And" makes for a much
    smoother  sentence:   
    "and   is   a   serious   destabilizing   factor."   Or  the
    interpreter can use a pronoun:
    "it is a serious destabilizing factor."
  8.  не только в отдельных странах, но и во всем мире.— Here "not
    only... but also..." or "both... and" work.
    "Both... and" sounds better for
    shorter sentences.
  9.  весьма тревожной тенденцией without a text, the interpreter could
    simply use a nominative singular: "A
    highly alarming/disconcerting trend
    in the development of... is..."

59


60

 

  1.  что само по себе было бы невозможно this can be rendered as a
    positive or negative: "is only possible when/if..."
  2.  активно финансируемые "actively" is awkward as a modifier for
    "financed." "Heavily" or "well" works a lot better.
  3.  приобретают, в частности, дополнительные возможности — Here в
    частности
    is adding nothing, though it may allow for the speaker to catch
    his breath, and does not need to be translated.
  4.  растет сознание опасности, которую несет терроризм — here is
    another case where
    который can be dropped: "the danger implicit in
    terrorism,"
    or even "the danger in terrorism" will get the point across.
  5.  активному обсуждению в рамках неправительственных организа
    ций... — в рамках
    can easily be dropped, since it adds nothing. NGOs for
    НПО of course saves time.  But the question of using acronyms and
    abbreviations is tricky. If the interpreter has them memorized and can get
    them out automatically, so much the better; but if he spends more time
    trying to remember the acronym than the time it would take him to
    say
    nongovernmental organization,   he  is obviously  losing  rather than
    gaining time.
  6.  идеи выработки других международно-правовых инструментов —
    "producing" is often better then the much used "drawing up" for "выра
    ботки."
    If something complicated or sensitive is involved, "crafting" is a
    good stylistic choice.
  7.  мы призываем предпринять энергичные усилия... active or intensive
    work sound much better than "energetic," which suggests a somewhat
    frantic image of delegates literally racing in to work or jumping up and
    down from excitement.
  8.  завершить... разработку практически согласованной Конвенции —
    практически
    can be dropped. The idea is that of getting the job done.
  9.  активно поработать над теми... предложениями there is a problem
    here with the use of the cognate of
    активно — actively; "intensive" is a
    much better choice than active.

  1.  ...предложениями делегаций, высказанными... the idea here is
    that the proposals were  made  (shortest and simplest choice)  or put
    forward.
    "Proposed" would get the meaning across, but the "proposals
    proposed" is awkward.
    "Put forward" is also a good solution, but "voiced"
    or "expressed" are awkward, particularly since the sentence speaks of
    written as well as oral proposals.
  2.  не имеет целью затрагивать... the literal translation "touch on"
    does not work. The idea here is one of interference with the competence
    of other documents/norms, and so
    "impinge" would be a good choice.
    More neutral is simply
    "deal with."

21) подготовленный   рабочей   группой   проект   Конвенции   —   the
interpreter who has started in too early and said "prepared by the working
group" need only add a pause (a mental comma), and the definite article:
"Prepared by the working group, the draft Convention..."


  1.  если нам не удастся though antonymic translation is possible here
    "if we fail..."  this sounds somewhat stronger and therefore more
    pessimistic
    than "if we do not succeed."
  2.  ложный сигнал the English idiom is a "wrong" signal, rather than
    a false one.
  3.  российская делегация считает актуальной... the second variant
    given requires that the interpreter keep
    актуальной in mind as he goes
    through the rest of the sentence, and insert it at the end. With a text this
    is easy; otherwise, the first stylistic variant given in the text is simpler for
    the interpreter's purposes.

Nuclear Terrorism (UN, 1999)

(Читается в нормальном и быстром темпах с американским акцентом)

Mr. Chairman,

Allow me at the outset to express our great satisfaction at seeing you continue to chair our committee. The Russian delegation deeply appreciates the efforts you are making to produce new effective international instruments, including those designed to ,com'6at terrorism. On behalf of the Russian delegation I would also like to welcome the other members of the bureau and all the delegations present here, and voice the hope that their professionalism and practical approach to the issues facing us will help successfully establish new and effective mechanisms to counteract terrorist activity.

Mr. Chairman,

It would be hard to overemphasize the importance of the questions facing our committee. Terrorism today has become one of the most pressing global problems, and is a serious destabilizing factor both in individual countries, and in the entire world. One of the most disconcerting trends in the development of contemporary terrorism is the sophisticated technical level of the equipment of the most dangerous terrorist groups, which is only possible when terrorists have reliable and well concealed sources of financing. Actively financed terrorist organizations are acquiring additional new opportunities for access to state of the art technologies and to the very latest weaponry for their use for terrorist purposes, including and this is most dangerous weapons of mass destruction. It is noteworthy that there is increased awareness now of the danger implicit in terrorism which uses WMDs (weapons of mass destruction), and the need to unite efforts to combat this movement. Our work on a draft convention on the campaign against nuclear terrorism has already given an impetus to active discussion among NGOs and in academic circles of the idea of drawing up other international-legal instruments to combat other kinds of terrorism which use WMDs, both chemical and biological.

61


We call for intensive efforts to conclude at this session of the committee work on an agreed upon draft of the Convention. A compromise regarding the areas covered by this document is possible. This only requires intensive work on those written and oral proposals by delegations which were made at the previous session of the working group. We cannot forget that we have before us a draft of an anti-terrorist document which is not intended to impinge upon issues which are regulated or should be regulated by other norms of international law.

The draft Convention prepared by the working group corresponds to the model adopted for other universal agreements in this field, and reinforces rather effective mechanisms for interaction between the law enforcement agencies and court systems of states, including legal assistance, extradition, exchange of information, etc. Our failure

to achieve consensus on the draft Convention on nuclear terrorism will not promote a strengthening of a united front of states in the campaign against terrorism and will send the wrong signal to terrorist organizations.

The Russian delegation considers the continuation of work on this international agreement, designed to fill an obvious gap in the existing international-legal regime for anti-terrorist interaction, as of the greatest importance.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Текст 9

Разоружение: выступление представителя Казахстана

(ООН, 1999)

Господин Председатель,

Позвольте присоединиться к высказанным ранее поздравлениям с избранием Вас на высокий пост Председателя третьей сессии Подготовительного Комитета Конференции 2000 года участников Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия по рассмотрению действия Договора и выразить уверенность, что под Вашим умелым руководством работа Подготовительного Комитета пройдет плодотворно и эффективно.

Господин Председатель,

Придавая важнейшее значение решениям и резолюциям Конференции 1995 года по рассмотрению и продлению действия Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия, Казахстан поддерживает усилия, нацеленные на поощрение полного выполнения и эффективного осуществления положений этого Договора. Бессрочный характер Договора весомо укрепляет основы

62


международной стабильности и безопасности, создает перспективы для успешного продвижения вперед по пути разоружения. Сторонами Договора сегодня являются уже 187 стран мира. Только за последние четыре года к нему присоединились 9 государств, что является существенным шагом на пути обеспечения универсального характера ДНЯО.

Накопленный богатейший опыт постконфронтационного развития дает дополнительный импульс многосторонним переговорам в целях достижения конкретных решений в сфере безопасности, ограничения вооружений и разоружения. Общепризнанно, что приоритетным направлением переговорного процесса является ядерное разоружение и укрепление режима нераспространения. В то же время, не предпринимая конкретных действий в этой области, мы никогда не достигнем поставленной цели. Необходимо отдавать себе отчет в том, что проблемы ядерного оружия и его нераспространения приобрели взаимосвязанный характер и достижение международной безопасности возможно только при совместных усилиях как ядерных, так и неядерных государств.

Первостепенная роль в содействии решению поставленных задач в области разоружения, на наш взгляд, отводится ООН. От усиления взаимодействия в рамках ООН зависит успешное продвижение мирового сообщества по пути к безопасному, стабильному и процветающему миру.

Господин Председатель,

Нынешняя сессия Подготовительного Комитета проходит в ответственный период, когда приближающийся рубеж тысячелетия остро ставит необходимость глубокого осмысления достигнутого и выработки верных параметров международных отношений в будущем.

К сожалению, придется констатировать, что на пороге следующего столетия мировое сообщество столкнулось с угрозой расползания ядерного оружия. Становится вполне очевидным, что новый век не будет более безопасным. Однако безысходный пессимизм не должен возобладать над мировым сообществом. Необходимы конкретные действия для устранения ядерной угрозы.

Весомым вкладом вдело практического решения стоящих перед мировым сообществом задач в области ядерного нераспространения являются разработанные МАГАТЭ действенные механизмы контроля за оборотом ядерных материалов, укрепления международной системы гарантий, налаживания эффективного сотрудничества по вопросам ядерной энергетики, радиационной безопасности и обращения с отходами.

63


Современный мир невозможно себе представить без широкого использования атомной энергии в мирных целях. Это не только атомная энергетика, но и многочисленные ядерно-физические изотопные технологии и методики, которые проникли практически во все области нашей жизни. Идет поступательное развитие мирных ядерных технологий, и в этих условиях задача поддержания и укрепления режима нераспространения остается и будет оставаться весьма актуальной.

Казахстан уделяет первостепенное внимание ходу реализации инициативы по созданию зоны, свободной от ядерного оружия, в Центральной Азии. Мы убеждены, что зона в Центральной Азии будет представлять собой важный шаг на пути к укреплению режима ядерного нераспространения, развитию сотрудничества в использовании ядерной энергетики в мирных целях, развитию сотрудничества в экологической реабилитации территорий, пострадавших от радиоактивного заражения, содействию всеобщему и полному разоружению и укреплению регионального и международного мира и безопасности. Казахстан и далее будет последовательно и конструктивно принимать участие в работе над созданием этой зоны.

Господин Председатель,

Бессрочное продление Договора о нераспространении ядерного оружия является одним из выдающихся событий в сфере укрепления режима нераспространения оружия массового уничтожения. В то же время, на наш взгляд, представляется достаточно ясной необходимость развивать успех и продвигаться далее к благородной цели полного ядерного разоружения. Мы выражаем надежду, что обзорная Конференция 2000 года ознаменуется успешными результатами.

Делегация Казахстана готова и далее укреплять сотрудничество с делегациями государств — участников Договора для достижения этой цели.

* * *

This text contains a good many useful disarmament terms which appear frequently in statements on general political subjects as well as specifically in disarmament negotiations, and the student should take the trouble to memorize them.

64


Mr. Chairman,

Allow me to associate myself with the congratulations extended/ addressed to you on your election to the important post of Chairman of the third session of the Preparatory Committee for the Year 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and to express our confidence/certainty that under your skilled/experienced/wise leadership the work of the Committee will/proceed fruitfully and effectively/achieve positive results.

Mr. Chairman,

Since we attach the greatest of importance/great importance to the

decisions and resolutions of the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Kazakhstan supports the efforts at encouraging the full application and effective implementation of the provisions of this Treaty. The termless/indefinite nature of the Treaty strongly/firmly reinforces the bases of international stability and security, and creates prospects for progress towards disarmament. 187 countries are already parties to the treaty. In the last four years alone 9 states have acceded to it/the treaty/the NPT, and this is an important step towards ensuring its universality.

The wealth of experience acquired/gained in post-conflict development provides an additional impetus to the multilateral negotiations aimed at achieving specific decisions/practical solutions in the field/sphere of security, arms limitation and disarmament. It is universally acknowledged that a priority area of the negotiation process is nuclear disarmament and the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime. At the same time, without taking/unless we undertake/specific steps/concrete action in this area, we will never achieve our goal/the goal we have set. We must recognize/ acknowledge/There is a need to recognize/that the problems of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation have become interdependent, and that international security is possible/can be brought about/only through joint efforts by/on the part of both nuclear and non-nuclear states.

The primary/highest priority role in promoting/advancing a solution to the issues raised/to these questions/in the disarmament field, as we see it/in our view/is that of/lies with/devolves on/the United Nations. The strength/strengthening of interaction within the UN will determine the successful progress of the international community towards a secure, stable and prosperous world.


Mr. Chairman,

The current/present session of the Preparatory Committee is taking place at a crucial/critical time/important point in time, when the approach of the new millennium makes it vitally necessary/urgent/ creates an urgent need/for intensive rethinking of/to ponder in depth/ to take careful stock of/what has been achieved and to draw up/ develop/reliable parameters/a reliable framework/for international relations in the future.

Unfortunately, it must be recognized/acknowledged/we must recognize/acknowledge/that on the threshold of the next century the international community has encountered/run up against/the threat of a spread/proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is becoming quite obvious/evident/clear that the new century will not be a safer one. However, pessimistic gloom/a spirit of pessimism/a sense of futility/ should not dominate/pervade the international community. Specific steps/concrete actions are needed to eliminate the nuclear threat.

An important contribution to a practical solution to the problems facing the international community in the area of nuclear non-proliferation has been made by the effective mechanisms produced by the IAEA to monitor the traffic/turnover in nuclear materials, strengthen the international safeguards system and establish effective cooperation on questions of nuclear energy and radiation security/safety in the handling/treatment of wastes.

Today's world is unimaginable/unthinkable without the widespread/broad use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. These include not only atomic/nuclear energy, but also numerous/many nuclear-physics isotope technologies and methods, which have permeated/found their way into/virtually all areas of our lives. There is a progressive development of peaceful nuclear technologies, and in these circumstances the task of maintaining and strengthening the non-proliferation regime continues will continue to be a highly relevant issue.

Kazakhstan attaches great importance to/the development of/progress in/the implementation of the initiative for establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in Central Asia. We are convinced that the zone in Central Asia will constitute/be/form/an important step towards strengthening the non-proliferation regime, the development of cooperation in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the development of cooperation in the ecological rehabilitation of territories which have suffered from radioactive contamination, and will promote general and complete disarmament and a strengthening of regional and international peace and security. Kazakhstan will continue to participate consistently and constructively/in work on establishing/to establish/this zone.

66


Mr. Chairman,

The indefinite/termless extension of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is one of the most outstanding events in the strengthening of the regime for the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. At the same time, in our view/as we see it,/there is a fairly/rather/clear need to build on that success and to move towards the noble goal of full nuclear disarmament. We hope that the year 2000 review Conference will be marked by/will achieve/successful results/will be successful in this respect.

The delegation of Kazakhstan is ready to continue to strengthen its cooperation with the delegations of states parties to the Treaty to achieve that goal.

Комментарии:

  1.  на высокий пост this should be translated simply as "important"
    post, not as ''lofty" or "elevated," which sound almost humorous in
    English.
  2.  Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия the acronym is
    ДНЯО. The English acronym for the Nonproliferation treaty is NPT.
    These   are   extremely   common   in   any   bilateral   or   international
    disarmament discussions.
  3.  работа... пройдет плодотворно и эффективно there is no point
    wasting words and time on these standard  cliches;   
    "achieve  positive
    results"
    conveys the meaning of the two Russian adverbs.
  4.  важнейшее значение the superlative does not need to be heavily
    stressed  in  English.  
    "The greatest of importance"  is fine,  but  "great
    importance" will do just as well. "Great significance"
    is another option.
  5.  бессрочный характер —  the word  usually used  for such treaties
    "indefinite," but "termless" also occurs.
  6.  к нему присоединились the correct term is "to accede to" a treaty.
    To sign or ratify it is a different process.
  7.  приоритетным направлением переговорного процесса — more often
    than not,
    "направление" should be translated as "area" or "field" and not
    as "direction."
  8.  не предпринимая конкретных действий — "конкретный" continually
    presents problems for interpreters. Rather than the ever-present and not
    always idiomatic "concrete," the interpreter may opt for
    "specific" or
    "practical."
  9.  от усиления взаимодействия в рамках ООН зависит успешное про
    движение
    this is a good example of "think nominative." Starting with
    "On the strengthening of interaction ...will depend" will  lead to an

67


extremely clumsy sentence. It is much easier to begin with "Strengthening of interaction within the UN will determine..." and take the sentence to its logical conclusion.

  1.  ответственный период "responsible" will not work here; this is an
    "important," or crucial, or critical period.
  2.  придется констатировать — "we are obliged to/we must recognize/
    acknowledge"
    is stronger than "take note of the fact that," which is longer
    and less effective.
  3.  весомым вкладом — весомый should not be translated literally as
    "weighty;"
    significant or important will get the point across.
  4.  задача поддержания... режима нераспространения остается и будет
    оставаться весьма актуальной
    the repetition of an imperfective verb
    in the present and future can be rendered as
    "continues to be highly
    relevant,"
    or "will remain highly relevant." Repeating the verb "remains
    and will remain," is both awkward and time-consuming.
  5.  актуальный is a common ложный друг переводчика, since it
    means
    "relevant," urgent, pressing, or "to the point," but not actual.
  6.  зона, свободная от ядерного оружия is always translated by the
    much shorter phrase
    "nuclear weapon-free zone."

16) конференция   ознаменуется   успешными   результатами   —   this
basically means
"will be successful:" or "will achieve positive results," but
if you want to get fancy you can say
"will be crowned with success."

Disarmament: Statement by the Delegate of Kazakhstan

(UN, 1999)

(Читается с британским акцентом)

Mr. Chairman,

Allow me to associate myself with the congratulations extended to you on your election to the important post of Chairman of the third session of the Preparatory Committee for the Year 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and to express our confidence that under your skilled leadership the work of the Committee will proceed fruitfully and achieve positive results.

Mr. Chairman,

Since we attach the great importance to the decisions and resolutions of the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Kazakhstan supports efforts at encouraging the full application and

68


effective implementation of the provisions of this Treaty. The termless nature of the Treaty strongly reinforces the bases of international stability and security, and creates prospects for progress towards disarmament. 187 countries are already parties to the treaty. In the last four years alone 9 states have acceded to the NPT, and this is an important step towards ensuring its universality.

