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Практический курс английского языка. 4 курс

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Система упражнений по дальнейшему развитию навыков диалогической и монологической речи строится на речевых образцах, материале основного текста урока, активном словаре урока и завершается при работе над тематикой курса в разделе «Соnversation and Discussion».

Английский

2015-09-14

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Практический курс английского языка. 4 курс под ред. В.Д. Аракина

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

4 курс

Под редакцией В.Д. АРАКИНА

Издание четвертое, переработанное и дополненное

Допущено

Министерством образования Российской Федерации

в качестве учебника для студентов

педагогических вузов по специальности «Иностранные языки»

Сканирование, распознавание, редактирование

Июнь 2007

Москва

гуманитарный издательский  центр

ВЛАДОС

2000

ББК 81.2Англ-923

         П69

В.Д. Аракин, И.А. Новикова, Г.В. Аксенова-Пашковская,

С.Н. Бронникова, Ю.Ф. Гурьева, Е.М. Дианова, Л.Т. Костина,

И.Н. Верещагина, М.С. Страшникова, С.И. Петрушин

Рецензент

кафедра английского языка Астраханского

государственного педагогического института

им. С.М. Кирова

(зав. кафедрой канд. филол. наук Е.М. Стпомпель)

Практический курс английского языка. 4 курс: П69 Учеб. для педвузов по спец. «Иностр. яз.» / Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. - 4-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М.: Гуманит, изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2000. - 336 с.: ил.

ISBN 5-691-00222-8.

Серия учебников предполагает преемственность в изучении английского языка с I по V курс. Цель учебника - обучение устной речи на основе развития необходимых автоматизированных речевых навыков, развитие техники чтения, а также навыков письменной речи.

Учебник предназначен для студентов педагогических вузов.

                                  ББК 81.2Англ-923

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

     Настоящая книга является четвертой частью серии комплексных учебников английского языка под общим названием «Практический курс английского языка» и предназначается для студентов 4 курса факультетов и отделений английского языка педагогических вузов. Данный учебник рассчитан на дальнейшее развитие навыков устной и письменной речи в результате овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими новые лексические и грамматические явления.

     Учебник состоит из Основного курса (Essential Course) и Приложения (Appendix).

     Основной курс (авторы В. Д. Аракин, И. А. Новикова, Г. В. Аксенова-Пашковская, С. Н. Бронникова, Ю. Ф. Гурьева, Е. М. Дианова, Л. Т. Костина, И. Н. Верещагина, С. И. Петрушин, М. С. Страшникова) состоит из 8 уроков, каждый из которых делится на две части, дополняющие друг друга. Первая часть урока содержит оригинальный текст, где главный упор делается на углубленную работу над речевыми образцами, на изучение, интерпретацию, перевод, пересказ текста, а также на расширение словарного запаса студентов и анализ изучаемых лексических единиц (выявление многозначности, подбор синонимов, антонимов и т. д.) в целях дальнейшего развития навыков устной (в том числе и спонтанной) и письменной речи.

    В четвертое издание авторы включили в активный вокабуляр существительные широкой семантики и фразовые глаголы, чтобы еще более наглядно показать национальную специфику английского языка.

    Тексты, на которых строится работа в первой части каждого урока, взяты из произведений английских и американских авторов XX в. (или из изданных в Англии учебников), все тексты несколько сокращены. По своему содержанию они связаны с темой второй части урока. Работа над оригинальным текстом на 4 курсе, ломимо краткого лексико-грамматического анализа, предполагает толкование имеющихся в нем реалий, перевод на русский язык и, наконец, интерпретацию текста для выявления его идейного содержания и стилистических особенностей.

    При отборе текстов авторы стремились, с одной стороны, дать образцы высокохудожественной литературы, в которых прослеживаются функцио-нальносгилевые особенности современного английского языка, а с другой стороны, максимально приблизить их к программной тематике 4 курса, чтобы подвести студентов к беседе на определенные темы: «Образование в Соединенных Штатах», «Суд и судопроизводство», «Писатель и его творчество», «Музыка», «Средства массовой информации» и др.

    За текстом следуют пояснения (Сommentary), список речевых образцов (Speech Patterns, Phrases and Word Combinations) и лексические пояснения (Essential Vocabulary). Отбор речевых образцов обусловлен их употребительностью в устной или письменной речи.

    Раздел упражнений на звуки речи и интонацию предназначен для завершающего этапа работы над английской фонетикой и является продолжением аналогичных разделов учебника 3 курса. Его основная цель — расширение и

углубление отработанного на первых трех курсах материала. Эти упражнения состоят из серии обучающих, контролирующих и творческих заданий для дальнейшей автоматизации воспроизведения и употребления     основных интонационных структур в английской речи.

    Специальные задания на транскрибирование, интонирование и графическое изображение интонации могут быть даны при работе над любым упражнением.

    Упражнения по обучению чтению на материале основного текста урока составлены с учетом принципа нарастания трудностей и призваны развивать у будущего учителя иностранного языка высокую культуру чтения, формировать способность интерпретировать художественное произведение во всем многообразном идейном и художественном богатстве.

    Одновременно с работой над содержанием текста изучается активный словарь, отличающийся высокой степенью сочетаемости и большими словообразовательными возможностями. Значительное место отводится наблюдению над семантической структурой слова, развитием переносных значений, сужением и расширением значения слов.

    Упражнения на предлоги преследуют цель систематизации употребления английских предлогов, которые даются в упражнениях во всех их значениях, с тем чтобы были показаны все основные случаи их употребления.

    Вторая часть урока (Соnversation and Discussion) представляет собой дальнейшее развитие соответствующей темы и рассчитана на расширение и закрепление запаса речевых образцов и лексики.

    Система упражнений по дальнейшему развитию навыков диалогической и монологической речи строится на речевых образцах, материале основного текста урока, активном словаре урока и завершается при работе над тематикой курса в разделе «Соnversation and Discussion». Этот раздел пополнился такими активными формами речевой деятельности, функционально связанными с профессией учителя, как ролевая игра, диспут, дискуссия. Разговорные формулы, организованные по целевому признаку, должны послужить опорой студенту в построении творческого высказывания.

    Во всех восьми уроках упражнения по обучению речевому общению написаны по единой схеме:

1. Упражнения на свертывание и развертывание информации к тексту информативно-тематического характера.

2. Упражнения коммуникативного характера и клише, сгруппированные по функционально-семантическому признаку. Предлагаемые разговорные формулы, как правило, не содержат новой лексики. Их назначение — помочь студентам облечь свои мысли в естественную языковую форму.

3. Упражнения дискуссионного характера на основе научно-популярных и публицистических текстов.

4. Упражнения для коллективного обсуждения, в которых студенты должны использовать речевые клише и тематическую лексику. Раздел заканчивается перечнем тем для творческого высказывания и ситуацией для ролевой игры.

     При подготовке четвертого издания учебника авторы стремились в первую очередь пополнить учебник упражнениями творческого характера. Полностью переработаны и значительно расширены разделы, посвященные работе над устной темой, которые теперь имеют комплексную структуру и состоят из нескольких блоков. Значительно усилен раздел профессионально-ориентированных упражнений, предусматривающих дальнейшее закрепление профессионально-значимых умений.

    Авторы старались обновить материалы учебников за счет новых публикаций (Урок 7), заново написанной 2-й части (Урок 3, The Readers Choice), расширения иллюстративного материала, существенной переработки приложения к учебнику.

    В Приложение внесены инструкции по написанию письменных работ, практикуемых на 4 курсе: сочинение-повествование и сочинение-описание с обязательным выражением своего мнения, отношения к заданной теме. Кроме того, в него вошли дополнительные тексты по высшему образованию в США, по системе телевешания. Добавлено окончание к рассказу «W.Sby L.P. Heartley, Unit 3. Специально подобраны ситуации для ролевых игр, совпадающие по тематике с разделами учебника, а также методические рекомендации студентам, готовящимся к проведению микроуроков (автор И.Н. Верещагина).

Авторы

ESSENTIAL COURSE

Unit One

text

From: DOCTOR IN THE HOUSE

By R. Gordon

     Richard Gordon was born in 1921. He has been an anaesthetist at St. Bartholomew's Hospital,1 a ship's surgeon and an assistant editor of the British Medical Journal. He left medical practice in 1952 and started writing his "Doctor" series.

    "Doctor in the House" is one of Gordon's twelve "Doctor" books and is noted for witty description of a medical student's years of professional training.

    To a medical student the final examinations are something like death: an unpleasant inevitability to be faced sooner or later, one's state after which is determined by care spent in preparing for the event.

    An examination is nothing more than an investigation of a man's knowledge, conducted in a way that the authorities have found the most fair and convenient to both sides. But the medical student cannot see it in this light. Examinations touch off his fighting spirit; they are a straight contest between himself and the examiners, conducted on well-established rules for both, and he goes at them like a prize-fighter.

    There is rarely any frank cheating in medical examinations, but the candidates spend almost as much time over the technical details of the contest as they do learning general medicine from their textbooks.

      Benskin discovered that Malcolm Maxworth was the St. Swithin's representative on the examining Committee and thenceforward we attended all his ward rounds, standing at the front and gazing at him like impressionable music enthusiasts at the solo violinist. Meanwhile, we despondently ticked the days off the calendar, swotted up the spot questions, and ran a final breathless sprint down the well-trodden paths of medicine.

     The examination began with the written papers. A single invigilator2 sat in his gown and hood on a raised platform to keep an eye open for flagrant cheating. He was helped by two or three uniformed porters who stood by the door and looked dispassionately down at the poor victims, like the policemen that flank the dock at the Old Bailey.3

    Three hours were allowed for the paper. About half-way through the anonymous examinees began to differentiate themselves. Some of them strode up for an extra answer book, with an awkward expression of self-consciousness and superiority in their faces. Others rose to their feet, handed in their papers and left. Whether these people were so brilliant they were able to complete the examination in an hour and a half or whether this was the time required for them to set down unhurriedly their entire knowledge of medicine was never apparent from the nonchalant air with which they left the room. The invigilator tapped his bell half an hour before time; the last question was rushed through, then the porters began tearing papers away from gentlemen dissatisfied with the period allowed for them to express themselves and hoping by an incomplete sentence to give the examiners the impression of frustrated brilliance.

    I walked down the stairs feeling as if I had just finished an eight-round fight. In the square outside the first person I recognized was Grimsdyke.

    "How did you get on?" I asked.        

    "So-so," he replied. "However, I am not worried. They never read the papers anyway. Haven't you heard how they mark the tripos4 at Cambridge, my dear old boy? The night before the results come out the old don totters bade, from hall and chucks the lot down the staircase. The ones that stick on the top flight are given firsts,5 most of them end up on the landing and get seconds, thirds go to the lower flight, and any reaching the ground floor are failed. This system has been working admirably for years without arousing any comment."

    The unpopular oral examination was held a week after the papers. The written answers have a certain remoteness about them, and mistakes and omissions, like those of life, can be made without the threat of immediate punishment. But the viva is judgement day. A false answer, and the god's brow threatens like imminent thunderstorm. If the candidate loses his nerve in front of this terrible displeasure he is finished: confusion breeds

confusion and he will come to the end of his interrogation struggling like a cow in a bog.

     I was shown to a tiny waiting-room furnished with hard chairs, a wooden table, and windows that wouldn't open, like the condemned cell. There were six other candidates waiting, to go in with me, who illustrated the types fairly commonfy seen in viva waiting-rooms. There was the Nonchalant, lolling back on the rear legs of his chair with his feet on the table. Next to him, a man of the Frankly Worried class sat on the edge of his chair tearing little bits off his invitation card and jumping irritatingly every time the door opened. There was the Crammer, fondling the pages of his battered textbook in a desperate farewell embrace, and his opposite, the Old Stager, who treated the whole thing with the familiarity of a photographer at a wedding. He had obviously failed the examination so often he looked upon the viva simply as another engagement to be fitted into his day.

    The other occupant of the room was a woman. Women students - the attractive ones, not those who are feminine only through inescapable anatomic arrangements — are under disadvantage in oral examinations. The male examiners are so afraid of being prejudiced favourably by their sex they usually adopt towards them an attitude of undeserved sternness. But this girl had given care to her preparations for the examination. Her suit was neat but not smart; her hair tidy but not striking; she wore enough make-up to look attractive, and she was obviously practising, with some effort, a look of admiring submission to the male sex. I felt sure she would get through.

    "You go to table four," the porter told me.

    I stood before table four. I didn't recognize the examiners. One was a burly, elderly man like a retired prize-fighter; the other was invisible, as he was occupied in reading the morning's Times.

     "Well, how would you treat a case of tetanus?" My heart leaped hopefully. This was something I knew, as there had recently been a case at St. Swithin's. I started off confidentially, reeling out the lines of treatment and feeling much better. The examiner suddenly cut me short.

    "All right, all right," he said impatiently, "you seem to know that A girl of twenty comes to you complaining of gaining weight, what would you do?" I rallied my thoughts and stumbled through the answer...

    The days after the viva were black ones. It was like having a severe accident. For the first few hours I was numbed, unable to realize what had hit me. Then I began to wonder if I would ever make a recovery and win through. One or two of my friends heartened me by describing equally depressing experiences that had overtaken them previously and still allowed them to pass. I began to hope. Little shreds of success collected together and weaved themselves into a triumphal garland...

    "One doesn't fail exams," said Grimsdyke firmly. "One comes down, one muffs, one is ploughed, plucked, or pipped. These infer a misfortune that is not one's own fault. To speak of failing is bad taste. It's the same idea as talking about passing away and going above instead of plain dying." The examination results were to be published at noon.

   We arrived in the examination building to find the same candidates there, but they were a subdued, muttering crowd, like the supporters of a home team who had just been beaten in a cup tie.

    We had heard exactly what would happen. At midday precisely the Secretary of the Committee would descend the stairs and take his place, flanked by two uniformed porters. Under his arm would be a thick, leather-covered book containing the results. One of the porters would carry a list of candidates' numbers and call them out, one after the other. The candidate would step up closely to the Secretary, who would say simply "Pass" or "Failed". Successful men would go upstairs to receive the congratulations and handshakes of the examiners and failures would slink miserably out of the exit to seek the opiate oblivion.

    One minute to twelve. The room had suddenly come to a frightening, unexpected silence and stillness, like an unexploded bomb. A clock tingled twelve in the distance. My palms were as wet as sponges. Someone coughed, and I expected the windows to rattle. With slow scraping feet that could be heard before they appeared the Secretary and the porters came solemnly down the stairs. The elder porter raised his voice.

    "Number one hundred and sixty-one," he began. "Number three hundred and two. Number three hundred and six." Grimsdyke punched me hard in the ribs, "Go on," he hissed. "It's you!"

    I jumped and struggled my way to the front of the restless crowd. My pulse shot in my ears. My face was burning hot and

I felt my stomach had been suddenly plucked from my body. Suddenly I found myself on top of the Secretary.

    “Number three oh six?" the Secretary whispered, without looking up from the book. "R. Gordon?" "Yes," I croaked.

     The world stood still. The traffic stopped, the plants ceased growing, men were paralysed, the clouds hung in the air, the winds dropped, the tides disappeared, the sun halted in the sky.

    "Pass," he muttered.

    Blindly, like a man just hit by a blackjack, I stumbled upstairs.

Commentary

1 St Bartholomew's, St. Swithin's Hospitals: medical schools in London.

2 invigilator: a person who watches over students during examinations.

3 Old Bailey: Central Criminal Court, situated in London in the street of the same name.

4 the tripos: examination for an honours degree in Cambridge University.

5 firsts, seconds, thirds: a system of grading degrees.

6 the viva: an oral examination.

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. However, I'm not worried. They never read the papers anyway.

— You needn't worry about the meals. She never has anything for breakfast anyway.

I'm sure she is perfect for you. Anyway, I didn't mean to imply she was deficient.

2. "His father will have him go in for medicine,".the housemaster said.

None can have him wear a formal dress for any function".

The examiner will have him give the proper answer.

3. Now that you are well again, you can travel.

Now that you are through with this problem you can do anything.

Now that he's become a graduate student, he can go in for research.

Phrases and Word Combinations

to cheat in exams                                                     to adopt an attitude of…

to tick smth off                                                         …towards

to swot up colloq. for to study                                 to get through

to keep an eye open for smth/smb                           to cut smb short

to mark and grade the papers                                   to rally one's thoughts

to come out (about results)                                      to call out names

                                                                                to raise one's voice

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1. annoy vt/i 1) to make a little angry, especially by repeated acts; to disturb and nervously upset a person, e. g. Wilfred did not want to pay too much attention to Fleur, he was afraid of annoying her.

Syn. vex, irk, bother

2) persistent interrupting, interrupting with or intruding on until the victim is angry, or upset, e. g. Clouds of flies annoyed our horses.

Syn. worry, harass, plague, pester, tease   .

Ant. soothe, comfort

to be annoyed at/over smth, e. g. He was annoyed at the boy's stupidity.

to be annoyed with, e. g. The old woman was annoyed with the noisy children.

annoying a causing one to feel annoyed, as annoying manners, e. g. How annoying...! The annoying thing about it is that I keep thinking about Lizzy.

Syn. bothersome, irritating, troublesome, harassing, tormenting, nagging, vexatious.

 

2. chatter vi 1) to talk quickly or foolishly or without a stop, e. g. The two gids chattered merrily unaware of Roger's presence. 2) to make quick indistinct sounds, e. g. The sparrows were chattering on the roof of the cottage. 3) to strike the lower and upper teeth together from cold or fever, e. g. She was so frightened that her teeth chattered.

chatterbox n a person who chatters.

chatter n sounds of the kinds described by the verb to chatter, e.g. The chatter of the birds could be heard everywhere.

chattering n e. g. The cheerful chattering of children came from the nursery.

to chatter like a magpie

3. cheer vt/i 1) to fill with gladness, hope, high spirits; comfort, e. g. Everyone was cheered by the good news. He cheered up at once when I promised to help him. Cheer up! Your troubles will soon be over. 2) to give shouts of joy, approval, or encouragement, e. g. The speaker was loudly cheered. Everybody cheered the news that peace had come.

to cheer for (cheer on) to support (a competitor) with cheers, to encourage, e. g. Let's go to the football game and cheer for our favourite team. Please come to the sports meeting to cheer on dur team.

cheer n 1) state of hope, gladness; words of cheer, of encouragement; 2) shout of joy or encouragement used by spectators to encourage or show enthusiasm or support for their team, e. g. The cheers of the spectators filled the stadium.

to give three cheers for to cry, or shout "Hurrah!" three times, e. g. The team members gave three cheers for their captain.

cheerful a 1) happy and contented, e.g. He kept throughout his life his youthful optimism and his cheerful trust in men.

Syn, glad, happy, light-hearted, joyful, joyous

Ant. gloomy

2) bright, pleasant, bringing joy, as a cheerful room, sound, conversation; cheerful surroundings, e. g. Mary's cheerful talk encouraged her friends.

Ant. cheerless, gloomy

cheery a is a rather trivial colloquialism for cheerful.

cheerio interj a colloquial word used as farewell, e. g. Cheerio, old friends!

cheers 1) is used as a toast "Your health!”, e. g. Does everybody have beer? Yes, cheers. 2) a modern informal use of cheers in British English is to mean good-bye or thank you, e. g. I'll give you a hand tomorrow. Cheers, that'll be great.

4. contest vt 1)  to argue; debate, dispute, as to contest a statement (a point); to try to show that it is wrong, as to contest smb's right to do smth.; 2) to take part in a struggle or competition (with or against srab or smth.), as to contest a match (a race), e. g. Jim had to contest against the world's best winners in the

Games and did well to come third. 3) to fight or compete for, to try to win, as to contest a seat in Parliament, e. g. The soldiers contested every inch of the ground.

Syn. contend

contest n struggle, fight; competition, as a keen contest for the prize; a contest of skill; a musical contest; a close contest, e. g. The ice-hockey championship was a close contest between Canada, Sweden and Russia.

contestant n one who contests

Syn. contender

contestable a open to argument, e. g. That's a contestable statement, you can't prove it.

5. emerge vi 1) to come forth into view from an enclosed and obscure place, e. g. The moon emerges from beyond the clouds. 2) to rise into notice and esp. to issue, (come forth) from suffering, subjection, danger, embarrassment, etc., e. g. New artistic developments emerged after the revolution. 3) to come out as the result of investigation, discussion (of a fact, a principle), e. g. At last there emerged Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

Syn. to turn up, to show up

emergency n a sudden happening requiring prompt action; one to be used in an emergency, as an emergency exit (door); an emergency fund; an emergency (forced) landing, e. g. These stairs are to be used only in an emergency. The plane was caught in a snowstorm and had to make an emergency landing.

Syn. juncture, contingency, pinch, crisis  

6. go vt with adv and prp

go about 1) to move or travel around, e. g. The quickest way to go about the city is by underground train. 2) to start (smth or doing smth), e. g. I wanted to make a dress but didn't know how to go about it.

go along to proceed, make progress, e. g. You may have some difficulties at first, but you'll find it easier as you go along.

go at (smth or smb) to rush at, attack (informal), e. g. They went at each other furiously.

go back 1) to return, as in conversation (to smth), e. g. Let us go back to what the chairman was saying. 2) to fail to fulfil (a promise, agreement, etc.), e. g. You should never go back on your promise to a child.

go behind to examine a deeper level of smth, e. g. You have to go behind the poet's words to see what she really means.

go by (of fault, etc.) 1) to pass without being noticed (informal), e.g.I know you were late again this morning, but we'll let it go by. 2) to base one's judgement on smb, e. g. You can't go by what he says, he's very untrustworthy.

go down 1) to be received, esp. with approval, to be liked (by someone), e. g. How did your speech go down (with the public)? 2) to be considered less worthy, e. g. He went down in my opinion.

go down the drain to be wasted; to fail completely, e. g. All my attempts to help him went down the drain.

go easy (informal) 1) to behave calmly (usu. imper.), e. g. Go easy, dear, there's nothing to get excited about. 2) to treat someone kindly, not severely (on, with), e. g. Go easy on the child, will you, she is too young to understand what she did.

go as/so far as (informal) to be bold or direct enough (to do smth), to declare the truth,

 e. g. I wouldn't go so far as to say she is a liar.

go into to examine, e. g. The police went into the man's story to see if he was telling the truth.

go over to examine, to see that it is correct, e.g. The counsellor went over his story in detail and suggested some improvements.

go round to move around, to be publicly noticed (doing smth), e. g. You can't go round saying nasty things like that about him.

7. hint n slight or indirect indication or suggestion, e. g. She gave him a hint that she would like him to leave. I know how to take a hint. "Hints for housewives" (as the title of an article giving suggestions that will help housewives)

to drop a hint, e. g. I dropped him hints on the impropriety of his conduct.

to give a person a gentle (broad) hint, e. g. Martin gave Joe a gentle hint but it was lost upon him.

hint vi to suggest, to mention casually, e. g. The woman hinted at her urgent need of money. He hinted at my impudence. He hinted that I ought to work harder.

Syn. suggest, imply, intimate, insinuate

8. rattle vt/i 1) (cause to) make short, sharp sounds quickly, one after the other, e. g. The windows were rattling in the strong wind. The hail rattled on the roof.

to rattle off (colloq.) to talk, to say or repeat smth quickly; to repeat (words) quickly and too easily from memory; to perform (an action) with ease and speed, e. g. What is the point of teaching the children to rattle off the names of the kings and queens of England if they know nothing about history?

to rattle away/on to talk rapidly and at some length and uninterestingly, e. g. At every meeting of the women's club, Mrs White rattles on for hours.

2) to annoy, cause to feel angry, e. g. My persistent questioning of his story rattled him, and he refused to answer my queries. She was rattled by the hypothetical eyes spying upon her.

Syn. embarrass, discomfit, abash, faze

rattled a annoyed, e. g. In the end he got rattled, (or: We got him rattled.).

9. reduce vt/i 1) to take (smth) smaller or less; being smth (such as a price, size, or amount) down to a lower level or smaller size, e. g. Your speed must be reduced to the city speed limit as soon as you cross the border. Taxes should be reduced to an amount that people can afford to pay. The book will have to be reduced to 300 pages. The whole town was reduced to ashes in the bombing. 2) to bring or get to a certain condition, e. g. The new teacher was quickly able to reduce the noisy class to silence. Hunger had reduced the poor dog to skin and bone. His opponent's clever speech reduced the speaker's argument to nonsense.

to reduce by/to, e. g. We have been able to .reduce our tax bill by 10%. The price of the chair has been reduced to $ 10.

to reduce someone to tears to make someone weep, e. g. You may choose to scold this child, but there's no need to reduce him to tears.

Syn. decrease, lessen, diminish, abate, dwindle

reduction n reducing or being reduced, e. g. The goods are sold at a great reduction in price.

Syn. discount

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words:

authority; contest n, prize-fighter; enthusiastic; solo; despondently; paths; invigilator; flagrant; dispassionately; anonymous; nonchalant; frustrated; recognize; tripos; admirably; remoteness; viva; imminent; irritatingly; desperate; photographer; prejudice; admiring; tetanus; previously; triumphal; plough; opiate a; sponge.

b) Listen to your partners' reading of the exercise. Correct their mistakes, if they have any.

2. Practise the pronunciation of the following words paying attention to:

a) two principal stresses;

b) the secondary and principal stresses. Beat the time:

a) well-established; thenceforward; meanwhile; well-trodden; self-consciousness; unhurriedly: dissatisfied; undeserved; un-exploded; blackjack.

b) examination; inevitability; investigation; representative; differentiate; superiority; interrogation; invitation; familiarity; inescapable; anatomic; disadvantage; preparation; congratulation; disappear.

3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connective speech (assimilation, lateral and nasal plosions, the loss of plosion, the linking “r”).

Mind the pronunciation of the vowels and observe proper rhythm:

    that the authorities have found the most fair and convenient to both sides; they are a straight contest between himself and the examiners; there is rarely any frank cheating in medical examinations; standing at the front and gazing at him; like the policemen that flank the dock at the Old Bailey; they were able to complete the examination in an hour and a half; the last question was rushed through; I walked down the stairs; in the square outside; without the threat of immediate punishment; who treated the whole thing; he looked upon the viva simply as another engagement; she would get through; reeling out the lines of treatment; but they were a subdued, muttering crowd; a clock tingled twelve in the distance; I expected the windows to rattle; the clouds hung in the air.

4. Read the following passages:

a) from "I walked down the stairs" up to "... without arousing any comment";

b) from "... I stood before table four" up to "... and stumbled through the answer...";

c) from "... The elder porter raised his voice..." up to the end of the text.

Use proper intonation groups and observe the rhythm. Bear in mind the character of the passage.

5. Make the following sentences complete using the patterns (p. 10)

    1. You can just leave. I'm about to tell Bucky to forget it... . 2. I'm done for the moment and ready to join you. I've rinsed my plate and my spoon and run a damp sponge across the kitchen counter. I din't intend to do any more cleaning .... 3. I'll write you a check. We're still trying to get my dad's affairs sorted out. ... we do appreciate your help. 4. — Do you want me to make a quick run to the market? — I'd surely appreciate it. Since we're low on milk, I have to do it myself....

6. Paraphrase the following sentences, using the patterns:

    1. — I'm sure he was trying to be helpful. Nevertheless, there's probably no harm done. 2. Rawson went right on: "This or that way, in the late eighties I started writing to this woman I met through a pen pal ad." 3. — Can I lend you a hand? — No, thanks. I'm almost done. I never hoped to find anything here so far. 4. If a man shows signs of nervous tension or being under stress you must make him consult a doctor. 5. The teacher must make his children develop a critical way of thinking. 6. If you want to help a worried person under stress you, must be patient and encourage him to talk. 7. His behavior in those trying circumstances does him honor. You must make him write about it. 8. You explained that "trying to keep up with the Joneses" means to have as much as one's neighbors (the Joneses) and, if possible, even more. 9. You have promised to take the children for a drive, so you must keep your word. 10. The professor drew their attention to the difference between the two theories. It is now clear to the students.

7. Make up five sentences on each pattern.

8. Pair work. Make up and act out a dialogue, using the patterns.

 

9. Translate the following sentences into English:

     1. Хорошо. Я принимаю ваш отказ. В любом случае я рада, что мы познакомились. Надоюсь, в другой раз вы будете более сговорчивы. 

2. Я и не надеялась застать Джонки дома в такое время. 3. Не пытайся заставлять ее работать на вас. Так или иначе она сделает, что вы просите.

    1. Наконец Джесс уговорил (заставил) Рэя дать ему работу. 2. Пока я хозяин дома, я заставлю всех повиноваться мне — слышите? 3. Не моя вина, что ты не понимаешь меня, но я заставлю тебя внять здравому смыслу. 4. В среду миссис Хиггинс принимала гостей, и Хиггинс заставил ее пригласить Элизу.

   1. Теперь, когда все экзамены позади, можно с уверенностью сказать, что из вас выйдет настоящий адвокат. 2. Раз уж Том убедил всех, что Симон был невиновен, необходимо найти настоящего преступника. 3. Теперь, когда Памела нисколько не волновалась о том, что могут сказать о ней люди, о ней перестали распускать слухи.

10. Note down from the text (p. 6) the sentences containing the phrases and word combinations (p. 11) and translate them into Russian.

11. Complete the following sentences, using the phrases and word combinations:

    1. If you are smart enough to cheat in this exam ... . 2. Tick the names off ... .3. I hate swotting up before exams .... 4. Keep an eye open for ... . 5. Young teachers ... mark and grade the papers. 6. The results of the written test will come out ... . 7. ... adopted such an attitude towards people. 8. ... get through. 9. He's just the sort of person ... cut you short. 10. ... rallied her thoughts. 11. The chairperson called out the names of the students who ... . 12. Never raise your voice ...

12. Pair work. Make up and act out situations, using the phrases and word combinations:

    1. Imagine that you are sharing your experience in the technique of taking examinations with a freshman. You are not exactly a hardworking student.

    2. Imagine you are instructing a young teacher who is to be an invigilator at the written exam.

13. Translate the following sentences into English, using the phrases and word combinations:

1. Все уговаривали его воспользоваться шпаргалкой на экзамене, но он твердо стоял на своем в желании сдать экзамен самостоятельно. 2. Деловая Диана просматривала список гостей на прощальный

обед и отмечала галочкой тех, кого считала ненужным приглашать. 3. Майк, ты что, много занимался перед экзаменами? Никогда не поверю, что ты способен на это. 4. Следите, пожалуйста, за этим молодым человеком, он вполне способен воспользоваться шпаргалками на экзамене. 5. Обычно требуется неделя, чтобы проверить экзаменационные работы в колледже. 6. Результаты собеседования будут известны через три дня. 7. Дороти сосредоточилась (собралась с мыслями), приняла суровый вид и открыла заседание совета директоров. 8. Ему удалось проскочить на экзамене, хотя времени на зубрежку медицинских терминов ему не хватило. 9. Честер начал было объяснять ситуацию, но Рэй резко оборвал его. 10. Руководитель группы называл имена участников, и они отходили в сторону. 11 . Он никогда не повышал голос на своих подчиненных, но они были готовы выполнить любую его просьбу.

14. Explain what is meant by:

1. Examinations touch off his fighting spirit. 2. A single invigilator sat on a raised platform to keep an eye open for flagrant cheating. 3.... hoping by an incomplete sentence to give the examiners the impression of frustrated brilliance. 4. Confusion breeds confusion and he will come to the end of his interrogation struggling like a cow in a bog. 5. "It's the same idea as talking about passing away and going above instead of plain dying."

 

15. Answer the following questions and do the given assignments:

    a) 1. Why does Gordon equate the final examinations with death? How does he define an examination? 2. What is the usual way medical students prepare for examinations? 3. Why were the students so particular to humour Malcolm Maxworth? 4. Describe the procedure of the written examination as presented by the author. 5. In Gordon's opinion why are oral examinations so unpopular with the students? 6. Describe the psychological types fairly commonly seen in viva waiting-rooms. 7. Why were the days after the oral examination black ones for the students? 8. What was Grimsdyke's theory about failing exams? 9. In what way are the examination results usually announced? 10. How did Gordon feel when he learned that he had passed the exams?

    b) 1. What is the general slant of the story? 2. What imagery is employed by the writer in describing the student's an-

ticipating the examinations? 3. By commenting on six cases of simile chosen from the text explain and bring out the effectiveness of this stylistic device in the description of the examinations. 4. Explain and discuss the effectiveness of the allusion "judgement day" for conveying the students' fear of the examinations. 5. How does the author describe the difference between the psychological types of students at the examinations? What makes the description convincing? 6. Show how the writer conveys a sense of futility and despair in the description of the aftereffect of the examination on the students. Bring out the effectiveness of the sustained metaphor in creating the sense of futility Richard had after the examinations. 7. In what way is the atmosphere of growing suspense created? Show its function in conveying the sense of anticipation and excitement which is generated towards the end of the extract. 8. What contrast in mood and atmosphere do you detect between the whole text and the last paragraph? 9. By referring to four examples from the text, comment on the writer's sense of humour. 10. What impressions of Gordon's character do you derive from this passage?

16. Give a summary of the text (p. 6) dividing it into several logical parts.

17. Use the phrases and word combinations and act out the dialogues between:

    1. Benskin and Richard Gordon on the technical details of the coming examinations. 2. Richard and his friend discussing the written examinations they've been through. 3. Richard and Grimsdyke discussing the psychological types of students taking examinations. 4. Gordon and his friend in anticipation of the coming examination results.

18. As you read the following paragraph a) try to observe its structure, point out the topic sentence, the details of various kinds, the transitional devices used to move from one example to the other and the paragraph terminator:

    1. In the United States any person who completes elementary and secondary school (grades 1 to 12) has a variety of advanced educational opportunities from which to choose. 2. For those people interested in a four year general education in preparation for work or further university study in such professional schools as law, medicine, or dentistry, there are hundreds of liberal arts colleges throughout the country, with widely vary-

ing curricula. 3. For those who want a four year technical education in one of the arts or sciences, there are specialized schools in, for example, music or engineering or architecture. 4. For the person who wants to enter the labour force in a particular vocation and with modest preparation in general education, most cities provide two year community colleges. 5. Increasingly important in recent years are technical institutes sponsored by various businesses and industries solely for the training of their own employees. 6. The brief summary of educational opportunities available to high school graduates in the United States suggests that organized learning can continue for several years beyond the basic twelve grades.

    As you have observed, the plan of the paragraph is the following: the topic sentence (1) states the main idea of the whole paragraph; sentences (2, 3, 4, 5) — example sentences that give details to support the main idea of the topic sentence; the paragraph terminator, or a restatement sentence (6) reaffirms the central idea of the topic sentence.

    b) Think about the educational opportunities in Russia. Write a paragraph about educational alternatives in Russia for people who have completed their basic education. The paragraph should contain six sentences: a topic sentence, four developers, and a restatement.

19. Write a ten paragraph essay on the Russian and American systems of higher education, specifying the following: admission requirements, students grants and financial aid, academic calendar, courses, political and cultural activities.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the essential vocabulary. Give the Russian equivalents for every unit and translate the examples into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

    A. 1. "You are making too much fuss of me, don't worry", he said, with a smile, suggestive of annoyance. 2.1 had seldom seen him like this. He seemed, indeed, annoyed with me for having asked this question. 3. He was annoyed at the way she tried to take over the whole meeting. 4.1 want you, Lady Wil-

lard, to ascertain for me exactly how much is newspaper chatter, and how much may be said to be founded on facts. 5. The woman kept chattering in and out as she prepared the table. In a nearby tree a squirrel chattered. 6. The noise of old-fashioned computer printers chattering away gave me a headache. 7. Then the fever came on again and his teeth chattered. 8. His friends cheered him on when he was about to give up. 9. No one could help but cheer the verdict "not guilty". 10. "See you tonight then. Cheers!", I said and put down the receiver. 11. You can hear the cheers of the crowd two miles away from the football ground. 12. He gave me a cheery greeting. 13. His cheerful acceptance of responsibility encouraged us all. 14. You could never be unhappy in such a cheerful house. 15. A cheerful fire was burning in the grate. 16. "It's not a wrestling match, not a contest of strength", he said. 17. She contested five of seven titles. 18. There is always a contest between the management and the unions. 19. She's won a lot of dancing contests. 20. The championship is being keenly contested by seven athletes. 21. In tonight's quiz the contestants have come from all over the country to fight for the title of "Superbrain". 22. The contest for leadership of the Party is gathering speed. 23. He became seriously depressed and suicidal, and applied for emergency psychotherapy. 24. She emerged from the sea cold but exhilarated and toweled herself vigorously. 25. The method of this comprehensive study is to highlight the issues that emerged in the 1960s in University life. 26. The President has emerged unseated from the scandal. 27. He seemed to emerge from his reverie. 28. His professional training enabled her to act swiftly arid decisively when faced with an emergency. 29. My wife had to open the tins we kept for an emergency. 30. It has emerged that secret talks were under way between the two companies.

    B. 1. He wanted to be left alone to go about his business. 2. His new book was going along nicely. 3. The breakfast arrived and he went at it like a starving refugee. 4. I'll try to go by reason as far as possible. I'm sorry, madam, but we have to go by rules. 5. "I think my presentation went down rather well, don't you?" 6. In spite of going down badly with the critics, the film has been a tremendous commercial success. 7. I'd rather not go into that now. 8. Don't sign anything until you have gone over it thoroughly. 9. Go easy on salt, it's bad for

your heart. 10. Some jokes go round year after year. 11. Could I have a glass of water to help these pills go down? 12. They were looking for a minute at the soft hinted green in the branches against the sky. 13. Although it was a raw March afternoon, with a hint of fog coming in with the dusk, he had the window wide open. 14.1 coughed politely as she lit a cigarette but she didn't take the hint. 15. There's only a hint of brandy in the sauce, so I don't think it'll make you drunk. 16. This was a large low-ceilinged room, with rattling machines at which men in white shirt sleeves and blue aprons were working. 17. Druet was rattling on boasting about his recent victories and Hurstwood grew more and more resentful. 18. The quiet deliberate fpotsteps approaching my door rattled me/got me rattled. 19. She seemed rattled about my presence/by my question. 20.1 had taken a taxi which rattled down the road. 21. He was left alone except Rachel rattling pots in the kitchen. 22. Reduced to extreme poverty, begging, sometimes going hungry, sometimes sleeping in the parks, Hurstwood admitted to himself the game was up. 23. The Education Department had threatened the headmaster with a reduction in the staff, which meant more work and reduced salaries for the remaining teachers and himself. 24. Every building in the area was reduced to rubble. 25. The captain was reduced to the ranks for his dishonorable action. 26. The contractor had reduced his price from sixty to forty thousand dollars. 27. Mr. Lamb resented these intrusions and reduced them to a minimum. 28. They were reduced to selling the car to pay the phone bill. 29. They have made substantial reductions in the labor costs. 30. By the, end of the interview Martin was reduced to almost speechless anger.

3. Give the equivalents for:

    досаждать кому-л. до смерти; наскучить, надоедать; было досадно (неприятно); недовольный голос; раздраженный тон;

    стучать зубами; болтуны; щебетанье птиц;

    радостные мысли; веселое лицо; веселая комната; яркий, светлый день; бодрое настроение; жизнерадостный человек; приятная беседа; веселье, оживление; возгласы одобрения; поддержка, утешение; аплодисменты;

    спор, состязание, борьба; международное соревнование; музыкальный конкурс; бороться за каждую пядь земли; соперничать; добиваться избрания в парламент;

     внезапно появиться; неприкосновенный запас; запасной выход; стоп-кран; крайняя необходимость; критическое положение; вынужденная посадка; чрезвычайные меры; чрезвычайное положение; непредвиденный случай; спасательная шлюпка; чрезвычайные полномочия;

    расхаживать; продолжать; предшествовать; пересматривать; проанализировать заново; посредник; пасть, быть побежденным;

    оставаться в веках; быть принятым, одобренным (кем-л.);

    бросаться, нападать на кого-то; возвращаться к чему-л.;

    основывать свое мнение на чём-л.; платить (за обед) поровну, (пополам); продать дешево (даром);

    нравиться (о чем-то); потерять сознание; просмотреть что-л. (бегло ознакомиться);

    слегка намекнуть; прозрачно намекнуть, намекать на что-л.; грубо намекнуть; быть признаком (надвигающейся грозы);

     трещать, грохотать, греметь; барабанить (о дожде); болтать, трещать, говорить без умолку; мчаться с грохотом; отбарабанить урок; погремушка; гремучая змея;

     снижать цены; снижать зарплату; укоротить юбку; уменьшить влияние; довести до крайности; довести до нищеты; довести до минимума; довести до абсурда; сократить военные расходы; сбавить скорость, понижать температуру.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:

    1. The girls talked very quickly without stopping as if unaware of my presence. 2. The sounds of approval of the audience filled the theatre. 3. Don't be sad, I've got good news for you. 4. You shouldn't argue a point or a statemeat trying to show that it is wrong, when you don't rely on facts. 5. Let's rehearse this scene again. 6. How did you happen to find out about it? There wasn't even a slight suggestion of it in his letter. 7. An old cart passed by quickly making a lot of noise. 8. If you don't want to get some lung disease you must give up smoking or cut it to a minimum.

5. Use the essential vocabulary in answering the following questions. Give full answers repeating the words of the question:

1. How would you feel if somebody persistently interrupts your work by repeating the same question over and over again? 2. What do you do to try to raise the spirits of your sad friend? 3. What do you call a happy and contented person? 4. What do people say when soldiers put up a fearless fight not to

retreat? 5. What should a pilot do if serious problems with the plane's engine arise midflight? 6. Do you agree that failing health too often accompanies old age? 7. Do students have to examine a deeper level of the writer's words while preparing for the interpretation of the text? 8. What kind of cars usually move noisily and not very quickly? 9. Why did Hurstwood have to start to beg for his living?

6. Mike up and act out short dialogues or stories using the essential vocabulary.

7. Replace the phrases in bold type by suitable phrasal verbs based on the verb "to go":

1. I'll have to examine those papers closely before I can say anything definite. 2. I had the idea of making a raft but couldn't figure out how to start it. 3. The engineers examined the machine carefully trying to establish the cause of trouble.

4. In his report the speaker attacked the hedgers who were forever trying to shift the responsibility onto somebody else. 5. As you get better in English, you'll find it easier to communicate. 6.I hope I can base my judgement of these events on your information. 7. He didn't fulfil his promise to work harder. 8. How did your pupils accept your first lesson? 9. My opinion of him dropped considerably when I found out the truth. 10. Be kind to the dog, he didn't mean to hurt you. 11. I wouldn't dare criticise him to his face. 12. You shouldn't make your feelings so obvious to everyone.

8. Supply the appropriate word chosen from those at the end of the exercise:

1. A lamb ... 2. A mouse ... 3. A pigeon ... 4. A bird ... 5. An owl ... 6. A crow ... 7. A tiger ... 8. A rattlesnake ... 9. A nightingale ... 10. A monkey ...

(warbles, rattles, roars, croaks, squeaks, chatters, chirps, hoots, bleats, cooes)

9. Supply the appropriate word chosen from those at the end of the exercise:

1. The brakes ... as the driver brought thecar to a sudden stop. 2. The dry leaves ... in the wind. 3. The hail … on the roof. 4. Old Thomas heard little feet ... down the corridor and then stopping at his door. 5. The clock... twelve. 6. The bells ... mer-

rily as the horses drawing the carriage broke into a steady trot. 7. His teeth ... with cold. 8. The air ... as it escaped the punctured tyre. 9. She heard the door ... and sighed in relief.

(bang, chime, chatter, patter, jingle, rattle, grate, hiss, rustle)

10. Which words given in brackets denote:

    1. a clumsy, awkward person; 2. an offensively inquisitive person; 3. an impudent person who thinks he is clever; 4. a person who doubts everything; 5. a person who discourages hope, enthusiasm or pleasure; 6. a person who's always in the company of others even when he is not wanted

(smart alec, doubting Thomas, butter-fingers, wet blanket, Nosy Parker, a hanger-on)

11. Translate the following sentences into English using the essential vocabulary:

    а) 1. Закрой окно, пожалуйста, шум меня раздражает. 2. Вода была такая холодная, что Том начал стучать зубами от холода. 3. В лесной тиши было слышно щебетанье птиц. 4. Безрадостные мысли не давали ему спать всю ночь. 5. Через всю жизнь он пронес юношеский оптимизм и радостную веру в людей. 6. Молодой неизвестный музыкант, принимавший участие в международном конкурсе Чайковского, стал впоследствии знаменитым пианистом. 7. Рыба, наконец, появилась на поверхности воды. Старик был поражен ее размерами. 8. Он появился в городе, когда его менее всего ожидали. 9. Адвокат нападал на свидетеля, задавал ему бесконечные вопросы, так что в конце концов свидетель стал противоречить самому себе. 10. Мистер Волтер шел по набережной. Все вокруг было спокойно. И. "Я знаю, что сейчас ты солгал мне, но я не буду на это обращать внимание, уверен, ты сам обо всем мне расскажешь", — сказал Геральд устало.

     b) 1. Я намекнул, что ему причитаются кое-какие деньги, но, к моему удивлению, мои слова не дошли до него. 2. Далли прозрачно намекнули, что в ее услугах больше не нуждаются, но она продолжала приходить каждый день. 3. Окна дребезжали от ветра. 4. Я не понимаю, зачем вы доводите мои слова до абсурда. 5. Долгая болезнь мужа и безработица довели миссис Хартвуд до крайней нищеты. 6. Вы должны снизить скорость. Мы въехали в город; 7. Полковника разжаловали в солдаты за то, что он сдал город.

12. a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:

Familiarity breeds contempt.

Experience is the best knowledge.

Who chatters to you will chatter of you.

b) Make up and act out the stories illustrating the given proverbs.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

    1. Who is who: applicant/prospective student; freshman; sophomore, junior, senior, undergraduate student; graduate (grad) student; part-time student; .transfer student; night student; faculty:1 teaching assistant, assistant professor, associate professor, (full) professor; counselor.2

     2. Administration: dean, assistant dean, department chairman; President of the University; academic vice-president; student government; board of trustees.

     3. Structure: college (college of Arts anil Sciences); school (school of Education), evening school;'grad school; summer school;3 college of continuing education;4 department; career development and job placement office.2

     4. Academic calendar: fall spring term/semester; fall, winter, spring, summer quarter; school/academic year; exam period/days — reading days/period;5 break/recess; deadline6 (fall term break; whiter recess or winter holidays, summer vacation).

_________

1 The entire teaching staff at an educational institution.

2 For detailed information see Appendix (p. 262).

3 Classes taken in summer (during vacation time) to earn additional credits or to improve one's proficiency.

4 In-service training, updating one's qualification.

5 One or more days to read up for an examination.

6 The last date for a retake.

    5. Academic programs: course (a one / three credit course); to take a course, to give a lecture; pass-fail course;1 elective, a major/to major (what's your major?); a minor (second in importance); discussion session; seminars; a more academic class, usually with grad students; a student-teacher.

    6. Grades: to get/to give a grade; pass-fail grading (e. g.: to take grammar pass-fail); grades A, B, C, D, E; A-student; to graduate with straight A; a credit, to earn a credit; education record.2

    7. Tests: quiz; to take/to give an exam; to retake an exam (a retake); to flunk a course; to flunk smb; to drop out/to withdraw; a pass-fail test; multiple choice test; essay test; SAT, PSAT (preliminary SAT) ACT; GPA.3

    8. Red Tape: to register (academically and financially); to enroll for admission; to interview; to sign up for a course; to select classes/courses; to drop a course, to add a course,4 a student I.D.,5 library card; transcript; degrees: B.A., M.A., Ph.D.; to confer a degree; to confer tenure, thesis, paper, dissertation.

    9. Financing: full-time fees; part-time fees; graiits; student financial aid; to apply for financial aid; to be eligible for financial assistance; scholarship; academic fees; housing fees; a college work-study job.

Higher Education

    Out of more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for higher education. A college at a leading university might receive applications from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of a) their high school records; b) recommendations from their

_________

1A course where you don't take an examination, but a pass-fail test (зачёт).

2 Information on a student's attendance, enrollment status, degrees conferred and dates, honours and awards; college, class, major field of study; address, telephone number.

3 Grade Point Average — a grade allowing to continue in school and to graduate.

4 To take up an additional course for personal interest, not for a credit and to pay for it additionally, cf. факультатив

5 I. D. (Identification Document) — cf. студенческий билет

high school teachers; c) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SATs).

     The system of higher education in the United States comprises three categories Of institutions: 1) the university, which may contain a) several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor's (four-year) degree and b) one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor's degree to obtain a master's or a doctoral degree, 2) the technical training institutions at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming; and 3) the two-year, or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may transfer to four-year colleges.

    Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding. Some universities and colleges have, over time, gained reputations for offering particularly challenging courses and for providing their students with a higher quality of education. The factors determining whether an institution is one of the best or one of the lower prestige are quality of the teaching faculty; quality of research, facilities; amount of funding available for libraries, special programs, etc.; and the competence and number of applicants for admission, i. e. how selective the institution can be in choosing its students.

     The most selective are the old private north-eastern universities, commonly known as the Ivy League, include Harvard Radcliffe, (Cambridge, Mass., in the urban area of Boston), Yale University (New Haven, Conn. between Boston and New York), Columbia College (New York), Princeton University (New Jersey), Brown University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, University of Pennsylvania. With their traditions and long established reputations they occupy a position in American university life rather like Oxford and Cambridge in England, particularly Harvard and Yale. The Ivy League Universities are famous for their graduate schools, which have become intellectual elite centers.

     In defence of using the examinations as criteria for admission, administrators say that the SATs provide a fair way for deciding whom to admit when they have ten or twelve applicants for every first-year student seat.

     In addition, to learning about a college/university's entrance requirements and the fees, Americans must also know the following:

     Professional degrees such as a Bachelor of Law (LL.A.) or a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) take additional three years of study and require first a B.A. or B.S. to be earned by a student.

    Graduate schools in America award Master's and Doctor's degrees in both the arts and sciences. Tuition for these programs is high. The courses for most graduate degrees can be completed in two or four years. A thesis is required for a Master's degree; a Doctor's degree requires a minimum of two years of course work beyond the Master's degree level, success in a qualifying examination, proficiency in one or two foreign languages and/or in a research tool (such as statistics) and completion of a doctoral dissertation.

    The number of credits awarded for each course relates to the number of hours of work involved. At the undergraduate level a student generally takes about five three-hour-a week courses every semester. (Semesters usually run from September to early January and late January to late May.) Credits are earned by attending lectures (or lab classes) and by successfully completing assignments and examinations. One credit usually equals one hour of class per week in a single course. A three-credit course in Linguistics, for example, could involve one hour of lectures plus two hours of seminars every week. Most students complete 10 courses per an academic year and it usually takes them four years to complete a bachelor's degree requirement of about 40 three-hour courses or 120 credits.

     In the American higher education system credits for the academic work are transferable among universities. A student can accumulate credits at one university, transfer them to a second and ultimately receive a degree from there or a third university.

1. As you read the text a) look for the answers to the questions:

     1. What are the admission requirements to the colleges and universities? 2. What are the three types of schools in higher education? 3. What degrees are offered by schools of higher learning in the USA? What are the requirements for each of these degrees? 4. What are the peculiarities of the curricula offered by

a college or a university? 5. What is a credit in the US system of higher education? How many credits must an undergraduate student earn to receive a bachelor's degree? How can they be earned?

b) Find in the text the factors which determine the choice by in individual of this or that college or university.

c) Summarize the text in three paragraphs.

2. Use the topical vocabulary and the material of the Appendix (p. 262) in answering the following questions:

     1. What steps do students have to take to enroll in a college/ university for admission? Speak about the exams they take — PSAT, SAT, ACT. 2. What financial assistance are applicants eligible for? What is college scholarship, grants, loan? Explain and bring out the essence of student financial aid. 3. Speak about the academic calendar of a university. How does an academic year differ from the one in Russia? 4. How many credit hours does a student need to graduate? What type auricular courses and how many does a student have to take to earn a degree? 5. What is a GPA (grade point average) ? 6. What is there to say about a college faculty? What is a tenure? 7. What is the role of a student's counsellor? Specify the function of career development and job placement within a university. 8. Should there be an age limit for university full-time students? What are your attitudes to mature students? 9. What are the sources of funding for universities and colleges (both public and private)? 10. What is an undergraduate student ? A graduate student ?

3. a) Study the following and extract the necessary information:

Average Academic Fees per Quarter

(public university)

                                                Tuition

Colleges

                                                                                          non-residential                      residential

                                                                                                students                             students

Two Year Colleges                                                          $ 753                         $ 1796

College of Applied Science                                             $ 753                         $ 1796

University College                                                           $ 63                              $ 150

(part-time rates per cr. hour)

Baccalaureate Colleges

Art & Science, College-                                                  $ 753                           $ 1796

Conservatory

School of Education, Evening

College, Business Administra-                                        $ 63                             $ 150

tion, etc.

(part-time rates per cr. hr.)

Graduate and Professional Programs

Medicine (M.D.)                                                             $ 2188                        $ 4204

(part-tame per cr. hr.)                                                      $ 182                          $ 350

Law J.D.)                                                                         $1192                         $2323

(part-tame per cr. hr.)/                                                     $ 99                            $ 194

Graduate programs                                                          $1171                         $2303

(part-tame per cr. hr.)                                                     $98                             $ 192

_____________________________________________________________________

Room                                                                               $642

 Board (10 meals a week)                                                $ 1045

Average College Expenses

(University of Pennsylvania — private)

Tuition and General Fee                                      $ 11,976

Room and meals                                                  $ 4,865

Books and supplies                                              $ 380

Educational Technology Fee                               $ 200

Personal expenses (e. g. clothing, laundry,         $ 1,009

recreation)

_________________________

                                                            Total:     $ 18,430

b) Comment on the given information and speak about the financial aspect of getting a higher education in the US A.

4. Read the following dialogue. The expression in bold type show the way people can be persuaded. Note them down. Be ready to act out the dialogue in class:

Molly. Yolanda, I have big news to tell you. I've made a very big decision.

Yolanda: Well, come on. What is it?

M.: I'm going to apply to medical school.

Y.: You're what? But I thought you wanted to teach.

M: I've decided to give that up. Teaching jobs are being cut back now at many universities.

Y.: Yes, and I've read that a number of liberal arts colleges have been closed.

M: I have a friend who finished his Ph. D. in history last year. He's been looking for a teaching position for a year, and he's been turned down by every school so far.

Y.: I suppose a Ph.D. in the humanities isn't worth very much these days.

M: No, it isn't. And even if you find a teaching job, the salary is very low.

Y.: Yeah, college teachers should be paid more. But, Molly, it's very difficult to get into medical school today.

M.: I know. I've been told the same thing by everyone.

Y.: How are you going to pay for it? It costs a fortune to go to medical schools now.

M.: Maybe I can get a loan from the federal government.

Y.: That's an interesting possibility but it doesn't solve the financial problem entirely even if you get the student financial aid. You will graduate owing money. Medical students, especially, acquired heavy debts. Recently I read of one who owed $ 60,000. Won't you be facing sufficient other problems without starting life in debt? Aren't many college graduates having trouble even finding jobs? When they find them, don't they begin at relatively modest salaries ?

M.: I don't know, but...

Y.: It's foolish for a student to acquire debt, a negative dowry, unless it's absolutely imperative. Students sometimes become so excited about college that they forget there's life afterwards.

M: Maybe you're right. Life is a series of compromises, I'll have to consider career possibilities in the light of college costs...

5. In trying to persuade others, people use different tactics which can be classified into 3 basic strategies — hard, soft, and rational. Hard tactics aUenate the people being influenced and create a climate of hostility and resistance. Soft tactics — acting nice, being humble —may lessen self-respect and self-esteem. People who rely chiefly on logic reasons and compromise to get then-way are the most successful.

1) As you read the extracts below pay attention to the difference between the 3 different strategies of persuasion — hard, soft and rational:

a) (parent to child) Get upstairs and clean your room! Now. (hard); b) (professor to student) I'm awfully sorry to ask you to stay late but I know I can't solve this problem without your help, (rational); c) (professor to student) I strongly suggest that you work this problem out, if not, I will have to write a negative report about you. (hard); d) (teacher to freshman) That was the best essay I ever read. Why don't you send it to the national competition ? You could do very well there, (soft).

2) Turn the given situation below into four possible dialogues by supplying the appropriate request of the first speaker:

John, a high school undergraduate, asks his Latin teacher to write a recommendation for him to apply to the University of Pennsylvania for admission.

a) J.:

T.: Sure, John.

b) J.:

T.: Of course, John.

c) J.:

T.: I suppose that's all right, John.

d) J.:

T.: Yeah, that's OK, John.

3) In the text below: The teacher is giving Jeff,  talented but a very lazy student, his advice, a) Decide if the teacher's strategies are hard, soft or rational:

    I guess there is nothing more I can say or do to persuade you to try harder, Jeff. At this point it is crucial that you decide what you really want to do in order to know the language well. It's important to start early. You are very bright but it is still essential that you practise on a daily basis. It is also very important for you to come to class regularly. No one can do these things for you and no one should. It's necessary that you decide yourself whether to make these changes in your attitude or to give up your future as a teacher of English.

b) Act out a dialogue based on the above given situation. Vary the teacher's strategies by changing the Subjunctive Clauses to Infinitive Clauses and the Infinitive Clauses to Subjunctive Clauses.

6. Pair work. 1) From the dialogue in Ex. 4 Use the problems which young people face choosing a career in the USA. Team up with another student and discuss the problem of a career choice. Try to be convincing in defending your views. 2) Use the art of persuasion in making your son apply to the university of your choice which does not appeal to him. Vary the strategies from soft to hard.

7. In some US universities and high schools there are summer schools where high school students may repeat the courses to improve then grades or they may take up some additional courses to get better opportunities while applying for admission to a university. College students attend summer schools for the above mentioned reasons and also to speed up getting a degree by earning additional credits. (The classes are paid for on per hour basis). There have been years of debate to introduce a year-round compulsory schooling. Below is the text about an experiment which was made in Los Angeles.

a) Read it carefully and note down the arguments for and against the idea of a year-round compulsory schooling.

Year-Round Schooling Is Voted In Los Angeles

    The L.A. board of education, has voted to put all its schools on a year-round schedule. This decision does not necessarily increase the number of school days, but it is expected to save money on new construction and allow more efficient use of existing school facilities. Students would go to school for the same total 180 days a year, but they would have more, shorter vacations. In crowded schools, vacations would be staggered to ease the demand for space. Educational experts would study closely whether the benefits of a year-round program are worth the sacrifice of the traditional summer vacation. If it is proven that test scores of students are improved and performance is up, other cities win emulate the program.

    The supporters of year-round education believe educators simply cannot justify that long three-month summer vacation any more. The nine-month schedule was never designed for education. It is a 19th century agricultural-economic schedule. Supporters, many from Hispanic and black inner-city areas, contend that the year-round schedules are the only economically practical way to cope with continuing influx of new students into schools that are already strained beyond capacity.

     But there is a lot of opposition simply because it's a change. It's a deep-seated tradition that kids don't go to school in the summer and teachers don't teach.

     The decision in Los Angeles was driven primarily by a need to alleviate overcrowding in the schools. Besides many educators also back the theory that children learn and retain more when breaks from class-room work are shorter and academic performance often ijhpcoves in year-round schools. The exact calendar to be used is still under study, but most students will either go to school on a cycle of 60 weekdays of class followed by 20 weekdays of vacation, or 90 weekdays of class followed by 30 weekdays of vacation. For example students would have one-month vacation in August, December and April. In most crowded schools students would be broken into "tracks", or groups that would follow overlapping schedules to ensure that school facilities are in constant use with a minimum of overcrowding.

     Parents in Los Angeles had jammed hearing on the issue for several years with many protesting that vacations would be hard to coordinate, especially if children in different schools were in different schedules, and that it would be difficult for older children to find summer jobs. Others say that they would just as soon have vacation time to ski in the winter as they would have time off in the summer.

b) The issue of putting your school on a year-round schedule is to be debated at the sitting of the school board of education. Pair work. Enact a dialogue between a parent and a teacher on the issue offering valid arguments noted down from the text above.

c) Work in groups of 3 or 4 (buzz groups) and assign one of the views on the issue of a year-round schooling to each group.

d) Spend a few minutes individually thinking of further arguments you will use to back up the opinion you have been assigned.

e) Enact the debates on a year-round schooling at the sitting of the school board of education. Do your best to support those who share a similar point of view and try to persuade those who disagree (use phrases of persuasion and agreement/disagreement given in the Appendix).

8. Below are the extracts bringing out some problems American higher education is faced with at present. Read the selections carefully and comment on the way constitutional statement guaranteeing the theory equality of educational opportunities to the people of the USA is carried out the practice:

     1. "After ten years of affirmative action and federal legislation prohibiting sex discrimination, women are still second class citizens on the campus, but women are a new advocacy group — this is how we have to think of ourselves in the 1990s."

      2. "Having come with too little too late to the slums, our country has failed to provide lower educational resources through which many of our young black Americans may realize their potential. We have failed to provide adult-learning institutions effectively addressed to the backwash of racism and slavery."

     3. "... Deep split in American life transcends black and while, rich and poor, educated and ignorant, slum and suburb.

     Black America is the testing ground for our moral crisis. There is no more prevailing American tradition than having our black do the dirty, messy, difficult business of society. In those institutions where people can be hurt — in bad schools, in inferior and demeaning occupations, in wars — the black people have manned the front lines."