The wealth of experience gained in post-conflict development provides an additional impetus to the multilateral negotiations aimed at achieving specific practical solutions in the sphere of security, arms limitation and disarmament. It is universally acknowledged that a priority area of the negotiation process is nuclear disarmament and the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime. At the same time, unless we undertake concrete action in this area, we will never achieve our goal. We must recognize that the problems of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation have become interdependent, and that international security can be brought about only through joint efforts by both nuclear and non-nuclear states.

The highest priority role in advancing a solution to these questions in the disarmament field, as we see it, lies with the United Nations. The strength of interaction within the UN will determine the successful progress of the international community towards a secure, stable and prosperous world.

Mr. Chairman,

The current session of the Preparatory Committee is taking place at a critical time, when the approach of the new millenium makes it vitally necessary to take careful stock of what has been achieved and to develop reliable parameters for international relations in the future.

Unfortunately, it must be acknowledged that on the threshold of the next century the international community has encountered the threat of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is becoming quite evident that the new century will not be a safer one. However, a sense of futility should not dominate the international community. Specific steps are needed to eliminate the nuclear threat.

An important contribution to a practical solution to the problems facing the international community in the area of nuclear non-proliferation has been made by the effective mechanisms produced by the IAEA to monitor the turnover in nuclear materials, strengthen the international safeguards system and establish effective cooperation on questions of nuclear energy and radiation safety in the treatment of wastes.

69


Today's world is unimaginable without the broad use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. These include not only atomic energy, but also many nuclear-physics isotope technologies and methods, which have found their way into virtually all areas of our lives. There is a progressive development of peaceful nuclear technologies, and in these circumstances the task of maintaining and strengthening the non-proliferation regime will continue to be a highly relevant issue.

Kazakhstan attaches great importance to progress in the implementation of the initiative for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia. We are convinced that the zone in Central Asia will constitute an important step towards strengthening the non-proliferation regime, the development of cooperation in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the development of cooperation in the ecological rehabilitation of territories which have suffered from radioactive contamination, and will promote general and complete disarmament and a strengthening of regional and international peace and security. Kazakhstan will continue to participate consistently and constructively to establish this zone.

Mr. Chairman,

The indefinite extension of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is one of the most outstanding events in the strengthening of the regime for the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. At the same time, as we see it, there is a clear need to build on that success and to move towards the noble goal of full nuclear disarmament. We hope that the year 2000 Review Conference will achieve successful results.

The delegation of Kazakhstan is ready to continue to strengthen its cooperation with the delegations of states parties to the Treaty to

achieve that goal.

Текст 10

Международное сотрудничество в использовании космического пространства в мирных целях (ООН, 1995)

Господин Председатель,

У нас нет сомнений — Комитет по космосу, причем облеченный адекватными полномочиями, нужен мировому сообществу. У него есть надежная шкала ценностей, богатый опыт диалога и солидный капитал взаимодействия, которые, безусловно, должны быть сполна задействованы в интересах мирного освоения космоса.

Было бы во многих отношениях полезно развернуть работу над проектом принципов международного сотрудничества

70


в космической области, тем более что соответствующий интегрированный рабочий документ является неплохой основой для выработки, в конечном счете, согласованных решений. Тогда, думается, пессимистический сценарий работы над этим пунктом повестки дня, презумпция обреченного на неуспех диалога сменились бы продуктивным настроением на созидательное общение.

Предстоящая в следующем году работа над вопросом о делимитации воздушного и космического пространства явно тоже требует повышенного внимания. Здесь есть реальные возможности для нахождения компромиссов в методологии его дальнейшего рассмотрения.

Согласованный вопросник по аэрокосмическим объектам охватывает важные смысловые моменты, поощряет обновление

логического и понятийного подходов к проблеме делимитации. Возможно, на каком-то этапе все же удастся найти общее понимание среди сторонников и критиков рассмотрения вопросов разграничения пространств, подняться на более высокий уровень диалога. Для этого требуется прежде всего сообща решить, какие именно элементы нынешней парадигмы остаются и какие нуждаются в коррективах.

В новых координатах нуждается и работа над темой Геостационарной орбиты. Здесь объективно необходимо оживить диалог по различным аспектам справедливого и эффективного использования ГСО. Важно также в полной мере осознать, что духовное подвижничество и стремление к справедливости реализуемы только на основе бережного обращения с реальными фактами и обстоятельствами.

Теперь о нашем видении темы «космического мусора» в качестве потенциального пункта повестки дня Юридического подкомитета. В этом году эта проблема была центральным элементом многих выступлений представителей государств. Доминирующим было, как представляется, конструктивное стремление обсудить пути и средства перехода к нормотворчеству в этой сложной и чувствительной сфере.

Анализируя перспективы международно-правового регулирования техногенного засорения космоса, мы, конечно же, не предлагаем абстрагироваться от сложности рассматриваемых вопросов, обойти фазу детального изучения технических аспектов проблемы, которое как раз и позволило бы свести в единую систему все явления, связанные с «космическим мусором». Пренебрежение этим обстоятельством сулит нам всем одно — мы рискуем оказаться в положении, при котором стихийное

71


творческое начало возымеет верх над рациональной схемой; импровизации и сиюминутные помыслы станут важнее общей сообща задуманной позитивной работы.

Исходим из понимания, что истина станет общим достоянием только в том случае, если мы будем действовать сообща, добросовестно проявляя восприимчивость к точкам зрения друг друга, рассудительно и спокойно анализируя как перспективы долгосрочных решений в этой области, так и возможности среднесрочных компромиссных решений.

В целом, в конструктивном направлении идет обсуждение вопроса о созыве новой всемирной конференции по космосу.

Благодарю Вас, г-н Председатель.

* * *

Mr. Chairman,

We have no doubt/it is perfectly clear to us/there is no question that/it goes without saying that/the Committee on outer space, given/ provided/with/if the Committee is given/the appropriate authority/ competencies, is needed by/fulfills a need of/the international community. It has a reliable system of values, extensive experience in dialogue, and a long/impressive record of cooperation/interaction, which clearly/obviously/must be fully used/put to use/utilized/made use of/in the peaceful exploration of outer space.

It would be useful in many ways/in many respects/to expand/ continue/work on the draft of principles for international cooperation in the field of outer space, in particular since the relevant consolidated working paper is/forms/represents a good basis for finalizing/taking agreed decisions. Then/in that case/we feel, a worse case scenario regarding/a pessimistic outcome to/this agenda item, the assumption/ notion/that dialogue/cannot succeed/is doomed to fail/failure, would be replaced by/give way/yield to/a positive attitude regarding/impetus towards/creative interaction/contacts.

The work awaiting us next year/Next year's work/The work forthcoming next year/on the question/issue of the delimitation of air and outer space also clearly requires/calls for greater/increased/ enhanced attention. Here there/are real possibilities/real opportunities /is real potential for seeking/finding compromises regarding the methodology/to be considered/for further consideration of this subject.

The questionnaire which has been agreed on objects in outer space covers significant/important ideas/concepts,/and encourages/ stimulates/prompts a more/increasingly logical and conceptual/a


revitalized logical approach to the problem of delimitation. It is possible that at some stage it may yet/still be possible to reach an understanding among both the supporters and opponents of consideration of issues of delimitation of outer space, and to move to a higher/more sophisticated level of dialogue. This requires above all/first and foremost a joint decision as to precisely which elements of the present paradigm will remain and which require modification/adjustments/ restructuring.

New points of reference/structural elements are also needed in work on the subject of the geostationary orbit. Here there is a real need to revive/infuse a new spirit in/revitalize dialogue on various aspects of the fair and effective use of the GSO. It is also important to fully recognize/be fully aware that/noble/good/positive intentions/ constructive involvement/work for the common good and the desire to see justice done are possible only given/through a careful treatment of existing facts/realities and circumstances.

Now we turn to our view of the subject of "space debris" as a possible agenda item of the Legal Subcommittee. This year that problem was a major subject/key element in many statements by representatives of states. The dominant theme/what predominated was,/as we see it, a constructive desire to discuss the ways and means for/to bring about/a transition to the setting of standards/norms in this complex and sensitive field/area.

In/while analyzing the prospects for international-legal regulation of man-made/technologically generated littering of outer space, we of course/naturally/are not proposing/intending to ignore the complexity of the issues under consideration or to avoid/circumvent/sidestep the stage of a detailed study of the technical aspects of the problem, which in fact has made it possible to consolidate in/bring together in/a single system all of the factors/phenomena linked/connected to "space debris." Ignoring this aspect/this facet/factor can only mean/ lead to/result in/one thing for all of us we risk finding/are likely to find/ourselves in a situation in which a random/spontaneous creative approach prevails over rational planning/thinking/patterns, in which improvisation/flights of fancy and considerations of expediency/ short-term considerations/become more important than our shared/ collectively planned positive/constructive project/work.

We believe/take as our starting point/that truth will become our shared legacy/will be shared by all of us only if we all act together/in concert, conscientiously displaying/demonstrating sensitivity towards each other's points of view, thoughtfully/and calmly analyzing both the prospects for long-term decisions in this field and the possibilities/opportunities for medium term compromise solutions.

73


On the whole/generally speaking, the discussion of the question of convening a new global/world conference on outer space is moving in a constructive direction/taking place in a constructive atmosphere/ manner/spirit/tone. A constructive atmosphere/tone is prevailing/ dominating in/characterizing the discussion of the question of convening a new global/world conference on outer space.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

This is an extremely difficult text, one which requires a good deal of rethinking and reworking if it is to make sense in English. It contains many terms specific to the field of outer space and also expressions commonly used in statements on political subjects.

Комментарии:

1) космос should generally be translated as "outer space,"  not as
"space," to avoid confusion with
пространство. If the word has already
occurred several times in a speech, however, to save time the interpreter
can then say "space."

  1.  облеченный адекватными полномочиями "adequate" does not work
    here. "Given the appropriate authority" or even "mandated" is what is
    meant.
  2.  богатый опыт диалога и солидный капитал "extensive experience"
    or "a wealth  of experience" works better than the  hackneyed  "rich
    experience." In English, "solid capital" does not make sense. What is
    meant is a long record of "experience" in international cooperation, but
    if the word has just been used to translate
    "опыт," "an impressive record"
    is a good choice.
  3.  интегрированный рабочий документ — "consolidated" is better than
    "integrated," as this implies a synthesis of various draft documents.
    "Ра
    бочий документ"
    at conferences is nearly always "working paper."

5) пессимистический  сценарий   —  The   idea   here   is  a  "worse-case
scenario"
rather than the fairly bland "pessimistic scenario."

  1.  здесь есть реальные возможности the interpreter should not forget
    that
    "potential" is often a good or better translation of "возможности"
    than the frequently used "opportunities" or "possibilities."
  2.  важные смысловые моменты — "момент" is sometimes а ложный
    друг переводчика.
    The notion is of various ideas or concepts; "момен
    ты"
    can safely be dropped.
  3.  поощряет обновление the idea of обновление is of a revitalization
    or revival, and this sounds better than the awkward-sounding literal
    translation   "renewal,"   which   sounds   strange   as   applied   to   ideas
    or concepts.

74


  1.  среди   сторонников   и   критиков   —   supporters/advocates   and
    "opponents" sounds somewhat better than "critics," though the word can
    also be used.
  2.  какие нуждаются в коррективе "corrections" should be avoided,
    as this word is best applied to something highly specific
    i.e. typing or
    mathematical errors. In talking about ideas or abstractions,
    "adjustments"
    or "modifications" are much better choices.
  3.  в новых координатах "coordinates" does not work in English.
    "Elements," "factors," or "points of reference" will do.
  4.  духовное подвижничество "Spiritual abnegation" sounds like a
    prescription for a religious retreat, and "selflessness" is too emotional for
    this context. The idea here is a more general one of shared rather than
    individual interests.
  5.  реальные факты are best rendered as "realities," since "real facts"
    is both a tautology and idiomatically awkward.
  6.  космический мусор must be translated by the accepted term, "space
    debris."
    Anything involving "garbage" or "trash" would sound ridiculous.

15) нормотворчество   —   is  the  setting  or  establishing  of norms  or
standards in a given field.

  1.  пренебрежение этим обстоятельством is best translated by a gerund,
    "Ignoring this aspect." Using the noun "ignorance" would radically change
    the meaning, implying
    невежество rather than пренебрежение.
  2.  сообща задуманное The word задуманное often is better translated
    as
    "planned" or "intended" rather than "thought up," which can imply
    frivolity or a lack of seriousness.
  3.  в целом в конструктивном направлении the last sentence of this
    text is extremely tricky syntactically. The interpreter who does not have a
    text and starts in with "in a constructive direction" will have to insert
    something   to   finish   the   sentence   properly,   e.g.   "On   the   whole   a
    constructive direction (is the way) the discussion of the question of... is
    going."
    Направление here can to be rendered as "tone," "way" or "spirit."
    If the   interpreter  has  started   in  with   "On  the  whole  a  constructive
    direction"  (and  we  hope that   he  would  not  say  "in  a  constructive
    direction," but think nominative!) he can try to save the sentence by
    turning it into: "On the whole a constructive direction is the way the
    discussion on... has been going.." The sentence is a good example of why
    it pays to wait for an extra few seconds before starting the interpretation.

75


International Cooperation for the Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (UN, 1995)

(Читается в нормальном темпе с канадским акцентом, в быстром — с американским акцентом)

Mr. Chairman,

We have no doubt that the Committee on outer space, if given the appropriate authority, fulfills a need of the international community. It has a reliable system of values, extensive experience in dialogue, and an impressive record of cooperation which clearly must be fully utilized in the peaceful exploration of outer space.

It would be useful in many respects to continue work on the draft of principles for international cooperation in the field of outer space, in particular since the consolidated working paper forms a good basis for finalizing agreed decisions. In that case, we feel, a worst case scenario regarding this agenda item, the notion that dialogue is doomed to failure, would give way to a positive attitude regarding creative interaction.

Next year's work on the question of the delimitation of air and outer space also clearly requires greater attention. Here there is real potential for seeking compromises regarding the methodology for further consideration of this subject.

The questionnaire which has been agreed upon regarding objects in outer space covers important concepts, and encourages a revitalized logical and conceptual approach to the problem of delimitation. It is possible that at some stage it may still be possible to reach an understanding among both the supporters and opponents of consideration of issues of delimitation of space, and to move to a more sophisticated level of dialogue. This requires first and foremost a joint decision as to precisely which elements of the present paradigm will remain and which require adjustments.

New structural elements are also needed in work on the subject of the geostationary orbit. Here there is a real need to revitalize dialogue on various aspects of the fair and effective use of the GSO. It is also important to fully recognize that positive intentions and the desire to see justice done are possible only given a careful treatment of existing realities and circumstances.

Now we turn to our view of the subject of "space debris" as a possible agenda item of the Legal Subcommittee. This year that problem was a key element in many statements by representatives of states. The dominant theme was, as we see it, a constructive desire to discuss the ways and means for a transition to the setting of standards in this complex and sensitive field.

76


In analyzing the prospects for international-legal regulation of technologically generated littering of outer space, we naturally are not proposing to ignore the complexity of the issues under consideration or to sidestep the stage of a detailed study of the technical aspects of the problem, which in fact has made it possible to consolidate in a single system all of the factors linked to "space debris." Ignoring this aspect can only result in one thing for all of us we risk finding ourselves in a situation in which a random creative approach prevails over rational planning, in which improvisation and considerations of expediency become more important than our collectively planned constructive project.

We believe that truth will become our shared legacy only if we all act together, conscientiously demonstrating sensitivity towards each other's points of view, thoughtfully and calmly analyzing both the prospects for long term decisions in this field and the opportunities for medium term compromise solutions.

On the whole, the discussion of the question of convening a new global conference on outer space is taking place in a constructive atmosphere.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Текст 11

Здоровье и космос (ООН, 1986)

В своем нынешнем сообщении я хотел бы привлечь ваше внимание к вопросу о том, чему учит практика космических полетов, особенно длительных полетов, с точки зрения углубления и расширения медицинских знаний о человеке.

Природа не только вокруг нас, но и внутри нас. Мы сами — часть природы, о которой необходимо думать и которую необходимо защищать так же тщательно, как и окружающую среду.

В общих чертах, так сказать абстрактно, это понимают все. Беда, да, именно беда, состоит в том, что далеко не все из нас ассоциируют это с состоянием своего собственного здоровья, своим образом жизни.

Предупреждение болезней, сохранение здоровья, активное долголетие издавна сформулированы как главная цель медицины. В этом направлении достигнуты впечатляющие результаты.

Достаточно вспомнить об успешном искоренении многих опасных инфекционных заболеваний.

77


Ныне стало ясным, что космическая медицина заметно внесла крупный вклад в сокровищницу медицинских знаний.

Наши «пациенты» космонавты — здоровые люди, которых мы наблюдаем в течение довольно длительных периодов их жизни. Это и периоды отбора и подготовки, это и сложнейшие нагрузки во время космических полетов и при возвращении к земной гравитации, это и подготовка к новым стартам и опять полет. На всех этапах космонавты проходят самое тщательное регулярное медицинское обследование, находятся под пристальным вниманием медиков.

Более полными стали наши знания о механизмах регуляции сердечно-сосудистой системы, мышечного тонуса, координации движений, водно-электролитного обмена. Обогатились и представления о структуре и функции костной ткани и функционировании вестибулярного аппарата.

Хорошо известно, что ныне в структуре заболеваний людей одно из ведущих мест принадлежит заболеваниям сердечно-сосудистой системы. Среди них, в первую очередь, ишемическая болезнь сердца и гипертоническая болезнь с ее осложнениями, в основном, с нарушениями мозгового кровообращения, являются главными причинами смерти и инвалидизации жителей многих стран. Патологию сердечно-сосудистой системы с полным основанием можно назвать болезнью XX века.