9. Group discussion. Read the following selections. The issue discussed is the role of the student in the university. Consider each ot the categories presented below and discuss the position of the Russian students at the institute in view of the recent changes in the Russian system of higher education:

    1. "Is the student's role similar to that of an apprentice — studying the master and gradually becoming a master? Or is the proper relationship one of a ward of the university, which is responsible for the student's welfare and moral and intellectual training? Or is the student a client of the university — where the student seeks out professors to help in areas of interest and need?

     2. "It is probably safe to say that in England, Canada and the United States, until recent years, there has always been a sharp distinction between the role and status of the teacher and the role and status of the student — a simple recognition of the fact that the former by virtue of his knowledge, age and experience should exercise some domination and direction over the latter."

     3. "A person's role in any given situation is defined not only by the individual but by other people and institutions in the environment. Up to 1950 there seemed few differences in the views of students, professors, or the university in respect of the student's role in the university.

     Quite clearly the student was not a member of the university if membership is defined as having a shared responsibility for the program, regulations, welfare of the institution. In these respects the student was without status or recognition.

    The attitude of the university was paternalistic and authoritarian; this was accepted by all concerned."

     4. "It was obvious in the seventies that student protest had altered the ethos of the campus in many significant ways. There was, for example, the relaxation of admission requirements, the adoption of pass-fail grading in many courses, the increasing provisions for independent study, the emphasis on creative art; the growth of work-study programs, the free choice of a wide variety of subjects.

     There was now no argument: students did share the power. The vital question was to what extent and in what areas?

     But in respect of the student's role in the university, a significant point in the history of the university was turned. Students could no longer be considered children, they were adults with responsibility for their own behaviour and conduct; they were franchised members of the university with voting rights on some issues and potentially on all issues within the university community."

10. Enact a panel discussion:

    A panel discussion programme appears on TV. Four members of the public are invited to give their opinions. The questions for discussion are sent in by the viewers. The chairperson reads out the questions and directs the panel.

a) Open the group discussion by describing the members of the panel and the chairperson.

b) Split into groups of four students. Pretend you are the TV panel. Elect a chairperson and decide which of the four roles each of you will take: Mrs/Mr Terrie/John HilI, the academic vice president: Mrs/Mr Lilian/Joseph Ubite, a professor in the department of education; Mrs/Mr Denis/Gary Bell, a grad student in  education: Florence/Donald Burrel, an undergraduate.

c) Consider the questions under discussion and enact the panel:

     1. How should higher education be organized, governed, directed? How much, if any, freedom and autonomy should there be for universities and institutes? 2. Students should share the responsibilities in a university and enjoy equal rights with the faculty. The vital question is to what extent and in what ways? 3. Pros and cons of written and oral examinations.

11. Do library research and write an essay on one of the given topics:

1. Education for national minorities. The problem of bilinguism in the USA and Russia.

2. The principal tasks of higher education.

3. Teacher training in the USA.

4. Problems in higher education in the USA and in Russia.

Unit Two

TEXT

From: TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD

By Harper Lee

    Harper Lee was bom in 1926 in the state of Alabama. In 1945-1949 she studied law at the University of Alabama. "To Kill a Mockingbird" is her first novel. It received almost unanimous critical acclaim and several awards, the Pulitzer Prize among them (1961). A screen play adaptation of the novel was filmed in 1962.

    This book is a magnificent, powerful novel in which the author paints a true and lively picture of a quiet Southern town in Alabama rocked by a young girl's accusation of criminal assault.

     Tom Robinson, a Negro, who was charged with raping a white girl, old Bob Swell's daughter, could have a court-appointed defence. When Judge Taylor appointed Atticus Finch, an experienced smart lawyer and a very clever man, he was sure that Atticus would do his best. At least Atticus was the only man in those parti who could keep a jury1 out so long in a case bite that. Atticus was eager to take up this case in spite of the threats of the Ku-Klux-Klan.2

    He, too, was sure he would not win, because as he explained it to his son afterwards: "In our courts, when it is a white man's word against a black triad's, the white man always wins. The one place, where a man ought to get a "square deal is in a court-room, be he any color* of the rainbow, but people a way of carrying their resentments right into the jury box. As you grow

________

* Please note that the American spelling is used throughout the text. However, in the questions and exercises the British spelling is retained and it is recommended that you continue to use this.

older, you'll see white men cheat black men every day of your life, but let me tell you something and don't you forget it — whenever a white man does that  to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is trash...

     There is nothing more sickening to me than a low-grade white man who'll take advantage of a Negro's ignorance. Don't fool yourselves — it's all adding up and one of these days we're going to pay the bill for it".

     Atticus's son Jem aged thirteen and his daughter Jean Louise, nicknamed Scout, aged seven were present at the trial and it is Jean Louise, who describes it...

     Atticus was half-way through his speech to fee jury. He had evidently pulled some papers from his briefcase feat rested beside his chair, because they were on his table. Tom Robinson was toying wife them. "

      "...absence of any corroborative evidence, this man was indicted on a capital charge and is now on trial for his life..."

     I punched Jem. "How long's he been at it?"

      "He's just gone over fee evidence," Jem whispered... We looked down again. Atticus was speaking easily, wife the kind of detachment he used when he dictated a letter. He walked slowly up and down in front of fee jury, and fee jury seemed to be attentive: their heads were up, and they followed Atticus's route with what seemed to be appreciation. I guess it was because Atticus wasn't a thunderer.

     Atticus paused, then he did something he didn't ordinarily do. He unhitched his watch and chain and placed them on fee table, saying, "With the court's permission —"

    Judge Taylor nodded, and then Atticus did something I never saw him do before or since, in public or in private: he unbuttoned his vest, unbuttoned his collar, loosened his tie, and took off his coat. He never loosened a scrap of his clothing until he undressed at bedtime, and to Jem and me, this was fee equivalent of him standing before us stark naked. We exchanged horrified glances.

     Atticus put his hands in his pockets, and as he returned to the jury, I saw his gold-collar button and the tips of his pen and pencil winking in fee light.

     "Gentlemen," he said. Jem and I again looked at each other: Atticus might have said "Scout". His voice had lost its aridity, its detachment, and he was talking to fee jury as if they were folks on fee post office corner.

     "Gentlemen," he was saying. "I shall be brief, but I would like to use my remaining time with you to remind you that this case is not a difficult one, it requires no minute sifting of complicated, facts, but it does require you to be sure beyond all reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the defendant. To begin with, this case should never have come to trial. This case is as simple as black and white.

     "The state has not produced one iota of medical evidence to the effect that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony of two witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious question on cross-examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant. The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this court is.

     “I have nothing but pity in my heart for the chief witness for the state, but my pity does not extend so far as to her putting a man's life at stake, which she had done in an effort to get rid of her own guilt.

     "I say guilt, gentlemen, because it was guilt that motivated her. She has committed no crime, she has merely broken a rigid and time-honored code of, our society, a code so severe that whoever breaks it is hounded from our midst as unfit to live with. She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance, but I cannot pity her: she is white. She knew full well the enormity of her offense, but because her desires were stronger than the code she was breaking, she persisted in breaking it. She persisted, and her subsequent reaction is something that all of us have known at one time or another. She did something every child has done — she tried to put the evidence of her offense away from her. But in this case she was no child hiding stolen contraband: she struck out at her victim — of necessity she must put him away from her — he must be removed from her presence, from this world. She must destroy the evidence of her offense.

     "What was the .evidence of her offense? Tom Robinson, a human being. She must put Tom Robinson away from her. Tom Robinson was her daily reminder of what she did. What did she do? She tempted a Negro.

     "She was white, and she tempted a Negro. She did something that in our society is unspeakable: she kissed a black man. Not an old Uncle, but a strong young Negro man. No code mattered to her before she broke it, but it came crashing down on her afterwards.

     "Her father saw it, and the defendant has testified as to his remarks. What did her father do? We don't know, but there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that Mayella Ewell was beaten savagely by someone who led almost exclusively with his left. We do know in part what Mr Ewell did: he did what any God-fearing, persevering, respectable white man would do under the circumstances — he swore out a warrant, no doubt signing it with his left hand, and Tom Robinson now sits before you, having taken the oath with the only good hand he possesses — his right hand.

    "And so a quiet, respectable, humble Negro who had the unmitigated temerity to 'feel sorry' for a white woman has had to put his word against two whjte people's. I need not remind you of their appearance and conduct on the stand — you saw them for yourselves. The witness for the state, with the exception of the sheriff of Maycomb County, have presented themselves to you, gentlemen, to this court, in the cynical confidence that their testimony would not be doubted, confident that you, gentlemen, would go along with them on the assumption — the evil assumption — that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are basically immoral beings, that all Negro men are not to be trusted around our women, an assumption one associates with minds of their caliber.

     "Which, gentlemen, we know is in itself a lie as black as Tom Robinson's skin, a lie I do not have to point out to you. You know the truth, and the truth is this: some Negroes lie, some Negroes are immoral, some Negro men are not to be trusted around women — black or white. But this is a truth that applies to the human race and to no particular race of men. There is not a person in this court-room who has never told a lie, who has never done an immoral thing, and there is no man living who has never looked upon a woman without desire."

     Atticus paused and took out his handkerchief. Then he took off his glasses and wiped them, and we saw another "first": we had never seen him sweat — he was one of those men whose face! never perspired, but now it was shining tan.

     "One more thing, gentlemen, before I quit. Thomas Jefferson3 once said that all men are created equal, a phrase that the Yankees4 and the distaff side5 of the Executive branch in Washington are fond of hurling at us. There is a tendency in this year of grace, 1935, for certain people to use this phrase out of context, to .satisfy all conditions. The most ridiculous

example I can think of is that the people who run public education promote the stupid and idle along with the industrious — because all men are created equal, educators will gravely tell you, the children left behind suffer terrible feelings of inferiority. We know all men are not created equal in the sense some people would have us believe — some people are, smarter than others, some people have more opportunity because they're born with it, some men make more money than others, some ladies make better cakes than others — some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men.

     "But there is one way in this country in which all men are created equal — there is one human institution that makes a pauper the equal of a Rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of an Einstein, and the ignorant man the equal of any college president. That institution, gentlemen, is a court. It can be the Supreme Court of the United States or the humblest J.P. court in the land, or this honorable court which you serve. Our courts, have their faults, as does any human institution, but in this country our courts are the great levellers, and in our courts all men are created equal.

    "I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in the jury system. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up. I am confident that you, gentlemen, will review without passion the evidence you have heard, come to a decision, and restore this defendant to his family. In the name of God, do your duty."

    Atticus's voice had dropped, and as he turned away from the jury he said something I did not catch. He said it more to himself than to the court. I punched Jem.

    "What'd he say?"

     "In the name of God, believe him, I think that's what he said."...

     What happened after that had a dreamlike quality: in a dream I saw the jury return, moving like underwater swimmers, and Judge Taylor's voice came from far away and was tiny. I saw something only a lawyer's child could be expected to see, could be expected to watch for, and it was like watching Atticus walk into the street, raise a rifle to his shoulder and pull the trigger, but watching all the time knowing that the gun was empty.

     A jury never looks at a defendant it has convicted, and when this jury came in, not one of them looked at Tom Robinson. The foreman handed a piece of paper to Mr Tate who handed it to the clerk who handed it to the judge. ...

     I shut my eyes. Judge Taylor was polling the jury: "Guilty ... guilty ... guilty ... guilty..." I peeked at Jem: his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each "guilty" was a separate stab between them.

    Judge Taylor was saying, something. His gavel was in his fist, but he wasn't using it. Dimly, I saw Atticus pushing papers from the table into his briefcase. He snapped it shut; went to  the court reporter and said something, nodded tp Mr Gilmer, and then went to Tom Robinson and whispered something to him. Atticus put his hand on Tom's shoulder as he whispered. Atticus took his coat off the back of his chair and pulled it over his shoulder. Then he left the court-room, but not by his usual exit. He must have wanted to go home the short way, because he walked quickly down the middle aisle toward the south exit. I followed the top of his head as he made his way to the door. He did not look up.

     Someone was punching me, but I was reluctant to take my eyes from the people below us, and from the image of Atticus's lonely walk down the aisle.

      "Miss Jean Louise?"

      I looked around. They were standing. All around us and in the balcony on the opposite wall, the Negroes were getting to their feet. Reverend Sykes's voice was as distant as Judge Taylor’s: "Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father's passing."

Commentary

    1. a jury: a body of persons, in the USA and Great Britain, 12 in number, who have to decide the truth of a case tried before a judge. The jury brings in a verdict of guilty (not guilty). The verdict is valid only if the decision of the jurors is unanimous. If not, the jury is dismissed and a new jury is made up. That procedure may be repeated several times until the jury comes to the unanimous decision.

     2. Ku-Klux-Klan: a reactionary organization, was formed by Southern planters when slavery was prohibited throughout the United States by the thirteenth (1865) amendment to the Con-

stitution of the USA (which was ratified in 1888. More than 20 amendments have been adopted since that time. The first ten amendments are commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights). Members of the K.K.K. met in secret places. They wore white robes and white masks through which only the eyes could be seen. They lynched blacks on the slightest suspicion without any trial. The organization was so ferocious and aroused such terror and indignation that it was outlawed. But every now and then traces of its activities can be seen even nowadays.

     3. Thomas Jefferson: (1743-1826), third President of the USA (1801-1809), drafted the Declaration of Independence, which was adopted and proclaimed on July 4th, 1776 to the whole world that a great new nation was born after a heroic peoples' War for Independence that lasted more than six years. The former 13 English Colonies had won their independence and set up their new United States Government.

    4. Yankee: originally, this term meant "a native of New England". During the Civil War, however, the Southerners used it to refer, often derisively, to inhabitants of any Northern States. Nowadays the term is used outside the US to natives of the US. In the South of the USA, it is still used (derisively) to refer to Northerners, and in New England it is still used in reference to Native New Englanders (non-derisively).

    5. the distaff side: the female branch in a family as opposed to the male branch. The Executive branch is the legislative body of the government. Here, the distaff side means the women members of the US government, the more sentimental and moralistic part of the staff, who are fond of hurling the phrase "all men are created equal" in order to be brought to the notice of the public.

SPEECH PATTERNS

\

1. a) Whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is,... that white man is trash.   

No matter who the man might be, you had no right to act in this way.

No matter who the boy is, they shouldn't have been so rude.

No matter who she is, she oughtn't to have done it.

   b) No matter what she says, don't take it for granted.

No matter what she said, they seldom agreed.

No matter what Betsy may suggest, they usually find fault with it.

No matter what he might do, you shouldn't interfere.

c) No matter how hard the boy tried, he could find no job.

d) No matter how dull the book seemed, he always read it through.

2. I have nothing but pity... for the chief witness for the state.

He deserves nothing but sympathy.

We heard nothing but a slight noise.

He felt nothing but despair.

Mary's son gave her nothing but trouble.

Phrases and Word Combinations

smb's word against another's                                                  to get a square deal (a fair

(it's your word against mine)                                                     deal)

in private and in public                                                          (to be) half way (through,

stark naked (stark raving mad)                                                  down, up)

the (one's) remaining time                                                      in itself

(money, etc.) (formal)                                                             no better (worse, etc.) than...

(at) one time or another (formal)                                            to be reluctant to do smth

in part (formal)                                                                     (formal)

under the circumstances

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1. smart a 1) quick in movement, brisk, as a smart walk (pace, trot, etc.), e. g. He gave him a smart rap over the knuckles.

2) clever, quick-witted, skilful, as a smart man (boy, lad, writer, student, lawyer, businessman, talker); a smart idea (retort, saying, device, invention, etc.), e. g. He's too smart for me. I can't prove his guilt. You are smarter than lam, I suppose. You know more about the world than I do. You've made a smart job of it.

3) clever, often in an impudent way, shrewd, as a smart answer (reply, etc.), e. g. Don't get smart with me, young man, or I'll slap your face. 4) bright in appearance, new looking, as a smart house (car, garden, ship, etc.), e. g. They've painted their cottage yellow and it looks so smart 5) elegant, as a smart dress (hat, shoes), smart clothes (society), e. g. I say, you do look smart.

a smart alec(k) an impudent person who thinks he is clever, e. g. He's a smart alec(k).

smarten up v to get you act together, e. g. The manager told the workers to smarten up and increase their weekly output.

2. exchange n giving one thing and receiving another in its place, e. g. That was a fair exchange. There was an exchange of notes between the two countries. Our flat was small, so we got an exchange.

in exchange, e. g. You've lost my book, so I'll take yours in exchange.

to get (give) smth in exchange (for smth), e. g. Roberta expected to get Fred's obedience in exchange for all her care. They were given a better flat in exchange for their old one.

exchange vt to give one thing and receive another thing for it, as to exchange glances (views, classes, greetings, opinions, prisoners, etc.), e. g. As the coat was a bad fit, he decided to exchange it. Let's exchange seats.

to exchange words (blows) to quarrel, to fight, e. g. The boys exchanged blows and went their ways.

Syn. swap/swop (informal), e. g. I want to sit where you're sitting. Shall we swap round?

3. guilt n the fact of having done wrong, e. g. There is no evidence of his guilt. A strong sense of guilt was written all over his face.

a guilt complex, e. g. With such strict parents it's no surprise that the boy has a guilt complex.

Syn. blame, e.g. He is the kind of man who always tries to shift the blame onto the others.

Syn. fault, e. g. She loves him in spite of his faults.

to find fault with smb (smth) to find smth wrong with smb, e. g. She's always finding fault (with everybody).

Syn. to pick on smb for smth wrong, e. g. Whose fault is it? It is entirely your fault that we are late. You are picking on me.

through no fault of one's own, e. g. It happened through no fault of my own.

through no fault of mine (hers, his, ours, etc.), e. g. Your Honour, I've been out of work through no fault of mine for two years.

Ant. merits.

guilty a having committed a crime, having done wrong, e. g. It is better to risk saving a guilty person than to condemn an innocent one.

Ant. innocent, guiltless    

to be guilty of (doing) smth, e. g. The woman was guilty of giving false testimony.   

to find smb guilty (innocent), e. g. the jury found the prisoner guilty.

(to have) guilty conscience, a guilty look, smile, etc., e. g. No matter how hard he tried to prove that he was innocent, his guilty look betrayed him.

to look (feel, sound, etc.) guilty, e. g. Though Tom did not look guilty, Aunt Polly was sure he was telling a lie.

to plead (not) guilty (not) to admit the charge at a law-court, e. g. Why should I plead guilty to something I didn't do? The defendant pleaded (not) guilty.

4. trust n 1) belief in the goodness, justice, strength of a person or thing.

to have (put, repose) trust in smb (smth), e. g. A child usually has complete (perfect) trust in his mother. Put no trust in him.

 Ant. mistrust

2) a combination of business or commercial firms, e. g. "Shell Oil" is a powerful oil trust.

betray smb's trust, win smb's trust

trust vt/i 1) to have faith and confidence in, e. g. I trust him completely. He's not a man to be (who is to be) trusted too far. Don't trust him an inch. I don't trust him at all.

to trust to chance (to luck), e. g. Don't trust to chance.

to trust to one's memory, e. g. A forgetful man should not trust to his memory but should write things down in his notebook.

2) to give into the care of

Syn. to entrust

to entrust smth to smb (formal), e. g. Can I (en)trust the keys to Jack? We entrusted our life to a physician.

to entrust smb with smth (formal), e. g. Can we entrust him with the task?

3) to give as a task or duty, e. g. I am afraid he is too young to be entrusted with the job. Can we entrust the task to him ?

4) to allow a person without misgivings or feeling of doubt to do smth

to trust smb to do smth, e. g. Can we trust him to finish the experiment?

trustful a full of trust; not suspicious, e. g. It's a good thing to be trustful, but only up to a point.

Syn. trusting

trustingly adv in a trustful manner, e. g. The child trustingly put his hand in mine.

trustworthy a worthy of trust; reliable, e. g. He is an honest and trustworthy fellow. You can always rely on him.

5. effect n 1) immediate result, that which is produced by a cause, e. g. She turned pale at his words and he was frightened by the effect they had produced.

to be of little (much, no) effect, e. g. The protest was of no effect.

to be to no effect, e. g. My persuasion was to no effect; she refused to go.

2) influence, e. g. The children were suffering from the effects of the heat Scientists study the effect of chemicals on each other.

to have (produce) an effect on smb, e. g. I think the medicine will have no effect (a good effect) on him.

3) performance, execution, as to take effect, go into effect, e. g. The law (treaty) will take effect in May.

to be in effect to be in operation (of a rule or law), e. g. The law is still in effect.

to bring (carry) into effect (about a plan, a law, a decision, etc.), e. g. The plan was brought (carried) into effect.

4) impression produced, as a pretty effect (of a painting); wonderful cloud effects

to be calculated for effect to be intended to impress people, e. g. His whole behaviour is calculated for effect.

to talk for effect to impress the hearers, e. g. Don't lay much store by his words, he only talked for effect.

effective a 1) having effect (эффективный), as effective measures, an effective action, remedy, e. g. The method has proved effective. 2) producing a striking impression, as an effective picture (hat, scheme of decoration, etc.).

Ant. ineffective

efficient a competent, performing duties well, as: an efficient secretary (workman, officer, army, staff of teachers, etc.)

efficiently adv, e. g. The business is efficiently run.

6. jerk vt/i to pull or move suddenly, e. g. The door jerked open. The boy jerked the fish out of the water.

Ant. shove, e.g. He shoved the door open and walked in. The fisherman shoved the boat into the water.

Syn. twitch vt/i to move jerkily and usually uncontrollably, to pull at smth with a sudden jerk, e. g. Jane's face twitched with terror at the sight of the crazy woman. The wind twitched the paper out of her hand. Jane's lip twitched angrily.

jerk n a sudden quick pull; spasmodic movement, e. g. The old car started with a jerk. The train made a jerk and stopped.

physical jerks (colloq.) physical exercises, e. g. Do you do your physical jerks regularly?

Ant. shove n a vigorous push, e. g. Fred gave the boat a shove which sent it far out into the water.

Syn. twitch n a sudden pull or jerk, a sudden and usually un-.controllable movement of some part of the body, e. g. The twitch of her lips suggested a state of extreme annoyance.

jerky adv (with sudden stops and starts), e. g. He walked down the street in a queer jerky way. Ant; smooth, even.

7. promote vt 1) to give higher position or rank, e. g. He was promoted lieutenant (or to be lieutenant). A pupil is promoted from one form (grade, class) to the next if his progress is satisfactory. 2) to encourage; to support; to help to grow or develop, e. g. We promoted the campaign for banning nuclear tests. I think we ought to promote that scheme.

promotion n 1) advancement to higher rank, e. g. He was given a promotion and an increase in salary. He hopes to get (win, gain) a promotion soon. 2) support, helping along to success, e. g. The doctors were busy in the promotion of a health campaign.

8. sound a 1) healthy; in good condition, as a sound mind, body, heart, person, constitution; sound teeth, fruit, etc, e. g. A sound mind in a sound body. In spite of her age every tooth in her head is sound. James Forsyte was composed of physiological mixture so sound that if he had an earache he thought he was dying.

(as) sound as a bell quite healthy, e. g. There's nothing the matter with me, I'm as sound as a bell.

safe and sound not harmful or injured, e. g. We reached home safe and sound. Her father returned safe and sound from the war.

2) not worn out; free from injury or defect, as a sound ship, wine, wall, construction, machine, etc., e. g. The building is of sound construction. 3) dependable; reliable; free from error, as sound morals, views, people, relationships, criticism, common sense; a sound person, reason, etc., e. g. My friend gave me a piece of sound advice. Soames had a reputation for sound judgement. I am convinced that sound-thinking citizens will never vote for this candidate. 4) safe, as a sound economy, business, business firm, financial position, investment, etc., e. g. The economy of the country is sound. 5) capable and careful; competent, as a sound lawyer, scholar, tennis player, etc. 6) complete; thorough, as a sound whipping, (thrashing, flogging), sleep, knowledge, etc., e. g. I am such a sound sleeper that sometimes I don't hear the alarm clock.

soundly adv in a sound manner, e. g. I slept soundly all night.

9. stake n that which is pledged, e. g. In this dangerous affair the stake was his own life.

to put smth at stake (very rare) to expose to the possibility of injury 6r loss, e. g. The accusation put the man's life at stake.

to be at stake to be risked, e. g. Keith Darrant knew that his own career was at stake. I cannot do it, my reputation is at stake.

stake v to stake one's life oh smth, e. g. I know he is guilty but I wouldn't stake my life on it.

10. look v; also, look here interj. used for drawing attention before making a statement, often angry, e. g. Look here, I don't mind you borrowing my books, but you ought to ask me first.

to look about to look in several different directions, e. g. Looking about (the room) I could see no sign of life.

to look down on/upon to have or show low opinion, e. g. The school looks down on such behaviour.

to look on to watch instead of doing something, e. g. Two men stole the jewels while a large crowd looked on.

to look out to take care, e. g. You'll catch cold if you don't lookout.

one's own look-out (informal) smb's own concern or responsibility, e. g. It's your own look-out whether you pass or fail. .

to look up (informal) to find and visit someone, e. g. If I'm ever here on business again I'll look you up.

to look up to to respect someone, e. g. Every child needs someone to look up to and copy.

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Consult a dictionary and transcribe the following words from the text. Practise their pronunciation paying attention to stresses:

    unanimous, corroborative, appreciation, naked, aridity, iota, subsequent, contraband, sheriff, circumstantial, persevering, unmitigated, aisle, exit, caliber, perspire, distaff, executive, inferiority, gavel, conduct (v, n), minute, indict, loosen.

b) Listen to your partners' reading of the above exercise. Correct their mistakes.

2. Read out the following word combinations paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech (assimilation, the linking “r”, the sonorant between two vowels, lateral and nasal plosions, the loss of plosion):

    where a man ought to get a square deal; the enormity of her offense; so long in a case like that; putting a man's life at stake; the jury seemed to be attentive; to get rid of her own guilt; no doubt signing it with his left hand; white men cheat black men; and placed them on the table; I was reluctant to take off my eyes; received almost unanimous critical acclaim; unbuttoned his vest, loosened his tie; it came crashing down on her afterwards; one more thing before I quit; watching Atticus walk into the street; indicted on a capital charge.

3. Single out the communicative centres and make them prominent by tone and (tress in the following sentences:

    1. When Judge Taylor appointed Atticus Finch, an experienced smart lawyer and a very clever man/he was sure that Atticus would not win the case, he could not win it... 2. "In our courts, when it is a white man's word against a black man's, the white man always wins." 3. "... whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is trash..." 4. "The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this court-room is." 5. "I have nothing but pity in my heart for the chief witness for the state." 6. "We know all men are not created equal in the sense some people would have us believe — some people are smarter than others, some people have more opportunity because they were born with it, some men make more money than others,

some ladies make better cakes than others, some people are born gifted beyond the normal scope of most men."

4. Complete the following sentences:

1. No matter who he is, he... . 2. No matter who told you that.... 3.... no matter who you are. 4. No matter what I do... . 5. No matter what it may seem.... 6. ... no matter how well he knows the facts. 7. No matter how fine the weather was.... 8.... no matter what it might be. 9. No matter how hard she tried.... 10.1 feel nothing but..". 11. The girl was conscious of nothing but.... 12. They were afraid they would have nothing but...

5. Combine the following sentences into one:

Model: I don't care who this man is. I must tell him not to interfere. No matter who this

           man is, he mustn't interfere.

a) 1. It doesn't matter who told you about it. Don't believe it. 2. Somebody may come. You must be ready to receive him. 3. It is not important which of you will carry out this task. It must be done without delay. 4.1 don't think she must take these facts for granted. Somebody might tell her about them. 5. She doesn't care who helps her with her work. She never feels obliged.

Model: a) I don't care how late you may come. Ring me up. I'll be expecting your call.  

           No matter how late you come, ring me up.

           b) She may say anything. Don't believe it. No matter what she says, don't believe

            it.

b) 1. Andrew would come very late. His wife would always sit up for him. 2. He does a lot of things. He always does them thoroughly. 3. She is hard to please. She will always find fault with everything I do. 4. You may suggest this or that it will make no difference. He will always object.

6. Paraphrase the following sentences. Use the speech patterns (p. 45):

1. Atticus Finch was never afraid to speak with his children on very complicated topics. 2. She is very lonely and is very

glad when somebody comes to see her. 3. Atticus Finch said that any man who tried to take advantage of a Negro's ignorance was trash. 4. They tried to spend as little as possible, yet they could not save enough money. 5. You may say whatever you like, yet he will have his own way. 6. I'm too tired and am going to bed. I'm not at home if anybody calls. 7. I'm afraid only of the dark. 8. He did not know the material. He knew only some points which were of no importance. 9. The only thing I'd like to have now is a cup of very hot strong tea.

7. Make up two sentences of  your own on each pattern. Make up and act out in front of the class a suitable dialogue using the speech patterns. (Pair work)

8. Translate the following sentences into English using the speech patterns:

1. Кто бы ни был этот человек, он не имел права так поступать. 2. Врач всегда должен быть внимателен, кто бы к нему ни обратился, какой бы странной ни казалась жалоба пациента. 3. Она всегда готова помочь, кто бы ни попросил ее о помощи. 4. Что бы ты ни говорил, я все равно тебе не верю. 5. Аттикус Финч знал, что он проиграет процесс, как бы он ни старался доказать, что Том Робинсон невиновен. 6. Как бы она ни устала, она имеет обыкновение убирать, квартиру, прежде чем лечь спать. 7. Его лицо не выражало ничего, кроме негодования. 8. Только операция может спасти вашего сына. 9. Скажите ему правду, ничего кроме правды, как бы тяжела она ни была. 10. Мы слышали только легкий шум.

9. Note down from the text (p. 40) the sentences containing the phrases and word combinations (p. 46) and translate them into Russian.

10. Complete the following sentences:

I. 1 understand that it's only his word against mine but... . 2. 1 ... to get a square deal in this court. 3. Douglas was half way through his presentation when... . 4. ... in private... . 5. You must be stark raving mad to ... . 6. ... remaining time. 7. At one time or another... . 8. ... in part... . 9. Under the circumstances... . 10. In itself... . 11. ... no better than... .12. She was reluctant... .

II. Make up two or three sentences of your own on each phrase and word combination.

12. Using the phrases make up a suitable dialogue and act it out in front of the class.

13. Translate the following sentences into English using the phrases and word combinations:

1. Вы выступаете против того, что утверждает он, но это все слова, вы не приводите никаких доказательств. 2. Финч хотел, чтобы с обвиняемым поступили справедливо. 3. Не делайте замечание своему сыну при людях, поговорите с ним наедине. 4. Надо быть совершенно сумасшедшим, чтобы отказаться от такой возможности. 5. Я хочу использовать оставшееся время, чтобы обсудить с вами вопрос с глазу на глаз. 6. Я частично с вами согласен, что в любом случае должен это сделать, однако при данных обстоятельствах мне не хотелось бы воспользоваться его затруднительным положением. 7. Само по себе его предложение интересно, но оно не лучше вашего. 8. В чем вы его обвиняете? — Он солгал и не очень-то хочет в этом признаваться, что плохо само по себе, более того, он упорно повторяет эту ложь.

14. Answer the questions and do the given assignments:

a) 1. Where is the scene set? 2. What was Tom Robinson charged with? 3. Why did Judge Taylor appoint Atticus Finch to defend him? 4. In what way did Atticus Finch speak to the jury and why? 5. What did Atticus Finch say about the case? 6. What did Atticus Finch say about Mayella Ewell? 7. What did the girl do to get rid of her own guilt? 8. What were the witnesses for the state sure of when giving their testimony? 9. What was the evil assumption of the witnesses for the state? 10. What did Atticus Finch say about people not being created equal? 11. Why didn't Atticus Finch believe firmly in the integrity of their courts and in the jury system?

b) 1. To what literary mode does this excerpt belong, e. g. the realistic novel, science fiction, fantasy, etc.? 2. Point out the sentences employed in the text to convey concise information cornpactly. 3. List the words from the passage which belong particularly to the vocabulary of a lawyer. 4. How would you describe the basic style of the passage, e. g. formal, colloquial, etc.? 5. Select some of the words or phrases which are slightly unexpected in the present context thus giving a personal character to the narration. 6. Point out details which add a dramatic flavour to the extract. 7. What is the purpose of ora-

tory? What is Atticus's aim? 8. Sum up your observations and say what peculiarities of the text testify to its belonging to oratorical style. What devices help the author keep the reader in the state of expectation?

c) 1. As you know, in its leading features oratorical style belongs to the written variety of language, though it is modified by the oral form of the utterance. Say what features of 1) the written variety, 2) the spoken variety of language are present in Atticus's speech.

2. Find points of opposition between concepts. What do they call this device employed by the author?

3. How are the details piled up to create a state of suspense and to prepare the reader for the only logical conclusion of the utterance?

4. What kinds of repetition does Atticus resort to? Observe how the oratorical character of the writing is assisted by the repetition.

5. How is emotional appeal achieved? (metaphors, similes, periphrasis, epithets, etc.)

6. Make your specific interpretation of "first".

7. Point out the sentences employed in the text to convey concise information about the jury system at the time of the writing of the text.

15. Explain what is  meant by:

    with what seemed to be appreciation; this was the equivalent of him standing before us stark naked; no minute sifting of complicated facts; to be sure beyond all reasonable doubt; evidence has been called into serious question on cross-examination; my pity does not extend so far as to her putting a man's life at stake; the unmitigated temerity; confident that you, gentlemen, would go along with them on the assumption that all Negroes lie.

16. Give a summary of the text.

17. Retell the text a) close to the text; b) as if you were one of the characters prerent in the court-room.

18. a) Make up and act out dialogues between:

1. Atticus Finch and Judge Taylor before the trial.

2. Atticus Finch and Judge Taylor after the trial.

3. Scout and Jem discussing the trial.

b) Legality is only one aspect of the question of right and wrong . Everyone has his or her own beliefs which do not always conform to current laws. Can Judge's personal beliefs interfere in interpretation and application of the law? Write an account of your findings.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

A. 1. When Jean and Henry left the night club in his smart car, they took the road that cut through the woods. 2. Anthony saw Jean drive at a smart speed in her two-seater. 3. Captain Nicholas looked upon it as a smart piece of work on Strick-land's part that he had got out of the mess by painting the portrait of Tough Bill. 4. For a long time there was silence. When Andrew and Ben did speak again, it was merely to exchange war experiences. 5. Steve exchanged the house in the suburbs of London for a flat in a smart neighborhood. 6. "I hardly know her, really," said Cherry. "Just exchanged a few conventional remarks at one time or another." 7. To the usual question "Do you plead guilty?" Anthony replied in a quiet and deliberate voice "Not guilty, my Lord." 8. Don't try to shift the blame onto me, it's not my fault. 9. It is an equal failing to trust everybody and to trust nobody. 10. Old Len used to say: "Put your trust in God". 11. Elizabeth couldn't trust herself not to laugh. 12. Trust him to make a mistake! 13. Little Jack can't be trusted out of my sight. He's so naughty.

B. 1. The display of wealth was calculated for effect. 2. It was an effective rejoinder and reduced his opponent to silence. 3. Can you speak about the effect of demand upon supply?

4. Jane pulled the curtain aside with a hasty jerk, threw the window open and leaned out. 5. Peter jerked his head back 

and angrily walked away. 6. His mouth twitched with repressed laughter. 7. Within a year he was promoted from assistant derk to head clerk. 8. The company's commercials and other promotion materials boosted the sales. 9. Her constitution is as sound as a bell, illness never comes near her. 10. No sound reason can be given for his conduct. 11. No matter how hard the situation might be Lisa would never undertake anything that would put her reputation at stake. 12. Look before you leap, (proverb). 13. After hard work during a week Paul was looking forward to a decent night's sleep. 14. "If you come to England look in on us, you know our address", insisted Steve. 15. Rachel merely looked on and did nothing. 16. Business in their company is looking up. 17. Margaret looks down in her mouth at anyone who hasn't a title. 18. "You know what I mean. You look like a million dollars", Mary said with a happy smile. 19. Old Emily would stand on the porch looking out for the postman. 20. He was definite that he would look back in an hour's time.

3. Give the English equivalents for the following phrases:

    быстрая ходьба, энергичная атака, фешенебельное общество, элегантная женщина, шикарная машина, сообразительный парень, ловкая сделка, толковый ответ, шустрый ребенок, расторопный слуга, самоуверенный наглец, дерзкий ответ, аристократический район;

    обменять покупку, взамен, поменять квартиру, обменяться взглядом (мнениями), обмен информацией;

    чувствовать себя виноватым, казаться виноватым, виноватая улыбка, нечистая совесть, виноватый вид, признать кого-то виновным;

    доверять кому-л., поручить что-то кому-л., доверить свою жизнь врачу, оставить (доверить) ключи соседям, полагаться на память, полагаться на случай, доверчивый человек, заслуживающий доверия;

    хорошо (плохо, мало, сильно, быстро) подействовать на кого-л. (что-л.), действие жары (света, холода) на кого-л. (что-л.), вступить в силу, оставаться в силе, ввести в действие, осуществить план, рассчитанный на эффект, эффективный метод, сильнодействующее лекарство, действенные меры, эффектное платье, квалифицированный секретарь, квалифицированный преподавательский состав, умелый работник;

    рывком открыть дверь, выдернуть рыбу из воды, дернуться (o поезде), трогаться с места рывком, отдернуть руку, нервное подергивание лица, подергиваться (о частях лица), рот дрогнул в улыбке,

лицо исказилось от гнева (ужаса), засунуть что-л. в карман, столкнуть лодку в воду, отодвинуть стол к стене, толкаться;

    получить повышение, способствовать реализации плана, содействовать проведению (избирательной) кампании, развитию дружбы и сотрудничества;

    крепкий организм, здоровое сердце, в здоровом теле здоровый дух, крепкие зубы, целый и невредимый, прочная конструкция, прочное основание (фундамент), здравый совет, обоснованный довод (причина), здравые взгляды, правильная мысль, здравомыслящий человек, правильная оценка положения, здравая политика, твердое финансовое положение, глубокий сон, основательные знания;

    рисковать жизнью, за его честность я ручаюсь своим добрым именем, быть кровно заинтересованным в чем-то, рисковать всем, биться о заклад;

    побереги себя, потупить взор, рассматривать проблему, "Берегите себя" (при прощании), заняться вопросом, отступать поздно, осматривать дом, он лезет на рожон, выходить на набережную (о фасаде, окнах), отвести взгляд, просмотреть тесты (бумаги, газету и др.), искать таланты, обратиться к кому-л. за помощью, смотреть свысока.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:

1. Bob Ewell laid the blame on Tom Robinson. 2. He is an impudent fellow who thinks he is clever. 3. Are you sure our arguments will influence him? 4. World festivals, congresses, exchanges help to further understanding between nations, 5. I think his advice 19 wise and reasonable. 6. He pulled out the knije that was stuck in the wood. 7. You should not believe him, he's dishonest.-8. You look very neat and trim in that new shirt. 9. Mary and Ann didn't actually fight but they certainly spoke to each other very rudely. 10. Your only bad point is that you won't do what you're told. 11. The firemen acted quickly because lives depended on what happened. 12. He paid her a visit when he got into town.

5. Choose the right word:

a) guilt, fault, blame

1. John's attempt to shift the ... onto his companion met no response. 2. His... are accepted as the necessary compliment to his merit. 3. The colonial system bears the ... for the present-day backwardness of some African states. 4. The boy is punished for the slightest... . 5. If anything had gone wrong,

I would have had to take the .... 6. The evidence against the accused was so incontrovertible that he had to admit his....

 b) jerk, shove, twitch

1. The boys ... the chairs and tables from the centre of the room. 2. The train made a sudden ... and stopped. 3. The dog's nose ... as it passed the butcher's shop. 4. A strong gust of wind ... the letter from the girl's hand. 5. Jane's face ... with terror at the sight of the crazy woman.

6. Fill in the correct form of the phrasal verb:

1. Look ... for the rain. 2. Look ... before crossing the street. 3. Ella asked her mother to look... her home and children while she was going to Exeter to look ... a suitable job. 4. I hitfe his way of looking... on people. 5. She was absorbed in a book 'and didn't even look ... when I called her. 6. Ann was looking ... to meeting her old fellow-students whom she had not seen for many years.

7. Review the essential vocabulary and translate the following sentences into English:

    1. Находчивые ответы студентов понравились экзаменатору. На выпускном вечере все девочки выглядят очень нарядными в своих светлых платьях. 2. Туристы любят обмениваться значками и стараются получить в обмен что-нибудь новое. 3. В комнате слышался страшный шум — это ссорились Даглас и Кен. 4. Я чувствую себя виноватой, что так долго испытывала ваше терпение. 5. Ты обвиняешь меня в том, что я приехала слишком поздно, но ведь ты сама назначила этот час, так что это не моя вина. 6. У нее есть недостатки, но у кого их нет! 7. Опять ты придираешься ко мне, но это случилось не по моей вине. 8. Целью защиты является доказать невиновность обвиняемого в том случае, когда он действительно невиновен. 9. Этот ребенок очень трогательно верит вновь обретенному взрослому другу. 10. Кажется, я потерял ключ. — Это на тебя похоже! 11. Надеюсь, все обошлось хорошо. 12. Не принимай эти слова на веру. 13. К сожалению, лекарство подействовало очень слабо. 14. Когда Эйлин услышала грубые слова Фрэнка, ее лицо исказилось от возмущения. 15. Машина резко затормозила, беглец выскочил и скрылся в ближайшем дворе. 16. Резко дернув головой, Фрэнк ринулся в драку. 17. На днях Дейв получил повышение, вся семья очень гордилась им. 18. В первые дни войны Питеру присвоили звание сержанта. 19. От качества рекламного материала в значительной

степени зависит успех реализации нового товара на рынке сбыта. 20. Предложение Дюжина было разумным, при сложившихся обстоятельствах Совет директоров вынужден был принять его. 21. "Возвращайся домой целым и невредимым", просила мать сына, провожая в дальнюю дорогу. 22. Каувервуд знал, что ставит на карту свое будущее, но у него не было выбора. 23. Арнольд был кровно заинтересован в коммерческом успехе данной сделки. 24. Маленькая Джейн научилась находить незнакомые слова в словаре и очень гордилась этим. 25. Комната для гостей в доме мистера Линвхана выходила окнами на море. 26. Г-н Хикман даже не поднял головы, когда главный бухгалтер вошел в кабинет. 27. Через две недели истекал срок испытательного периода, и Линда станет полноправным сотрудником компании. Она так ждала этого дня!

8. Give the Russian equivalents for the following:

a) A fair exchange is no robbery

   A fault confessed is half redressed.

b) Make up and act out the stories illustrating the given proverbs.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

COURTS AND TRIALS

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

    1. Courts: trial Courts, common pleas courts, municipal and county courts, mayors' courts, courts of claims, courts of appeals, the State Supreme Court.

The Federal courts, district courts, the US Supreme Court, juvenile court.  

   2. Cases: lawsuit, civil cases, criminal cases, framed-up cases.

   3. Offences: felony, misdemeanour, murder, manslaughter, homicide, rape, assault, arson, robbery, burglary theft/larceny, kidnapping, embezzlement bribery, forgery, fraud, swindling, perjury, slander, blackmail, abuse of power, disorderly conduct, speeding, petty offence, house-breaking, shoplifting, mugging, contempt of court, subpoena.

4. Participants of the legal procedure: 1) parties to a lawsuit: claimant/plaintiff(in a civil case); defendant, offender (first/repeat); attorney for the plaintiff (in a civil case); prosecutor (criminal); attorney for defence; 2) jury, Grand jury, to serve on a jury, to swear the jury, to convene; 3) witness — a credible witness; 4) a probation officer; 5) bailiff.

5. Legal procedure: to file a complaint/a countercomplaint, to answer/challenge  the complaint; to notify the defendant of the lawsuit; to issue smb a summons; to issue a warrant of arrest (a search warrant); to indict smb for felony; to bring lawsuit; to take legal actions; to bring the case to court; to bring criminal prosecution; to make an opening statement; the prosecution; the defence; to examine a witness — direct examination, cross-examination; to present evidence –  (direct, circumstantial, relevant, material, incompetent, irrelevant, admissible, inadmissib, corroborative, irrefutable, presumptive, documentary); to register (to rule out, to sustain) an objection; circumstances (aggravating, circumstantial, extenuating); to detain a person, detention; to go before the court.

  1.  Penalties or sentences (штрафы и меры наказания): bail, to release smb on bail; to bring in (to return, to give) a verdict of guilty/not guilty; a jail sentence; send smb to the penitentiary/jail; to impose a sentence on smb; to serve a sentence; a penitentiary term = a term of imprisonment (life, from 25 years to a few months imprisonment); hard labour, manual labour; probation, to be on probation, to place an offender on probation, to grant probation/parole; parole, to release smb on parole, to be eligible for parole.

7. A court room: the judge's bench, the jury box; the dock, the witness’ stand/box; the public gallery.

The US Court System1

     The courts are the overseers of the law. They administer it, they resolve disputes under it, and they ensure that it is and remains equal to and impartial for everyone.

In the United States each state is served by the separate court systems, state and federal. Both systems are organized into three basic levels of courts — trial courts, intermediate

____________

1 For the US Court structure see Appendix (p. 271).

courts of appeal and a high court, or Supreme Court. The state courts are concerned essentially with cases arising under state law, and the federal courts with cases arising under federal law.

     Trial courts bear the main burden in the administration of justice. Cases begin there and in most instances are finally resolved there.

    The trial courts in each state include: common pleas courts, which have general civil and criminal jurisdiction and smaller in importance municipal courts, county courts and mayors' courts.

    The common pleas court is the most important of the trial courts. It is the court of general jurisdiction — almost any civil or criminal case, serious or minor, may first be brought there. In criminal matters, the common pleas courts have exclusive jurisdiction over felonies (a felony is a serious crime for which the penalty is a penitentiary term or death). In civil matters it has exclusive jurisdiction in probate, domestic relations and juvenile matters. The probate division deals with wills and the administration of estates, adoptions, guardianships. It grants marriage licenses to perform marriages. The domestic division deals with divorce, alimony, child custody.

    The juvenile division has jurisdiction over delinquent, unruly or neglected children and over adults, who neglect, abuse or contribute to the delinquency of children. When a juvenile (any person under 18) is accused of an offence, whether serious, or minor, the juvenile division has exclusive jurisdiction over the case.

    The main job of courts of appeal is to review cases appealled from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted and applied.

     The supreme court of each state is primarily a court of appeal and the court of last resort.

     The federal court structure is similar to the structure of the state court system. The trial courts in the federal system are the United States district courts. The United States courts of appeal are intermediate courts of appeal between the district courts and the United States Supreme Court.

     The US Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation and the court of last resort. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all of whom are appointed for life by the President with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. The

duty of the Supreme Court is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. The great legal issues facing the Supreme Court at present are Government involvement with religion, abortion and privacy rights, race and sex discrimination.

1. As you read the text a) look for the answers to these questions:

     1. What is the dual court system existing in the USA? What three levels of courts does it consist of? 2. What is the jurisdiction of the trial court? Define the jurisdiction of the common pleas court. 3. What kind of civil matters are brought to common pleas courts? Elaborate on probate, domestic relation and juvenile matters. 4. Speak about the jurisdiction of state and federal courts of appeals and state supreme courts. 5. What is the duty of the US Supreme Court?

b) Summarize the text in 3 paragraphs, specifying the following: 1) the dual system of the US courts; 2) trial courts — courts of general Jurisdiction; 3) the US Supreme Court — the court judging the most explosive issues in American life.

2. Study the following text, a) Extract the necessary information about law enforcement in the USA:

    A criminal case begins when a person goes to court and files a complaint that another person has committed an offence. This is followed by issuing either an arrest wanmt or a summons. A criminal case is started when an indictment is returned by a grand jury before anything else happens in the case. Indictments most often are felony accusations against persons, who have been arrested and referred to the rand jury. After an accused is indicted, he is brought into court and is told the nature of the charge against him find gjfcrtl tft can plead guilty, which is the admission that he committed crime and can be sentenced without a trial. He can plead guilty and be tried.

     As a general rule the parties to civil suits and defendant  criminal cases are entitled to "trial by jury of 12 jurors. But a jury is not provided unless it is demanded in writing in advance of the trial; in this case a civil or a criminal case is judge alone, greater criminal cases are tried to a  three-judge panel.

     In trial by the jury the attorneys for each party make their opening statements. The prosecution presents its evidence based on the criminal investigation of the case.

       The attorney for the defence pleads the case of the accused, examines his witnesses and cross-examines the witnesses for the prosecution. Both, the prosecution and the defence, try to convince the jury. When all the evidence is in, the attorneys make their closing arguments to the jury with the prosecutor going first. Both attorneys try to show the evidence in the most favourable light for their sides. But if one of them uses improper materiaHn his final argument the opponent may object, the objection may be ruled out by the judge who will instruct the jury to disregard what was said or may be sustained. After this the judge proceeds to instruct the jury on its duty and the jury retires to the jury room to consider the verdict. In civil cases at least three-fourths of the jurors must agree on the verdict. In a criminal case there must not be any reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused, the verdict must be unanimous.

     The next stage is for the judge to decide, in case of a verdict of guilty, what sentence to impose on the convict.

b) Use the material of the text and the topical vocabulary in answering the following questions:

     1. Who are the participants in the legal procedure? 2. In what way does a legal procedure start a) in civil cases, b) in criminal cases? 3. Describe the procedure of the trial in the American court of common pleas. 4. What kind of offences are known to you? Specify the felony and misdemeanor. 5. What penalties arid sentences are imposed in the US courts?

3. Do library research and a) speak about the structure of the Russian courts. The following terms might be useful:

     the electivity of the people's court; social lawfulness; city courts; regional courts; supreme courts; people's courts; hearing of cases in courts of law; people's judge; people's assessor; courts of first instance; legal assistance; presumption of innocence.

b) Give brief  information on Russian law enforcement. Consider the following:

1. the jurisdiction of the Russian court; 2. the legal procedure of the trial; 3. the joint trial by a judge and two people's assessors; 4. the basic principle of the legal procedure — "presumption of innocence".

4. Juvenile delinquency is an issue about which people all over the world are concerned.

a) Read the extracts given below which present information on the gravity of the problem:

    a) Youth gangs have been a part of Los Angeles since the fifties. Back then their activities were largely confined to petty crimes and small-scale marijuana dealing. But lately the numbers of gangs have become staggering totalling from about 5,000 members lo 10,000. Almpst all the gangs are involved in the cocaine trade. "A typical gang might have 200 kids from 13 to 26 years of age," says Steven Strong, the L.A. Police department's detective. "Two weeks ago 30-year-old David Thompson and his wife were stopped by three armed teenagers, who rushed the couple, robbed them and then casually shot Thompson in the head. The gang members pushed the dying man's wife out of the car, got in and drove away."

    b) Every night — and in many areas day and night, thousands of police cars patrol the streets of American towns. The list of crimes starts with petty crimes, goes through house-breaking, shoplifting, mug0ng to be topped by homicide. Entire neighbourhoods are terrorized by mobsters and thugs, many of them are quite young.

 

    c) Just think about how teenagers run away from homes, their own, from caring as it seems mothers, fathers, grandmothers. Why do they choose to look and act aggressive and tough? Take rockers who startle passers-by by the flashing lights of their roaring night motorbikes. Why do they, with their high-school background, have such a lack of thoughtful-ness? Self-assertion? Then why at other people's expense?

b) Pair work. Team up with another student, work out the reasons for Juvenile delinquency as they are presented to the extract and discuss the extracts in pairs.

c) Speak about the social background of juvenile delinquency and its role in contributing to the crime rate. Consider the following:

     1. Are juvenile offenders usually found among children from broken homes or large unhappy poor families? 2. Is being unemployed anlmportant enough reason to push somebody onto the path of crime? 3. What would you say about disillusionment, loss of faith in the surrounding grown-up world as a possible reason for juvenile delinquency? 4. Speak on the vital role of drug addiction and alcohol consumption in the growing crime rate in general and in juvenile delinquency in particular.

5. Below is an interview with a judge on crime and punishment. The judge says why he gives help in some cases and punishment in others.

a) Work in groups of 3 or 4 and assign different opinions on the problem of the punishment to each member of the group:

Interviewer. Are there ever times when you just feel desperate, you know, you realize there's absolutely nothing that can be done for this person?

Judge: Oh, yes, very often.

Interviewer. And what do you do in such cases?

Judge: Well, it depends how anti-social their action has been. If a person needs help one wants to give it to him or her, but on the other hand you always have to consider at the same time: the effect on society in general of too much kindness to too many people.

Interviewer. You mean if such a person were let free he might cause far more trouble to other people than he could cause to himself while he's inside prison.

Judge: Yes, indeed. And also if people were never punished I think undoubtedly crime would increase.

b) Spend a few minutes individually thinking of further arguments you will use to back up your own opinion on the usefulness and types of punishment.

c) Now discuss the issue with other members of the small group using the arguments you have prepared. Do your best to support those who share a similar point of view and try to dissuade those who don't agree with you. (Use cliches of persuasion, agreement/disagreement).

6. In arguments involving suggestions, partial agreement and disagreement certain functional phrases of attack and response1 are used. The tactics of attack may be tentative or direct.

a) As yoy read the extracts below pay attention to the difference between the two:

— Isn't it just possible that new evidence will throw quite a different light on the case? -

— Might it not be true that the boy didn’t mean any harm. (tentative)

  1.  Surely you'd admit that the offender has violated the basic principle. (direct)
  2.  Don't you think that the prosecutor has built his case on the erroneous assumption?  

(direct)

All of these things are racial slurs, aren't they? (direct)

b) Complete each of the following conversations below by supplementing the appropriate tactics of attack of the first speaker:

1. …

Possibly (may be so) I'd agree with you to a certain extent.

2. …

I see your point.

3. ...

That may well be.

4. …

I see what you mean, but...

c) As you read the text below note down the functional phrases of attack and response:

Juror 1: It's a tough decision to make, isn't it? Don't you think that it's an awful responsibility to have the future of that lad in our hands? I feel so sorry for him, he's not yet 21.

Juror 2: Come off it! You can't be serious! He didn't just take the money, he also beat up the old lady. He's guilty, it's written all over his face. It's our social duty to keep our streets safe at night.

Juror 3: I agree with your last statement, but surely you admit the evidence for convicting this young man is rather flimsy? Wouldn't you say that we need something more definite?

__________

1 See Appendix (p. 289).

Juror 2: Ideally that's quite true, but there weren't any other witnesses. As I see it he had the motive, he has no alibi and the old lady recognized him...

Juror 1: Hang on a minute. I'd like to point out that she only thought she recognized him. Isn't it just possible that a scared old lady of 76 could have been mistaken ?

Juror 2: Fair enough, but it's all we have to go on. All the fingers seem to point at him.

Juror 3: That may well be, but strong suspicion isn't enough to put someone away in prison. If you ask me, even if he is guilty, the shock of arrest and coming to trial will be enough to stop him making the same mistake again.

Juror 4: I see what you mean, but the punishment's not our problem. We're here only to decide whether he's guilty or not. And the point is he was carrying a knife when the police picked him up, wasn't he?

d) Act out the situation similar to the one given above. Use various tactics of attack and response.

7. In a students' debating club the motion is "punks, heavy metal fans, rockers, nostalglsts, green hippies and others should be prosecuted by law."

a) Make a list of arguments for and against any legal sanctions against such groups of young people.

b) Define your own attitudes to these groups. Do you think they pose a threat to public order?

c) Participate in the discussion. Use the technique of defending your views by being forceful in presenting your arguments. Use the functional phrases of attack and response.

8. The success of a lawyer, especially a prosecutor, among other things depends on a skill in making a capital speech, based in some cases on the ability to attack, to force bis opinion on the Jury. Act as an attorney for the state in an imaginary case and prove at least one piece of evidence against the accused. Exercise your ability to ask the right kind of question, to be forceful in proving your point in attacking the counterarguments.

9. Panel discussion:

    Suppose the fundamentals of a new criminal code of Russia are being worked out. Six experts are invited to a panel discussion to your University. They are Dr. Kelina (LL.D.), a leading researcher with the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Orlov (LL.D.), the same Institute,

Dr. Stem (LLJD.), professor of the Cincinnati University, Mr D. Fokin, a people's assessor, Mr S. Panin, a people's judge and a criminal reporter for the national newspaper.

a) Open group discussion. Describe the members of the panel and elect the chairperson.

b) Split into groups of 5-6 students and assign the roles of the panel.

c) Before the beginning of the panel read the following selections carefully and extract the necessary information:

— It's a time-honoured misconception that the stricter the punishment, the lesser the crime rate. This misconception has long been debated by history and science. Law cannot, and must not take revenge: punishment is not an end in itself, but a means of restoring social justice. It's a tool for re-education. This concept should form the guidelines of the new legislation.

— Law is developing: it has no impunity in the court of time. A number of offences should be altogether excluded from the criminal law since administrative measures are quite sufficient against them. Say a driver violates some traffic regulations, and in the accident no one is hurt...

— Unjust law warps and handicaps a nation's morale. Remember when in the not-so-distant past families of the "enemies of the people" hurriedly renounced their relations fully aware that the charges were false.

— We used to say that we had neither drug addiction nor prostitution. As long as there were no such problems any legal responsibility was out of the question. Now it is widely claimed that we need criminal laws against both drug addiction and prostitution.

— Could we make, say, prostitution a criminal offence? What could the evidence be? Who could bear witness?

— The violation of law would be extremely difficult to prove and the punishment would necessarily be selective.

— Some would be charged, others would be spared, and a selective application of law is arbitrary rule.

— But the real problem is elsewhere. Is immorality a breach of law? Don't we have to distinguish between a moral and a criminal code? I think we must be weary of the naive desire to make law relieve us of the pains of responsible choice. If every act were dictated by an article of the Criminal Code, rather than one's conscience and moral sense, human beings would become legal objects.

— Prostitution should be fought but the judges should be kept out of it.

— Drug addiction should not entail legal prosecution. Otherwise we may be in for disastrous consequences. People would be afraid to solicit medical help; it would be an impenetrable wall between the drug addicts and those who are able to save them.

— Are changes to come in the types of punishment?

— The reformatory function of jail is little-more than fiction. Rather the opposite is true. The first "jolt" makes an inveterate criminal who won't stay in society for long.

— Even in an ideal penitentiary — if such could be imagined — serving one's time causes serious problems. A cooped-up individual loses friends, family, profession, familiar environment and finds himself or herself a member of a group that is anything but healthy.

— But that's not the whole story. Imprisonment, particularly if it is prolonged, undermines one's capacity to make decisions, to control oneself. Set free after long years in jail, one is unfit for freedom, normal life seems incomprehensible and unbearable. One might be unconsciously drawn to the habitual way of life. Around 30 per cent of former inmates are brought back behind bars after new offences, and half of them during their first year at large.

— According to sociologists, less than 5 per cent of those sentenced for the first time consider their life in the colony as "normal", whereas the correspondent figure for those serving a second sentence (or more) is 40 per cent.

— New penitentiary principles must be introduced. It is real as well as imperative. I believe the solution lies with a differentiation between convicts and separate confinement according to different categories. First time offenders should be kept separately from those with long "case histories"; convicts serving time for particularly grave crimes must not mix with petty delinquents.

— Another urgent problem is that of the maximum term of confinement. Scholars propose that the maximum serving time envisaged by the code and by each article be reduced.

— The legal profession and sociologists know that the arrest itself, the curtailing of personal freedom, is increasingly perceived as the greatest shock by the offender. It is a traumatic, shameful psychological experience. Hence, petty delinquency,

such as hooliganism, should entail not a year or two in jail but up to 6 months in a detention home.

d) The following issues are to be discussed:

1. If every act were dictated by an article of the Criminal Code rather than one's conscience and moral sense, human beings would become mere legal objects.

2. Punishment is not an end in itself, but a means of restoring social justice. It's a tool for re-education.

3. Should drug-addiction entail legal prosecution?

4. The reformatory function of imprisonment is little more than fiction.

10. Write an article (3 paragraphs). In the newspaper to contribute to the discussion of a new Criminal Code. The topic can be chosen from the list of the problems given in exercise 9 (d).

11. Give a brief talk to the ten graders on the Criminal Law and its role hi combatting Juvenile delinquency.

12. Enact a role play "Trying a criminal case". Yon are the Jury and most decide whether to acquit the accused or sentence them to a term of imprisonment (minimum 3 months/maximum life). Or could you think of a more appropriate punishment?

Case 1. A driver while speeding hit a cyclist off her bike. She was badly injured and confined to a wheelchair for the rest of her life. The driver didn't stop so he's charged with hit and run.

Case 2. The accused is a doctor who gave an overdose to an 87-year-old woman. She had a terminal illness, was in constant pain and had asked for the overdose. Her family are accusing the doctor of murder.

Case 3. A. and B. mug Mr X., take his money and leave him for dead. B. later returns alone and pushes the body in the river. An autopsy reveals that the man was still just alive when pushed in the water and subsequently drowned.

13. Do some library research and write an essay on one of the given topics:

1. The stricter the punishment, the lesser the crime rate, or is it?

2. Law is developing: it has no impunity in the course of time.

3. What is the best way to combat juvenile delinquency? Historical survey.

Unit Three

TEXT

From: W.S.