Именно поэтому мне кажется, что в деле улучшения диагностики и профилактики сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний весьма полезен для земной практики может быть опыт, накопленный космической медициной.

Как известно, в космических полетах основные изменения отмечаются со стороны сердечно-сосудистой системы. Это, в основном, связано с уменьшением двигательной активности, повышенной нервно-эмоциональной нагрузкой, перераспределением крови в верхнюю половину тела вследствие отсутствия гравитационного фактора кровообращения и рядом других менее существенных причин. Поэтому при контроле за состоянием здоровья космонавтов ведущую роль продолжают играть методы кардиологических исследований.

Ясно, что такие заболевания, как ишемическая болезнь сердца, гипертоническая болезнь и ряд других болезней системы кровообращения не возникают внезапно. Они развиваются постепенно под влиянием неблагоприятных условий, так называемых «факторов риска». Результаты широких эпидемиологических исследований свидетельствуют о том, что основными


«факторами риска» сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний являются недостаточная физическая активность, нервно-эмоциональное напряжение, нарушения питания (избыточный вес тела), некоторые нарушения липидного обмена, курение и др.

Что касается индивидуальных факторов риска, то они включают три неконтролируемых, а именно: пол, возраст и наследственность. При этом, как известно, частота заболеваемости увеличивается с возрастом, мужчины болеют вдвое чаще, чем женщины, и вероятность заболевания выше у лиц, родители которых имели сердечные приступы в возрасте до 50 лет.

Важнейшими из этих факторов являются:

— конституционные (генетические) особенности;

возраст;

наличие сердечно-сосудистых расстройств в анамнезе;

отсутствие физических нагрузок;

неправильное питание (тучность);

стресс (нервно-эмоциональные перенапряжения).

Другим важным фактором риска, сопутствующим развитию сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний, является нерациональное питание.

Наша человеческая природа древняя, но она отнюдь не памятник старины. Охрана ее состоит вовсе не в том, чтобы защищать организм от физических или информационных нагрузок, создать ему некие тепличные или рафинированные условия существования.

Отнюдь   нет,   напротив.   Только   интенсивная,   всесторонне

гармоничная и полезная деятельность сможет защитить наше здоровье и сделать нашу жизнь интересной и продуктивной.

Опыт работы с космонавтами отчетливо демонстрирует ту простую истину, что регулярные наблюдения за состоянием здоровья, выполнение разумных профилактических процедур способны многие годы поддерживать отличную физическую форму, хорошее здоровье и высокую работоспособность.

Космическая медицина, будучи по своему характеру медициной предупредительной и профилактической, является моделью медицины будущего.

Ее методы и подходы по стабилизации здоровья космонавтов, объединенные с опытом и достижениями клинической медицины, уже сейчас могут внести ощутимый вклад в повышение .•ровня здоровья всех людей Земли.

79


Most of these medical terms require no-nonsense translation. In some sense technical translation is the easiest kind, because the interpreter's choices are so limited. On the other hand, this does require a precise knowledge of the technical terms used in the specific field. Here advance preparation is a must.

In my report/presentation/talk today 1 would like to draw your attention to the question of what space flights can teach us and in particular lengthy flights on deepening and broadening/expanding our medical knowledge about human beings.

Nature is not only around us, but also within us. We ourselves are a part of nature, to which we need to give thought, and which needs to be as carefully protected as the environment.

In general terms, abstractly speaking, everyone understands this. The problem and it is a real one is/lies in that fact/that few of us/by no means all of us/only some of us/associate this with our own health, with our own life style.

Prevention of illness, the maintenance of (good) health, and an active and long life/an active old age/an active life-style and longevity/ have long been regarded/posited/as the major/fundamental/basic goal of medicine. And here/in this area/impressive/outstanding/results have been achieved. Suffice it to/we need only/recall the successful eradication/elimination of many dangerous infectious diseases.

It has now become clear that space medicine has made/Space medicine has/clearly made a significant/very valuable contribution/ contributed greatly/done much for the expansion of medical knowledge.

Our (so-called) "patients," astronauts, are healthy people/ individuals/whom we observe/follow/track/monitor for rather long periods of their lives. These include the period of selection and training, the very difficult/hard/heavy duties during space flights and during the return to earth's gravitational pull/the earth's/terrestrial/ gravity, preparations for new launches/flights, and then the actual flight itself. At/during all these stages the astronauts are given thorough physical examinations and are under rigorous/close/ constant/intensive medical observation.

Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing/regulating the cardiovascular system, muscle tone, movement coordination, and fluid-electrolyte metabolism has been considerably/greatly expanded. We also know a great deal/much/more about the structure and functioning of bone tissue and of the vestibular/inner ear mechanism.

It is well known/it is common knowledge that among types of illnesses various pathologies/diseases/of the cardiovascular system are


among the most significant/ widespread/ important/play a very important role. Among these, first and foremost, coronary heart disease and hypertension with complications, primarily involving disorders in cerebral circulation are the major causes of/are primarily responsible for/death and disability/mortality and morbidity of people in many countries. The pathology of the cardiovascular system can rightfully/with good reason be called/termed/ labeled an illness of the 20th century.

This, it seems to me, is precisely (the reason)/This explains/why for the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular disease the experience of space medicine can be extremely useful.

It is known that in space flights fundamental/basic/the most significant/changes occur in the cardiovascular system. These are primarily attributed/linked to a drop/decrease/decline in motor activity, greater/increased nervous-emotional strain, and a shift in blood flow towards the upper part of the body due to the loss of gravity/as a result/due to/zero gravity in blood circulation, and a number of/some other/less important factors/reasons. This is why/ therefore/medical monitoring/monitoring of the health of astronauts/ continues to stress/attach great importance to/allocate a leading role to cardiovascular examinations.

It is clear that such illnesses as coronary heart disease, hypertension and a number of other circulatory ailments/illnesses/ diseases do not emerge all of a sudden/out of the blue/out of nowhere/without warning. They develop gradually under the influence of/subject to/as a result of negative conditions, so-called/ known as/"risk factors." The results of large-scale/extensive epidemiological studies have shown/demonstrated that the basic risk factors of cardiovascular disease are a lack of/insufficient/physical activity/a sedentary life style, nervous-emotional stress/tension, poor nutrition (obesity), disorders of the lipid metabolism, smoking, etc.

(As for) individual risk factors, (these) include three non-controllable ones: age, sex, and heredity. Moreover, it is known that the frequency/ incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, that the incidence among men is twice as high as among women, and that the probability of such illness is higher among individuals/ people/whose parents had heart attacks/below the age of 50/when they were under 50. The most important of these factors are: constitutional (genetic) traits; age; a family history of cardiovascular disorders; sedentary life style; poor nutrition (obesity); and stress (neuro-emotional strain).

Another important risk factor accompanying the development of cardiovascular disease is poor diet.


Our human nature is ancient, but it is by no means antiquated/an ancient relic. It should be preserved not by protecting the organism from physical or information overload, or by creating for it some kind of hothouse or artificial/antiseptic living conditions.

Certainly not/no way: Quite the contrary/opposite/The opposite is true. Only intense, varied/all-round, harmonious and useful activity

can protect our health and make our lives interesting and productive.

The experience of work with astronauts clearly demonstrates/proves /shows a simple truth: regular monitoring of health/regular physical examinations and the use of rational preventive procedures can/ maintain proper physical form/help stay in shape/maintain good health, and/an enhanced capacity for work/help people remain able-bodied.

Space medicine, since it is by definition/by nature/preventive and prophylactic, is a model for the medicine of the future.

Its methods and means of stabilizing the health of the astronauts, together with the experience and achievements of clinical medicine, can here and now/already/make a real/significant/tangible contribution to the better quality of health/improving the health of people/ everywhere/throughout the world.

Комментарии:

  1.  сообщение tor a speech or report at a conference, do not overlook
    "presentation" as a possible translation.
  2.  беда, да, именно беда It would be very risky to translate this as
    "misfortune," without knowing what is to come later in the sentence.
    "Problem"   is   neutral   enough   to   leave   the   interpreter   room   for
    maneuvering, while suggesting something negative.
  3.  долголетие While the term longevity can be used, the idea is that
    of living to an
    "active old age."
  4.  в этом направлении a simple "here" is shorter and more to the point
    that "in this area."

5) впечатляющие   результаты   —   there   is   nothing   wrong   with
"impressive," but "outstanding," "superb," "excellent" or any superlative
will   do,   as   the speaker   is   obviously   praising   the   results   of these
experiments.

6) вклад... в сокровищницу медицинских знаний — сокровищница сап
perfectly well be skipped, and "treasure house" is very awkward; or the
interpreter   can   speak   of  a   
"very   valuable   contribution   to   medical
knowledge."

7) космонавты   —   the   English   word   is   usually   "astronauts,"   but,
particularly when speaking of the Russian space program,
"cosmonauts"
is acceptable.

82


  1.  земная гравитация just "gravity" will do, but "gravitational pull"
    stresses the point. The term for
    невесомость is "weightlessness".
  2.  медицинское обследование — a medical exam/examination,  rather
    than research or study.

  1.  памятник старины "an ancient monument" would be too literal.
    The idea is that human nature can adapt and is flexible,
    "is far from
    antiquated."
  2.  рафинированные this should not be translated as "refined," which
    can have a positive connotation; rather, the idea is of something artificial.
  3.  отнюдь нет, напротив — "certainly not" is a literal, though correct
    translation. "No way" is very colloquial, and in a statement of this type
    would be inappropriate,  but  in other contexts is a possibility,  and  is
    therefore given here as an option.  "Quite the opposite" would be a
    sufficient translation of both
    отнюдь нет and напротив.
  4.  всесторонняя деятельность —  "comprehensive"  is a poor choice
    here. The idea is one of different types of activities which complement
    each other; "varied" will do nicely.

  1.  регулярное наблюдение monitoring, examination.
  2.  ощутимый вклад this is often best rendered as "a real contribution"
    rather than "tangible."

Health and Space (UN, 1986)

(Читается с американским акцентом)

In my presentation today I would like to draw your attention to the question of what space nights can teach us and in particular lengthy flights on deepening and expanding our medical knowledge about human beings.

Nature is not only around us, but also within us. We ourselves are a part of nature, to which we need to give thought, and which needs to be as carefully protected as the environment.

In general terms, abstractly speaking, everyone understands this. The problem and it is a real one lies in that fact that few of us associate this with our own health, with our own life-style.

Prevention of illness, the maintenance of good health, and an active and long life have long been regarded as the major goal of medicine. And here impressive results have been achieved. We need only recall the successful elimination of many dangerous infectious diseases.

It has now become clear that space medicine has made a valuable contribution to the expansion of medical knowledge.

Our (so-called) "patients," astronauts, are healthy individuals whom we monitor for rather long periods of their lives. These include


the period of selection and training, the very difficult duties during space flights and during the return to earth's gravitational pull, preparations for new launches and then the actual flight itself. During all these stages the astronauts are given thorough physical examinations and are under close medical observation.

Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the cardiovascular system, muscle tone, movement coordination, and fluid-electrolyte metabolism has been considerably expanded. We also know a great deal more about the structure and functioning of bone tissue and of the inner ear mechanism.

It is common knowledge that among types of illnesses various diseases of the cardiovascular system play a very important role. Among these, first and foremost, coronary heart disease and hypertension with complications, primarily involving disorders in cerebral circulation, are responsible for mortality and morbidity of people in many countries. The pathology of the cardiovascular system can with good reason be called an illness of the 20th century.

This, it seems to me, is precisely why for the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular disease the experience of space medicine can be extremely useful.

It is known that in space flights the most significant changes occur in the cardiovascular system. These are primarily attributed to a decline in motor activity, increased nervous-emotional strain, and a shift in blood flow towards the upper part of the body due to zero gravity in blood circulation, and some other less important factors. This is why medical monitoring of the health of astronauts continues to attach great importance to a leading role for cardiovascular examinations.

It is clear that such illnesses as coronary heart disease, hypertension and a number of other circulatory diseases do not emerge without warning. They develop gradually as a result of negative conditions, so-called "risk factors." The results of large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the basic risk factors of cardiovascular disease are a sedentary life style, nervous-emotional stress, poor nutrition (obesity), disorders of the lipid metabolism, smoking, etc.

Individual risk factors include three non-controllable ones: age, sex, and heredity. Moreover, it is known that the frequency of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, that the incidence among men is twice as high as among women, and that the probability of such illness is higher among individuals whose parents had heart attacks when they were under 50.

84


The most important of these factors are: genetic traits; age; a family history of cardiovascular disorders; sedentary life style; poor nutrition, and stress.

Another important risk factor accompanying the development of cardiovascular disease is poor diet.

Our human nature is ancient, but it is by no means antiquated. It should not be preserved by protecting the organism from physical or information overload, or by creating for it some kind of hothouse living conditions.

The opposite is true. Only intense, varied, harmonious and useful activity can protect our health and make our lives interesting and productive.

The experience of work with astronauts clearly shows a simple truth: regular physical examinations and the use of rational preventive procedures can maintain good health, and an enhanced capacity for work.

Space medicine, since it is by definition preventive and prophylactic, is a model for the medicine of the future.

Its methods and means of stabilizing the health of the astronauts, together with the experience and achievements of clinical medicine, already can make a significant contribution to improving the health of people throughout the world.

Текст 12 Проблема: наркотики (ООН, 1996 г.)

Господин Председатель,

Российская Федерация считает вполне обоснованным наше обсуждение сегодня вопросов международного сотрудничества в борьбе с наркоопасностью. Наркомания стоит сегодня в ряду самых страшных социальных бедствий на нашей планете. Злоупотребление наркотиками и их незаконный оборот представляют серьезную опасность жизни, здоровью и достоинству миллионов людей во всех без исключения уголках Земли, экономическому процветанию и политической стабильности многих государств. Впечатляющая статистика: количество наркоманов в мире составляет около 50 млн. человек, а ежегодные доходы производителей и распространителей губительного зелья превышают 500 млрд. долл.

Принимая во внимание величину наркотической угрозы в мире, ее трансграничный характер, эффективно противостоять этому злу в одиночку не под силу ни одному государству. Необходимо

85


соединение усилий всего мирового сообщества. Разумеется, стратегия может и должна адаптироваться к меняющимся реалиям. Важна регулярная «сверка часов» международного сообщества по главным приоритетам борьбы с наркоопасностью.

Россия поддерживает концентрацию усилий Программы по международному контролю над наркотиками в наиболее актуальных вопросах борьбы с наркоопасностью, включающих ужесточение контроля над производством и потреблением наркотических средств и психотропных веществ, укрепление взаимодействия государств на глобальном и региональном уровнях в противодействии их незаконному обороту.

Важный вопрос — обеспечение неотвратимости наказания лиц, занимающихся незаконным оборотом наркотиков, лишение их безопасного убежища. Путь к этому лежит через укрепление и развитие механизмов правовой помощи и выдачи преступников.

В целом, наркотическая ситуация в России остается достаточно сложной. Высокими темпами растет численность потребителей наркотиков, что приводит и к повышению уровня наркопреступлений. Продолжается нелегальное поступление наркотиков из законного оборота в незаконный. Стремительно увеличивается контрабанда наркотиков на территорию России из-за рубежа.

В этих условиях в России последовательно осуществляются крупные меры, направленные на противодействие незаконному обороту наркотиков и злоупотребления ими.

Форсированными темпами разрабатывается новое антинаркотическое законодательство. В Государственной Думе принят в

первом чтении пакет законопроектов, которыми предполагается урегулировать организационные основы деятельности в области законного оборота наркотиков и противодействия их незаконному обороту, определить принципы наркологической помощи и гарантии прав граждан при ее оказании, пересмотреть действующее административное и уголовное законодательство об ответственности за правонарушения, связанные с наркотиками.

На рассмотрение парламентариев вносится также подготовленный заинтересованными министерствами и ведомствами законопроект об ответственности за легализацию (отмывание) доходов от преступной деятельности, который создает правовую основу для борьбы с «грязными» деньгами, включая наркодоллары.

Определенные результаты достигнуты в улучшении антинаркотической работы среди различных социальных и возрастных

86


групп населения. Наращиваются усилия по повышению эффективности системы контроля за производством и распределением наркотических средств. Успешно проводятся исследования по совершенствованию аэрокосмических методов выявления наркопосевов.

Приоритетное внимание мы уделяем вопросу формирования системы коллективного противодействия наркоугрозе в рамках СНГ. Определенные результаты в этой области уже достигнуты. Российская сторона оказывает немалое практическое содействие ряду стран Содружества в их национальных усилиях по противодействию наркоопасности. Мы придаем важное значение расширению и развитию практического сотрудничества Программы ПРООН с соответствующими российскими ведомствами. Весомый импульс к тому призваны придать предстоящие технические консультации ЮНДКП в Москве. Мы ожидаем от них выработки всесторонней и сбалансированной программы сотрудничества с Россией, что, разумеется, предполагает тщательную подготовку данного мероприятия, которая российской стороной в настоящее время ведется.

Российская делегация надеется, что нынешняя дискуссия и принятые на ее основе решения будут способствовать дальнейшей консолидации усилий государств в борьбе с наркоопасностью.

* * *

Mr. Chairman,

The Russian Federation fully approves of/fully understands/feels that there is good reason for/considers as entirely reasonable/finds good grounds for/our discussion today of international cooperation in the war on drugs/campaign against drugs. Drug addiction today is among the most terrible/frightening/horrendous/social ills/disasters/ scourges/on our planet. Drug abuse and the illegal drug trade/traffic are/represent/a serious threat to the lives, health and dignity of millions of people in all regions of the globe/in the remotest corners of our planet/everywhere/wherever they may be, and to the economic prosperity and political stability of many states. The statistics are impressive/shocking: the number of drug addicts in the world numbers/accounts for approximately/about/around/some 50 million people, and the yearly incomes of the producers and distributors of these lethal/fatal poisons exceed (the sum of) 500 billion dollars.