By L. P. Hartley

    Leslie Poles Hartley (1895-1972), the son of a solicitor was educated at  Harrow and Balliol College, Oxford and for more than twenty years from 1932 was a fiction reviewer for such periodicals as the Spectator, Sketch, Observer and Time and Tide. He published his first book, a collection of short stories entitled "Night Fears" in 1924. His novel "Eustace and Hilda" (1947) was recognized immediately as a major contribution to English fiction; "The Go-Between" (1953) and "The Hireling" (1957) were later made into internationally successful films. In 1967 he published "The Novelist's Responsibility", a collection of critical essays.

  Henry James was a master he always revered; and, like James, he was frequently possessed bys ideas of guilt and solitude and evil. As. a contemporary reviewer remarked, "not only does he portray the exterior of social life with a novelist's sharp eye for detail, but he also explores the underworld of fears and fantasies through which we wander in our ugliest dreams."

    LP.Hartley was a highly skilled narrator and all his tales are admirably told. "W.S." comes from "The Complete Short Stories of L.P.Hartley" published posthumously in 1973.

    The First postcard came from Forfar. "I thought you might like a picture of Forfar," it said. "You have always been so interested in Scotland, and that is one reason why I am interested in you. I have enjoyed all your books, but do you really get to grips with people? I doubt it. Try to think of this as a handshake from your devoted admirer, W.S."

    Like other novelists, Walter Streeter was used to getting communications from strangers. Usually they were friendly but sometimes they were critical. In either case he always answered them, for he was conscientious. But answering them took up the time and energy he needed for his writing, so that he was rather relieved that W.S. had given no address. The photograph of Forfar was uninteresting and he tore it up. His anonymous correspondent's criticism, however, lingered in his mind. Did he really fail to come to grips with his characters? Perhaps he did. He was aware that in most cases they were either projections of his own personality or, in different forms, the antithesis of it. The Me and the Not Me. Perhaps W.S. had spotted

    

this. Not for the first time Walter made a vow to be more objective.

    About ten days later arrived another postcard, this time from Berwick-on-Tweed. "What do you think of Berwick-on-Tweed?" it said. "Like you, it's on the Border. I hope this doesn't sound rude. I don't mean that you are a borderline case! You know how much I admire your stories. Some people call them otherworldly. I think you should plump for one world or the other. Another firm handshake from W.S."

    Walter Streeter pondered over this and began to wonder about the sender. Was his correspondent a man or a woman? It looked like a man's handwriting — commercial, unselfconscious — and the criticism was like a man's. On the other hand, it was like a woman to probe — to want to make him feel at the same time flattered and unsure of himself. He felt the faint stirrings of curiosity but soon dismissed them: he was not a man to experiment with acquaintances. Still it was odd to think of this unknown person speculating about him, sizing him up. Other-worldly, indeed!1 He re-read the last two chapters he had written. Perhaps they didn't have their feet firm on the ground. Perhaps he was too ready to escape, as other novelists were nowadays, into an ambiguous world, a world where the conscious mind did not have things too much its own way. But did that matter? He threw the picture of Berwick-on-Tweed into his November fire and tried to write; but the words came haltingly, as though contending with an extra-strong barrier of self-criticism. And as the days passed he became uncomfortably aware of self-division, as though someone had taken hold of his personality and was pulling it apart. His work was no longer homogeneous, there were two strains in it, unreconciled and opposing, and it went much slower as he tried to resolve the discord. Never mind, he thought: perhaps I was getting into a groove. These difficulties may be growing pains, I may have tapped a new source of supply. If only I could correlate the two and make their conflict fruitful, as many artists have!

    The third postcard showed a picture of York Minster. "I know you are interested in cathedrals," it said. "I'm sure this isn't a sign of megalomania in your case, but smaller churches are sometimes more rewarding. I'm seeing a good many churches on my way south. Are you busy writing or are you looking round for ideas? Another hearty handshake from your friend W. S."

     It was true that Walter Streeter was interested in cathedrals. Lincoln Cathedral2 had been the subject of one of his youthful fantasies and he had written about it in a travel book. And it was also true that he admired mere size and was inclined to under-value parish churches. But how could W.S. have known that? And was it really a sign of megalomania? And who was W.S. anyhow?

     For the first time it struck him that the initials were his own. No, not for the first time. He had noticed it before, but they were such commonplace initials; they were Gilbert's3 they were Maugham's, they were Shakespeare's — a common possession. Anyone might have them. Yet now it seemed to him an odd coincidence and the idea came into his mind — suppose I have been writing postcards to myself? People did such things, especially people with split personalities. Not that he was one, of course. And yet there were these unexplained developments — the cleavage in his writing, which had now extended from his thought to his style, making one paragraph languorous with semicolons and subordinate clauses, and another sharp and incisive with main verbs and full stops.

     He looked at the handwriting again. It had seemed the perfection of ordinariness — anybody's hand — so ordinary as perhaps to be disguised. Now he fancied he saw in it resemblances to his own. He was just going to pitch the postcard in the fire when suddenly he decided not to. I'll show it to somebody, he thought.

     His friend said, "My dear fellow, it's all quite plain. The woman's a lunatic. I'm sure it's a woman. She has probably fallen in love with you and wants to make you interested in her. I should pay no attention whatsoever. People whose names are mentioned in the papers are always getting letters from lunatics. If they worry you, destroy them without reading them. That sort of person is often a little psychic,4 and if she senses that she's getting a rise out2 of you she'll go on."

    For a moment Walter Streeter felt reassured. A woman, a little mouse-like creature, who had somehow taken a fancy to him! What was there to feel uneasy about in that? It was really rather sweet and touching, and he began to think of her and wonder what she looked like. What did it matter if she was a little mad?  Then his subconscious mind, searching for something to torment him with, and assuming the authority of logic,

said: Supposing those postcards are a lunatic's, and you are writing them to yourself, doesn't it follow that you must be a lunatic too?

     He tried to put the thought away from him; he tried to destroy the postcard as he had the others. But something in him wanted to preserve it. It had become a piece of him, he felt. Yielding to an irresistible compulsion, which he dreaded, he found himself putting it behind the clock on the chimney-piece. He couldn't see it but he knew that it was there.

He now had to admit to himself that the postcard business had become a leading factor in his life. It had created a new area of thoughts and feelings and they were most unhelpful. His being was strung up in expectation of the next postcard.

    Yet when it came it took him, as the others had, completely by surprise. He could not bring himself to look at the picture. "I hope you are well and would like a postcard from Coventry," he read. "Have you ever been sent to Coventry?5 I have — in fact you sent me there. It isn't a pleasant experience, I can tell you. I am getting nearer. Perhaps we shall come to grips after all. I advised you to come to grips with your characters, didn't I? Have I given you any new ideas? If I have you ought to thank me, for they are what novelists want, I understand. I have been re-reading your novels, living in them, I might say. Another hard handshake. As always, W.S."

    A wave of panic surged up in Walter Streeter. How was it that he had never noticed, all this time, the most significant fact about the postcards — that each one came from a place geographically closer to him than the last? "I am coming nearer." Had his mind, unconsciously self-protective, worn blinkers? If it had, he wished he could put them back. He took an atlas and idly traced out W.S.'s itinerary. An interval of eighty miles or so seemed to separate the stopping-places. Walter lived in a large West Country town about ninety miles from Coventry.

    Should he show the postcards to an alienist? But what could an alienist tell him? He would not know, what Walter wanted to know, whether he had anything to fear from W.S.

    Better go to the police. The police were used to dealing with poisonpens. If they laughed at him, so much the better. They did not laugh, however. They said they thought the postcards were a hoax and that W.S. would never show up in the flesh. Then they asked if there was anyone who had a grudge against him. "No

one that I know of," Walter said. They, too, took the view that the writer was probably a woman. They told him not to worry but to let them know if further postcards came.

Commentary

1. Other-worldly, indeed! "Other-worldly" means more concerned with spiritual matters than with daily life. The exclamation "indeed" is used to express surprise, annoyance or lack of belief.

2. Lincoln Cathedral is in the ancient town of Lincoln, North Midlands. The magnificent Cathedral Church of St.Mary, rising to 271 ft, was built between the 11th and 14th centuries and its honey-coloured stone is said to change colour in varying light.

3. Gilbert, William Schwenck: (1836-1911), an English dramatist and poet.

4. psychic: having the alleged power of seeing objects or actions beyond the range of natural vision.

5. to send smb to Coventry: to refuse to speak to someone as a sign of disapproval or punishment.

SPEECH PATTERNS

1.   He was just going to pitch the postcard in the fire when suddenly he decided not to.

David was just about to order a plane ticket when suddenly he decided not to.

The little boy seemed ready to jump into the icy cold water but then he decided not to.

2.   It isn't a pleasant experience, I can tell you.

It isn't easy to get tickets to the Bolshoi, I can tell you. That's not the first time he has acted this way, I can tell you.

3.   How was it that he had never noticed the most significant fact about the postcards...?

How was it that he was home all day, but didn't answer any of our phone calls?

How is it that we can put a man in space, but we can't cure the common cold?

Phrases and Word Combinations

to get/come to grips with                                                 to have things (too much)

  smb/smth (informal)                                                     one's own way

to take up time and energy                                               to get into a groove/rut

to linger in the mind                                                            (informal)

a borderline case                                                               to look round for ideas

to plump for smth (informal)                                           an odd coincidence

to ponder over smth                                                          to feel reassured

to feel the faint stirrings of                                               to send smb to Coventry

  curiosity/hatred, etc.                                                        (informal)

to size smb up (informal)                                                 in the flesh

to have one's feet (firm) on                                              to have/bear a grudge

  the ground                                                                        against smb

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1. come vi (esp. up to, down to) to reach, e. g. The water came (up) to my neck.

come about to happen, e, g. I'll never understand how it came about that you were an hour late on such a short journey.

come along (on) to advance, to improve, e. g. Mother's coming along nicely, thank you.

come by to obtain, e. g. Jobs were hard to come by with so many people out of work.

come down to lose position, respect or social rank, e. g. John came down in my opinion after his bad behaviour at the dance.

come in to become fashionable, e. g. When did the short skirt first come in?

come off 1) to cease being joined to smth, e. g. I tried to pick up the bucket, but the handle came off in my hand. 2) (informal) to succeed, e. g. It was a bold idea, but it is still came off.

come on (informal) to start, e. g. 1 can feel a cold coming on.

come out to become clear or known, e. g. The truth came out at the inquiry.

come to to regain consciousness, e. g. The girl faulted, but she came to when we threw drops of water on her face.

2. objective a not influenced by personal feelings; fair, e. g. The writer tried to be as objective as possible in evaluating his latest work.

objective n (C) something which you plan to do or achieve, e. g. His main/primary objective now is simply to stay in power.

object n 1) a material thing, e. g. What is that dark object over there? 2) smth or smb that is the focus of feeling, thought, or action, as an object of pity, admiration, ridicule, delight, curiosity, fear, etc., e. g. She was the object of his love. 3) purpose; aim. e. g. The object of his visit was not clear.

object vi to be against smth or someone, e. g I object to the whole thing on principle.

objection n a statement or feeling of dislike, disapproval, or opposition, e. g. Have you any objection to his coming?

3. ground n 1) (C) a piece of land for a special use; a football ground; picnic grounds, a playground, e. g. The school grounds were planted with trees and flowers. 2) a reason,

 e. g. He left on the grounds of ill-health.

to cover much/a lot of ground 1) to travel a certain distance; 2) to deal with many different subjects, e. g. I'll try to cover all the ground in a short speech of half an hour.

to suit someone down to the ground (informal) to be just what one wants or likes, e. g. This house will suit us down to the ground.

groundless a (of feelings, ideas) without base or good reason

well-grounded a based on fact

4. thing n 1) (C) any material object, e. g. What's that thing you've got on your head? 2) (C) a piece of clothing, e. g. I've not got a thing'to wear. 3) (C) that which is not material, e. g. What a nasty thing to say to your sister! 4) (C) a subject, matter, e. g. There's one more thing I wanted to say. 5) (C) a person or animal regarded as an object of pity, affection, or contempt, e. g. Your daughter's such a sweet little thing. You stupid thing! 6) (C) happening, event, e. g. A funny thing happened yesterday. 7) pl possessions, belongings, e. g. Have you packed your things for the journey? 8) pl the general state of affairs, e. g. Things are getting worse and worse.

(not) quite the thing (informal) what is considered socially correct, .fashionable, e. g. It's not quite the thing to wear an open-necked shirt to a formal evening dinner.

the thing is the most important point is, e. g. The thing is can we get there in time?

have a thing about (informal) — a peculiar attitude or feeling toward smth, e. g. She has a thing about cats.

5. oppose v to be or act against, e. g. His father did not oppose his plan to study medicine.

to be opposed to, e. g. He is opposed to sex education in schools.

opposite n a person or thing that is as different as possible, e. g. Black and white are opposites.

opposite a 1) totally different; 2) across from where you are, e. g. He sits opposite.

opposition n 1) (U) action against, e. g. His opposition to the plan surprised his friends. 2) the political parties opposed to the government.

6. initial n, usu. pl first letters of a person's name.

initial a coming at the beginning, as the initial advantage, attempt, stage, step, symptoms, etc.,.e. g. His initial response to the question was "no".

initiative n 1) (С) the first step in an undertaking (esp. in the phr. io take the initiative),

e. g. Jean took the initiative at the party by introducing herself to the people she didn't know. 2) (U) the ability to do things before others; enterprise, e. g. Did you do this on your own initiative?

7. attention n 1) (U) active focusing of the mind, (oft. in the phr. to pay attention to, to attract/to draw smb's attention to), e. g. Do not let your attention wander. 2) (U) thoughtful consideration, care, e. g. A good mother gives equal attention to each of her children.

attend vt/i 1) to give one's attention, e. g. Are you attending to what is being said? 2) to be present at, e. g. The meeting was well attended. 3) to look after, e. g. I have a good doctor attending me.

attentive a 1) paying attention; 2) courteous, considerate; as an attentive host.

Ant. inattentive

8. reassure vt to restore confidence or courage, e. g. The doctor-reassured the sick man (about his health).

reassurance n (C; U), e. g. She won't believe it in spite of all our reassurance.

assure vt 1). to promise; try to persuade, e. g. He assured us of his ability to work. 2) to make certain, e. g. Before going to bed she assured herself that the door was locked.

assured a also self-assured, self-possessed, confident, as an assured manner.

assurance n — promise, statement made to give confidence

9. yield vt 1) to give, produce, bear, e. g. That tree yields plenty of fruit 2) to give up control (of), e. g. We did not yield (up) our position to the enemy.

Syn. surrender, give up

yield n that which is produced, e. g. The tree gave a high yield this year.

yielding a 1) likely to agree with or give in to others, e. g. He has a yielding character and will soon change his mind. 2) tending to give way esp. under pressure, as yielding materials.

                                           READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words. Pay attention to the stresses:

conscientious, photograph, anonymous, antithesis, ambiguous, homogeneous, megalomania, coincidence, cleavage, languorous, incisive, psychic, itinerary.

2. Read out the passage beginning with "For the first time..." up to TB show it to somebody, he thought" using proper tone groups and observing the rhythm. Convey proper attitudes and all the phonetic phenomena of connected speech.

3. a) Practise this brief conversation:

    Student A expresses either annoyance at Walter Streeter or criticizes him. He suggests irritability and sounds reprovingly critical. Remember what rate of utterance may be associated with negative emotions.

    Student B defends Walter Streeter. Mind that expressing disagreement you might sound challenging, persuasively reassuring, be reluctantly or defensively dissenting; for the pur-

pose make use of the intonation patterns "Fall-Rise" and "Rise-Fall".

    Student C asks for reasons and expresses his own personal verdict. Be aware of the change in attitudes.

b) Now in pairs talk about the pros and cons of judging a person by his/her handwriting. Impart your own attitude. Use proper intonation patterns which the argument or discussion require.

4. Substitute one of the speech patterns (p. 77) for the parts of the sentence in bold type.

M o d e 1 s: a) She wanted to put a coin into the slot but changed her mind as she had very little money.

She was just going to put a coin into the slot when she remembered that she had very little money and decided not to.

b) He could not understand why he had never noticed before that Bilson was left-handed.

How was it that he had never noticed that Bilson was left-handed?

c) It was paintul, believe me. It was painful, I can tell you.

1. Ben was on the point of dialing his telephone number to have the matter out with his brother, but-then he thought better of it. 2. The tickets were sold out a month ago. Why on earth was the theatre half empty? 3. Daniel has a very good memory for names and dates. How did it happen that he forgot about my birthday? 4. The weather forecast was "cloudy with occasional showers". He was about to start off when suddenly he decided to stay at home. 5. Jane was just about to throw the old envelope into the waste-paper basket when suddenly she changed her mind. 6. So you are a professional singer. How could it have happened that you had never told me about this befort? 7. How can you account for the fact that we have lived in the same town for two years and have never met? 8. We had an awful time getting back, believe me. 9.1 assure you, I broke out in goosebumps all over. 10. You've got something on your hands there, lad, I'm sure about it.

5. Translate the following sentences into English using the speech patterns:

1. Уверяю вас, мне не впервые приходится слышать подобную отговорку. 2. Как это так получается, что у нас никогда нет возможности встретиться? 3. Почему (так выходит) я больше не встречаю Джейн у вас в гостях? 4. Как это могло случиться, что два маленьких мальчика одни поехали кататься по реке? 5. Их беседа не была такой безобидной, уверяю вас. 6. В письме он писал, что собирается приехать к нам в сентябре, а затем передумал. 7. Мы уже совсем собрались купить телевизор, а потом раздумали.

6. Make up two sentences of your own on  each pattern.

7. Make up and act out in front of the class a suitable dialogue using the speech patterns. (Pair work)

8. Note down from the text (p. 73) the sentences containing the phrases and word combinations (p. 78) and translate them into Russian.

9. Paraphrase the following sentences using the phrases and word combinations:

1. The speaker talked a lot, but never really dealt seriously with the subject. 2. It used much of her time and energy to gain a full understanding of the idea. 3. The memory of this marvellous week-end took a long time to fade from his memory. 4. At last she decided in favour of the new dress rather than the old one. 5. The policeman quickly formed an opinion about the man's character and decided he must be innocent. 6. While thinking over their last meeting he began to realise that he was falling in love. 7. Your younger brother is spoilt, nobody can stop him from doing what he wants. 8. After the first examination the student's position was unclear. He needed to be tested some more. 9. It was an odd combination of events that the two contestants were both born on the same day and were both called James. 10. After ten years of working in the same place Jim was in a rut and needed a change. 11. The child told tales to the teacher and so the rest of the class refused to speak to him. 12. He could not forget the wrong done by his enemy until his dying day. 13. He's nicer in real life than in his photographs. 14. I spent long hours in the library trying to find material for my research paper.

10. Make up two sentences of your own on each  phrase and word combination.

11. Make up and practise a suitable dialogue using the phrases and word combinations.

12. Translate the following sentences into English using the phrases and word combinations:

1. Мы должны серьезно взяться за решение этой проблемы. 2. Красивая мелодия надолго запала в душу. 3. Врач сам не уверен, он говорит, что я больной с пограничным состоянием. 4. Я думаю, что нам следует отправиться в однодневный поход. 5. Он почувствовал еле уловимые признаки раздражения. 6. Не могу в нем как следует разобраться, он для меня загадка. 7. Если вы хотите, чтобы все было по-вашему, вы должны сами много трудиться. 8. Знаменитый режиссер находится в нашем городе, он подыскивает материал для своей новой картины. 9. Сначала нервничая на новом месте, собака успокоилась, почувствовав доброе отношение нового хозяина. 10. Я устал вести с ним дела по телефону, я хочу видеть его воочию. 11. Я всегда чувствую, что она имеет зуб против меня, хотя не знаю, какое зло я ей сделала. 12. Он весь день думал над этой проблемой, но не мог решить ее.

13. Pair work.  Make up and act out situations using the phrases and word combinations.

14. Explain what is meant by:

projections of his own personality or, in different forms, the antithesis of it; to experiment with acquaintances; other-worldly, indeed; too ready to escape into an ambiguous world; the words came haltingly; graying pains; inclined to under-value parish churches; languorous with semicolons and subordinate clauses; sharp and incisive with main verbs and full stops; so ordinary as perhaps to be disguised; if she senses that she's getting a rise out of you she'll go on; he could not bring himself to look at the picture.

15. Answer the questions and do the given assignments:

A. 1. What was written hi the first postcard? 2. Wriy was Walter Streeter glad that he did not have to answer the postcard? Should a writer grudge the time and energy to answer letters? 3. What impression did the second postcard make on Walter Streeter? Why did he dismiss the faint stirrings of curiosity? Should a writer avoid making new acquaintances? 4. What

difficulties did the writer have with his work and how did he try to reassure himself? 5. What did Walter Streeter do with the first two postcards and why did he keep the third? 6. What odd coincidence did Walter Streeter notice? Do you happen to know of any odd coincidences? 7. What thoughts and feelings did the third postcard provoke? What did his friend say? 8. Why did a wave of panic surge up in him when Walter Streeter read the fourth postcard? 9. What was the outcome of his visit to the police?

B. 1. Speak on the overall tone of the passage, specifying the setting and the time, span of the story, plot development and the characters involved. Observe the stylistic means the author employs to keep the reader in suspense: a) the words and phrases denoting emotional reaction; b) the incongruity between the banal contents of the postcards and the importance Walter Streeter attaches to them; c) the contrast in mood and length between the passages separating one postcard from another; d) the word order.

2. Analyse the content of the postcards and bring out the message that they have in common. Comment on the specific intonation of the postcards (which are supposed to reveal the character of the anonymous correspondent and his attitude towards Walter Streeter): a) absence of greeting, b) the vocabulary and set expressions, c) lexical and syntactical repetition (chiasmus in the first postcard), d) negative and interrogative sentences, e) the play on words (in the second and fourth postcards).

3. Indicate the lexical and syntactical devices used to depict the character of Walter Streeter: a) which words and phrases help the reader to understand his character? Is the description a complete one? b) what does Walter Streeter himself feel about his own work? Enlarge on the function of inner reported speech and various repetitions (anaphora, anadiplosis, synonym repetition), c) is there a lot of figurative language in the story? Give examples of the epithet, metaphor, simile, d) what is the author's attitude towards Walter Streeter? Sympathetic? Indifferent? Unsympathetic? Justify your answer.

16. Give a summary of the text.

17. Make up and act out dialogues between: 1) Walter Streeter and his friend whom he showed the postcard from York Minster; 2) Walter Streeter and the police officer about the postcard business.

18. Trace oat on the map of Great Britain W.S.'s itinerary and do library research on die geographical names mentioned.

19. Write your own ending of the story. Share it with the students of your group and decide which of the different possible endings seems most likely.

2ft. Read the story "W.S." by L.P. Hartley to the end (p. 275), and say whether it has come up to your expectations. What do you think is the point of the story?

21. Write an essay praising your favourite contemporary novelist and advancing reasons why other members of the class would enjoy this writer's novels/ stories.

                                                          VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

    A. 1. My son has begun to come along very well in French since the new teacher was appointed. 2. The attempt did not come off as well as we had hoped. 3. The picture I took of the baby did not come out. 4. He has come down in the world. 5. The old aunt's coming along nicely. 6. The food didn't come up to my expectations. 7. I'd like to know how she came by that black eye. 8. I tried telling a few jokes but they didn't come off. 9.I have no objection whatever to having the Smith girls in. 10. She objects to muddy shoes in the house. 11. All our objectives were won. 12. For a millionaire like him, money is no object 13. Don't mention his health: it's forbidden ground. 14. Once we'd found some common ground we got on very well together. 15. She didn't overlook a thing in planning the party. 16. June went there sometimes to cheer the pld things up. 17. That was an unkind thing to say. 18. She's got a thing about fast cars. 19. I’m having trouble paying attention — I have a thing or two on my mind.

    B. 1. Initially she opposed the plan, but later she changed her mind. 2. She's turned out to be the exact opposite of what everyone expected. 3. We sat at opposite ends of the table to/ from each other. 4. She worked her initials in red. 5. The young man after initial shyness turned into a considerable social success. 6. I initialled the documents to show I approved of them. 7. When she began the job she showed initiative and was promoted to manager after a year. 8.1 shouldn't always have to tell you what to do, use your initiative for once! 9.1 had very attentive and loving patents. 10. After an hour my attention started to wander. 11. There's no point in your coming to my classes if you're not going to attend to what I say. 12. The meeting was designed to reassure parents whose children were taking exams that summer. 13. The nurse tried to reassure the frightened child. 14. He spoke in his usual assured tones. 15. Despite the Government's repeated assurances to the contrary, taxation has risen over the past decade. 16. Over the past 50 years crop yields have risen steadily by 1-2% a year. 17. Baby toys are usually made out of yielding materials. 18. They were forced to yield up some of their lands during the war.

3. Give the English equivalents for:

    входить в моду; оторваться/отскочить; случайно встретить; возвращаться; очнуться; доходить до колен (оплатье); подходить к концу; кончаться; упасть в глазах; удаваться; обнаруживаться (о факте); трудно получить; решить проблему;

   непредвзятое мнение; отдаленный предмет; объект насмешек; не иметь цели в жизни; не любить сырую погоду; возражать из принципа; не одобрять грубость; быть против насилия; футбольное поле; запретная тема; стоять на своем; устраивать во всех отношениях; чувствовать твердую почву под ногами; затрагивать много вопросов; не иметь оснований беспокоиться; пройти большое расстояние; беспричинные страхи; обоснованные опасения;

    чайная посуда; сладости; духовные ценности; положение дел; бедняжка; крошка; тупица; сказать не то, что надо; дело в том, что; как раз то, что нужно; нечто не совсем подходящее; единственное;

    возражать против плана; не одобрять чеи-л. брак; (сильно) противиться переменам; полная противоположность; дом напротив; быть в оппозиции; выступать против законопроекта (в парламенте); сидеть друг против друга;

    начальная стадия; ранние симптомы заболевания; одинаковые инициалы; первоначальное преимущество; брать на себя инициати-

ву в чём-л.; сделать по собственной инициативе; проявить инициативу; первый шаг; инициативный человек;

    уделять внимание; следить за воспитанием своих детей; ухаживать за больным; присутствовать на лекциях; посещать школу; обращать внимание на; привлечь чье-л. внимание к; внимательно относиться к кому-л.; оказать помощь пострадавшему; обслужить клиента; невнимательный ученик:

    успокоить пациента; убедить кого-л. не беспокоиться о своем здоровье; чувствовать себя уверенным; удостовериться в том, что; утешительные вести; успокаивающий голос; уверенные манеры; говорить уверенно; заверять кого-л. в своей преданности; твердый доход;

    давать хороший урожай; приносить большой доход; сдать свои позиции; поддаться искушению; уступить перед силой; испугаться угроз; поддаваться лечению; податливый характер.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:

    1. Can you tell me how the accident happened? 2. A good job that you enjoy doing is hard to find. 3. She held a large round thing in her hand. 4. Your suggestion pleases me in everyway. 5. I can't do anything with him. 6. I am against this trip. 7. His first reaction was one of shock and resentment. 8. Are you listening to what is being said? 9. I was relieved to hear his words. 10. What reason do you have for thinking that he is to blame?

5. Answer the following questions. Use the essential vocabulary:

    1. What do we say about a patient who is doing well? 2. What do we say about a doctor who gives his attention to the patient? 3. What sort of person tries to be unaffected by personal feelings or prejudices? 4. What is another way of saying that we disapprove of rudeness? 5. What does one say to reassure a person who is frightened? 6. What is another way of saying that people sit facing each other? 7. What do they call a political party opposed to the government? 8. What is the usual affectionate way of referring to a small child or an annnal? 9. What phrase is often used to emphasize an important remark which follows? 10. Is it considered socially correct nowadays to call people by their first names? 11. What do we call capital letters at the beginning of a.name? 12. What do we say about a person who does things according to his own plan and without help? 13. What is the teacher likely to say to an

inattentive pupil? 14. How is one likely to feel on hearing that he is out of danger? 15. How can one inquire about the amount of fruit gathered (produced)?

6. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and postlogues:

1. When I lifted the jug up, the handle came... .2. The child loved to watch the stars come... at night. 3. Her hair come ... to her shoulders. 4. Come..., child, or we'll be late! 5.The meaning comes ... as you read further. 6. I've just come... a beautiful poem in this book. 7. How did this dangerous state of affairs come ... ? 8. At this point, the water only comes ... your knees. 9. Can you help me to open this bottle? The cork won't come.... 10.1 came ... an old friend in the library this morning. 11. I'm going away and I may never come .... 12.I hope he came ... all that money honestly. 13. It was a good scheme and it nearly came .... 14. When he came... he could not, for a moment, recognize his surroundings. 15. How's your work coming... ? 16. Will you come... for a walk after tea?

7. Choose the right word:

object(s) — subject(s); to object — to oppose; to obtain — to come by; to happen — to come about; to yield — to give in

1. How did you ... that scratch on your cheek? 2. I haven't been able ... that record anywhere; can you... it for me? 3. The accident ...last week. 4. How did it …that you did not report the theft until two days after it occurred? 5. After months of refusing, Irene ... to Soames and agpeed to marry him. 6. Mr Davidson had never been known?... to temptation. 7. He become an … of ridicule among the other children. 8. There were many ... of delight and interest claiming his attention. 9. My favourite ... at school were history and geography. 10. The ... of the painting is the Battle of Waterloo. 11. Ruth had ... his writing because it did not earn money. 12. Like many of the scientists he had been actively ... to the use of the bomb. 13. I... most strongly to this remark.

8. Review the essential vocabulary and translate the following sentences into English:

1.Мы хотели пойти в театр, но из этого ничего не вышло. 2. Как к вам попала эта изумительная картина? 3. Как продвигается ваша

работа? 4. Он часто делал свою сестру объектом насмешек. 5. Целью его звонка было пригласить меня в гости. 6. Учитель проработал большой материал за один час. 7. Ваше мнение вполне обоснованное. 8. Американские колонисты выступали против политики британского правительства увеличить налоги. 9. Что бы я ни просил, она делает наоборот. 10. Он имел обыкновение говорить, что первоначальная стадия в работе самая главная. 11. Предварительные переговоры послужили основой последующего соглашения. 12. Президента сопровождали в поездках три секретаря. 13. Именно он обратил мое внимание на эту картину. 14. Не обращайте внимания-на то, что он говорит. 15. Он заверил меня в честности своего приятеля. 16. Его слова были для меня большой поддержкой. 17. Разговор с врачом успокоил меня. 18. Нас заставили уступить.

9. a) Find the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:

1. Easy come, easy go.

2. Everything comes to him who waits.

3. A bad penny always comes back.

4. Christmas comes but once a year.

5. Curses, like chickens, come home to roost.

6. Tomorrow never comes.

7. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

8. A little learning is a dangerous thing.

b) Explain in English the meaning of each proverb.

c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

BOOKS AND READING

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. Categorisation: Children's and adult's books; travel books and biography; romantic and historical novels; crime/thrillers; detective stories; war/adventure; science fiction/fantasy; literary fiction and genre fiction; feon-fiction; pulp fiction.

Absorbing; adult; amusing; controversial; dense; depressing; delightful; dirty; disturbing; dull; fascinating; gripping; moralistic; nasty; obscene; outrageous; profound; whimsical; unput-downable. .

2. Books and their parts: paperback and hardback; binding; cover; spine; jacket; title; epigraph; preface; the contents list; fly leaf; bookplate; blurb; a beautifully printed book; a tome bound in leather/with gilt edges; a volume with a broken binding; a book with dense.print/with loose pages; a well-thumbed book.

3. Reading habits: to form a reading habit early in life; to read silently/incessantly/greedily/laboriously; to read curled up in a chair; to read a child/oneself to sleep; to make good bed-time reading; to be lost/absorbed in a book; to devour books; to dip into/glalice over/pore over/thumb through a book; to browse through newspapers and periodicals; to scan/skim a magazine; a bookworm; an ayid/alert/keen reader.

4. Library facilities: reading rooms and reference sections; the subject/author/title/on-line catalogue; the enquiry desk; computer assisted reference, service; to borrow/renew/loan books, CDs and video tapes; rare books; to keep books that are overdue; books vulnerable to theft; to suspend one's membership; to be banned from the library.

.

MURIEL SPARK

    Many professions are associated with a particular stereotype. The classic image of a writer, for instance, is of a slightly demented-looking person, locked in an attic, scribbling away furiously for days on end. Naturally, he has his favourite pen and notepaper, or a beat-up old typewriter, without which he could not produce a readable word.

    Nowadays we know that such images bear little resemblance to reality. But are they completely false? In the case of at least one writer it would seem not. Dame Muriel Spark, who is 80 this month, in many ways resembles this stereotypical "writer". She is certainly not demented, and she doesn't work in an attic. But she is rather neurotic about the tools of her trade.

    She insists on writing with a certain type of pen in a certain type of notebook, which she buys from a certain stationer in Edinburgh called James Thin, in fact, so superstitious is she

that, if someone uses one of her pens by accident, she immediately throws it away.

    As well as her "fetish" about writing materials, Muriel Spark shares one other characteristic with the stereotypical "writer" — her work is the most important thing in her life. It has stopped her from remarrying; cost her old friends and made her new ones; and driven her from London to New York, to Rome. Today, she lives in the Italian province of Tuscany with a friend.

    Dame Muriel discovered her gift for writing at school in the Scottish .capital, Edinburgh. "It was a very progressive school," she recalls. "There was complete racial [and] religious tolerance."

    Last year, she acknowledged the part the school had played in shaping her career by giving it a donation of £10,000. The money was part of the David Cohen British Literature Prize, one of Britain's most prestigious literary awards. Dame Muriel received the award for a lifetime's writing achievement, which really began with her most famous novel, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. It was the story of a teacher who encouraged her girls to believe they were the "creme de la creme". Miss Jean Brodie was based on a teacher who had helped Muriel Spark realise her talent.

    Much of Dame Muriel's writing has been informed by her personal experiences. Catholicism, for instance, has always been a recurring theme in her books — she converted in 1954. Another novel, Loitering with Intent (1981), is set in London just after World War II, when she herself came to live in the capital.

     How much her writing has been influenced by one part of her life is more difficult to assess. In 1937, at the age of 19, she travelled to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), where she married a teacher called Sydney Oswald Spark. The couple had a son, Robin, but the marriage didn't last. In 1944, after spending some time in South Africa, she returned to Britain, and got a job with the Foreign Office in London.

    Her first novel The Comforters (1957) was written with the help of the writer, Graham Greene. He didn't help with the writing, but instead gave her £20 a month to support herself while she wrote it. His only conditions were that she shouldn't meet him or pray for him. Before The Comforters she had concentrated on poems and short stories. Once it was published, she turned her attentions to novels, publishing one a year for

the next six years. Real success came with The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, which was published in 1961, and made into a film. By this time she was financially secure and world famous.

(from BBC English, February 1998)

1. As you read the text:

a) Look for the answers to these questions:

1. What profession stereotypes are there? What is a stereotypical "student"? "lecturer"? "poet"? 2. Is the "classic image of a writer" completely false? Be specific. 3. Would you agree that artistic people are often superstitious? 4. Who is given the title of "Dame" in Britain? 5. What suggests that Dame Muriel Spark is rather neurotic about the tools of her trade? 6. What part did the school play in shaping her career? 7. How did Graham Green help the young writer? 8.What are the scanty biographical details given in the profile?

b) Find in the text the facts to illustrate the following:

1. For Muriel Spark writing is the most important thing in her life. 2. Dame Muriel Spark is a stereotypical writer. 3. "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie" is a great novel.

c) Summarize the text in three paragraphs.

2. In spite of the Russian proverb one can argue about taste: everybody does, and one result is that tastes change. If given a choice what would you rather read a novel or short stories in book form? Why? Try to substantiate your point of view. Use some of the ideas listed below.

"A novel appeals in the same way that a portrait does — through the richness of its human content."

"It is not only an author's characters that endear him to the public: it is also his ethical outlook that appears with greater or less distinctness in everything he writes."

"A volume of short stories contains more ideas, since each story is based on an idea; it has much greater variety of mood, scene, character and plot."

3. a) What do children want to read about? This is a question that teachers and parents have been asking for a long time. Read the texts below and prepare to give your view on the problem.

     One person who had no doubts about what youngsters wanted to read was the children's author Enid Blyton. Although she died in 1968, and many of her stories are today rather dated, her books continue to be hugely popular with children. They have been translated into 27 languages, and they still sell over eight million copies a year, despite tough competition from television and computer games.

    Blyton. was not only a gifted children's author, she was also incredibly prolific. During her lifetime, she wrote over 700 books for children of all ages. Her best-known creations are the The Famous Five series, about a group of teenagers who share exciting adventures, and the Noddy books, about a little boy who lives in a world where toys come to life.

    But if chidren love Blyton's books, the same cannot be said for adults. All her stories have one thing in common: a happy ending. And this, combined with predictable plots, has led many grown-ups to dismiss Blyton's stories as boring. After her death, her critics went further and accused her of racism and of negative stereotyping — the villains in her Noddy books were "golliwogs", children's dolls representing black people. Many of her books were also denounced as sexist because of the way she treated female characters — girls were usually given a secondary role, while the boys had the real adventures.

    Enid Blyton firmly believed in the innocence of childhood. She offered her young readers imaginary worlds, which were an escape from harsh realities of life. In Blyton's books, baddies were always defeated and the children who defeated them were always good.

(BBC English, August 1997)

    Once many years ago, in anticipation of the children we would one day have, a relative of my wife's gave us a box of Ladybird Books from the 1950s and 60s. They all had titles like Out in the Sun and Sunny Days at the Seaside, and contained meticulously drafted, richly coloured illustrations of a prosperous, contented, litter-free Britain in which the sun always shone, shopkeepers smiled, and children in freshly pressed clothes derived happiness and pleasure from innocent pastimes

— riding a bus to the shops, floating a model boat on a park pond, chatting to a kindly policeman.

     My favourite was a book called Adventure on the Island. There was, in fact, precious little adventure in the book — the high point, I recall, was finding a starfish suckered to a rock — but I loved it because of the illustrations (by the gifted and much-missed J.H. Wingfield). Lyras strangely influenced by this book and for some years agreed to take our family holidays at the British seaside on the assumption that one day we would find this magic place where summer days were forever sunny, the water as warm as a sitz-bath, and commercial blight unknown.

     When at last we began to accumulate children, it turned out that they didn't like these books at all because the characters in them-never did anything more lively than visit a pet shop or watch a fisherman paint his boat. I tried to explain that this was sound preparation for life in Britain, but they wouldn't have it and instead, to my dismay, attached their affections to a pair of irksome little clots called Topsy and Tim.

(Bill Bryson "Notes From a Small Island", 1997)

b) Use the topical vocabulary in answering the questions:

1. Can you remember at all the first books you had? 2. Did anyone read bedtime stories to you? 3. You formed the reading habit early in life, didn't you? What sorts of books did you prefer? 4. What English and American children's books can you name? Have you got any favourites? 5. Is it good for children to read fanciful stories which are an escape from the harsh realities of life? Should they be encouraged to read more serious stuffs as "sound preparation for life"? 6. How do you select books to read for pleasure? Do you listen to advice? Do the physical characteristics matter? Such as bulky size, dense print, loose pages, notations on the margins, beautiful/gaudy illustrations etc.? 7. Do you agree with the view that television is gradually replacing reading? 8. Is it possible for television watching not only to discourage but actually to inspire reading? 9. Some teachers say it is possible to discern among the young an in-sensitivity to nuances of language and an inability to perceive more than just a story? Do you think it's a great loss? 10. What do you think of the educational benefits of "scratch and sniff” books that make it possible for young readers to experience the

fragrance of the garden and the atmosphere of a zoo? 11. What kind of literacy will be required of the global village citizens of the 21st century?

c) There is some evidence to suggest that the concentration of young children today is greatly reduced compared with that of similar children only 20 years ago. Do yon agree with the view that unwillingness to tackle printed texts that offer a challenge through length and complexity has worked its way up through schools into universities? Discuss in pairs.

4. Read the interview with Martin Amis (MA.), one of the most successful writers in Britain today. He talks to a BBC English reporter (R) about his work.

R: As the son of a famous writer, how did your own writing style develop?

MA.: People say, you know, "How do you go about getting: your style?" and it's almost as if people imagine you kick off by writing a completely ordinary paragraph of straightforward, declarative sentences, then you reach for your style pen — your style highlighting pen — and jazz it all up. But in fact it comes in that form and I like to think that it's your talent doing that.

R: In your life and in your fiction you move between Britain and America and you have imported American English into your writing. Why? What does it help you do?

MA: I suppose what I'm looking for are new rhythms of thought. You know, I'm as responsive as many people are to street words and nicknames and new words; And when I use street language, I never put it down as it is, because it will look like a three-month-old newspaper when it comes out. Phrases like "No way, Jose" and "Free lunch" and tilings like that, they're dead in a few months. So what you've got to do is come up with an equivalent which isn't going to have its street life exhausted. I'm never going to duplicate these rhythms because I read and I studied English literature and thaf s all there too. But perhaps where the two things meet something original can be created. That's where originality, if it's there, would be, in my view.

R: You have said that it's no longer possible to write in a wide range of forms — that nowadays we can't really write tragedy, we can't write satire, we can't write romance, and that comedy the only form left.

MA: I think satire's still alive. Tragedy is about failed heroes and epic is, on the whole, about triumphant or redeemed

heroes. So comedy, it seems to me, is the only thing left. As illusion after illusion has besen cast aside, we no longer believe in these big figures — Macbeth, Hamlet, Tamburlaine — these big, struggling, tortured heroes. Where are they in the modern world? So comedy's having to do it all. And what you get, certainly in my case, is an odd kind of comedy, full of things that shouldn't be in comedy.

R: What is it that creates the comedy in your novels?

M.A: Well, I think the body, for instance, is screamingly funny as a subject. I mean, if you live in your mind, as everyone does but writers do particularly, the body is a sort of disgraceful joke. You can get everything sort of nice and crisp and clear in your mind, but the body is a chaotic slobber of disobedience and decrepitude. And think that is hysterically funny myself because it undercuts us. It undercuts our pomposities and our ambitions.

R: Your latest book The Information is about two very different writers, one of whom, Gywn, has become enormously successful and the other one, Richard, who has had a tiny bit of success but is no longer popular. One of the theories which emerges is that it's very difficult to say precisely that someone's writing is better by so much than someone else's. It's not like running a race when somebody comes first and somebody comes second.

MA: No, human beings have not evolved a way of separating the good from the bad when it comes to literature or art in general. All we have is history of taste. No one knows if they're any good — no worldly prize or advance or sales sheet is ever going to tell you whether you're any good. That's all going to be sorted out when you're gone.

R: Is this an increasing preoccupation of yours?

MA.: No, because there's nothing I can do about it. My father said. "That's no bloody use to me, is it, if I'm good, because I won't be around."

R: Have you thought about where you might go from here?

MA: I've got a wait-and-see feeling about where I go next. One day a sentence or a situation appears in your head and you just recognise it as your next novel and you have no control over it. There's nothing you can do about it. That is your next novel and I'm waiting for that feeling.

(BBC English, August 1995)

a) Express briefly in your own words what the talk to about. What makes it sound natural and spontaneous?

b) What "does Martin Amis emphasise about his style of writing? What does, he say about modern literary genres? Do you agree that "comedy is the only form left"? Is it really impossible to separate "the good from the bad when it comes to literature or art in general"? How do you understand the sentence "all we have is a history of taste"?

c) Do library research and reproduce a talk with an important writer.

5. Read the following extract and observe the way literary criticism is written:

Jane Austen saw life in a clear, dry light. She was not without deep human sympathies, but she had a quick eye for vanity, selfishness, but vulgarity, and she perceived the frequent incongruities between the way people talked and the realities of a situation. Her style is quiet and level. She never exaggerates, she never as it were, raises her voice to shout or scream. She is neither pompous, nor sentimental, nor flippant, but always gravely polite, and her writing contains a delicate but sharp-edged irony.

L.P. Hartley is one of the most distinguished of modern novelists; and one of the most original. For the world of his creation is composed of such diverse elements. On the one hand he is a keen and accurate observer of the process of human thought and feeling; he is also a sharp-eyed chronicler of the social scene. But his picture of both is transformed by the light of a Gothic, imagination that reveals itself now in fanciful reverie, now in the mingled dark and gleam of a mysterious light and a mysterious darkness... Such is the vision of- life presented in his novels.

Martin Amis is the most important novelist of his generation and probably the most influential prose stylist in Britain today. The son of Kingsley Amis, considered Britain's best novelist of the 1950s, at the age of 24 Martin won the Somerset Maugham Award for his first novel The Rachel Papers (his father had won the same prize 20 years earlier). Since 1973 he has published seven more novels, plus three books of journalism and one of short stories. Each work has been well received, in particular Money (1984), which was described as "a key novel of the decade." His latest book is The Information (1995). It has been said of Amis that he has enjoyed a career more like that of a pop star than a writer.

a) Turn the above passages into dialogues and act them out.

b) Choose an author, not necessarily one of the greats, you'd like to talk about. Note down a few pieces of factual information about his life and work. Your fellow-students will ask you questions to find out what you know about your subject.

6. Pair work. Discussing books and authors involves exchanging opinions and expressing agreement and disagreement. Team up with another student to talk on the following topics (Use expressions of agreement and disagreement (pp.290).

"A man ought to read just as inclination leads him; for what he reads as a task will do him little good."

(Samuel Johnson)

"A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read."

(Mark Twain)

"There's an old saying that all the world loves a lover. It doesn't. What all the world loves is a scrap. It wants to see two lovers struggling for the hand of one woman."

(Anonymous)

"No furniture is so charming as books, even if you never open them and read a single word."

(Sydney Smith)

"Books and friends should be few but good."

(a proverb)

7. Group discussion.

     Despite the increase in TV watching, reading still is an important leisure activity in Britain. More than 5,000 titles were nominated in a national survey conducted in 1996. The public was invited to suggest up to five books. It was later suggested that the votes either came from English literary students or from people who were showing off. What do you think? Can you point out a few important names that failed to make it into the top 100 list?

1. The Lord of the Rings  J.R.R. Tolkien

2. 1984 George Orwell

3. Animal Farm George Orwell      

4. Ulysses James Joyce

5. Catch-22 Joseph Heller

6. The Catcher in the Rye  J.D. Salinger                              

7. To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee

8. One Hundred Years of Solitude  Gabriel Garcia Marquez

9. The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck

10. Trainspotting Irvine Welsh     

11. Wild Swans Jung Chang

12. The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald

13. Lord of the Flies William Golding

14. On the Road Jack Kerouac      

15. Brave New World Aldous Huxley

16. The Wind in the WillowsKenneth Grahame

17. Winnie-the-Pooh A. A, Milne

18. TheCotor Purple Alice Walker      

19. The Hobbit  J. R. R. Tolkien

20. The Outsider Albert Camus      

21. The lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe C. S. Lewis

22. The Trial Franz Kafka

23. Gone with the Wind Margaret Michell

24. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Douglas Adams     

25. Midnight's Children Salman Rushdie

26. The Diary of Anne Frank

27. A Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess

28. Sons and Lovers D.S. Lawrence

29. To the Lighthouse Virginia Woolf

30. If this is a Man Primo Levi

31. Lolita Vladimir Nabokov

32. The Wasp Factory Iain Banks

33. Remembrance of Things Past Marcel Proust

34. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Roald Dahl

35. Of Mice and Men John Steinbeck

36. Beloved Toni Morrison

37. Possession A. S. Byatt

38. Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad

39. A Passage to India E. M. Forster

40. Watership Down Richard Adams

41. Sophie's World Jostein Gaarder

42. The Name of the Rose  Umberto Eco

43. Love in the Time of Cholera Gabriel Garcia Marquez

44. Rebecca Daphne du Maurier

45. The Remains of the Day Kazuo Ishiguro

46. The Unbearable Lightness of  Being Milan Kundera

47. Birdsong Sebastian Faulks

48. Howards End E. M. Forster

49. Brideshead Revisited Evelyn Waugh

50. A Suitable Boy Vikram Seth

51. Dune Frank Herbert

52. A Prayer for Owen Meany John Irving

53. Perfume Patrick Susskind

54. Doctor Zhivago Boris Pasternak

55. The Gormenghast Trilogy Mervyn Peake

56. Cider with Rosie Laurie Lee

57. The Bell Jar Sylvia Plath

58. The Handmaid's Tale Margaret Atwood

59. Testament Of Youth Vera Brittain

60. The Magus John Fowles

61. Brighton Rock Graham Greene

62. The Ragged Trousered Philanthropist Robert Tressell

63. The Master and Margarita Mikhail Bulgakov

64. Tales of the City Armistead Maupin

65. The French lieutenant's Woman John Fowles

66. Captain Corelli's Mandolin Louis de Bernieres

67. Slaughterhouse 5 Kurt Vbnhegut

68. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance Robert Pirsig

69. A Room with a View E.M. Forster

70. Lucky Jim Kingsley Amis

71. If Stephen King

72. The Power and the Glory Graham Greene

73. The Stand Stephen King

74. All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque

75. Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha Roddy Doyle

76. Matilda Roald Dahl

77. American Psycho Bret Easton Ellis

78. Fear and Loathiflg in Las Vegas Hunter S. Thompson

79. A Brief History of Time Stephen Hawking

80. James and the Giant Peach Roald Dahl

81. Lady Chatterley's Lover D. H. Lawrence

82. The Bonfire of the Vanities Tom Wolfe

83. The Complete Cookery Course Delia Smith

84. An Evil Cradling Brian Keenan

85. The Rainbow D. H. Lawrence

86. Down and out in Paris and London George Orwell

87. 2001 — A Space Odyssey Arthur C. Clarke

88. The Tin Drum Gunther Grass

89. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Alexander Solzhenitsyn

90. Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela

91. The Selfish Gene Richard Dawkifts

92. Jurassic Park Michael Crichtdn

93. The Alexandria Quartet Lawrence Durrell

94. Cry, the Beloved Country Alan Paton

95. High Fidelity Nick Hornby

96. The Van Roddy Doyle

97. The BFG Roald Dahl

98. Earthly Powers Anthony Burgess

99. I, Claudius Robert Graves

100. The Horse Whisperer Nicholas Evans

8. Compile your own list "Favourite Books of the Century."

9. Alexander Herzen called public libraries "a feast of ideas to which all are invited”. Read the text below and say how the modem libraries differ from those of the old days. Use the topical vocabulary.

MY FAVOURITE LIBRARY

    There are many libraries which I use regularly in London, some to borrow books from, some as quiet places to work in, but the Westminster Central Reference Library is unique, in a small street just off Leicester Square, it is run by the London borough of Westminster. You don't need a ticket to get in, and it is available to foreign visitors just the same as to local residents. You simply walk in, and there, on three floors, you can consult about 138,000 reference books and they include some very remarkable and useful items.

    As you come in, the first alcove on the right contains telephone directories of almost every country in the world — Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, and so on, besides directories of important addresses in each country. There is also a street directory of every British town of any size, with the streets in alphabetical order, and the residents' names, as a rule, against their number in the street, while in another section the residents themselves are listed in alphabetical order.

     Next there are technical dictionaries in all the principal languages. I counted 60 specialised technical dictionaries for Russian alone. Then there is a section which, besides the best world atlases, contains individual atlases of a great many countries, some of them almost too heavy to lift. Seven hundred periodicals, mostly technical, are taken by the library, and the latest issues are put out on racks nearby. By asking at the enquiry desk you can see maps of the whole of Britain on the scale of 1/60,000 and 1/24,000, and smaller-scale maps of nearly every other country in Europe.

    Around the walls, on this floor and the floor above, are reference books on every possible subject, including, for instance, standard works of English literature and criticism. Foreign literature, however, is represented mainly by anthologies.

    Finally, on the top floor of all, is a wonderful art library, where you can take down from the shelves all those expensive, heavy, illustrated editions that you could never really afford yourself. The librarian at the desk can direct you to answers for

almost any query you may have about the plastic alts. There is in fact a busy enquiry desk on each floor, and the last time I was there they had just received a letter from a distinguished medical man. He had written to ask for information about sword-swallowing. He was very interested in the anatomy of sword-swallowers, and had failed to find anything either in medical libraries or in the British Museum Library! (Anglia, 1972)

10. Prepare to give a talk on an important library, its history and facilities.

11. Group work. Work in groups of three or four to discuss the pros and cons of reading detective novels and thrillers. Consider the following:

"It has been estimated that only 3 percent of the population in Britain read such classics as Charles Dickens or Jane Austen; Agatha Christie's novels have sold more than 300 million copies."

(Longman Britain Explored)

"As thoughtful citizens we are hemmed in now by gigantic problems that appear as insoluble as they are menacing, so how pleasant it is to take an hour or two off to consider only the problem of the body that locked itself in its study and then used the telephone..."

(J.B. Priestley)

"There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so."

(W.Shakespeare)

"The world loves a spice of wickedness."  

(H. Longfellow)

"If Jonathan Wild the Great had been written today, I think he would have been the hero of it, not the villain, and we should have been expected to feel sorry for him. For compassion is the order of the day ...

Detective stories have helped to bring this about, and the convention that the murderee is always an unpleasant person, better out of the way."

(LP.Hartley)

"The crime novel is developing moral equivalency: unpleasant detectives and charismatic criminals."

(The Guardian, Oct. 8 1997)

"If the question "Wither Fiction?" is raised, the novelist will have to make up his mind which side he is on. Is he to write: "She was a beautiful woman, witty, clever, cultivated, sympathetic, charming, but, alas, she was a murderess? Or is he to write: "She was a beautiful woman, witty, clever, etc., and to crown it all, was a murderess"?

(L.P. Hartley)

Unit Four

TEXT

From: RAGTIME1

By E.L. Doctorow

    Ragtime is a novel set in America at the beginning of this century. Its characters reflect all that is most significant and dramatic in America's last hundred years. One character, Coalhouse Walker Jr., a black pianist love affair with young Sarah and abandoned her to later reunite. But who bore his child was resentful when he came to rectify his actions. The novel will take you through the tragedy of their lives.

     The author E.L. Doctorow, an American writer, is famous for his other novels which include Welcome to Hard Times and The Book of Daniel, which was nominated for a National Book Award.

    One afternoon, a Sunday, a new model T-Ford2 slowly came up the hill and went past the house. The boy, who happened to see it from the porch, ran down the steps and stood on the sidewalk. The driver was looking right and left as if trying to find a particular address; he turned the car around at the comer and came back. Pulling up before the boy, he idled his throttle and beckoned with a gloved hand. He was a Negro. His car shone. The brightwork gleamed... I am looking for a young woman of color whose name is Sarah, he said. She is said to reside in one of these houses.

    The boy realized he meant the woman in the attic. Site's here. The man switched off the motor, set the brake and jumped down.

    When Mother came to the door the colored man was respectful, but there was something disturbingly resolute and

 

self-important in the way he asked her if he could please speak with Sarah. Mother could not judge his age. He was a stocky man with a red-complected shining brown face, high cheekbones and large dark eyes so intense as to suggest they were about to cross. He had a neat moustache. He was dressed in the affection of wealth to which colored people lent themselves.

    She told him to wait and closed the door. She climbed to the third floor. She found the girl Sarah not sitting at the window as she usually did but standing rigidly, hands folded in front of her, and facing the door. Sarah, Mother said, you have a caller. The girl said nothing. Will you come to the kitchen? The girl shook her head. You don't want to see him? No, ma'am, the girl finally said softly, while she looked at the floor. Send him away, please. This was the most she had said in all the months she had lived in the house. Mother went back downstairs and found the fellow not at the back door but in the kitchen where, in the warmth of the corner near the cookstove, Sarah's baby lay sleeping in his carriage. The black man was kneeling beside the carriage and staring at the child. Mother, not thinking clearly, was suddenly outraged that he had presumed to come in the door. Sarah is unable to see you, she said and she held the door open. The colored man took another glance at the child, rose, thanked her and departed.

    Such was the coming of the colored man in the car to Broadview Avenue. His name was Cualhouse Walker Jr. Beginning with that Sunday he appeared every week, always knocking at the back door. Always turning away without complaint upon Sarah's refusal to see him. Father considered the visits a nuisance and wanted to discourage them. I'll call the police, he said. Mother laid her hand on his arm. One Sunday the colored man left a bouquet of yellow chrysanthemums which in this season had to have cost him a pretty penny.

    The black girl would say nothing about her visitor. They had no idea where she had met him, or how. As far as they knew she had no family nor any friends from the black community in the downtown section of the city. Apparently she had come by herself from New York to work as a servant. Mother was exhilarated by the situation. She began to regret Sarah's intransigence. She thought of the drive from Harlem, where Coalhouse Walker Jr. lived, and the drive back, and she decided the next time to

give him more of a visit. She would serve tea in the parlor. Father questioned the propriety of this. Mother said, he is well-spoken and conducts himself as a gentleman. I see nothing wrong with it. When Mr Roosevelt3 was in the White House he gave dinner to Booker T. Washington. Surely we can serve tea to Coalhouse Walker Jr.

    And so it happened on the next Sunday that the Negro took tea. Father noted that he suffered no embarrassment by being in the parlor with a cup and saucer in his hand. On the contrary, he acted as if it was the most natural thing in the world. The surroundings did not awe him nor was his manner deferential. He was courteous and correct. He told them about himself. He was a professional pianist and was now more or less permanently located in New York, having secured a job with the Jim Europe Clef Club Orchestra, a well-known ensemble that gave regular concerts at the Manhattan4 Casino on 155th Street and Eighth Avenue. It was important, he said, for a musician to find a place that was permanent, a job that required no travelling... I am through travelling, he said. I am through going on the road. He spoke so fervently that Father realized the message was intended for the woman upstairs. This irritated him. What can you play? he said abruptly. Why don't you play something for us?

    The black man placed tea, on the tray. He rose, patted his lips with the napkin, placed the napkin beside his cup and went to the piano. He sat on the piano stool and immediately rose and twirled it till the height was to his satisfaction. He sat down again, played a chord and turned to them. This piano is badly in need of a tuning, he said. Father's face reddened. Oh, yes, Mother said, we are terrible about that. The musician turned again to the keyboard. "Wall Street5 Rag," he said. Composed by the great Scott Joplin.6 He began to play. Ill-tuned or not the Aeolian had never made such sounds. Small clear chords hung in the air like flowers. The melodies were like bouquets. There seemed to be no other possibilities for life than those delineated by the music. When the piece was over Coalhouse Walker turned on the stool and found in his audience the entire family: Mother, Father, the boy, Grandfather and Mother's Younger Brother, who had come down from his room in shirt and suspenders to see who was playing. Of all of

them he was the only one who knew ragtime. He had heard it in his nightlife period in New York. He had never expected to hear it in his sister's home.

    Coalhouse Walker Jr. turned back to the piano and said "The Maple Leaf". Composed by the great Scott Joplin. The most famous rag of all rang through the air. The pianist sat stiffly at the keyboard, his long dark hands with their pink nails seemingly with no effort producing the clusters of syncopating chords and the thumping octaves. This was a most robust composition, a vigorous music that roused the senses and never stood still a moment. The boy perceived it as light touching various places in space, accumulating in intricate patterns until the entire room was made to glow with its own being. The music filled the stairwell to the third floor where the mute and unforgiving Sarah sat with her hands folded and listened with the door open.

    The piece was brought to a conclusion. Everyone applauded. Mother then introduced Mr Walker to Grandfather and to Younger Brother, who shook the black man's hand and said I am pleased to meet you. Coalhouse Walker was solemn. Everyone was standing. There was a silence. Father cleared his throat. Father was not knowledgeable in music. His taste ran to Carrie Jacobs Bond.7 He thought Negro music had to have smiling and cakewalking. Do you know any coon songs?8 he said. He did not intend to be rude — coon songs was what they were called. But the pianist responded with a tense shake of the head. Coon songs are made for minstrel shows,9 he said. White men sing them in black face. There was another silence. The black man looked at the ceiling. Well, he said, it appears as if Miss Sarah will not be able to receive me. He turned abruptly and walked through the hall to the kitchen. The family followed him. He had left his coat on a chair. He put it on and ignoring them all, he knelt and gazed at the baby asleep in its carriage. After several moments he stood up, said good day and walked out of the door.

Commentary

1. Ragtime: the form of music, song and dance of black US origin, popular in the 1920's in which the strong note of the tune comes just before the main beat of the music played with it (syncopation)

2. a new model T-Ford: the model T-Ford, of which 15 million were sold, was the automobile that changed the pattern of life in the United States. It first appeared in 1908 and was one of the first cars to be made by assembly line methods and was the first gasoline-operated car sold at a price that many Americans could afford. The name of its builder, Henry Ford, became a household word around the world.

3. Theodore Roosevelt: (1858-1919), twenty-sixth president of the United States of America (1901-1909).

4. Manhattan: one of the five boroughs that make up New York City. Reputation as the cultural centre of the nation.

5. Wall Street: a street in New York dity, extending from Broadway to the East River, financial center of the United States.

6. Scott Joplin: (1868-1917), American composer of ragtime music, who was known as the "King of Ragtime". The son of a railroad laborer who had been a slave, Joplin showed musical ability by the time he was seven. He taught himself to play the piano and eventually became an itinerant musician, playing in cafes and honky-tonks and learning the music of the blacks in the Mississippf Valley.

7. Carrie Jacobs Bond: (1862-1946), songwriter, author of about 170 published songs, including "I Love You Truly" and "The End of a Perfect Day".

8. coon songs: White American Negro (Black) folksongs.

9. minstrel show: stage entertainment featuring comic dialogue, song and dance, in highly conventionalized patterns. Performed by a troupe of actors in blackface comprising of an interlocutor, two end men, and a chorus; developed in the United States in the early and mid-19th century.