Given/taking into account/in the light of/the magnitude/size of the drug threat to the world/on our planet, the way it crosses

87


borders/its universality/the way it knows no borders, resistance to this evil/scourge/cannot be/accomplished/done/carried out/by any state acting in isolation/is impossible for/cannot be coped with by/any state acting alone. What is needed/there is a need for/What is needed are/

efforts of the entire/whole international community. Naturally/of course, the strategy can and must be adapted to changing realities/the changing environment. What is important is a regular "synchronizing of watches"/"joint setting of the watches/clocks" of the international community with the major priorities of the drug war/campaign against drugs/drug threat.

Russia supports the focus of efforts/concentration of efforts/ intensification of efforts at international drug control on the most urgent/ pressing issues in the war on drugs, including tightening/ tighter/control of the production and use of drugs and psychotropic substances by states at the global and regional levels to counteract the illegal trade/traffic.

An important issue/question is/that of/to ensure/ensuring mandatory punishment for individuals engaged in the illegal drug trade and of depriving them of safe havens/shelters. This can be done by/The way to do this is through/strengthening the interaction of states on the global and regional levels to combat/deal with/resist this illegal trade/ traffic.

In general, the drug situation in Russia is/continues to be/ remains/rather complex/difficult. There has been a rapid growth/ increase in the number of drug users, which is leading to a rise in drug-related crimes. There is a continuation of/There continues to be an illegal shift/movement/transfer of drugs from legal to illegal circulation/trade. There is a rapid/rising/swiftly growing/increase in drug smuggling to Russian territory from abroad/from external/ foreign sources.

In these/such/conditions/In such a situation/Russia has been consistently implementing/carrying out/taking/major steps to counteract /combat/cope with/resist/the illegal drug trade and drug abuse.

There has been a stepping up/intensification/speeding up of new

anti-drug legislation. The State Duma adopted at a first reading a package of draft laws designed to establish an organizational basis/ foundation for the legal drug trade and to counteract illegal drug traffic/trade, to determine/define/lay down/set out/the principles for assistance for drug addiction and guarantee the rights of citizens regarding the rendering of such assistance, and to review the existing administrative and criminal legislation regarding/concerning responsibility for legal drug-related offenses.

88


The parliamentarians also will be considering a draft law proposed /presented by various/the appropriate/ministries and agencies concerning responsibility for the legalization (laundering) of income from criminal activity, which establishes/lays down a legal basis for the campaign against/war on "dirty" money, including drug dollars.

Some results/certain results have been achieved in improving antidrug work among various/different social and age groups of the population. Efforts are being stepped up/increased to enhance the effectiveness of the system of control over the production and distribution of drugs. Successful studies are research is/being carried out to improve aerial ways of finding/identifying drug crops.

We attach great importance/the highest priority to the question/ issue of the establishment/formation of a system of collective resistance to/work against/efforts to combat the drug threat within the CIS. Some results have already been achieved in this area. The Russian side is rendering considerable practical assistance to a number of countries of the Commonwealth in their national efforts to counter the drug threat. We attach great importance to the expansion and development of real/practical cooperation of UNDP (United Nations Development Program) with the various/appropriate Russian agencies. A major impetus/big push/strong stimulus/for/to this will be given by the upcoming/forthcoming technical consultations with UNDCP (United Nations Drug Control Program) in Moscow. We are expecting that these will produce a comprehensive and balanced program of cooperation with Russia which, naturally, will require careful/thorough/rigorous preparation of this project/undertaking/ activity, which is now/currently/presently being conducted/carried out by Russia/the Russian side.

The Russian delegation hopes that the present/this/discussion and the adoption on its basis/the consequent adoption of/the adoption as a result of decisions will promote/advance/the further consolidation of the efforts of states in the war on drugs.

Комментарии:

  1.  считает вполне обоснованным Basically, this means that there is
    good reason for something. In this context, "fully approves of will do;
    "finds good grounds for" is a bit more literal.
  2.  борьба с наркоопасностью the accepted term now is "the war on
    drugs."
  3.  наркомания this is drug addiction.
  4.  злоупотребление наркотиками the expression for drug abuse.
  5.  незаконный оборот while this can be translated as "illegal trade,"
    "illegal traffic" is becoming more commonly used.

89


  1.  во всех без исключения уголках Земли while this can be translated
    literally, "everywhere" is a lot shorter and means exactly the same thing.
  2.  впечатляющая статистика literally, the adjective is "impressive" but
    since   the   speaker   is   obviously   stressing   how   bad   the   situation   is,
    "shocking" would do, too. "Figures" can also be used for
    статистика.
  3.  противостоять этому злу в одиночку не под силу ни одному государ
    ству
    the idea is that all states must act together. Another possibility,
    using antonymic translation, is
    "only by acting together/in concert/can
    states successfully withstand/resist this evil/scourge."
  4.  необходимо this word, in particular at the beginning of a sentence,
    can usually be translated as
    "There is a need to," which is a lot more
    idiomatic than "it is necessary to." That provides for an easy transition to
    the rest of the sentence. The alternative, "What is needed is" may lead to
    a more complicated construction.

  1.  контролю here the word "control" is fine as a translation, but this
    is   a   word   which   requires   care   in   translation.   In   the   language   of
    disarmament it often means "verification," and in both disarmament and
    politics may mean "monitoring."
  2.  ужесточение this can be "tightening" or "intensification," which
    sounds better.
  3.  обеспечение неотвратимости  наказания лиц —  the  idea  is that
    punishment   is   mandatory   for   such   people:   the   literal   translation
    "irreversibility" does not work.
  4.  путь к этому the interpreter should insofar as possible avoid the
    hackneyed "path" or "road" in translating
    путь. "The way to" will do
    here, or simply,
    "This can be done by..."
  5.  высокими темпами растет another good example of "think no
    minative..."
    "There has been rapid growth" will open the way to a smooth
    sentence; since a process is involved, the verb should be in a compound
    tense  rather than simply  "there  is."  The  noun  should  be  left  in  the
    singular.
  6.  в этих условиях while a literal translation is possible here (and even
    a non-nominative construction,
    "in these conditions," a simple
    "therefore"   or  "as   a  result"   would   also  do.   Very  often   "in  these
    circumstances" is a much smoother translation of
    этих условиях" than
    "in these conditions."

  1.  форсированными темпами —  lends itself to a "There has been"
    construction, particularly if the interpreter does not have a text. With a
    text, of course, the sentence structure could be inverted: "New anti-drug
    legislation is being rapidly drawn up."
  2.  в   Государственной   Думе   —   another   good   example   of  "think
    nominative."
    "The Duma adopted at a first reading" is clearly much better
    than "In the Duma there was adopted..."
  3.  


на рассмотрение парламентариев — "The parliamentarians will be
considering,"
the active mood, is much stronger than "for consideration
by the  parliamentarians,"  which  then   leads  to  some  very  awkward
constructions: "is being proposed also the draft law..."

определенные результаты — "определенные" can often better be
rendered as "some" rather than by
"definite" or "certain."

наращивается the reflexive verb is best rendered by a "there is" or
"there has been" construction.

приоритетное внимание мы уделяем... — "we attach" will do, but a
present continuous verb
"we are continuing to attach" would be
even stronger here.

весомый импульс translations of весомый should usually get away
from anything involving "weighty." "A
major impetus" is fine; "a big
push" is very colloquial.

борьбе с наркоопасностью — again, this is best rendered by "the war
on drugs."

The Problem of Drugs (UN, 1996)

(Читается с канадским акцентом)

Mr. Chairman,

The Russian Federation finds good grounds for our discussion today of international cooperation in the war on drugs. Drug addiction today is among the most terrible social ills on our planet. Drug abuse and the illegal drug trade represent a serious threat to the lives, health and dignity of millions of people everywhere, and to the economic prosperity and political stability of many states. The statistics are shocking: the number of drug addicts in the world accounts for some 50 million people, and the yearly incomes of the producers and distributors of these lethal poisons exceed 500 billion dollars.

In the light of the magnitude of the drug threat to our planet, its universality, resistance to this evil is impossible for any state acting alone. What is needed are efforts of the entire international community. Naturally, the strategy can and must be adapted to changing realities. What is important is a regular "synchronizing of watches" of the international community with the major priorities of the campaign against drugs.

Russia supports the intensification of efforts at international drug control on the most urgent issues in the war on drugs, including tighter control of the production and use of drugs and psychotropic substances by states at the global and regional levels to counteract the illegal traffic.

 91


An important question is to ensure mandatory punishment for individuals engaged in the illegal drug trade and to deprive them of safe havens. The way to do this is through strengthening the interaction of states on the global and regional levels to combat this illegal trade.

In general, the drug situation in Russia remains rather complex. There has been a rapid growth in the number of drug users, which is leading to a rise in drug-related crimes. There is a continuation of an illegal transfer of drugs from legal to illegal circulation. There is a swiftly growing increase in drug smuggling to Russian territory from foreign sources.

In these conditions Russia has been consistently taking major steps to combat the illegal drug trade and drug abuse.

There has been a stepping up of new anti-drug legislation. The State Duma adopted at a first reading a package of draft laws designed to establish an organizational basis for the legal drug trade and to counteract illegal drug traffic, to lay down the principles for assistance for drug addiction and guarantee the rights of citizens regarding the rendering of such assistance, and to review the existing administrative and criminal legislation concerning responsibility for legal drug-related offenses.

The parliamentarians also will be considering a draft law proposed by various ministries and agencies concerning responsibility for the laundering of income from criminal activity, which establishes a legal basis for the war on "dirty" money, including drug dollars.

Some results have been achieved in improving anti-drug work among various social and age groups of the population. Efforts are being stepped up to enhance the effectiveness of the system of control over the production and distribution of drugs. Successful studies are being carried out to improve aerial ways of identifying drug crops.

We attach the highest priority to the issue of the establishment of a system of collective resistance to combat the drug threat within the CIS. Some results have already been achieved in this area. The Russian side is rendering considerable practical assistance to a number of countries of the Commonwealth in their national efforts to counter the drug threat. We attach great importance to the expansion and development of real cooperation of UNDP with the appropriate Russian agencies. A major impetus to this will be given by the forthcoming technical consultations with UNDCP in Moscow. We are expecting that these will produce a comprehensive and balanced

92


program of cooperation with Russia which, naturally, will require rigorous preparation of this project, which is currently being carried out by the Russian side.

The Russian delegation hopes that this discussion and the consequent adoption of decisions will advance the further consolidation of the efforts of states in the war on drugs.

Текст 13

Интервью с профессором Сергеем Мироновым

Сергей Павлович, кто они ваши основные пациенты?

Спортсмены... Артисты балета... Цирковые артисты... Раз
ные люди с
разными судьбами и разными травмами. За годы су
ществования нашей клиники мы лечили Майю Плисецкую и
Валерия Харламова, Владимира Васильева и Ольгу Корбут... У
нас перебывали едва ли не все составы сборных Союза по хок
кею, футболу, гимнастике, известные киноартисты. Спорт и ис
кусство рядом не только потому, что это всегда взлет духа, твор
чество, импровизация. Но и потому, что это — огромные физи
ческие нагрузки и, увы, травмы.

Ваши пациенты, наверное, и к больничному обслуживанию
предъявляют особые требования?
Но что-то я не заметил здесь
этакого ненавязчивого «кремлевского» сервиса.

Нет для этого материальной базы. Палаты, в основном, на
4—5 человек, операционная наша ремонтируется, так что прихо
дится пользоваться чужими, еда... Какая сегодня в больнице мо
жет быть еда!
Сами, наверное, оценили.

Оценил. И не только еду. Вот попросил у сестры кусочек
лейкопластыря, а она руками разводит:
нет в помине...

И с бинтами туго, и с ватой, не говоря уже о лекарствах.
Да в Москве
еще куда ни шло.

И все-таки ваша клиника давно считается престижной.
Говорят, что сюда можно было попасть
только по блату...

Скорее, она была специализированной, рассчитанной на
людей с характерными травмами. Теперь к нам может попасть
любой пациент. Условие, к сожалению, только одно:
за лечение
необходимо платить.

А вы бы хотели стать владельцем частной клиники?

Хотел бы.

93


И не боитесь, что вас обзовут воротилой, эксплуататором
наемного труда, человеком,
зарабатывающим деньги на несчасть
ях ближнего своего?

Я боюсь, несмотря на свои 44 года, не дожить до этого. Да
и потом
отечественная система, блестяще оперируя подобными
штампами в отношении к медицине Запада, довела
нашего чело
века,
особенно человека заболевшего, до такого состояния, что
он сегодня боится ходить к врачу, а тем паче оказаться в больни
це. Да и
не по карману ему сегодня становится это удовольствие.

Ваше положение, в том числе и материальное, вас не уни
жает ?

Что значит не унижает? Я, например, широкий человек,
мой дом всегда открыт для знакомых и друзей. Но вы же знае
те, в наше время даже не очень большое
застолье обходится в
сумасшедшие деньги. Или вот есть у меня один недостаток: не
могу
ездить на работу городским транспортом, потому что все
гда хочется приехать в клинику, особенно когда предстоит опе
рация, в непомятом состоянии. А бензин нынче... Словом, в ма
териальном плане мне далеко до того, чтобы соответствовать,
скажем, положению «дореволюционного» профессора.

И дело тут не только в личных вкусах и привязанностях. Вот, например, в Испании с 25 по 29 мая будет проводиться первый всемирный конгресс по спортивной травматологии. Казалось бы, кому как не нам — представителям клиники, накопившей за годы своего существования уникальный опыт, в нем участвовать. Мы подготовились, нам прислали приглашения. Но если лететь туда с моим ассистентом, то на двоих эта поездка обойдется примерно в 4 тысячи долларов. Где их взять? А ведь этот конгресс собирает все лучшие силы мира, появляется возможность получить уникальную информацию, обрести новые связи, завязать новые контакты. Одна надежда на спонсоров. Дай Бог, найдутся.

Выходит, народная мудрость права: лучше быть богатым и
здоровым, чем бедным и больным?

Да уж, сегодня лучше не болеть. Собственно то, что про
исходит в медицине, отражает общие процессы. Скажем, если в
клиниках Москвы всегда был огромный приток иногородних
больных, то сейчас он резко сократился. Чтобы приехать в сто
лицу лечиться,  надо ведь располагать немалыми средствами:
платить за дорогу, проживание, питание, лечение. Сейчас мно
гие детские больницы вынуждены сокращать число коек чуть ли
не вдвое. И мы теперь должны думать не только о том, как
помочь человеку профессионально,  но и  как облегчить ему

94


непосильное финансовое бремя. Скажем, если вести речь о травматологии, то теоретически перелом любой сложности можно ведь лечить на дому. А мы вынуждены практически после каждой операции держать больного в клинике — его просто некуда выписать, нет амбулаторных реабилитационных баз. Для их создания нужны помещения, деньги... Замкнутый круг.

Для решения всех этих наболевших вопросов вам нужен,
наверное, не столько талант врача, сколько администратора. Он
у вас есть?

Многому научился у мамы. Ей приходилось и лечить, и
клинику на себе тащить, а это — сотни проблем.

Сергей  Павлович,  простите за банальный вопрос.  А  вы
счастливы ?

Наверное. Есть любимая работа, умные коллеги, друзья,
семья, сын растет...

Сколько ему?

Почти семь.

Вы бы хотели, чтобы он пошел по вашим стопам? Ведь у
вас, можно сказать, развивается семейное дело
Зоя Сергеевна,
ваша мама, руководила клиникой, теперь вы...

Вообще-то я за семейственность. Раньше это почему-то
порицалось,   
но  теперь,  думается,   в  этом   никто   не  должен
видеть ничего зазорного. Если подрастают дети, и не вырастают
дебилами, почему бы им не передавать то дело, которому отда
вали
свои силы и энергию их предки. А силы, ей-же Богу, ухо
дят немалые.

А вам не хотелось в один прекрасный день плюнуть на эту
муторную жизнь
и уехать, скажем, за границу? Неужели у вас не
было подобных предложений — с вашим-то талантом и квалифи
кацией ?

...Конечно, были. В принципе, я далек от громких слов о

патриотизме, но уезжать не хочу. Держат здесь родные могилы, в том числе и могила отца, имя матери, наше дело. Да и потом сами же говорите: сын растет...

* * *

This text which consists of an interview with a noted physician by a journalist, makes use of highly colloquial language, and should be translated as such to do it justice.

* * *

95


Sergei Pavlovich, who are your patients most of lhem?/Who
forms the bulk of your patients':У Where are most of your patients coming
from?/What kind of people are most of your patients?

Athletes... Ballet performers... circus performers. Different kinds
of people of different sorts/from different walks of life/from different
backgrounds/doing different things/with different lives
and different
injuries/illnesses/problems/traumas.   During/over   the   years   of  its
existence/that it has been around/our clinic has/we've treated Maya
Plisetskaya  and  Valery   Kharlamov,   Vladimir  Vasiliev  and   Olga
Korbut... We've seen nearly all the players/members of the USSR
hockey, football and gymnastics teams, and well known movie actors/
Nearly all the players/members of the USSR hockey, football and
gymnastics teams, and well known movie actors have been to our
clinic/come to us. Sports and art go together not just because they
always involve flights/a soaring of the spirit,(spurts of) creativity, and
improvisation.   It's also because these  involve enormous physical
stress/overload, and, unfortunately, traumas.

Your patients probably are also pretty demanding of/make special
demands on/are tough customers for/insist on special/health care in the
clinic.
Yet I don't think I've seen/1 haven'( really seen/You don't seem
to have that sophisticated/elegant/refined/kind of "Kremlin "/"Kremlin-
style "/service here.

We don't have the funds for that. Most of the wards are for 4—5
people, our operating room is being redone/under repair, so we have
to use facilities elsewhere/other facilities, the food... What kind of
food can you have in a hospital nowadays!/What can hospital food be
like nowadays?
You've probably/seen that for yourself/had a chance to
try that out/been through that yourself.—
Been through it/I've done
that/Had that experience. And not just of the food. I asked the nurse for
a bandaid, and she threw up her hands/shrugged her shoulders:
haven't
seen one in ages/not one in sight/ forget it.

Things are tight/rough/tough/bad  regarding/There's a  real
shortage of gauze bandages, and cotton, let alone medicines.
And in
Moscow the situation is still livable/and in Moscow you can still put
up with the situation/And if you think Moscow's bad...

And yet/But your clinic has always been considered prestigious.
People
say you/can only get in here through connections/have to have
pull to get in here/need to know someone to get in here.

Well, I'd rather say that it was specialized, intended for people
with specific kinds of trauma. Now/any patient can come here/we
accept anyone/any and all  patients. There's only one condition,
unfortunately:
you have to pay for treatment/all treatment is for pay.

96


And would you like to become the owner of a private clinic?

I would/Sure.

And   you're   not   afraid/of   being   called/that   you'd   be
called/labelled/stigmatized as/a   bigwig/big shot/big  cheese,/someone
making money off his neighbor's misfortunes/raking it in over the next
guy's problems/making money at the next guy's expense?

I'm afraid, even though I'm already 44, I won't live to see that
(day).
And, you know, the Russian system, which is great at pinning/
throwing around terms/labels like that at/on western medicine, has
pushed/gotten our people, particularly when they get sick, to the point
where today they're afraid to go to the doctor, and they're even more
scared of landing/ending up/winding up/in the hospital. No
one can/
afford that/shell out that kind of money for/allow himself that kind of
luxury.

You don '1 feel humiliated/put down/by your own situation and
your own financial situation
?

What does that mean, "don't feel humiliated?" I'm pretty
generous, I like to do things for/help
out/my acquaintances and friends/

have people over/entertain... But you know that nowadays even a small get-together/having a few people over/the food and drink for just a few guests/even entertaining modestly costs a fortune/a mint/an arm and a leg. And I've got one "fault"/"shortcoming" I won't/don't

take public transportation to work, because I always want to get to the clinic, especially when I've got to operate/before an operation, looking unrumpled/without getting my clothes wrinkled/ feeling crisp and clean. And (the cost of) gas nowadays... Well/to sum it up/in a word, materially/I'm nowhere near/far from/the situation of a "prerevolutionary" professor. And it's not just a question of personal tastes and preferences. For example, in Spain from May 25—29 there's going to be the first world congress on sports injuries. You'd think that we/Who other than we the representatives of a clinic which has acquired/gained unique experience over the years would be the obvious people/choice to participate/to go. We prepared for it, we were sent/received invitations. But the flight for me and my assistant there would run/cost/set us back approximately/about/around $4,000. Where is that going to come from? And the congress is bringing together the best specialists/most knowledgeable experts from all over/worldwide,/there's a chance to get/obtain unique/irreplaceable information, establish new ties/get to know new people, make/ establish new contacts. Our only hope is for sponsors. God willing, there will be some/we'll find some.


So the adage/popular saying is right: it's better to be rich and
healthy than poor and sick
?

Yes, today you're better off not getting sick. What's going on
in medicine is in fact reflecting more general processes. For example,
while/there has always been a huge flow of patients from other cities
to Moscow clinics/Moscow clinics have always had a huge flow of
patients coming from other cities, today there are a lot less/there's
been a drastic drop/a sharp decline. To come to the capital for
treatment you need considerable funds/a lot of money: to pay for/
cover the trip,  housing,  food, treatment.  Today many children's
hospitals   have   had/been   forced/obliged/to   practically   halve   the
number of beds. And now we need to think not just about how to
render a person professional assistance, but how to ease his terrible/
desperate financial burden/plight. For example, if we're talking about
traumas, theoretically/a fracture of any degree of complexity/even any
kind of compound fracture/can be treated at home. But we're forced
after virtually/practically every operation to keep the patient in the
clinic, because there's literally no place to which to discharge him, and
there   are   no   ambulatory   rehabilitation   centers.   For   those   you
need/Those require/premises/buildings, money...
It's a vicious circle.

To solve all these pressing/urgent/longstanding problems you
probably have to be not just a talented doctor, but a/so a talented
administrator. Can you do that/Do you have that in you
?

I learned a lot from my mother. She had to both see patients and
run the clinic (single-handed), and that involves hundreds of problems.

Sergei Pavlovich, apologies/sorry for a banal question. Are you
happy?

Probably/I think so. I've got work I love/I love my work,/I
have bright colleagues, friends, my family, my son is growing up...

How old is he?

Almost/going on/seven.

Would you like him to follow in your footsteps? After all, you've
got, so to speak, a family business going... Zoya Sergeevna ran the clinic,
now you're doing it....

Well, I'm for family businesses. In the past that for some reason
was criticized/castigated/but I don't see anything shameful about it.
When your children grow up, and grow up normal/if they're not
retarded/mental   defectives/dumb  why   not   pass  on   to  them   the
thing/cause to which their parents/forefathers have devoted/dedicated
their lives/creative strength/forces/and energy. And it certainly requires
a good deal of creative strength/it certainly takes a lot out of you.

98


But one fine day wouldn't you feel like giving up on this
dump/saying good-bye to this dreary mess/throwing in the
towel/and
going off', well, abroad? Don 't you have/You can
7 not have had/offers
someone of your talent and skills?

Of course I've had them. In principle, I'm not the type to
proclaim  patriotic  slogans/I  don't  go  in  for  proclaiming  patriotic
sentiments/I don't like making patriotic noises
but I don't want to
leave.   My ancestors/relatives/are buried  here,  there's my father's
grave, my mother's reputation, our
cause/work. And as you've just
said/noted: my son is growing up/I'm raising my son...

Комментарии:

  1.  ваши основные пациенты the idea is not "basic" here, but rather
    who are most of them, who forms the bulk or majority of them.
  2.  Спортсмены... Артисты балета... Цирковые артисты — Артисты here
    are
    "performers," or "performing artists," not necessarily "artists," and
    спортсмены is usually translated as "athletes."
  3.  разными судьбами "with different fates"  is a much too literal
    translation. These people are
    "from different walks of life," "from different
    backgrounds,"
    even, colloquially, "all kinds of people."
  4.  к больничному обслуживанию предъявляют особые требования —
    they are demanding, insistent, "tough customers." The verb предъявляют
    is easily subsumed into any of these expressions and does not require
    literal translation.
  5.  нет для этого материальной базы "material base" does not mean
    anything in English. He means, quite simply, that he does not have the
    money or the funds for this.
  6.  сами, наверное, оценили the tone here is obviously sarcastic.
    "Assess" or "evaluate" is much too formal.
    "You've probably been through
    that" or "seen for yourself'
    is what is meant.
  7.  нет в помине again, this is very colloquial. "Not one in sight," or
    even
    "forget it" will get the concept across.
  8.  еще куда ни шло this idiom can be translated as "is still livable,"
    "is still bearable," meaning that though the situation is not good there are
    far worse situations.
  9.  давно считается what is important here is the verb tense. This
    cannot be translated by a simple or compound present tense, as this is
    action   begun   in   the   past   and   continued   into   the   present.   
    "Has
    always/long/been considered prestigious"
    would be a good translation.

10) только  по  блату  —  the closest   English  translation  is  "to  have
connections,"   
or,   colloquially,   "to   have   pull."   "You   have   to   know
someone"
will also do; a very colloquial expression is "to have an in with
someone."

99


1!) за лечение необходимо платить the word необходимо does not require separate translation, as "you have to pay" covers that. "It is necessary to pay" is formal and awkward.

  1.  зарабатывающим деньги на несчастьях своего ближнего — while the
    idea here is that of "making money off someone else," or more formally,
    at someone else's expense, the use of "neighbor" keeps the biblical nuance
    of
    ближнего.
  2.  не дожить до этого the English idiom needs "day" i.e. "live to
    sec that day."
  3.  отечественная система — "The Russian system" or "The system in
    our country"
    are clear renditions of this phrase..
  4.  нашего человека this has to be rephrased if it is to make any sense
    in English. "Our people," or "Russians" will do, but the plural must be used.
  5.  не по карману — "no one can afford that" or "afford to shell/fork out
    that kind of money"
    will do. Or, simply, "that's just too expensive."
  6.  широкий человек a seemingly simple, but quite tricky phrase. The
    idea here is one of generosity, of living well but not in a selfish sense.
    "Broad" or "open" will not work.
    "I like to help out" or "I'm pretty
    generous"
    gets the idea across.

  1.  не очень большое застолье — застолье is one of those culturally
    determined   concepts   which   always   creates   a   headache   for   the
    translator/interpreter. This needs rephrasing: "a small get-together," or
    "having a few people over" is adequate. "Wining and dining" implies
    going out to a restaurant, not entertaining at home.
  2.  сумасшедшие деньги — "it costs an arm and a leg," or "a (small)
    fortune"
    are common colloquialisms in English for this. "It breaks the
    bank"
    is even more informal.
  3.  не могу "I can't" is not a good translation, because the issue here
    is not one of being physically unable to take public transportation, but
    rather of not wanting to do so. Hence
    "I won't" or "don't" are needed
    here, not "I can't."
  4.  одна надежда на спонсоров "the only hope is for sponsors" is a
    bit awkward; "our only hope" is much better. Or,
    "The only way out for
    us is to find sponsors."
  5.  замкнутый круг is best translated by the idiom "a vicious circle"
    rather than by a "closed circle." This is an English idiom which has lost
    the original meaning of "vicious" as brutal or cruel.

  1.  это почему-то  порицалось  the  idea is not so  much  one of
    rejection, as of criticism.
  2.  в один прекрасный день плюнуть на эту муторную жизнь this
    phrase needs some reworking, as a literal translation would be both silly
    and incomprehensible.
    "Throw in the towel" or "walk away from it all"
    would be good equivalents.

100


  1.  я далек от громких слов о патриотизме here, too, reworking is
    needed.
    "I'm not given to making patriotic statements" is a possibility, or
    "I don't go around trumpeting patriotism/patriotic slogans."
  2.  дело this is "cause" or "work," or even "my life's work."

Interview with Professor Sergei Mironov

(Читается с британским и с австралийским акцентами)

Sergei Pavlovich, where are most of your patients coming from?

Athletes...   Ballet  performers...  circus  performers.   Different
kinds of people with different lives and different injuries. During the
years of its existence our clinic has treated Maya Plisetskaya and
Valery Kharlamov, Vladimir Vasiliev and Olga Korbut...We've seen
nearly all the players of the USSR hockey, football and gymnastics
teams, and well known movie stars. Sports and art go together not just
because they always involve spurts of creativity, and improvisation.
It's   also   because   these   involve   enormous   physical   stress,   and,
unfortunately, traumas.

Your patients probably are also pretty tough customers. Yet I don't
think I've seen refined "Kremlin-style" service here.

We don't have the funds for that. Most of the wards are for
4—5 people, our operating room is under repair, so we have to use
other facilities, the food...What kind of food can you have in a
hospital nowadays! You've probably seen that for yourself.

Been through it. And not Just the food. I asked the nurse far a
bandaid, and she threw up her hands: forget it.

There's a real shortage of gauze bandages, and cotton, let alone medicines. And in Moscow you can still put up with the situation...

And yet your clinic has always been considered prestigious. People
say you can only get in here through pull.

Well, I'd rather say that it was specialized, intended for people
with specific kinds of trauma. Now we accept anyone. There's only
one condition, unfortunately: you have to pay for treatment.

And would you like to become the owner of a private clinic ?

Sure.

You 're not afraid you 'd be called a big cheese, someone making
money at the next guy's expense?

I'm afraid, even though I'm already 44, I won't live to see that
day. And, you know, the Russian system, which is great at throwing
around terms like that at western medicine, has gotten our people,

101


particularly when they get sick, to the point where today they're afraid to go to the doctor, and they're even more scared of ending up in the hospital. No one can afford that kind of money.

You don't feel humiliated by your own situation and your own
financial situation!

What does that mean, "don't feel humiliated?" I'm pretty ge
nerous, I like to help out my acquaintances and friends, have people
over. But you know that nowadays costs a fortune. And I've got one
shortcoming
I don't take public transportation to work, because I
always want to get to the clinic, especially when I've got to operate,
feeling crisp and clean. And gas nowadays... Well, to sum it up,
materially, I'm far from being in the situation of a "pre-revolutionary"
professor.

And it's not just a question of personal tastes and preferences. For example, in Spain from May 25—29 there's going to be the first world congress on sports injuries. You'd think that we the representatives of a clinic which has gained unique experience over the years would be the obvious people to go. We prepared for it, we received invitations. But the flight for me and my assistant would set us back about $4,000. Where is that going to come from? And the congress is bringing together the best specialists from all over, there's a chance to get unique information, make new contacts. Our only hope is for sponsors. God willing, we'll find some.— So the popular saying is right: it's better to be rich and healthy than poor and sick ?

Yes, today you're better off not getting sick. What's going on
in medicine is in fact reflecting more general processes. For example,
while Moscow clinics have always had a huge flow of patients coming
from other cities, today there are a lot less. To come to the capital
for treatment you need a lot of money: to cover the trip, housing,
food, treatment. Today many children's hospitals have been forced to
practically halve the number of beds. And now we need to think not
just about how to render a person professional assistance, but how to
ease his desperate financial plight. For example, if we're talking about
traumas, theoretically a fracture of any degree of complexity, even
any compound fracture, can be treated at home. But we're forced
after virtually every operation to  keep the  patient in the clinic,
because there's literally no place to discharge him, and there are no
ambulatory  rehabilitation  centers.   For those you  need buildings,
money... It's a vicious circle.

To solve all these pressing problems you probably have to be not
just a talented doctor, but also a talented administrator. Do you have
that in you
?

102


I learned a lot from my mother. She had to both see patients and
run the clinic single-handed, and that involves hundreds of problems.

Sergei Pavlovich, sorry for a banal question. Are you happy?

I think so. I love my work, I have bright colleagues, friends,
my family, my son is growing up...

How old is he?

Going on seven.

Would you like him to follow in your footsteps ? After all, you 've
got, so to speak, a family business going... Zoya Sergeevna ran the clinic,
now you 're doing it....

Well,  I'm for family businesses.  In the past that for some
reason was criticized, but
1 don't see anything shameful about it.
When your children grow up, and if they grow up normal, if they're
not mental defectives why not pass on to them the thing to which
their parents have devoted their lives and energy. But it certainly takes
a lot out of you.

But one fine clay wouldn't you feel like throwing in the towel and
going off, well, abroad? Don't you have offers
someone of your talent
and skills
?

Of course I've had them. In principle, I don't like making
patriotic noises, but I don't want to leave. My ancestors are buried
here, there's my father's grave, my mother's reputation, our cause.
And as you've just said: my son is growing up...

Текст 14

Выступление Председателя Правительства России

В.С.Черномырдина на 19-й специальной сессии

Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН по охране

окружающей среды, 1997

Уважаемый господин Председатель,

Прежде всего, уважаемый господин Председатель, примите наши поздравления с избранием Вас на этот высокий пост. Делегация России, разделяя общий настрой на продуктивную работу сессии, будет всемерно способствовать успешному выполнению Вашей ответственной миссии.

Россия в целом позитивно оценивает ход осуществления решений Конференции ООН 1992 года по окружающей среде и развитию. Четче обозначились приоритетные направления и актуальные

103


проблемы в области охраны окружающей среды и обеспечения устойчивого развития. Уже работают рожденные в Рио-де-Жанейро глобальные конвенции по изменению климата и биообразия, формируются условия для запуска новых механизмов международно-правового регулирования в природоохранной среде.

Концепция устойчивого развития, принятая в Рио, обогатилась в результате проведения последующих крупных форумов ООН по вопросам народонаселения, населенных пунктов, продовольственной безопасности, социального развития, укрепления роли женщин. Тем самым заложена солидная основа для глобального партнерства по обеспечению устойчивого развития.

Сделано немало, но качественных сдвигов в оздоровлении экологии Земли пока не произошло. Сохраняется угроза дальнейшего ухудшения состояния окружающей среды планеты. Об этом свидетельствуют подготовленные в последнее время авторитетными международными организациями и научными институтами оценки экологической ситуации в мире и ее перспектив в условиях сохранения нынешних моделей хозяйствования.

Основной вызов усилиям по достижению устойчивого развития ставит технологическое обновление "экономики в условиях бурной глобализации и растущего антропогенного прессинга на природу, в то время как современной цивилизацией не предложено альтернативы, которая могла бы по существу заменить регулирующие механизмы биосферы.

Нынешний форум призван дать толчок международному природоохранному сотрудничеству. Сосредоточиться на устранении выявленных пробелов, недоработок. Среди них — создание оптимальных условий для передачи экологически безопасных технологий, более стабильное и предсказуемое ресурсное обеспечение природоохранных мероприятий, развертывание работы по выработке конвенции о сохранении и рациональном использовании лесных ресурсов и др.

Россия в нынешних непростых условиях делает максимум возможного для поддержки усилий мирового сообщества в решении этих приоритетных глобальных проблем. Указом Президента Российской Федерации Б.Н.Ельцина от 1 апреля 1996 года определено существо нашей концепции о переходе страны к устойчивому развитию. Мы неукоснительно выполняем свои обязательства по конвенциям об изменении климата и сохранении биологического разнообразия, активно участвуем в других международных усилиях, призванных претворить в жизнь идеологию и практику устойчивого развития.