SPEECH PATTERNS

1.  ... there was something disturbingly resolute and self-important in the way he asked her...

There was something strange in (about) the way he greeted me that morning.

There was something disturbing (in) about the way the girl entered the room.

There is something special in the way she dresses on Sundays.

2.  He was a stocky man with large dark eyes so intense as to suggest they were about to cross.

I think the speaker is about to conclude his speech.

I have a strange feeling that something terrible is about to happen.

The satellite launch is about to commence.

3. This was the most she had said in all the months she had lived in the house.

This was the most he had eaten in a long time.

This was the most I had heard from my family all year.

While your pupil is recovering he can only read the book.

This will be the most you can expect of him.

4. ... tuned or not the Aeolian had never made such sounds.

Clumsy or not she was a good basketball player.

Busy or not Mr Jones always finds time for his students.

Phrases and Word Combinations

to go past to suffer                                         (no) embarrassment

(to look) right and left                                   on the contrary

to judge one's age                                          (to do smth) to one's satisfaction

to presume to do smth                                    to bring to a conclusion

to regret smth                                                 to clear one's throat

to question the propriety                                to be knowledgeable in/about

  of smth                                                           smth

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1.set vt/i 1) to make to be in a specified condition, as to open the cage and set the bird free; to set the papers (a village, a house) on fire; to fix or determine (a rule, time, standard), as to set a wedding day, to set a new land, speed, record; 2) to give (a piece of work) for (someone) to do, e, g. Who sets the questions for the examination? The teacher sets the class various exercises. 3) to fix firmly (a part of the body, esp. regarded as showing one's intentions, feelings, etc.), E. g. He set his jaw and refused to agree to anything I said. She's set against her daughter's marriage. 4) to put into action, e. g. He set the machine going with a push; to set the ball rolling; 5) to cause (a liquid,

paste, soft material, etc.) to become solid, e. g. Set the jelly by putting it in a cold place. 6) to write or provide (music) for a poem or other words to be sung, e. g. The poem was set to an old working song tune.

to set eyes on to see, e. g. I hope I never set eyes on that fellow again.

to set someone's teeth on edge to frighten smb

to set one's heart (mind, hopes) on to be filled with strong desire for, e. g. The boy has set his heart on becoming an engineer.

set a 1) determined, e. g. He is very set on going and I can't make him see that it's a bad idea. 2) given or fixed for study, e. g. The examination will have questions on the set books (texts). 3) (of part of the body, manner, state of mind, etc.) fixed in position, unmoving, e. g. She greeted her guests with a set smile. 4) ready, prepared, e. g. Are you all set? Then let's go.

set n I) (informal) a group of people of a special type: the jet set. 2) (not pi) natural position of part of the body, e. g. From the set of her shoulders it was clear that she was tired. 3) setting of the hair, e. g. "Shampoo and set, please," she said abruptly.

2. abandon vt 1) to leave completely and for ever, desert, e. g. The sailors abandoned the sinking ship. 2) to leave (a relation or friend) in a thoughtless or cruel way, e. g. He abandoned his wife and went abroad. 3) to give up, esp. without finishing, e, g. The search was abandoned when the night came though the child had not been found.

N.B. to abandon may be used with far more negative reasons than to give up.

3. resent vt to show or feel indignation at, as to resent smb's behaviour (smb's words, an insult, smb's manner, etc.), e. g. Anyone would resent such treatment. The child resented being made fun of.

Note the pattern smb resents smth. Compare with the Russian patterns: кого-л. возмущает 

что-л.; возмущает кого-л.

resentful a feeling or showing resentment, as to be resentful of smb (smth), e. g. The boy was resentful of the remark.

resentment n a feeling of indignation or annoyance; a deep sense of injury, as to (have) bear no resentment against smb (smth), e. g. His conduct aroused everybody's resentment.

4. suggest vt 1) to cause to come to the mind, e.g. The open window suggested that somebody else had got into the house.

2) to bring itself to the mind, e. g. An idea suggested itself, Harry has bad manners. Lack of proper home training suggests itself. 3) to give signs (of), e. g. Her expression suggested, anger/(that), she was angry.

suggestion n a slight sign, e. g. Her face held a suggestion of anger.

5. hand n 1) a performer; a practiser of a skill

an old hand, good hand at smth

Ant.  not much of a hand at smth, e. g. I am not much of a hand at making pastry.

2) encouragement given by clapping the hands, as to give a (good, big) hand to, get a (big, good) hand; 3) help (lend a helping hand to); 4) control (get/become out of hand), eg. The meeting is getting out of hand — will everybody stop talking at once!

at hand (formal) near in time or place, e. g. She always keeps her dictionary at hand.

by hand by a person, not a machine or organisation, e. g. These rugs are made by hand.

to eat out of someone's hand to be ready to do everything someone wants, e. g. I'll soon have him eating out of my hand.

to give smb a free hand to allow smb to do things in his/her own way

hand in glove (with) closely connected (with someone), esp. in smth bad, e. g. They were found to be hand Iji glove .with enemy agents.

hat in hand to beg, look for smth, e. g. He.went to his employer, hat in hand, for a pay-rise.

on the one/other hand (used for comparing different things or ideas), e.g. I know this job of mine isn't much, but on the other hand I don't feel tied down.

to try one's hand (at) to attempt (an activity), e. g. I tried my hand at swimming though it was the first time I'd been in the water.

to wash one's hands of to refuse to be concerned with or responsible for, e. g. He washed his hands of the entire affair.

6. clear vt/i 1) to cause to become clear, e. g. After the storm the sky cleared. He cleared his throat. 2) to (cause to) go away, e. g. Soldiers! Clear the people away from the palace gates.

3) to remove, take away, get rid of, e. g. Whose job is it to clear

snow from the road? 4) to free from blame (a person wrongly thought to have done smth wrong), e. g. The judge cleared the prisoner of any crime and set him free.

clear a 4) bright, free from anything that darkens, as clear sky, clear eyes. 2) certain, confident, e. g. She seems quite clear about her plans. 3) free from guilt or blame, untroubled, as a clear conscience, clear of guilt. 4) open, free from blocks, danger or obstructions, as a clear road, clear view, e. g. The road's clear of snow now.

the coast is clear (informal) all danger has gone, e. g. When the coast was clear the two thieves escaped.

7. conduct n (formal) behaviour, e. g. I'm glad to see your conduct at school has improved.

conduct vt I) (formal) to behave (oneself), e. g. I like the way your children conduct themselves. Their behaviour is very good. 2) to direct the course of (a business, activity, etc.). 3) to lead or guide (a person, tour, etc.). 4) to stand before and direct the playing of musicians or a musical work. 5) to act as the path for (electricity, heat, etc.), e. g. Plastic and rubber won't conduct electricity. 6) to collect payments from the passengers (on a public vehicle), e. g. She's conducted on London buses for 20 years.

conductor n 1) a person who directs the playing of a group of musicians. 2) a substance that readily acts as a path for electricity, heat, etc., e. g. Wood is a poor conductor of heat. 3) (AE) a railroad employee in charge of a train and train crew.

8. compose vt/i 1) to write (music, poetry, essays, etc.), e. g. It is very time-consuming to compose a good essay. 2) to make up (smth), form (smth), e. g. The chemistry teacher asked the pupils what water was composed of.

Syn. comprise, consist of, include, be made up of

3) to make (esp. oneself) calm, quiet, etc., e. g. The students couldn't stop laughing so the teacher asked them to compose themselves. 4) to make or form (smth) by putting parts together, e. g. The artist composed an interesting picture by putting the variously-coloured shapes together.

composer n a person who writes music.

composition n 1) act of putting together parts to form smth, act of composing, as a piece of music of his own composition. 2) an example of this, as a piece of music or art or a poem, e. g. I like his earlier poems but not his later compositions.

9. abrupt a 1) sudden and unexpected, e. g. The train came to an abrupt stop, making many passengers fall off their seats. 2) (of behaviour, speech, character, etc.) rough and impolite, not wanting to waste time being nice, e. g. Everybody resented his abrupt answer.

abruptly adv in an abrupt manner, e. g. "No," said Roger abruptly, "I'm staying here."

abruptness n e. g. His abruptness was really impolite.

10. ignore vt not to take notice of, e. g. Ignore the child if he misbehaves and he will soon stop.

to ignore smth to pretend not to know or see it, e. g. She saw him coming but she ignored him.

Ant. to consider, to regard

Note: The Russian for to ignore is игнорировать, не замечать. Ignore does not correspond to the Russian пренебрегать, не заботиться о чем-л., упускать из виду which is expressed by the verb to neglect, as to neglect one's duties, one's children.

ignorant a 1) lacking knowledge, not aware, as ignorant of even simplest facts, e. g. He is quite ignorant of these facts. She was ignorant of his presence. (She didn't know he was there.) 2) rude, impolite esp. because of lack of social training, e. g. He is an ignorant person — he always goes through a door in front of a girl (lady). She is an ignorant girl: she knows nothing about her country's history.

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciaton of the following words:

rigidly, nuisance, bouquet, chrysanthemums, transient, exhilarate, intransigence, awe, ensemble, casino, chord, delineate, syncopate, octave, vigorous, intricate, coon, minstrel.

b) Get together with another student. Listen to his/her reading. What recommendations would you give to correct any mispronunciations?

2. a) Read out aloud the following sentences from the text; divide them into intonation groups using proper intonation patterns; observe stresses, strong and weak forms. Make them sound rhythmically correct:

I. I am looking for a young woman of color whose name is Sarah, he said. 2. She is said to reside in one of these houses. 3. He was a stocky man with a red-complected shining brown face, high cheekbones and large dark eyes so intense as to suggest they were about to cross. 4. Mother, not thinking clearly, was suddenly outraged that he had presumed to come in the door. 5. The colored man took another glance at the child, rose, thanked her and departed. 6. One Sunday the colored man left a bouquet of yellow chrysanthemums which in this season had to have cost him a pretty penny. 7. Mother said he was well-spoken and conducts-himself as a gentleman. 8. It was important, he said, for a musician to find a place that was permanent, a job that required no travelling. 9. He had heard it in his nightlife period in New York. 10. Well, he said, it appears as if Miss Sarah will not be able to receive me.

b) Get together with your partner. Listen to his/her reading, analyse possible variants in the intonation group division.

3. Complete the following sentences:

1. There is something nice in the way... 2. There is something exciting to (about).,. 3. There was something unusual... 4. This is the jnpst the girl... 5. This was the most the main... 6. This will be the most the children... 7. Delicious or not the dinner... 8. Pleasant or not... 9. She was about to... 10. We are about to...

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the speech patterns (p. 108):

1. He has a pleasant way of looking at her. 2. She has a poetical way of speaking. 3. This was the biggest meal David Copperfield had eaten for a week. 4. She had never before said anything so unpleasant to him. 5. No matter how tired she was she was always ready to give a helping hand. 6. We shall buy the piano whether it is expensive or not. 7. She was just leaving the house when the telephone rang. 8. She was on the point of tears when he suddenly appeared in the doorway.

5. Make up and act out dialogues using the speech patterns.

6. Translate the following sentences into English using the speech patterns:

1. Есть что-то странное в том, как она одевается. 2. Было что-то удивительное в том, как он это сказал. 3. Было что-то привлекательное в том, как ребенок протянул цветы. 4. Она позвонит ему обязательно. Но это самое большее, что она может сделать. 5. Она съела ломтик хлеба и снова уснула. Это было самое большее, что она съела за два дня. 6. Интересные рассказы или нет, их нужно прочитать; 7. Болезненная операция или нет, она обязательна. 8. Она собралась что-то сказать, но затем передумала. 9. Она собралась уже взять отпуск, когда заболел ее отец. 10. Она уже сидела у пианино, чтобы начать играть, когда зазвонил телефон.

7. Note down the sentences containing the phrases and word combinations (p. 109) and translate them into Russian.

8. Paraphrase the following sentences:

1. We are losing money right and left. 2. Days went past without any news. 3. Judge its size, please. 4. He presumed to tell his manager how the work ought to be done. 5. 1 don't mind living in the city but I regret being without my horse. 6. 1 would never question his honesty. 7. She suffered the loss of her pupils' respect. 8. "I believe you like your job." "On the contrary, I hate it" 9. It's been proved to my satisfaction that you are telling the truth. 10. "He is very knowledgeable about flowers," he said clearing his throat.

9. Make up and set out dialogues using the phrases and word combinations (pair work).

10. Translate the following senteneces into English:

1. Мимо пробежали дети. 2. Она посмела зайти за прилавок магазина, так как очень торопилась. 3. Мне трудно судить о его знаниях в физике. 4. Я всегда сожалею о потерянном времени. 5, Я никогда не сомневалась в его честности. 6. К моему великому удивлению, он не страдает от угрызений совести. 7. Сегодня холодно, не правда ли? — Наоборот, сегодня тепло. 8. К моему большому удовлетворению, она подала заявление в институт. 9. Он блестяще подвел к концу свое исследование.

11. Answer the questions and do the given assignments:

a) 1. Who was the man who arrived one Sunday afternoon to the house? 2. Why was the man looking for the young woman of colour? 3. Why was the girl Sarah accustomed to sitting at the window? 4. What made Sarah ask Mother send the visitor away? 5. Why was Mother outraged when she returned downstairs? 6. Why did Mother decide to give him more of a visit next time? 7. Why did the Negro suffer no embarrassment in the parlour? 8. How did the Negro describe his career as a pianist? 9. What was the source of Father's irritation when he finally asked the Negro to play the piano? 10. Why did the Negro agree to play the piano for them? 11. What was it in the music he played that changed the mood of the family. 12. Do you think the Negro accomplished what he had hoped for from the visit?

b) The title "Ragtime" is supposed to be the symbolic representation of the atmosphere which characterizes the scene of the novel. Do you feel that the rhythm and the intonation of E. Doctorow's prose imitate those of ragtime? (whose characteristic features are syncopation, swing, high tension, fluctuation between the regular rhythm of sharp harmonic accents and a lively irregular ragged melodic line, the incongruity, that is a special charm of the music).

c) 1. Discuss the stylistic means the author uses to create tension:

1) the incongruity of the sensational plot and the dry tone in which it is described, 2) the common situation and the formal tone, 3) the contrast of different styles, 4) the contrast of actions and their implications.

2. Describe how the author contrasts the young man's behaviour and appearance with the music he plays. Pay attention to the epithets, similes, metaphors, repetitions and gradation, abrupt changes from short sentences to long ones, and then back again. Observe the proportion of short sentences, the telegraphic style, the use of asyndeton, polysyndeton, inversion and parallel constructions; how is the compact, dynamic way in the speech of the characters presented? Pay attention to the fact that the characters have no names. What effect is achieved by this? Should proper names have been used, in your opinion? Justify your answer, hi whose voice is the narration of the story? Where do the narrator's sympathies lie?

12. Explain what is meant by:

1. He was dressed in the affection of wealth to which coloured people lent themselves. 2. She is said to reside in one of these houses. 3. A bouquet of yellow chrysanthemums which in this season had to have cost him a pretty penny. 4. The surroundings did not awe him nor was his manner deferential. 5. Oh, yes, Mother said, we are terrible about that. 6. There seemed to be no possibilities for life than those delineated by the music. 7. This was a most robust composition, a vigorous music that roused the senses and never stood still a moment. 8. ... until the entire room was made to glow with its own being. 9. His taste ran to Carrie Jacobs Bond. 10. He thought Negro music had to have smiling and cakewalking.

13. Give a summary of the text (p. 104).

14. Make up and act out dialogues between:

1. Mother and Father before the tea.

2. Mother and Sarah after the visit of the Negro pianist.

3. Father and Mother's Younger Brother about the pieces the pianist had played.

V

15. Sometimes we accept invitations to go to the event, just to be polite, so we don't hurt other people's feelings. Write about an experience you didn't enjoy, but which you felt obliged to participate in.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

     A. 1. He was given a little money and at times, in the spirit of adventure, he would set off to explore the town. 2. You should set aside some money for a rainy day. 3. He tried to set aside his dislike of his daughter's fiancee. 4. We should set off before dawn to get there on time. 5. The redundancies set off strikes throughout the area. 6. The bank helps peple wanting to set up business. 7. He set out to climb Everest. 8. Put the jelly

into the ice-box to set. 9. We are all set, 10.1 like the setting of the show. 11. He has set his heart on becoming a ballet dancer. 12. They sat up till the small hours seating the world to rights. 13. Did someone set fire to the house deliberately? 14. Di had never set foot in Italy before. 15. Jill is very set in her ways. 16. Stephen tut-tutted his way through the end-of-vacation examination papers he had set his freshmen students. 17. The chauffeur regretfully abandoned his plans for an afternoon at the railings. 18. Anthony could not have blamed Steve if through resentment he now decided to abandon his brother to the dreadful struggle that was to come. 19. The Forsytes resented encroachments on their property. 20. Kit had been called out once before during the night and his body resented the second disturbance. 21. He was a big man who resented the buttons on his shirts.

    B. 1. It is said that the business of words in prose is primarily to state; in poetry not only to state but also (and sometimes primarily) to suggest. 2. White gloves to the elbow suggested a Royal Garden party. 3. It would be dreadful if something terrible happened and I were not at hand. 4. He spoke German without any suggestion of French accent. 5. Gentlemen, give a big hand to the band. 6. "I'm old enough to play poker and do something with it. I'll try my hand to-night," thought Hurstwood. 7. My doubts on that point, if I had any, were soon cleared. 8. The debate was conducted in the depressing atmosphere of a half-empty Chamber. 9. The curator's conduct through the museum was informative. 10. A pianist, bandleader, composer and arranger, Duke Ellingfon, had a major impact on jazz composition and playing. 11. It is the highland nearest to the shore which falls most abruptly. 12. When the adjective "abrupt" is used speaking about words and manners we mean that they are sudden and unconnected. 13. They say that to be ignorant of one's ignorance is the malady of the ignorant. 14. He had been working at hospital for so long that he ignored the "No smoking" sign.

3. Give the English equivalents for:

    приводить в определенное состояние, в движение; освобождать; пускать в ход машину; начать дело; сосредоточить мысль на чём-л.; твердеть; заживать; положить на музыку; задерживать; бросить привычку; бросить курить; бросить жену; оставить (потерять) на-

дежду; оставить друга в беде; покинуть свой пост; отказаться от усилий; покинуть тонущий корабль;

    возмущаться чьим-л. поведением; негодовать на чье-л. отношение; обижаться на замечание; затаить обиду;

    внушать; вызывать; подсказывать (мысль); намекать; наводить на мысль; говорить о; говорить само за себя;

    рабочий сцены; из первых рук; продолжительные аплодисменты; сделанный ручным способом; имеющийся в распоряжении; на руках; руки прочь; с одной/другой стороны; убирать со стола; откашливаться; распутывать дело; проясняться (о погоде); вести разговор; дирижировать оркестром; вести дела; вести переговоры; водить группу туристов; проводить урок; проводник; кондуктор; писать музыку; улаживать ссору; успокаиваться; крутой поворот; резкие манеры; отрывистый стиль; крутая тропинка; сказать что-л. резко (отрывисто); не принять к сведению чеи-л. совет; пропустить замечание мимо ушей; не обратить внимание; игнорировать чье-л. присутствие; ничего не понимать в искусстве; не подозревать о существовании кого-л. (чего-л.); невежественный человек; держать кого-л. в неведении; пренебречь обязанностями; запустить дом (дела); не заботиться о детях; запустить занятия.

4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:

1. Please, will somebody start the discussion? 2. Mrs Cassidi was fully determined to give her son a good education. 3. If you don't want to get some lung disease you must givemp smoking altogether. 4. Is there any wonder she felt injured about your criticism, it was so bitter. 5. Let's resolve this problem once and for all. 6. After many attempts the scientist eventually managed to carry put his experiment successfully. 7. The path was so steep that we could hardly make it. 8. She knew so many things that the average girl of eight did not know. 9. She paid no attention to the hint. 10. The bad mistakes you sometimes make bring to mind the idea of bad knowledge of. grammar. 11. When working he always keeps his tools within easy reach. 12. Pull yourself together, and start from the very beginning.

5. Use the essential vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. When do people carry a chip on their shoulder? 2. What do some people do when they are in a tight corner and they can see no way out? 3. Why didn't you have a chance to tell him what you think of the whole situation before he left? 4. Why hasn't the orchestra played yet? 5. Why does the man

keep working when he must be in so much pain after the accident? 6. What did his poor answer imply about his knowledge of the subject? 7. What do you do with your test paper after finishing it? 8. Why can't you put these questions on the examination paper? 9. When did the robbers manage to escape? 10. Why wasn't Mary able to express herself clearly?

6. Choose the right word: to ignore, to neglect or their derivatives.

1. The easiest way is to just... the letter, act as if I've never get it 2. Sometimes he was so busy that he ... to shave for a day, often his shirts needed changing and he ... these too. 3. She ... him, and let him standing with an outstretched hand. 4. The children were suffering from ... . 5. For a week afterwards he ... the financial pages. 6. He is also absorbed in sports to the ... of his studies. 7. If any exceptions to these rules occurred, they were quite simply ... . 8. The house was in a ... state. 9. The young officer decided that he could safely ... the whole thing. 10.... of the truth he committed the crime.

7. Fill in the blanks with postlogues:

1. It was a popular tune of the day set... new words. 2. The bad weather will set... our building plans. 3. There is no one to set... him as an actor. 4. The judge set... the decision of the lower court. 5. She set... her house work straight after breakfast 6. The pupils cleared ... when they saw the teacher. 7. Clear ... of the room, I want some peace and quiet. 8. Clear ... your desk before you leave school.

8. Make up short situations or a story using the essential vocabulary.

9. Translate the following sentences into English:

1.Она поклялась никогда не переступать порог этого дома. 2. Учитель задал ученикам трудную задачу. 3. Он откашлялся и продолжал рассказ. 4. Опасность миновала, можно было действовать без промедления. 5. Дети, давайте поаплодируем артистам. 6. С одной стороны, работа была трудной, с другой — очень заманчивой. 7. Через несколько минут корабль должен был пойти ко дну, и капитан приказал команде покинуть его. 8. Водитель резко повернул машину, чтобы не столкнуться с автобусом, идущим навстречу. 9. Старая леди была шокирована грубыми манерами молодого доктора. 10. Со-

беритесь с мыслями и начните ответ сначала. 11. Несколько слов, случайно оброненных им, наводили на мысль, что все сказанное было чистейшей выдумкой. 12. У нее ужасно болела голова, но она, не обращая внимания на боль, продолжала работать. 13. Грейс возмущалась, когда ее называли ребенком.

10. a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:

1. He who pays the piper calls the tune.

2. Don't take your harp to the party.

3. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

b) Explain in English the meaning of each proverb.

c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

MAN AND MUSIC

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. Musical genres (styles): classical music (instrumental, vocal, chamber, symphony), opera, operetta, musical, ballet, blues, ragtime, jazz, pop, rock, folk (country) music, electronique music, background music, incidental music.

2. Musical forms: piece, movement, sonata, area, fantasy, suite, rapsody, concerto, solo, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, sixtet (etc.), chorus.

3. Musical rhythms: polka, waltz, march, blues, ragtime, jazz, swing, bassanova, sambo, disco, rock.

4. Musical instruments: (string group): violin, viola, celo, bass, harp; (wind group): flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon; (brass group): trumpet, French horn, tuba; percussion, piano, accordion, guitar, saxophone, synthesizer, acoustic, electronique, electric instruments.

5. Music makers: composer, conductor, musician, soloist, virtuoso, minstreller group, team, band, orchestra.

6. Music making: to write authentically Russian, Afro-American, etc. musk, to compose, to arrange, to transcribe, to

make music/to perform, to improvise, to interpret, to accompany, tocomplete.

7. Musical equipment: tape-recorder, video cassette-recorder, tuner, amplifier, player, equalizer, (loud) speaker, turn-table.

8. Musical events: (made up) concert, recital, jam session, festival, competition.

9. Miscellany: major, flat, baton, bow, drum sticks, under the baton, single, album, track, record jacket (sleeve), score, spiritual, beat, video-clip, syncopation, harmony.

                                                    Names of Notes

Russian

до

ре

ми

фа

соль

ля

си

English

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

Understanding Music

    If we were asked to explain the purpose of music, our immediate reply might be "to give pleasure". That would not be far from the truth, but there are other considerations.

    We might also define music as "expression in sound", or "the expression of thought and feeling in an aesthetic form", and still not arrive at an understanding of its true purpose. We do know, however, even if we are not fully conscious of it that music is a part of living that it has the power to awaken, in us sensations and emotions of a spiritual kind.

     Listening to music can be an emotional experience or an intellectual exercise. If we succeed in blending the two; without excess in either case, we are on the road to gaining the ultimate pleasure from music. Haying mastered the gift of listening to, say, a Haydn symphony, the ear and mind should be ready to admit Mozart, then to absorb Beethoven, then Brahms. After that, the pathway to the works of later composers will be found to be less bramblestrewn than we at first imagined.

    Music, like language, is a living, moving thing. In early .times organised music belonged to the church; later it became the property of the privileged few. Noble families took the best composers and the most talented performers into their service.

    While the status of professional musicians advanced, amateur musicians found in music a satisfying means of self-

expression, and that form of expression broadened in scope to embrace forms and styles more readily digested by the masses.

    It is noteworthy that operas at first were performed privately, that the first "commercial" operatic venture took place early in the seventeenth century, this leading to the opening of opera houses for the general public in many cities.

    By the middle of the nineteenth century, composers were finding more and more inspiration of their heritage. The time had come to emancipate the music of their country from the domination of "foreign" concepts and conventions.

    One of the first countries to raise the banner was Russia, which had various sources of material as bases of an independent musical repertory, Russian folk songs and the music of the old Russian Church.

    The composer to champion this cause was Glinka, who submerged Western-European influences by establishing a new national school.

    Glinka's immediate successor was Dargomizhsky, then Balakirev. His own creative output was comparatively small; he is best remembered as the driving force in establishing "The Mogutschaya Kuchka", a group which included Borodin, Cui, Moussorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov.

    Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) worked independently and was the first Russian composer to win widespread international recognition.

    It is a narrow line that divides Operetta from Musical Comedy, both blending music and the spoken word. When we think of operetta, such titles come to mind as The Gipsy Baron (Johann Strauss), The Merry Widow and The Count of Luxembourg (Lehar). Of recent years these have been replaced in popular labour by "Musicals" which placed more emphasis on unity and theatrical realism, such as Oklahoma, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music and West Side Story.

    In early times instrumental music broke away from occasion associated i^hsaqred worship into secular channels. In succeeding genenations instrumental players were engaged to provide music forvarious public functions. Humble bands of players developed into small orchestras, these in time to symphony orchestras. Later, orchestras of the cafe type assumed in-creased numerical strength and more artistic responsibility, while "giving the public what it wants".

    For many generations Band Music — music played by military bands, brass bands, and pipe bands on the march, in public parks, and in concert halls — has held its place in public favour, especially in Great Britain.

   At the turn of the present century American popular music was still clinging to established European forms and conventions. Then a new stimulus arrived by way of the Afro-Americans who injected into their music-making African chants and rhythms which were the bases of their spirituals and work songs.

     One of the first widespread Afro-American influences was Ragtime, essentially a style of syncopated piano-playing that reached its peak about 1910. Ragtime music provided the stimulus for the spontaneous development of jazz, a specialized style in music which by the year 1920 had become a dominating force in popular music, and New Orleans, one of the first cities to foster it.

     In the early twenties America became caught up in a whirl 6f post-war gaiety. The hectic period would later be known as the Jazz Era. Soon jazz had begun its insistent migration across the world, while Black musicians of America were recognised as the true experts in the jazz field, the idiom attracted white musicians, who found it stimulating and profitable to form bands to play in the jazz style. Prominent among these white band-leaders were Paul Whiteman and George Gershwin, 7 whose 1924 Rapsody in Blue was the first popular jazz concerto.

    While many self-appointed prophets were condemning jazz as vulgar, and ethers smugly foretelling its early death, some notable European composers attempted to weave the jazz idiom into their musical works. These included Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky, Shostakovitch.

    (Here one is reminder & it several composers, including Debussy, Ravel, Liszt, Bizet and Richard Strauss, befriended the much-maligned saxophone, invented about the middle of the nineteenth century, and introduced it into Iheeoncert-hall)

    Before we leave George Gershwin, we should mention his Porgy and Bess which brought something daringly different to opera: the music, Gershwin's own, sounds so authentically Afro-American, that it is surprising that this rich score was written by a white American.

    We are forced to contemplate the fact, that notwithstanding the achievements of Debussy, Stravinsky and many others, the

experience of music in the western art tradition remains essentially unchanged. It's still composed by highly trained specialists and played by professional musicians in concert halls.

   There was a time in the sixties when it looked as if the situation was about to be broken up by a new and revolutionary popular music of unprecedented and unexpected power. The so-called "Rock Revolution" began in fact in the mid-fifties, and was based firmly on the discontent of the youngejr generation who were in revolt against the values of their elders; naturally they espoused new musical values, and equally naturally these values represented'a negation of everything in the musical world their elders inhabited — the virtual elimination of harmony, or at least its reduction to the few conventional progressions of the blues, an emphasis on the beat, new type of voice production owing much to sophisticated use of amplification and simplification of instrumental technique.

    There followed rapidly an extraordinary musical eruption based on the percussive sound of the electric guitar, the rock'n'roll beat and blues harmony.

   We should remember that the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and many other leading groups and individual performers from the early sixties onward based their music on the sound of electric guitars and percussion.

    Now what? In this technological age it is not surprising that electronics should have invaded the field of music. This new phase has brought experiments intended to give music of the popular genre a new sound. Though many may be alarmed at such explorative tampering with sound, it must be admitted that the possibilities of electronically-produced music are immense. Never before has music — all kinds of music — been so popular. Never before has the world had greater need of its stimulation and comfort. We find the ultimate satisfaction in music, be it "classical" or "popular", when we have learnt how to reject the spurious and accept the genuine; when we have learnt how to listen.

1. As you read the text a) took for the answers to theses questions:

1. What is the purpose of music in your opinion? Can music be defined in only one way? 2. In what genres did the music develop? 3. What was the Russian contribution to the art of music? 4. In what way did instrumental music become engaged for

various functions? 5. What created the development of jazz and who facilitated the development? 6. How did the youth of the 60-s respond to the highly trained specialist and professional music? 7. In your opinion should musicians have musical training? 8. What do you know about the Beatles and their contribution to the pop-music world? 9. In-your opinion how will the technological age through radio, television and video influence the world of music ?

b) Find in the text the facts the author gives to illustrate the following:

1. Music like language is a living moving thing. 2. Music may be used as the lines of communication between people. 3. Jazz does not cling to dance rhythms any longer, as the 20th century European music reflects African rhythms.

c) Summarize the text in five paragraphs specifying the development of 1) opera, 2) operetta and musicals, 3) instrumental music, 4) Jazz and 5) rock.