Стержень нашего подхода к устойчивому развитию базируется на особой ответственности России за экологию планеты. Наше воздействие на глобальную окружающую среду весьма значительно в абсолютном масштабе, а также по отношению к производимому продукту в сравнении с другими технологически передовыми государствами. Россия располагает крупнейшим на планете массивом естественных экосистем, которые служат резервом устойчивости глобальной биосферы.

Переход нашей страны к рыночной модели хозяйства и кардинальные усилия по социальному преобразованию общества позволяют повысить ответственность за состояние окружающей среды в процессе осуществления экономической реформы, более гибко сочетая меры государственного регулирования с рыночными механизмами.

Важное значение мы придаем укреплению сотрудничества в борьбе с истощением озонового слоя земли, которое чревато драматическими последствиями для человечества и биосферы.

У России есть заинтересованность в полноценном участии в Конвенции по борьбе с опустыниванием. Практические шаги в этом направлении последуют после разработки и принятия дополнительного приложения к Конвенции, отражающего особые условия стран с переходной экономикой.

По нашему убеждению, назрела необходимость в скорейшем начале переговорного процесса для разработки международно-правового инструмента по лесам. Мы осознаем издержки расточительства в использовании природных ресурсов и в этой связи считаем задачей первоочередной важности перестройку энергетического сектора.

Как лесная держава, обладающая одной пятой лесных массивов Земли, Россия крайне заинтересована в рациональном использовании и сбережении лесов для нужд потомков и всего человечества. Леса — это не только ресурсы для экономического развития, но и «легкие», поглощающие среди прочего те самые газы, которые вызывают парниковый эффект и чреваты угрозами нестабильности климатической системы.

Должное внимание должно быть уделено таким принципиально важным вопросам, как качество глобальных ресурсов пресной воды; сохранение экосистем Мирового океана; комплексное развитие энергетических ресурсов, экологичный транспорт; урбанизация; продовольственная безопасность.

105


Понимаем, что с плеча все эти проблемы не решить, но наращивать коэффициент нашего совместного полезного действия можно и нужно с непременным и самым тщательным учетом интересов и реальных возможностей всех групп государств.

Благодарю за внимание.

* * *

Mr. President,

First of all, Mr. President, please accept our congratulations/ we/should like to congratulate you/extend our congratulations on your election to this important/distinguished post. The Russian delegation/ shares the general desire for a productive session/like other delegations hopes our session will be productive/and will/in all possible ways/do everything possible/all in its power/to promote the/success of/successful conclusion/achievement of/your important task/agenda/ objective.

Russia for the most part/on the whole/approves of/assesses positively/looks favorably on/the continuation of/the developments in/ progress of/the implementation of the decisions of the UN conference on the environment and development of 1992. There has been a clearer identification/highlighting/demarcation/of priority areas/ priorities/and pressing/urgent/relevant/problems concerning/regarding the environment and in ensuring/achieving sustainable development. There are already in effect/we already see in operation the global conventions produced/ drawn up/initiated in Rio de Janeiro on climate change and biodiversity, and conditions are being established/created for the launching/start of new mechanisms for/ international legal regulation in the ecological sphere/area of the environment.

The concept of stable development adopted in Rio has been fleshed out/supplemented through the holding of subsequent UN fora on issues/problems of population, population centers, food security, social development, and enhancing the role of women. This has established/created a good/reliable/solid/basis/foundation for global partnership to bring about/for sustainable development.

A good deal/much/has been done, but there have not yet been qualitative changes/moves towards improving the earth's ecology. There is still a threat of further deterioration of the state of the planet's environment. This is shown/demonstrated/attested to/by the assessments recently prepared by authoritative international organizations and research-scientific institutes on the ecological situation in the world and (its) future prospects/perspectives for the future/given the continuation/maintenance of present economic models.


The major challenge to (efforts to achieve) sustainable development is being posed/raised by/technological innovations in economics in conditions of galloping/lightning/globalization and growing anthropogenic/human/pressure on nature, while modern civilization has no alternative which could in fact/truly/replace the regulating mechanisms of the biosphere.

This forum must/is being called on to provide an impetus for/to

stimulate/international environmental cooperation. It must focus on the elimination of existing gaps and shortcomings. These include the establishment of the best possible/optimal conditions for the transfer of ecologically safe technologies, more stable and predictable availability of/provision of resources to environmental projects/ activities, the development of work to draw up/produce a convention on the preservation and rational use of forest resources, etc.

Russia in today's difficult conditions/circumstances is doing all in its power/everything possible/to support the efforts of the international community to resolve these high priority global problems. An edict of the President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, of I April 1996 defines the substance of our concept of the country's transition to sustainable development. We are unswervingly fulfilling our obligations under/strictly complying with/carrying out to the letter/the convention on climate change and the preservation of biological diversity, and are actively participating in other international efforts to bring about real/implement in practice/realize the words and deeds of/concept and practice of/sustainable development.

The foundation of/our approach to sustainable development/is stems from/Our approach to sustainable development is based on/ Russia's special responsibility for the ecology of the planet. Our impact on the global environment is a major one/extremely significant on an absolute scale, and also regarding the results produced as compared to other technologically advanced states. Russia possesses/has the (planet's) largest mass of natural ecosystems/on the planet, which serve/act as a reserve for the stability of the global biosphere.

The transition of our country to a market economic system and the fundamental/radical efforts for the/to bring/at bringing about

the/social transformation of society/allow to/bring about/promote greater/more/enhance responsibility for the state of the environment ecology/climate/during the process of the implementation of economic reform, for a more flexible combination of measures of state regulation with economic mechanisms.

107


We attach great significance to the strengthening of cooperation to counteract/resist the depletion of the earth's ozone layer, which is fraught with/which risks/which may have tragic/dramatic consequences

for mankind and for the biosphere.

Russia is interested in full-fledged participation in the Convention against desertification. Practical action/steps/real measures here/in this field will follow after the drawing up and adoption of an additional annex to the Convention, reflecting the specific conditions of countries with a transition economy.

We believe that the time is ripe/there is a need for/a speedy beginning of/to begin immediately/the negotiating process to produce an international-legal instrument on forests. We are aware of/ acknowledge the consequences of/damage caused by wasteful use of/the squandering of natural resources, and here/therefore believe that a highest priority objective/task is the restructuring of the energy sector.

As a country/which has forests/with forests/which account for/ one-fifth of all the large forests of the earth, Russia is extremely interested in/concerned for the rational use of and preservation of forests for the needs of our descendants and for all mankind. Forests are not only a resource for economic development but also the "lungs" which absorb, inter alia, those very gases which cause the greenhouse effect and threaten to destabilize the climate system.

(Due) Attention must also be paid to/focused on such fundamentally/ basically important questions as the quality of global drinking water resources; the preservation of the ecosystems of the World ocean; the comprehensive development of energy resources and ecological transportation; urbanization and food security.

We understand/are aware/that all these problems cannot be solved right away/right off/at one blow/, but our joint effectiveness/our joint effective actions/can and must be stepped up/intensified, by/ through unfailing/full and careful/rigorous/scrupulous/concern for the interests and genuine potential/actual/realistic possibilities/potential of all groups of states.

Thank you, Mr. President.

This text is packed with words and phrases which can be condensed or omitted, and many clauses require rephrasing. It also includes some useful and very common ecological terms which the student is well advised to learn.

Комментарии:

1) уважаемый господин председатель since the speaker is addressing the President of the UN General Assembly, this is "Mr. President" and not "Mr. Chairman." Уважаемый should always be omitted when addressing the Chairman/President at the beginning of a speech.

108


  1.  общий настрой на продуктивную работу сессии to save time, the
    interpreter can simply say, "Hopes our session will be successful" or
    "productive," which is all this basically means.
  2.  вашей ответственной миссии "mission" should be avoided, and the
    literal   translation   "responsible"   does   not   work   for   
    ответственной.
    "Important task" or "agenda" gets the point across.
  3.  в целом позитивно оценивает ход осуществления решений — "has a
    positive assessment" is cliched and awkward. "Approves of is what is
    meant.
    "Ход" does not have to be translated as "course;" the idea is one
    of developments or continuation of implementation.
  4.  приоритетные направления — "high priority" is clearer than "priority"
    here, and  nine times out of ten
    направление  is  "area"   rather than
    "direction."
    Актуальные as а "ложный друг переводчика" should be
    rendered as relevant or pressing, rather than "actual."
    В области can
    easily be omitted.
  5.  устойчивого развития while устойчивый often means "stable,"
    устойчивое развитие has become the accepted rendering of "sustainable
    development," and
    is always translated as such.
  6.  укрепления роли женщин since this is the last clause in the sentence
    it needs
    "and" before it. If the interpreter fails to insert that, he can always
    say, once he realizes that the sentence has come to an end, "enhancing
    the role of women,
    etc./and other issues."
  7.  заложена солидная основа — a good or reliable foundation has been
    laid
    is what is meant.

  1.  по   обеспечению   —   can   easily   be   omitted   —   "for  sustainable
    development" is sufficient.
  2.  сделано немало antonymic translation is needed: "much" or "a
    good deal"
    or "a lot" has been done,

  1.  об этом свидетельствует this required "thinking nominative,"
    turning the
    об этом into a nominative subject: "This demonstrates/proves..."
  2.  в последнее время often can simply be rendered as "recently,"
    which is idiomatic and saves time.
  3.  в условиях can easily be omitted.
  4.  ставит технологическое обновление this needs a compound tense,
    since it involves description of a continuing process:
    "The challenge...is
    being posed by..."
  5.  призван the idea here is either "is being called on," or, simply,
    "must."
  6.  сосредоточиться на... this is best translated by being turned into a
    subject: "It must focus on..."

17) среди   них   —   another  example   of how   "thinking   nominative"
simplifies the English syntax:
"These include..." rather than the clumsy
construction, "Among them are..."

109


18) указом   —   yet   another   "think   nominative:"   "An  edict   of  the
President..."
Be sure to say "Boris Yeltsin" and not "B.N.Yeltsin," since
English does not ordinarily use initials with last names.

  1.  мы неукоснительно выполняем this needs a continuous compound
    tense:  
    We  have  been/we are unswervingly/strictly complying with our
    obligations,
    since there is obviously a process involved here.
  2.  претворить в жизнь идеологию и практику a literal translation is
    very clumsy. "To bring to life," "to implement in word and deed" get the
    idea across.

21) кардинальные   усилия   —   кардинальные   is   best   rendered   as
"fundamental" or "radical," but definitely not as "cardinal."

  1.  борьбе с истощением — истощение of the ozone layer is "depletion",
    and
    борьба can be omitted since the meaning of the sentence is clear from
    the verb
    "counteract" or "resist."
  2.  драматические последствия while "dramatic" often but not always
    works as a translation for
    драматические, "tragic" is sometimes a better
    choice.
  3.  у России есть another clear case of "think nominative:" "Russia
    is interested/wishes to..."
  4.  практические шаги в этом направлении — "realistic measures" is just
    as good as "practical steps," and gets rid of the ever-present "practical."
    "В этом направлении" can easily be rendered as "here" or "in this field."
  5.  как лесная держава "a forest power" sounds slightly odd, and "as
    a country with forests" will solve the problem.
  6.  чреваты угрозами нестабильности климатической системы — here
    the ubiquitous "fraught with" can safely be dispensed with and replaced
    by "threaten to."

  1.  принципиально  важным —  this constantly  recurring adjective  is
    universally detested  by  Russian-English  interpreters,  for  "principled"
    almost never works. "Fundamental" is a much better choice.
  2.  комплексное   развитие   —   this   can   only   be   "comprehensive,"
    definitely   not   "complex."   The   idea   is   of  all-round,   full-coverage
    development, not of a "complicated" development.

  1.  непременным и самым тщательным учетом — "taking into account"
    for учет will complicate this sentence. "Concern" (see above translations)
    works much better.
  2.  реальных возможностей don't forget "potential" as a translation of
    возможностей.
  3.  благодарю за внимание don't spoil the impression created by an
    excellent   interpretation   by   mumbling   something   about   "for   your
    attention."  This  is  not  a  first  grade  classroom  of students  "paying
    attention" to the teacher, and "thank you for your attention" does not
    work in English. Just
    "I thank you" is fine.

110


Premier V.S. Chernomyrdin, Statement at the 19th Special

Session of the UN General Assembly on Environmental

Protection, 1997

(Читается с американским акцентом)

Mr. President,

First of all, Mr. President, we should like to extend our congratulations on your election to this important post. The Russian delegation shares the general desire for a productive session and will do everything possible to promote the successful conclusion of your important agenda objective.

Russia on the whole approves of the continuation of the implementation of the decisions of the UN conference on the environment and development of 1992. There has been a clearer identification of priority areas and pressing problems concerning the environment and in ensuring sustainable development. We already see in operation the global conventions drawn up in Rio de Janeiro on climate change and biodiversity, and conditions are being established for the launching of new mechanisms for international legal regulation in the area of the environment.

The concept of stable development adopted in Rio has been fleshed out through the holding of subsequent UN fora on problems of population, population centers, food security, social development, and enhancing the role of women. This has established a reliable foundation for global partnership for sustainable development.

Much has been done, but there have not yet been qualitative changes towards improving the earth's ecology. There is still a threat of further deterioration of the state of the planet's environment. This is shown by the assessments recently prepared by authoritative international organizations and research-scientific institutes on the ecological situation in the world and future prospects, given the maintenance of present economic models.

The major challenge to sustainable development is being posed by technological innovations in economics in conditions of lightning globalization and growing human pressure on nature, while modern civilization has no alternative which could in fact replace the regulating mechanisms of the biosphere.

This forum must provide an impetus to stimulate international environmental cooperation. It must focus on the elimination of existing gaps and shortcomings. These include the establishment of the best possible conditions for the transfer of ecologically safe

111


technologies, more stable and predictable availability of resources to environmental projects, the development of work to produce a convention on the preservation and rational use of forest resources, etc.

Russia in today's difficult conditions is doing all in its power to support the efforts of the international community to resolve these high priority global problems. An edict of the President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, of 1 April 1996 defines the substance of our concept of the country's transition to sustainable development. We are strictly complying with the convention on climate change and the preservation of biological diversity, and are actively participating in other international efforts to realize the concept and practice of sustainable development.

The foundation of our approach to sustainable development stems from Russia's special responsibility for the ecology of the planet. Our impact on the global environment is extremely significant on an absolute scale, and also regarding the results produced as compared to other technologically advanced states. Russia possesses the largest mass of natural ecosystems on the planet, which act as a reserve for the stability of the global biosphere.

The transition of our country to a market economic system and the fundamental efforts at bringing about the social transformation of society allow for increased responsibility for the state of the environment during the process of the implementation of economic reform, for a more flexible combination of measures of state regulation with economic mechanisms.

We attach great significance to the strengthening of cooperation to counteract the depletion of the earth's ozone layer, which is fraught with tragic dramatic consequences for mankind and for the biosphere.

Russia is interested in full-fledged participation in the Convention against desertification. Practical measures here will follow after the drawing up and adoption of an additional annex to the Convention, reflecting the specific conditions of countries with a transition economy.

We believe that the time is ripe to begin immediately the negotiating process to produce an international-legal instrument on forests. We are aware of the consequences of damage caused by the squandering of natural resources and therefore believe that a highest priority objective is the restructuring of the energy sector.

As a country with forests which account for one-fifth of all the large forests of the earth, Russia is extremely concerned for the rational use of and preservation of forests for the needs of our

112


descendants and for all mankind. Forests are not only a resource for economic development but also the "lungs" which absorb, inter alia, those very gases which cause the greenhouse effect and threaten to destabilize the climate system.

Attention must also be paid to such fundamentally important questions as the quality of global drinking water resources; the preservation of the ecosystems of the World ocean; the comprehensive development of energy resources and ecological transportation; urbanization and food security.

We understand that all these problems cannot be solved right away, but our joint effectiveness can and must be stepped up through full and rigorous concern for the interests and genuine potential of all groups of states.

Thank you, Mr. President.

Текст 15

Представитель Республики Кыргызстан по окружающей среде (ООН, 1997)

Господин Председатель,

Позвольте мне присоединиться к поздравлениям, высказанным в Ваш адрес в связи с избранием на этот высокий и ответственный пост. Позвольте также выразить уверенность, что Ваш богатый профессиональный и жизненный опыт, помноженный на высокое дипломатическое искусство, будут способствовать живому диалогу и плодотворным дискуссиям, которые приведут к выработке конкретных мер и рекомендаций по достижению грандиозных целей Рио.

Конференция в Рио-де-Жанейро подтвердила, что социально-экономическое развитие и охрана окружающей среды тесно взаимосвязаны и взаимообусловлены. В рамках эффективной политики они должны рассматриваться совместно. Она свидетельствовала также о том, что новые экологические угрозы: повреждение озонового слоя, изменение глобального климата, сокращение запасов пресной воды, обезлесение, сокращение биологического разнообразия, заражение окружающей среды промышленными и радиоактивными отходами, наступление пустынь и другие, — стали более острыми и их решение не терпит отлагательства. Государства — участники конференции подчеркнули, что решение проблем окружающей среды и развития требует создания новой формы партнерских отношений — глобального партнерства на основе постоянного и конструктивного диалога,


определяемого необходимостью создания более эффективной и справедливой мировой экономики с учетом взаимозависимости сообщества наций и приоритета вопроса устойчивого развития.

Конференция также приняла решение привлечь внимание к исключительно важному значению горных массивов для человечества и предложить Генеральной Ассамблее ООН объявить Международный Год Гор. Эта просьба была поддержана Президентом Кыргызстана А.Акаевым. Хочу выразить надежду, что эта просьба найдет отклик как среди правительств, так и у неправительственных организаций, различных региональных и субрегиональных инициатив.

Горы занимают пятую часть суши, в них проживает по меньшей мере 10% мирового населения, которое находится в зависимости от горных ресурсов. Еще большая часть населения использует другие горные ресурсы, включая, в особенности, воду. Расположенные на вершинах гор ледники являются основными источниками пресной воды. Недостаток воды, наряду с недостатком других природных ресурсов, приводит к усилению нищеты, углублению социальных противоречий, к росту этнической напряженности и, как следствие, к возникновению вооруженных конфликтов. Не случайно из 48 вооруженных конфликтов, имевших место в 1995 году, 26 произошли в горных районах. Горы часто являются местом экологических рисков и стихийных бедствий. Землетрясения, оползни и обвалы не только наносят серьезный ущерб экономике горных районов, но ежегодно уносят тысячи человеческих жизней. С другой стороны, горы предоставляют прекрасные возможности для развития туризма, горнолыжного спорта, альпинизма, охоты.

Правительство Республики Кыргызстан придает огромное значение вопросам экологии. Развитие природного потенциала является центральным направлением национальной стратегии Республики Кыргызстан по устойчивому человеческому развитию. В ноябре 1995 года нами был принят Национальный план охраны окружающей среды.

Горы покрывают 90% территории Кыргызстана. Ледники на многотысячных вершинах Памира и Тянь-Шаня дают жизнь рекам Аму-Дарье и Сыр-Дарье, которые являются главными водными артериями Аральского моря. Обладая огромными водными и гидроэнергетическими возобновляемыми ресурсами, Кыргызстан поистине является экологическим сердцем Центральной Азии. Однако, чтобы это сердце продолжало биться, нужно бережное отношение к его здоровью.

114


Законом Республики Кыргызстан об охране природы предусматривается ответственность промышленных предприятий за загрязнение окружающей среды при выбросах в атмосферу, сбросах в водоемы, при размещении твердых отходов. Это положение распространяется и на химические и радиоактивные вредные вещества. В настоящее время ведется работа над Законом Кыргызской Республики о радиационной безопасности населения.

Господин Председатель,

Прошедшие пять лет продолжали характеризоваться ухудшением глобальной окружающей среды и истощением природных ресурсов. Народная мудрость гласит: «Дорогу осилит в гору идущий». Только смелый и настойчивый человек покоряет вершины гор. Только настойчивые совместные усилия и ресурсы правительств, неправительственных организаций, частного сектора, международных, субрегиональных, региональных организаций и инициатив приведут к осуществлению грандиозной Повестки дня на XXI век, на пороге которого мы стоим.

Спасибо за внимание.

* * *

Mr. President,

Allow/Permit me/May I/associate myself with/join the/ congratulations extended to you/also congratulate you/on your election to this distinguished/important/major/post. Allow me also to express my/our confidence/certainty that your extensive/abundant/wealth of professional and personal experience, along with/together with/your great diplomatic skill/skill as a diplomat will promote/advance/active/ lively/creative dialogue and fruitful discussions, leading to/resulting in/ (the drawing up of) specific measures and recommendations to achieve the far-reaching/lofty/noble/ambitious goals/objectives of Rio.

The conference in Rio de Janeiro reaffirmed that socio-economic development and environmental protection are closely connected/ linked and interdependent. Within the context/framework of/effective policy they must be considered together/jointly/in tandem. The conference also demonstrated/showed/proved/that new ecological/ environmental threats: depletion of the ozone layer, changes in the global climate, a decline in fresh water supplies, deforestation, the decline in biodiversity, environmental pollution, industrial and radioactive wastes, the spread/encroachment of the desert/ desertification and other problems have become more critical/ dramatic/drastic and require immediate solutions/their solution brooks


no delay/is urgent. States-parties to/states which participated in the

conference emphasized/stressed/underlined that a solution to the problems of the environment and development require (the creation/establishment of) new forms of partnership relations: global partnership on the basis of an ongoing/ continuing/permanent/ unbroken and constructive dialogue, predicated on/resulting from the need to create a more effective and just world economy which takes into account/takes due account of/is fully aware of/fully acknowledges the interdependence of the community of nations and the high priority of/attached to the problem/issue/question of sustainable development.

The conference also took a decision to call attention to the enormous/great/highest priority importance of mountains/mountain ranges for mankind and to propose to the UN General Assembly the declaration of the International Mountain Year. This request was supported by the President of Kyrgyzstan, Mr. Akaev. I wish to express /voice the hope, that this request will be backed by/meet with the approval of/will be taken up by/both governments and nongovernmental organizations, and by various regional and subregional groups/initiatives/associations.

Mountains account for/occupy/one-fifth of all dry land, and at least 10 per cent of the world's population live here/in these regions,

and are dependent on mountain resources. An even greater part of the population uses/makes use of other mountain resources, especially water. The glaciers located on mountain peaks are the basic sources of fresh water. A shortage of water together with a lack of other natural resources leads to an intensification/aggravation of poverty, intensifies social strife, and leads to a growth of ethnic tensions and, consequently, to the outbreak/emergence of armed conflicts. It is no accident that/it is not fortuitous that 48 armed conflicts took place in 1995, and that 26 occurred/took place in mountainous regions. Mountains are often the site of ecological disturbances and natural disasters. Earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches not only inflict on/ cause/do serious damage to the economy of mountainous regions, but also claim thousands of victims/kill thousands of people/cause thousands of casualties/annually. On the other hand, mountains provide superb/outstanding opportunities/possibilities/for the development of tourism, skiing, mountain climbing and hunting.

The government of the Kyrgyz Republic attaches great/the highest/importance to questions of ecology. The development of natural resources/nature/is the major focus/thrust/primary area/of national strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for sustainable human development. In November, 1995 we adopted a National Plan for environmental protection.


Mountains cover 90% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Glaciers high up on/thousands of feet above/the Pamir and Tien-Shan peaks nourish/feed/the rivers of the Amu Darya and the Sir Darya, which are the major water sources for the Aral Sea. With its enormous water and renewable hydroenergy resources, Kyrgyzstan is truly the ecological heart/center of Central Asia. For that heart to keep on beating, however, its health must be carefully monitored/it must take care of its health/it must stay healthy.

The law of the Kyrgyz Republic on environmental protection stipulates/lays down/spells out/the responsibility of industrial enterprises for environmental pollution as a result of emissions into the atmosphere, sewage runoff into reservoirs, and disposal of solid waste. This provision is also applicable to chemical and radioactive toxic substances. Now/currently/at the present time work is underway on a law of the Kyrgyz Republic on radiation safety for the population.

Mr. President,

The last/past five years have been marked by/continue to reveal/ to display a deterioration of the global environment and the exhaustion/depletion of natural resources. The popular saying goes/ Popular wisdom has it that "He who climbs the mountain will master the road/reach his journey's end." Only a brave/courageous and persistent/determined person can conquer mountain peaks. Only the persistent joint efforts and resources of governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, international, subregional, and regional organizations and initiatives will lead to/ result in the implementation of the farsighted goals of the agenda for the 21st century and we are now standing on its threshold.

This text makes use of a good many ecological terms frequently encountered in materials on the environment, a subject which is becoming of ever greater concern in today's world.

Комментарии:

  1.  позвольте мне присоединиться к поздравлениям, высказанным в Ваш
    адрес в связи с избранием на этот высокий и ответственный пост —
    this
    is an excellent example of "flowers" in an introduction. The interpreter
    knows virtually from the very first words what will follow, and it is not worth
    wasting time looking for the best possible adjective.
    "Allow me also to
    congratulate you on your election to this important post"
    is quite adequate.
  2.  помноженное на высокое дипломатическое искусство all that по
    множенное
    requires here is "along with" or "together with." Anything on
    the order of "compounded by" will simply sound silly.

117


  1.  живому диалогу the idea is an active or lively exchange of views.
  2.  которые приведут к выработке this is a good candidate for judicious
    cutting;
    "discussions leading to specific measures" is the point being made.

  1.  грандиозных целей Рио the reference is to the Rio de Janeiro
    conference on the environment. "Grandiose" sounds insulting, as though
    unrealistic goals are being set.
    "Ambitious" or "far-ranging" come closer
    to the meaning,
  2.  и другие стали более острыми и их решение не терпит отлагатель
    ства
    —there are a lot of extra words here. These problems, basically,
    "have become more serious and require immediate solution." Even shorter
    would be
    "these ever more urgent problems require immediate solution."
  3.  государства — участники конференции when talking about a treaty,
    государства-участники are always "states-parties," not participants. In
    reference to a conference, however, they can be either.
  4.  с учетом this does not have to be translated as "which takes into
    account..." An expression such as
    "fully acknowledges" is much shorter.
    Simply
    "recognizes the need" would also be a good solution.
  5.  найдет отклик this requires a bit of rephrasing. "Will find favor
    with" is too old-fashioned. The basic idea is that it
    will meet with the
    approval of or be backed by
    others.  "Response"  or "reaction"  as a
    translation for
    отклик could lead to an awkward sentence, such as "will
    be reacted to favorably by..."

  1.  в них проживает even shorter, though requiring some restructuring
    is
    "They are home to at least ten per cent of the world's population, who
    are dependent on mountain resources."
  2.  не случайно the simplest way out of this one is probably the much-
    used
    "It is not fortuitous that," which sounds better in English than "it is
    no accident that." In some contexts "It is with good reason that" can be
    used, though here that docs not work.
  3.  центральное направление here a literal interpretation should be
    avoided. The point is that this is the
    "major focus" or "thrust" of national
    strategy. "Central" does not work well, and while "area" is a possibility
    for
    направление, it is a bit too broad in this context.
  4.  дают жизнь this also needs to be rephrased. "Feed" or "nourish"
    are short and clear; anything with "life" will sound pompous and too
    formal.
  5.  это положение распространяется the notion is that this law is
    applicable to/valid
    for other items. "Extends to" does not work well.
  6.  повестки дня на XXI век, на пороге которого мы стоим — this is a
    syntactically tricky phrase. The formal name of the UN document,
    "По
    вестка дня на
    XXI век," is actually just "Agenda 21." Here, however, век
    must be translated, because of the second half of the sentence. "On the
    threshold of which we are standing" is very awkward; hence
    "we are now
    (standing) on its threshold"
    is a possible solution.

11Я


Representative of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan on the Environment (UN, 1997)

(Читается с американским акцептом)

Mr. President,

Allow me also to congratulate you on your election to this important post and to express my confidence that your extensive professional and personal experience, together with your great diplomatic skill will advance creative dialogue and fruitful discussions, leading to specific measures and recommendations to achieve the ambitious objectives of Rio.

The conference in Rio de Janeiro reaffirmed that socio-economic development and environmental protection are closely connected and interdependent. Within the context of effective policy they must be considered in tandem. The conference also demonstrated that new ecological threats: depletion of the ozone layer, changes in the global climate, a decline in fresh water supplies, deforestation, the decline in biodiversity, environmental pollution, industrial and radioactive wastes, the spread of desertification and other problems have become more critical and require immediate solutions. States which participated in the conference emphasized that a solution to the problems of the environment and development require new forms of partnership: global partnership on the basis of an ongoing and constructive dialogue, predicated on the need to create a more effective and just world economy which fully acknowledges the interdependence of the community of nations and the high priority attached to the issue of sustainable development.

The conference also took a decision to call attention to the highest priority importance of mountains for mankind, and to propose to the UN General Assembly the declaration of the International Mountain Year. This request was supported by the President of Kyrgyzstan, Mr. Akaev. I wish to express the hope that this request will be backed by both governments and non-governmental organizations, and by various regional and subregional groups.

Mountains account for one-fifth of all dry land, and at least 10 per cent of the world's population live here, and are dependent on mountain resources. An even greater part of the population uses other mountain resources, especially water. The glaciers located on mountain peaks are the basic sources of fresh water. A shortage of water together with a lack of other natural resources leads to an aggravation of poverty, intensifies social strife, and leads to a growth of ethnic tensions and, consequently, to the outbreak of armed conflicts. It is not fortuitous that 48 armed conflicts took place in


1995, and that 26 occurred in mountainous regions. Mountains are often the site of ecological disturbances and natural disasters. Earthquakes, landslides and avalanches not only cause serious damage to the economy of mountainous regions, but also kill thousands of people annually. On the other hand, mountains provide superb opportunities for the development of tourism, skiing, mountain climbing and hunting.

The government of the Kyrgyz Republic attaches great importance to questions of ecology. The development of natural resources is the major focus of national strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for sustainable human development. In November, 1995 we adopted a National Plan for environmental protection.

Mountains cover 90% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Glaciers high above the Pamir and Tien-Shan peaks nourish the rivers of the Amu Darya and the Sir Darya, which are the major water sources for the Aral Sea. With its enormous water and renewable hydroenergy resources, Kyrgyzstan is truly the ecological center of Central Asia. For that heart to keep on beating, however, its health must be carefully monitored.

The law of the Kyrgyz Republic on environmental protection stipulates the responsibility of industrial enterprises for environmental pollution resulting from emissions into the atmosphere, sewage runoff into reservoirs, and of solid waste disposal. This provision is also applicable to chemical and radioactive toxic substances. Currently work is underway on a law of the Kyrgyz Republic on radiation safety for the population.

Mr. President,

The last five years have been marked by a deterioration of the global environment and the depletion of natural resources. Popular wisdom has it that "He who climbs the mountain will reach his journey's end." Only a brave and determined person can conquer mountain peaks. Only the persistent joint efforts and resources of governments, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, international, subregional, and regional organizations and initiatives will lead to the implementation of the farsighted goals of the agenda for the 21st century and we are now standing on its threshold.


Текст 16

Вопрос о национальном опыте в области народонаселения (ООН, 1998)

Госпожа Председатель,

Вопросы народонаселения занимают одно из высших мест на шкале приоритетов Правительства Российской Федерации, поскольку в последние годы демографическая ситуация в нашей стране может быть охарактеризована как кризисная. Ее основными чертами являются: ухудшение здоровья и беспрецедентный рост смертности населения, особенно для трудоспособного возраста, стремительное снижение числа рождений, сохранение тенденции к уменьшению ожидаемой продолжительности жизни, особенно у мужчин, высокая младенческая смертность, рост общей и повозрастной заболеваемости на фоне увеличения масштабов вынужденной миграции, старения и абсолютного сокращения численности населения.

Демографический кризис порожден рядом факторов, к которым наряду с общемировыми долговременными тенденциями снижения рождаемости можно отнести и специфические для России тенденции роста смертности и сокращения продолжительности жизни. Непосредственное влияние на процессы развития народонаселения оказывает социально-экономическая ситуация в стране.

На сегодняшний день Россия переступила черту, за которой начинается депопуляция населения. Естественная убыль как главный показатель демографического неблагополучия сложилась в целом по стране с конца 1990 года. В 1993—96 гг. естественная убыль населения была зафиксирована в 69 регионах страны, а десять лет тому назад подобные явления отмечались лишь в трех регионах России.

Воспроизводство населения России находится на столь низком уровне, что не обеспечивает даже простого воспроизводства населения, необходимого для численного замещения поколения родителей их детьми. Об этом свидетельствует нетто-коэффициент воспроизводства населения. Если в 1989 г. он равнялся 0,953, то в 1996 г, - 0,603.

Что касается причин смертности, то опыт России подтверждает вывод об общем сдвиге соотношения причин смерти от инфекционных заболеваний в сторону неинфекционных хронических и приобретенных болезней, среди которых преобладают сердечнососудистые заболевания и злокачественные новообразования.

121


Наибольшее число людей в России умирает от болезней системы кровообращения. Именно изменения смертности от сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний оказывают решающее влияние на общую смертность. В последние годы в результате нового сильного роста смертность от несчастных случаев, отравлений и травм среди населения трудоспособного возраста, прежде всего мужчин, впервые превысила смертность от рака и является одной из негативных черт современной демографической ситуации в России.

При этом в России эволюция смертности от инфекционных болезней определяется, в основном, смертностью от туберкулеза, в разные годы на ее долю приходилось от 70 до 90% всех смертей от инфекционных заболеваний у мужчин и от 40 до 70%, соответственно, у женщин.

Не последнюю роль играет в развитии ситуации поведенческий фактор, в свою очередь зависящий и от политики по пропаганде

здорового образа жизни.

Некоторые позитивные сдвиги в 1995-96 гг. пока общей тенденции не изменили. Особенно выросла и стала одной из самых высоких в мире мужская смертность. На высоком уровне продолжают оставаться детская и материнская смертность.

Начиная с 1995 г. также проявляются признаки увеличения ожидаемой продолжительности жизни: у мужчин и у женщин она постепенно вырастала, составляя у мужчин — 59,8 года, а у женщин — 72,5 года.

Начали просматриваться обнадеживающие тенденции снижения младенческой смертности: в 1996 г. коэффициент младенческой смертности составил 17,4, в 1997 — 16,9 случаев на 1000 родившихся.

При этом имеющиеся данные не позволяют определить в должной степени длительность, глубину, региональную диф-ференцированность, структуру и последствия демографического кризиса и воздействие на него внешних факторов.

Важнейшей задачей в этой связи становится выяснение истинной и достоверной информации в сфере народонаселения. Важнейшим источником такой информации остается перепись населения. В этом контексте мы хотели бы поддержать мысль о том, что без достоверных статистических данных и индикаторов невозможно формировать адекватную политику в области народонаселения.


При формулировании демографической стратегии России правительство стремится к расширению круга своих партнеров, активно вовлекая в работу в т.ч. и общественные объединения и неправительственные организации.

Благодарю вас за внимание.

* * * Madam Chairwoman,

Population issues are one of the most important/crucial/аге among

the most important priorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since/because in recent years the demographic situation in our country/has been in a state of crisis/can with reason be called critical/has deteriorated badly. The major elements/factors are: the deterioration in/worsening of/the health of and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop/decline in the number of births, the continuation/ maintenance of a/downward trend/decline/in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in/increase in general and in age-specific/ age-related morbidity given/due to/along with greater/an increase in/ forced migration, aging and an absolute decline/reduction in the numbers of the population.

The demographic crisis has been caused by/has resulted from/is caused by a number of factors, including/compounded by/consisting of/ in addition to a global/worldwide/long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate with/and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. A direct impact/influence on population processes is being exerted by the socio-economic situation in the country/Population processes ("development" can be omitted) are subject to the effects of the country's socio-economic situation./ The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development.

Russia has already reached the point of depopulation/crossed the line where depopulation begins. A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems began emerging/was noted/for the country as a whole from the end of 1990 on/starting at the end of 1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was noted/ observed/recorded/in 69 regions of the country, while/though/ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia.

Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even provide for/ensure/result in/produce that simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out/attested

123


to/shown/proved by the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. (While) in 1989 it was at 0,593, in 1996 it/the figure/was 0.603.

Regarding/concerning/as for mortality factors, Russia's experience backs/confirms/the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes/factors/from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily/predominantly/mostly/ cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The largest/greatest/ number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory illnesses. And/it is/It is in fact/precisely/the changes in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are exerting a decisive impact/impacting decisively on general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend, mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular/primarily/men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors/features/of the demographic situation in Russia.

Moreover/at the same time/however, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly/primarily due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deaths from infectious diseases among men and from 40-70% among women.

An important role in the development of this situation is being played by/can be attributed to/the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy (designed) to promote a healthy life style.

Several positive changes/developments in 1995-97 have not yet/as of now/resulted/led to/changes in the general trend/have not changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world/There has been a particularly striking growth and now one of the highest rates in the world is that of male mortality. Child and maternal mortality continues to remain at a high level/There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality.

Back in 1995/Already in 1995/starting in 1995/there were signs of an increase in life expectancy: among men and women it has gradually been rising/there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women.

There has been the beginning of the emergence/We have seen the beginnings of/There has been a start of/encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births.

The available/existing data, however, do not allow for an appropriate/proper/accurate determination of the length, intensity,


regional   differentiation,   structure   and   consequences   of   the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors.

A vital/critically important/crucial/objective/task here is to obtain/extract/produce/true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here/in this connection/in this context we would like to support/back the idea/notion that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate/make/draw up proper policy in the field of population.

In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting/trying to increase/expand the number/range of its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) social/public organizations and non-governmental organizations.

Thank you.

In addition to some specific demographic terms, which tend to appear frequently these days in texts at conferences, this speech contains a number of tricky syntactic problems. It also provides useful training in writing down numbers.

Комментарии:

1) занимают одно из высших мест can easily be reduced to "is one of
the most important priorities" or "is one of the most important things,"
or
simply,
"is of great importance."

2) может быть охарактеризована как кризисная —  "can be termed
critical"
is a concise translation, or even, "is critical."

  1.  ее основными чертами являются — "its major features/factors are" is
    a solution. Or, following
    "is critical," the interpreter can say, "because of:
    the deterioration in health... etc."
  2.  порожден рядом — "has resulted from" or even "came from" are short
    solutions.
  3.  к которым наряду rather than getting bogged down in a long
    sentence, the interpreter can say
    "including" and proceed with the list of
    fee tors.
  4.  непосредственное влияние на процессы развития народонаселения
    оказывает   социально-экономическая   ситуация   в   стране   —   
    if the
    interpreter has the text, the best solution is to invert the syntax and to begin
    with
    "The socio-economic situation in the country is having/exerting a direct
    impact."
    Otherwise, "A direct impact is being exerted" is a safe solution.
  5.  Россия переступила черту this expression is quite frequent in the
    language of social discourse.
    "Has reached the point" is a safe choice
    when the interpreter does not know what will follow.

125


8) что не обеспечивает даже — "it does not even produce/maintain" is an

easier way out than "ensure."

9) об этом свидетельствует this should be translated as a nominative
subject:
"This is proved/shown/by..."

  1.  если this can be omitted, and the sentence can read "In 1989 it
    was at" or, "In
    1989 it was at, but..."
  2.  что касается "as for" is probably the shortest solution.

12) именно   —   the   important   thing   is  that   this   is  emphatic.   The
interpreter's voice can get the point across with a simple, stressed
"and"
"and the changes..." If there is time, however, "It is in fact," will do.

  1.  оказывают решающее влияние here "impact" is a much better
    choice than "influence."
  2.  нового сильного роста "trend" works better than "growth," and
    "upwards" is stylistically more elegant than "strong," though that too is
    an option.
  3.  на ее долю приходилось от 70 до 90 the interpreter's reflex
    reaction on hearing
    "приходилось" and a number should be "accounted
    for."
  4.  не последнюю роль a good chance to use antonymic translation:
    "an important/major role."
  5.  от политики по пропаганде the word "propaganda" is a highly
    loaded one in  English. This is better rendered as
    "policy designed to
    promote"   or   "a   campaign   designed   to   promote,"   
    rather  than   as
    "propaganda," which has very negative connotations.
  6.  особенно выросла и стала одной из самых высоких в мире мужская
    смертность
    if the interpreter does not have a text and therefore cannot
    know that the subject will be
    мужская смертность, he can begin with
    "There has been an increase" or "In particular, there has been an increase"
    which will open the way to a smooth sentence structure.
  7.  на высоком уровне продолжают оставаться is another example of
    the same type of sentence. The interpreter who does not have the text can
    begin with
    "There is" or "There continues to be a high level..."
  8.  начали просматриваться also needs a subject: "there has been" or
    "We have seen," if the interpreter does not have a text, which would allow
    him to say,
    "An encouraging trend of/towards/a drop in infant mortality
    has been emerging."
  9.  имеющиеся can be rendered as "available" or "existing," or can
    simply be omitted, i.e.
    "The data, however, do not allow for..."
  10.  важнейшей задачей the interpreter should not be tempted by the
    superlative form to start talking about
    "the most important task." "A vitally
    important/crucial"
    will do it. And remember that "task" often refers to
    practical matters; here
    "objective" is a good solution.
  11.  в этом контексте like "в этой связи," this can often be translated
    as "here."
  12.  


круга the interpreter should not blindly translate this as "circle,"
since "range" or "number" is more appropriate and less narrow.

благодарю  вас  за  внимание   —   "for  your attention"   is  highly
non-idiomatic in English. Just
"thank you" is fine.

National Experience with Population Issues (UN, 1998)

(Читается с американским акцептом) Madam Chairwoman,

Population issues are one of the most important priorities of the government of the Russian Federation, since in recent years the demographic situation in our country has been in a state of crisis. The major factors are: the deterioration of health and an unprecedented rise in the mortality of the population, in particular for people of working age, a sharp drop in the number of births, the continuation of a downward trend in life expectancy, particularly among men, a rise in general and age-related morbidity due to an increase in forced migration, aging and an absolute reduction in the numbers of the population.

The demographic crisis has been caused by a number of factors, including a global long-term trend towards a decline in the birth rate, and a trend specific to Russia of a rise in mortality and a reduction in life expectancy. The socio-economic situation in the country is having a direct impact on the processes of population development.

Russia has already reached the point of depopulation. A natural decline as the major indicator of demographic problems was noted for the country as a whole, starting at the end of 1990. From 1993-96 a natural decline in the population was observed in 69 regions of the country, though ten years ago such phenomena were observed only in three regions of Russia.

Reproduction of the population in Russia is at such a low level that it does not even result in that simple reproduction of the population needed for numerical replacement of the generation of parents by their children. This is borne out by the net coefficient of reproduction of the population required for numerical replacement of the parents' generation by their children. While in 1989 it was at 0.593, in 1996 the figure was 0.603.

As for mortality factors, Russia's experience confirms the conclusion as to a general shift in the ranking of mortality causes from infectious diseases towards non-infectious chronic and acquired diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors. The greatest number of people in Russia are dying from circulatory

127


illnesses. And it is precisely the changes in mortality from cardiovascular diseases which are impacting decisively on general mortality. In recent years as the result of a strong new upward trend, mortality from accidents, poisoning and trauma among the population of working age, in particular men, for the first time has exceeded mortality from cancer and is one of the negative factors of the demographic situation in Russia.

Moreover, mortality in Russia from infectious diseases is mainly due to tuberculosis, which in various years has accounted for from 70 to 90% of all deaths from infectious diseases among men and from 40-70% among women.

An important role in the development of this situation can be attributed to the behavioral factor, which in turn depends on policy designed to promote a healthy life style.

Several positive developments in 1995-97 have not yet changed the general trend. In particular, there has been an increase in male mortality, making it one of the highest rates in the world. There continued to be a high level of child and maternal mortality.

Starting in 1995 there were signs of an increase in life expectancy: there has been a gradual rise among men and women, 59.8 years for men and 72.5 for women.

There has been a start of encouraging trends through a drop in infant mortality: in 1996 the coefficient for infant mortality was 17.4, and in 1997 - 16.9 cases per 1000 births.

The existing data, however, do not allow for an accurate determination of the length, intensity, regional differentiation, structure and consequences of the demographic crisis and the impact on it of external factors.

A vital objective here is to obtain true and reliable information in the field of population. An extremely important source of such information is the census. Here we would like to support the idea that without reliable statistical data and indicators it is impossible to formulate proper policy in the field of population.

In formulating Russia's demographic policy the government is attempting to expand the number of its partners, and is actively involving in this work (inter alia) public and non-governmental organizations.

Thank you.

128


Текст 17

Вопрос о положении женщин: Национальные планы действия (ООН,1998)

Господин Председатель,

Содержавшаяся в Платформе действий Пекинской конференции рекомендация принять в кратчайшие сроки национальные планы действия по улучшению положения женщин была положительно воспринята в Российской Федерации, где к этому моменту уже стала очевидной необходимость выработки новых концептуальных подходов к проблеме обеспечения равных прав и возможностей мужчин и женщин в условиях перехода к рыночной экономике.

Утвержденная в январе 1996 года Концепция улучшения положения женщин стала документом, заложившим теоретические основы и определившим стратегические цели деятельности правительства по претворению в жизнь конституционного положения о равноправии мужчин и женщин в Российской Федерации.

Принятый в августе 1996 года национальный план действий по улучшению положения женщин и повышению их роли в обществе до 2000 года в свою очередь расширил и дополнил положения Концепции конкретными практическими шагами государственных структур по достижению сформулированных в ней целей.

С одной стороны, экономические преобразования в странах с переходной экономикой открыли перед женщинами новые горизонты, дали возможность по-новому реализовать себя, а с другой - солидные издержки рыночных реформ больнее всего сказываются именно на женщинах: усиливается феминизация бедности, растет женская безработица, ухудшается здоровье женщины. Нас беспокоят негативные демографические процессы: снижение рождаемости, низкие показатели ожидаемой продолжительности жизни, высокие цифры смертности населения, особенно в трудоспособном возрасте, негативные тенденции в репродуктивном здоровье. Снизился уровень занятости женщин, среди безработных 60% составляют женщины. Говоря о нравственном состоянии общества, следует отметить факты жестокого обращения в семье и насилия в отношении женщин.

Проблемы безработицы, проблемы положения женщин и многие другие общественные вопросы носят глобальный характер. Массовая хроническая безработица бьет и по тем, кто смог найти работу. Ведь угроза быть выброшенным за ворота вынуждает их мириться с произволом предпринимателей. Так, по данным МОТ,


предприниматели, как правило, платят молодым работникам 40-50% от зарплаты взрослых за аналогичную работу.

Незанятость значительной части молодого поколения является первопричиной многих социальных зол. Лишенные возможности трудиться, молодые люди начинают ощущать свою отчужденность, ненужность обществу. А это, в конечном итоге, ведет к росту наркомании, преступности, проституции.

И не надо забывать о том, что сегодня средства массовой информации обладают огромным потенциалом воздействия на общественное сознание. Это особенно ощутимо сегодня, когда международные отношения все больше становятся делом не только профессиональных дипломатов, но и широких слоев мировой общественности, когда гласность, информированность становятся обязательным условием и ускорителем демократизации международной жизни.

Конкретным результатом работы в части улучшения положения женщин стали предпринимаемые меры по обеспечению занятости женщин. Приняты генеральное трехстороннее соглашение между правительством, работодателями и профсоюзами, программа поддержки и развития малого предпринимательства. Проводится опережающее обучение работников, находящихся под угрозой увольнения, осуществляется социальная адаптация безработных. Организована профессиональная переподготовка безработных женщин, оказывается содействие в трудоустройстве оканчивающим высшие учебные заведения. Социальная помощь переходит на строгую адресность.

Проблемы положения женщин носят глобальный характер.

Огромное значение для успешной реализации Пекинских документов имеет солидарность женщин, тесное сотрудничество правительственных и общественных структур.

Спасибо, господин Председатель.

* * * Mr. Chairman,

The recommendation contained in the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference/That/Something/What is contained in the Platform of Action of the Beijing Conference, namely/that is/I mean/ I am referring to the recommendation/to adopt as soon as possible/in the very near future/national plans of action to improve the status of women, has the approval of/was approved by/meets with the approval of/the Russian Federation, where there already is a clear need to/where the need is evident/obvious/clear to draw up/produce/work out/for

130


drawing up/producing/working out/new conceptual approaches to (the problem of) ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women in conditions of/during/the transition to a market economy.

The concept which was approved/adopted/That/Something which was approved/adopted in 1996, namely/I mean/that is/the concept for

the improvement of the status of women became a document which laid the theoretical foundations/bases/and determined/defined the strategic goals for the activities of the government in implementing constitutional provisions regarding the equality of men and women in the Russian Federation.

The national plan of action adopted in August 1996 to improve the status of women and enhance their role in society by the year 2000 in turn has expanded and supplemented the provisions of the Concept through specific practical steps/actions/by state institutions to implement the goals/objectives it contains contained in it/its goals/objectives.

The economic transformations/changes in countries with transition economies have opened up new horizons/opportunities/for women, have provided new opportunities for self-fulfillment/self-rea-lization/and, on the other hand, the major burden/costs/of market reforms are impacting most of all/are most intensively felt/born/ experienced by women: there has been a rise/increase in female poverty, a growth of women's/female unemployment and a deterioration of women's health. We are concerned about the negative demographic processes: a drop/decline in the birth rate, low life expectancy indicators, high mortality figures for the population, especially of working age, and negative trends in reproductive health. There has been a drop/decline in the level of female employment, and 60% of the unemployed are women/women account for 60% of the unemployed. In speaking of the moral state of society, we should take note of incidents/cases of harsh/brutal behavior/treatment/within the family and of violence against women.

The problem of unemployment, the problem of the status of women and many other social issues are global in nature/universal/ widespread. Mass and chronic unemployment also strikes/affects/

those who have found work. This is because/For/the threat of being fired/dismissed/downsized/let go/forces them to put up with/accept the arbitrary will/whims/of entrepreneurs. Thus, according to ILO data, entrepreneurs as a rule pay young workers (some) 40-50% of the salaries paid to adults for similar/such/identical/work.

Unemployment of a significant part of the younger generation is the root/primary/underlying/primary/major/cause/reason for/of many social ills/problems/issues. Deprived of the possibility to work, young


people begin to experience/feel/alienation/a feeling of alienation, that they are useless to society. And this ultimately/finally/in the last analysis leads to an increase in drug addiction, crime and prostitution.

Nor should we forget/And we should not forget/it should not be forgotten/there should be no forgetting that today the mass media have enormous potential for impacting on/influencing public opinion. This/is particularly true/makes itself particularly felt/today, when international relations are increasingly becoming a matter/subject/ affair/field not only for/professional diplomats but also for broad strata/ a wide range/of world public opinion, when glasnost and the availability of information are becoming a prerequisite/sine qua поп and a catalyst for the democratization of international life.

A specific result of work to improve the status of women are the measures undertaken to ensure/provide female employment. There has been/we have seen the adoption of a general tripartite agreement between the government, employers and trade unions, and of a program of support and development for small enterprises. Intensive/sophisticated /state of the art/advanced training is being carried out/conducted for workers who are in danger of/threatened with/vulnerable to/dismissal /downsizing, and there are programs for social adaptation of the unemployed. We have seen the organization of/There has been the organization of/professional retraining of unemployed women, and assistance is being rendered/given to help graduates of universities/ institutes of higher learning/university graduates/find jobs. Social assistance is now becoming carefully/specifically targeted.

The problems of the status of women are in fact/indeed/truly global/universal/in nature/are global/universal. Very important/of enormous significance/A major factor/for the successful implementation of the Beijing documents is the solidarity of women, and also close cooperation between governmental and public organizations/ institutions.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

This text is particularly rich in participial constructions, and provides good examples of how to deal with the syntactic problems which arise in these sentences. There are also a number of sentences with impersonal subjects which require some reworking.

Комментарии:

1) содержавшаяся... рекомендация if the interpreter does not have a text, it will be difficult for him to wait until the noun рекомендация shows up before starting the sentence. As soon as you hear a participle as the first word of the sentence in this type of clause, you can say


"Something/that/which... was contained in the Platform of Action..." and

then, when the noun finally appears рекомендация you can insert before it "that is/namely/I mean/I am referring to/the recommendation."

2) в   кратчайшие   сроки   —   the   idea   is   "as   soon   as   possible,"
"in the immediate future."
Don't try to translate сроки as "time period"
or "dates"
this will only complicate the sentence.

  1.  была положительно воспринята get away from literal translation
    here:   "positively"   and   "perceived"   do   not   sound   idiomatic.   
    "Was
    approved by"
    is what is meant.
  2.  утвержденная... концепция this is the same kind of participial
    construction as those described above. The participle and the noun it
    modifies are fairly close to each other, but the interpreter who does not
    wan