2. Use the topical vocabulary in answering the following questions:1

1. What musical genres do you know and what role does folk music play in all of them? 2. What is meant by the terms classical or serious music, pop, rock, jazz and contemporary music? 3. Do you think the different musical genres named above are strictly separated or do they overlap in some ways? In what ways? What genre do you prefer? 4. What role does music play in your life? Do you want music just to make you happy or does the music that you prefer vary with your mood? How does it vary? 5. Do you think that at school music should be given the same emphasis as subjects such as maths, literature, etc.? 6. Of which instruments does a symphony/chamber orchestra consist? What are the most popular instruments of pop groups, jazz or rock? 7. Why has the guitar become a very popular instrument in recent years? Do you prefer V. Vysotsl^s performances with an entire orchestra or simply with a guitar? Why? 8. What is your favourite instrument? Can you play it? Does it help you to

___________

1 You may wish to bring in record jackets (sleeves), tapes, and advertisements for concerts or programmes, which depict current popular or classical music. These can serve as supplementary materials for several activities in the unit.

understand music? 9. The;human voice is regarded as a most refined instrument the proper use of which requires a great deal of training. How do you Jfeel about this characterization? Who areyour favourite singers? 10. Do you like opera? Do you agree with the opinion that operas are hard to follow while musicals are more up-to-dale and easier to understand? What other forms have appeared of late? 11. How can you account for the large scale popularity of rock? Is it only an entertainment to young people or does rock music represent their values? What values? 12. Why are some rock fans less interested in the music of the past? Can you think of any similar examples when people attracted by a new style of music forget about the past? 13. What do you know about video clips? How do they affect music? 14. What do you know about the International Tchaikovsky Competitions? How often are they held and on what instruments, do contestants perform? Can you give some names of prize winners or laureates of the Tchaikovsky Competitions? What do you know about their subsequent careers?

3. Give your impressions of a concert (recital) you have recently attended. Use the topical vocabulary. Outline for giving impressions:

1. Type of event. 2. What orchestra, group performed? 3. Programme. Were the musical pieces well-known, popular, new, avant-guard, etc.? 4. Who was the conductor? 5. Was the event interesting and enjoyable in your opinion? 6. Name the soloists. 7. What did critics say about the event? Do you share their points of view? 8. What impression did the event make on you? Did you take a solemn oath never to attend one/again ?

4. Pair work. Make up and act out a dialogue. (Use the chiches of agreement, disagreement and reacting to opinion or persuasion (pp. 287, 290, 291):

1. You are at a concert of contemporary music, about which you are not very knowledgeable. Your friend tries to initiate you in it. 2. Your father/mother cannot stand rock music and he/she never listens to it. You try to convince him/her that rock music is important in your life. 3. You are talking on the telephone with your friend who wants you to accompany her to a piano recital. You are reluctant to join her. 4. You are an accomplished jazz musician. But you never participated in jazz sessions. Your friend urges you to be more daring and try your

hand at it. 5. Your sister has just come back from the Bolshoi Theatre where she heard Glinka's Ruslan and Ludmtia. She tries to describe how much she enjoyed the opera, but you, being no great lover of opera music, turn a deaf ear. 6. You are fond of Tchaikovsky's music and always ready to talk about it. Your friend asks you to tell him/her more.

5. Below are opinions on the development of music.

a) Spend a few minutes individually thinking of further arguments you will use to back up one of the opinions:

1. The line between serious music and jazz grows less and less clear.

2. A certain amount of so-called avant-guard music in our modern art tries to shock and be original for originality's sake.

3. In any age the advanced of today in music may become the commonplace of tomorrow.

4. Soviet composers have contributed as much as Russian composers to the World of Music.

5. Radio, television, cinema and video bring "new sounds" into our homes.

b) Now discuss the opinions with your partner. One of the students is supposed to play the role of a student who is not knowledgeable in music. The other — to present a student whose hobby is music. Keep interrupting each other with questions. Use the topical vocabulary.

6. Group work. Split into buzz groups of  3—4 students each.

Discuss the following, using the expressions of agreement or disagreement (p. 290):

1. "Some people prefer only classical music and find contemporary music to be cocaphony." "Stop being conservative," say others. "We need something 'far out' to shock the audience."

Which side do you agree?

Composer A. Ribnikov says: "Ours is an age of great technological progress and accompanying emotional stress, which requires new forms of expression in music."

Can his opinion help you formulate your answer?

2. As you know composers sometimes arrange (transcribe) music which is written for one group of instruments and apply it to another.

One brilliant transcription is R. Schedrin's approach to G. Bizet Carmen in which he uses only string and percussion groups, thus adding to the music the incomparable colour range and bringing the 19th century music into the present day.

What other examples of transcription do you know and what is your opinion of this art?

3. Many modern composers and performers change the sound of live instruments by making technical adjustment (for example "prepared piano"1) a) What other examples of changing instruments do you know and do you find such change necessary? b) Will musicians have to sell their instruments in order to pay for tuition as engineers?

4. In the opinion of D. Kabalevski there are two kinds of beauty in the world. One is passed on from generation to generation, the other is temporary. The most important thing is to differentiate between them. In order to do this one needs to develop taste which is acquired first of all through the study of established classics. How is your opinion different from that of D. Kabalevski?

7. When you criticize you normally try to find faults rather than virtues, but it certainly does not exclude the expressions of virtue. Read the following dialogue where the characters make comments about themselves and others. Note down the expressions in bold type. Be ready to use them in dialogues in class:

    Liz and Michael on the way home from a jazz concert.

    Michael: Perhaps you might consider me a bit of a fanatic about jazz ... but that was a fantastic concert, wasn't it?

    Liz: I'm not exactly — how shall I say? I suppose I'm not crazy about jazz, and the melodies were hard to follow. Could you perhaps help me to understand it better?

    Michael: I've tried to help many people... I've done my best to open a jazz club, so I've become quite good at interpreting jazz, though I had no one to rely on. Anyway, in the first place there are two elements in jazz. One is the playing of instruments so that they sound like the half-shouted, half-sung blues of Negro folksong. The other is the steady, unchanging 1-2-3-4

__________

1 "prepared piano" involves stuffing the inside of the piano with a variety of paraphernalia, including units and bolts in order to alter the normal piano timbre.

beat initiated from the French military marching music the blacks heard in New Orleans where jazz was born around 1900.

    Liz: Well, I'm an easy-going person really unless of course you start discussing jazz. Then I'm a bit vicious. Basically I'm receptive to any music that has harmony and melody. That's me. But I didn't even recognize any of the tunes, though I have heard some jazz music before.

    Michael: Well, that's riot surprising, since another important feature of jazz is "improvisation" or "making it up as you go along", therefore tunes can sound different each time you hear them.

    Liz: Well, I think I've kept myself —- yes, I've kept myself respectable — that's the word I'd use — respectable and dignified on my appreciation of jazz. The musicians played with great skill and speed. And when they improvised they played a completely new variation of the basic tune every time.

    Michael: Absolutely. That's one of the greatest thrills of a jazz session. Tunes are not the most important feature of jazz. It's not the composer but the performer who makes a good piece of jazz. In fact it's almost impossible to write down much of a jazz in musical notes!

    Liz: In that case jazz is rather elicit and separate from other kinds of misic, if only the performer knows what's being played. I say, get rid of these thugs who call themselves professional musicians — get rid of them.

    Michael: Professional or not, you leave the musician out' of it for a while/As for jazz, it has influenced many kinds of music, particularly pop which still borrows from jazz its beat, its singing style and its improvisation.

    Liz: You shouldn't be asking me what I think of jazz... But what I think of rock music... this music is a mess.

    Michael: But how do you explain the fact that hurfdreds and thousands of young people simply go mad over rock music? For example, I listened to Shubert's messes. I'm not saying that I didn't understand them. As a matter of fact I enjoyed listening to them. But music like that isn't able to give me anything new, whereas rock music feels a thousand times nearer, more immediate.

    Liz: No, Michael, I'm unable to understand it. And that's probably my main fault, I should say. Then... Professional musicians are always neatly dressed... But heavy metal rock players! Well... you'd have to see them to believe it. There is

only one hope for it — a special section (department) for rock music at the Composer's Union that will do something about the situation.

Michael: So you're the sort of ordinary decent person who wants to restore the position ot classical music.

Liz: Yes and no... But I'll let you have the last word on jazz and I'll stick to my own opinion on rock.

1. Have you ever been to a live jazz concert/rock music concert? What is your impression of them?

2. Do you agree with all that is said in the dialogue? In what statements concerning jazz or rock music do you find the criticism appropriate?

8. When criticising someone, describe, don't judge. Always focus on, tad confine criticism to observable behaviour.

For instance, telling your pupil who is not practising his music "Of late you've been practising less than usual and we need you in the concert" is more likely to encourage practice than snapping "You are irresponsible and lazy. Practise more from now on."

a) Below are statements about music which express different opinions. Imagine that they are your opinions and change them into subjective arguments. (Use the expressions showing critisism.):

1. "There is only one way to come to understand music by learning to play a musical instrument whether an external one like the piano or flute or by training the human voice to become an instrument."

2. "However good recorded music might be, it can never really take the place of a live performance. To be present at an actual performance is half the enjoyment of music."

3. "I find I have to defend jazz to those who say it is low class. As a matter of fact all music has low class origin, since it comes from folk music, which is necessarily earthly. After all Haydn minuets are only a refinement of simple, rustic German dances, and so are Beethoven scherzos. An aria from a Verdi opera can often be traced back to the simplest Neapolitan fisherman."

b) Team up with your partner who will be ready to give critical remarks on the statements given above. Use the cliches expressing criticism.

c) As a group, now decide which event you will all attend together. When giving your criticism try to be honest, but tactful.

9. Group work. Discuss the effect of rode music on young people. After a proper discussion each group presents its critical remarks. First read this:

There are world-wide complaints about the effect of rock. Psychologists say that listening to rock music results in "escapism" (abandoning social responsibilities). They also add that some rock rftiislc (for example certain heavy metal songs) affect young people like drugs. There are well-known cases of antisocial and amoral behaviour on the part of young "music addicts". How cfo you feel about this opinion?

10. Most of the expressions which you found in the dialogue (Ex. 7) are used to criticise something or somebody.

Below is a review of the Russian Festival of Music hi which a Scottish journalist extolls the virtues of Russian music, a) Read the text and note down any useful expressions in giving a positive appraisal of music,

b) Discuss the text with your partner.

A Feast of Russian Arts

    The strong and impressive Russian theme at this year's Edinburgh Festival commemorates the 70th anniversary of the Russian Revolution.

    The festival opened on August 9 with three giant companies, the Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow and Leningrad's Gorky Drama Theatre, and the spectacular young traditional folk music and dance group Siverko, from the arctic city of Arkhangelsk.

    Other musicians in the first week included the Bolshoi Sextet, and the final week sees the arrival of the Shostakovich Quartet.

    The first of the four programmes by the Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre, in an Usher Hall draped with garlands, was a fascinating demonstration of Russian tone quality and Russian interpretation. After the two national anthems the rustling, atmospheric opening movement of the suite from Rimsky-Korsakov's Invisible City ofKitezh, with some particularly expressive strands of oboe tone, was sufficiently promising to make the thought of even a familiar piece of Tchaikovsky seem exciting.

    Nobody, at any rate, could have called the Rimsky familiar. Though it was performed in an arrangement by Maximilian

    Steinberg, this did not prevent the brazen battle scene, with its ferocious side-drum, from being a sensational display of Russian strength, or the woodwind passages in other movements from being an exquisite display of Russian sweetness.

    The account of the symphony was quite remarkable. It was played with thrilling velocity (yet with sufficient breathing-space where Tchaikovsky asked for it), with beautifully characterized woodwind, keenly defined textures and a penchant for highlighting inner parts, especially if they happened to involve the horns. The conductor, Mark Ermler was more in his element in Tchaikovsky's fifth symphony.

    Whether or not one actually liked the horn tune was beside the point. It was authentically Russian, and though, at the start of the slow movement, it sounded like an amplified saxophone, its eloquence was not to be gainsaid. In small details — such as the effect of the cellos and basses doing entirely different things at points in the finale — just as in the symphony's grand design, this was a stunning performance and perhaps, after all, a Festival event.

     What one did expect and received was a performance of massive vocal integrity and a grand convincing enunciation of the music by Irina Arkhipova, with a recurring arm movement — hand stretched towards the audience.

    In the event, the curtains of the Playhouse Theatre opened to reveal a company that were the epitome of everything we have come to expect from a Russian folk dance group — vast numbers, and endless variety of colourful and beautifully-em-broided costumes, and — most important of all — boundless energy and infectious enthusiasm. The musicians, all extremely accomplished, performed on zither and some remarkable varieties of shawm.

It all finished with the entire company lined up in front of the stage singing Auld Lang Syne — a characteristically warmhearted gesture to end a programme that was irresistibly good-natured, impeccably presented, skilfully performed, entertaining and enjoyable — and which left the audience clamouring insatiably for more.

(From: "The Scotsman," August 11, 1987)

11. Group discussion. Discuss the rote of music in Russia. After a proper discussion each group presents brief information on music ufe in Russia. Consider the following:

1. Russian music of the 18th and 19th centuries.

2. Music of the 30s-40s.

3. Contemporary music.

12. Do some library research and write an essay on:

The development of music in the multinational countries (Russia, the USA, Canada).

Unit Five

TEXT

From: THE LUMBER-ROOM

ByH. Munro

    Hector Munro (pseudonym Saki, 1870-1916) is a British novelist and a short-story writer. He is best known for his short stories. Owing to the death of his mother and his father's absence abroad he was brought up during childhood, with his elder brother and sister, by a grandmother and two aunts. It seems probable that their stem and unsympathetic methods account for Munro's strong dislike of anything that smacks of the conventional and the self-righteous. He satirized things that he hated. Munro was killed on the French front during the first world war.

    In her Biography of Saki Munro's sister writes: "One of Munro's aunts, Augusta, was a woman of ungovernable temper, of fierce likes and dislikes, imperious, a moral coward, possessing no brains worth speaking of, and a primitive disposition." Naturally the last person who should have been in charge of children. The character of the aunt in The Lumber-Room is Aunt Augusta to the life.

    The children were to be driven, as a special treat, to the. sands at Jagborough. Nicholas was not to be one of the party; he was in disgrace. Only that morning he had refused to eat his wholesome bread-and-milk on the seemingly frivolous ground that there was a frog in it. Older and wiser and better

people had told him that there could not possibly be a frog in his bread-and-milk and that he was not to talk nonsense; he continued, nevertheless, to talk what seemed the veriest nonsense, and described with much detail the coloration and marking of the alleged frog. The dramatic part of the incident was that there really was a frog in Nicholas's basin of bread-and-milk; he had put it there himself, so he felt entitled to know something about it. The sin of taking a frog from the garden and putting it into a bowl of wholesome bread-and-milk was enlarged on at great length, but the fact that stood out clearest in the whole affair, as it presented itself to the mind of Nicholas, was that the older, wiser, and better people had been proved to be profoundly in error in matters about which they had expressed the utmost assurance.

    "You said there couldn't possibly be a frog in my bread-and-milk; there was a frog in my bread-and-milk," he repeated, with the insistence of a skilled tactitian who does not intend to shift from favourable ground.

    So his boy-cousin and girl-cousin and his quite uninteresting younger brother were to be taken to Jagborough sands that afternoon and he was to stay at home. His cousins' aunt, who insisted, by an unwarranted stretch of imagination, in styling herself his aunt also, had hastily invented the Jagborough expedition in order to impress on Nicholas the delights that he had justly forfeited by his disgraceful conduct at breakfast-table. It was her habit, whenever one of the children fell from grace, to improvise something of a festival nature from which the offender would be rigorously debarred, if all the children sinned collectively theywere suddenly informed of a circus in a neighbouring town, a circus of unrivalled merit and uncounted elephants, to which, but for their depravity, they would have been taken that very day.

     A few decent tears-were looked for on the part of Nicholas when the moment for the departure of the expedition arrived. As a matter of fact, however, all the crying was done by his girl-cousin, who scraped her knee rather painfully against the step of the carriage as she was scrambling in.

     "How did she howl," said Nicholas cheerfully as the party drove off without any of the elation of high spirit that should have characterized it.

    "She'll soon get over that," said the aunt, "it will be a glorious afternoon for racing about over those beautiful sands. How they will enjoy themselves!"

    "Bobby won't enjoy himself much, and he won't race much either," said Nicholas with a grim chuckle; "his boots are hurting him. They're too tight."

     "Why didn't he tell me they were hurting?" asked the aunt with some asperity.

     "He told you twice, but you weren't listening. Ypu often don't listen when we tell you important things."

    "You are not to go into the gooseberry garden," said the aunt, changing the subject.

    "Why not?" demanded Nicholas.

"Because you are in disgrace," said the aunt loftily.

     Nicholas did not admit the flawlessness of the reasoning; he felt perfectly capable of being in disgrace and in a gooseberry garden at the same moment. His face took an expression of considerable obstinacy. It was clear to his aunt that he was determined to get into the gooseberry garden, "only," as she remarked to herself, "because I have told him he is not to."

    Now the gooseberry garden had two doers by which it might be entered, and once a small person like Nichplas could slip in there he could effectually disappear from view amid the masking growth of artichokes, raspberry canes, and fruit bushes. The aunt had many other things to do that afternoon, but she spent an hour or two in trivial gardening operations among flowerbeds and shrubberies, whence she could keep a watchful eye on the two doors that led to forbidden paradise. She was a woman of few ideas, with immense power of concentration.

    Nicholas made one or two sorties into the front garden, wriggling his way with obvious stealth of purpose towards one or other of the doors, but never able for a moment to evade the aunt's watchful eye. As a matter of fact, he had no intention of trying to get into the gooseberry garden, but it was extremely convenient for him that his aunt should believe tha| he had; it was a belief that would keep her on self-imposed sentry-duty for the greater part of the afternoon. Having thoroughly confirmed and fortified her suspicions, Nicholas slipped back into the house and rapidly put into execution a plan of action that had long germinated in his brain. By standing on a chair in the library one could reach a shelf on which reposed a fat, impor-

tant-looking key. The key was as important as it looked; it was the instrument which kept the mysteries of the lumber-room secure from unauthorized intrusion, which opened a way only for aunts and such-like privileged persons. Nicholas had not had much experience of the art of fitting keys into keyholes and turning locks, but for some days past he had practised with the key of the school-room door; he did not believe in trusting too much to luck and accident. The key turned stiffly in the lock, but it, turned. The door opened, and Nicholas was in an unknown land, compared with which the gooseberry garden was a stale delight, a mere material pleasure.

* * *

    Often and often Nicholas had pictured to himself what the lumber-room might be like, that region that was so carefully sealed from youthful eyes and concerning which no questions were ever answered. It came up to his expectations. In the first place it was large and dimly lit, one high window opening on to the forbidden garden being its only source of illumination. In the second place it was a storehouse of unimagined treasure. The aunt-by-assertion was one of those people who think that things spoil by use and consign them to dust and damp by way of preserving them. Such parts of the house as Nicholas knew best were rather bare and cheerless, but here there were wonderful things for the eyes to feast on. First and foremost there was a piece of framed tapestry that was evidently meant to be a fire-screen. To Nicholas it was a living breathing story; he sat down on a roll of Indian hangings, glowing in wonderful colour beneath a layer of dust and took in all the details of the tapestry picture. A man, dressed in the hunting costume of some remote period, had just transfixed a stag with an arrow, it could not have been a difficult shot because the stag was only one or two paces away from him; in the thickly growing vegetation that the picture suggested it would not have been difficult to creep up to a feeding stag, and the two spotted dogs that were springing forward to join in the chase had evidently been trained to keep to heel till the arrow was discharged. That part of the picture was simple, if interesting, but did the huntsman see, what Nicholas saw, that four galloping wolves were coming in his direction through the wood? There might be more

than four of them hidden behind the trees, and in any case would the man and his dogs be able to cope with four wolves if they made an attack? The man had only two arrows left in his quiver, and he might miss with one or both of them; all one knew about his skill in shooting was that he could hit a large stag at a ridiculously short range. Nicholas sat for many golden minutes revolving the possibilities of the scene; he was inclined to think thai there were more than fotir wolves and that the man and his dogs were in a tight corner.

    But there were other objects of delight and interest claiming his instant attention: there were quaint twisted candlesticks in the shape of snakes, and. a teapot fashioned like a china duck, out of whose open beak the tea was supposed to come. How dull and shapeless the nursery teapot seemed in comparison! Less promising in appearance was a large square book with plain black covers; Nicholas peeped into it, and, behold, it was full of coloured pictures of birds. And such birds! A whole portrait gallery of undreamed-of creatures. And as he was admiring the colouring of the mandarin duck and assigning a life-history to it, the voice of his aunt came from the gooseberry garden without. She had grown suspicious at his long disappearance, and had .leapt to tiie joonclusion that he had climbed over the wall behind the sheltering screen of lilac bushes; she was now engaged in energetic and rather hopeless search for him among the artichokes and raspberry canes.

    "Nicholas, Nicholas!" she screamed, "you are to come out of this at once. It's no use trying to hide there; I can see you all the time."

    It was probably the first time for twenty years that any one had smiled in that lumber-room.

   Presently the angry repetitions of Nickolas’ name gave way to a shriek, and a cry for somebody to come quickly. Nicholas shut the book, restored it carefully to its place in a corner, and shook some dust from a neighbouring pile of newspapers over it. Then he crept from the room, locked the door, and replaced the key exactly where he had found it. His aunt was still calling his name when he sauntered into the front garden.

    "Who's calling?" he asked.

    "Me," came the answer from the other side of the wall; "didn't you hear me? I've been looking for you in the gooseberry garden, and I've slipped into the rain-water tank. Luckily

there's no water in it, but the sides are slippery and I can't get out. Fetch the little ladder from under the cherry tree —"

    "I was told I wasn't to go into the gooseberry garden," said Nicholas promptly.

    "I told you not to, and now I tell you that you may," came the voice from the rain-water tank, rather impatiently.

    "Your voice doesn't sound like aunt's," objected Nicholas; "you may be the Evil One tempting me to be disobedient. Aunt often tells me that the Evil One tempts me and that I always yield. This time I'm not going to yield."

    "Don't talk nonsense," said the prisoner in the tank; "go and fetch the ladder."

    "Will there be strawberry jam for tea?" asked Nicholas innocently.

    "Certainly there will be," said the aunt, privately resolving that Nicholas should have none of it.

    "Now I know that you are the Evil One and not aunt," shouted Nicholas gleefully; "when we asked aunt for strawberry jam yesterday she said there wasn't any. I know there are four jars of it in the store cupboard, because I looked, and of course you know it's there, but she doesn't because she said there wasn't any. Oh, Devil, you have sold yourself!" There was an unusual sense of luxury in being able to talk to an aunt as though one was talking to the Evil One, but Nicholas knew, with, childish discernment, that such luxuries were not to be over-indulged in. He walked noisily away, and it was a kitchen-maid, in search of parsley, who eventually rescued the aunt from the rain-water tank.

    Tea that evening was partaken of in a fearsome silence. The tide had been at its highest when the children had arrived at Jagborough Cove, so there had been no sands to play on — a circumstance that the aunt had overlooked in the haste of organizing her punitive expedition. The tightness of Bobby's boots had had disastrous effect on his temper the whole of the afternoon, and altogether the children could not have been said to have enjoyed themselves. The aunt maintained the frozen muteness of one who has suffered undignified and unmerited detention in a rain-water tank for thirty-five minutes. As for Nicholas, he, too, was silent, in the absorption of one who has much to think about; it was just possible, he considered, that the huntsman would escape with his hounds while the wolves feasted on the stricken stag.

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. Older and wiser and better people had told him that there could not possibly be a frog in his bread-and-milk.1 How can I possibly do it? Do it if you possibly can. The child couldn't possibly have done it alone.

2. She was a woman of few ideas, with immense power of concentration.

She was a woman of few words.

She has aiwas been a woman of fashion.

He is a man of property.

3. a) ... there was a piece of tapestry that was evidently meant to be a fire-screen.

The door is meant to be used in case of emergency.

He was meant to be an artist.

b) They were meant for each other.

Are these flowers meant for me?

What I said wasn't meant for your ears.

4. That part of the picture was simple if interesting.

That part of the play was entertaining if long.

The concert was enjoyable if loud.

The dress was unattractive if new.

Phrases and Word Combinations

to be in disgrace                                         to change the subject

to describe with much detail                     (for) the greater part of the day

 (in great detail)                                           (the time; the year; of one's

as a matter of fact                                          time) (more literary)

to picture to oneself (literary)                   (to look, to come, etc.) in one's

to come up to one's expecta-                        direction/in the direction of

  tion (BE), to meet one's                          to be inclined to do smth

  expectations (AE)                                   to be in a tight corner (spot)

in the first (second, last) place                   to claim one's attention

to open on to (smth) (of a win-                  in comparison with

  dow, door)                                               to be in search of smb or smth

to be one pace (mile) away                        in one's haste of (doing) smth

from smb or smth

____________

1 The pattern is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1. shift vt/i to change the place, position or direction of, e. g. The boy shifted from one foot to the other. He kept on shifting his plate on the table until his mother looked at him. The wind has shifted to the west.

to shift the blame on to smb else to make another person bear the blame, e. g. Don't try to shift the blame onto me. It's not my fault.

to shift one's ground to change one's point of view, especially during an argument, e. g. He shifted his ground whenever it seemed to his advantage to do so.

shift n I) a change in the position or direction, as a shift in the wind, in political opinion. 2) a group of workers which takes turns with one or more other groups, e. g. I work on the day/ night shift at the factory.

shifty a showing a tricky and deceitful nature, e. g. He had a shifty look in his eye that made me wary of him.

2. elate vt (usu. pass.) to fill (smb) with pride and joy, e. g. He was elated by his son's success.

elated a filled with elation, e. g. The people were elated by the victory.

elation n (U) the state or quality of being filled with pride and joy, as the people's elation at the good news, e. g. The parents were filled with great elation on hearing their child's results.

3. concentrate vt 1) to keep or direct (all one's thoughts, efforts, attention) (on, upon),

e. g. If you don't concentrate more on your work you'll make no progress. 2) to (cause to) come together in or around one place, e. g. The large buildings were concentrated in the centre of the town near the monument. Population tends to concentrate in cities.

concentration n 1) close or complete attention, e. g. The book will need all your concentration. 2) (C) a close gathering, e. g. There is a concentration of industry in the East of the country.

4. evade vt 1) to get out of the way of or escape from, as evade an enemy, e. g. The lion evaded the hunters. 2) (derog.) to avoid or avoid doing (smth. one should do), as to evade one's duty, paying one's taxes, debts, military service, police, rules, e. g. Criminals try to evade the law. 3) (derog.) to avoid answer-

ing (a question) properly, e. g. The clever politician easily evaded the awkward question.

evasion n 1) (U) the act of evading, as the fox's clever evasion of the dogs. 2) (C/U) (derog.) an action or lack of action which evades, e. g. George is in prison for tax evasion. 3) (C) (derog.) a statement which evades, e. g. The minister's speech was full of evasions.

evasive a (derog.) which evades or tries to evade, as evasive answer, e. g. They had all been evasive about their involvement in the firm.

to take evasive action (formal) (of a ship, aircraft, etc. in war) to get out of the way or try to escape, e. g. During the Second World War many planes had to take evasive action while crossing the channel.

5. confirm vt I) to support, make certain; give proof (of), e. g. Please confirm your telephone message in writing. The delegate confirmed that the election would be on June 20th. 2) to give approval to (a person, agreement, position, etc.), to agree to, e. g. When do you think the President will confirm you in office?

confirmation n 1) the act of confirming, e. g. The confirmation of the agreement was received with satisfaction by the public. 2) proof, smth that confirms, e. g. Your news was really confirmation for my beliefs.

confirmed a firmly settled in a particular way of life, as confirmed drunkaitl, bachelor, opponent of (reforms), e. g. He will never get married: he is a confirmed bachelor.

6. store vt I) to make up and keep a supply of, as to store food in the cupboard. 2) to keep in a special place (warehouse), as to store one's furniture. 3) to fill with supplies, as to store one's cupboard with food. 4) to put away for future use, as to store one's winter clothes, e. g. Where do you store your fur coat for the summer?

store n 1) a supply for future use, e. g. This animal makes a store of nuts for the winter. 2) a place for keeping things, e. g. My food store is in the kitchen.

in store 1) kept ready (for future use), as to keep a few pounds in store for a rainy day. 2) about to happen, e. g. Who knows what is in store for us?

set much (great, small, little) store by smth, smb to feel to be of (the) stated amount of importance, e. g. He sets great store by his sister's ability.

storehouse n (used lit. and fig.), e. g. The storehouse was a large grey building stuffed with any kind of furniture. He is a storehouse of information.

7. overlook vt 1) to have or give a view of (smth or smb) from above, e. g. Our room overlooked the sea. 2) to look at but not see; not notice, e. g. Every time the question of promotion came up, Smythe was always overlooked. 3) to pretend not to see; forgive,

e. g. I overlooked that breech of discipline as you were concentrating on a very important job.

Syn. open on, give on, face, miss

8. absorb vt 1) to take or suck in (liquids), e. g. A sponge absorbs water. Some materials absorb sound. 2) to take in (privilege, ideas, etc.), as to absorb smth from smth, e. g. He absorbed all the information on the text and was easily able to repeat it. 3) to take up all the attention, interest, time, etc. (in, by), e. g. I was totally absorbed in a book and didn't hear her call. His film absorbed all his attention.

absorbing a 1) that absorbs, as a sound-absorbing surface. 2) taking all one's attention; very interesting, as absorbing tale of adventure, e. g. It was such an absorbing mystery that I could not put it down.

absorption n 1) the act or action of absorbing or being absorbed, e. g. The absorption of different materials varies greatly. 2) the taking up of all one's attention, interest, time, etc., e. g. Their total absorption in the project lasted for three months. 3) the taking over of little countries, businesses, etc., by big ones, e. g. It took very little time for the absorption of the town's small enterprises into one big business.

9. way n 1) a road or track (used lit. and fig.), e. g. Are you going my way?

to block the way to make movement difficult or impossible, e. g. Will you step aside, you're blocking the way.

to clear the way (for smth or smb), e. g. Clear the way for the car.

to make way (for smth or smb) to allow freedom to pass, e. g. All traffic must make way for a fire-engine.

to feel (grope) one's way to feel about with the hands; to search for in a hesitating way, e. g. We groped our way through the dark streets. "Have you come to any definite conclusion yet? " "No, I'm still feeling my way."

to give way (1) to break; to fail to hold up, e. g. The branch gave way and I fell into the stream. His legs gave way and he fell on his side, e. g. The army gave way (= retired) before the advance of the enemy. (2) to surrender oneself to smth, e, g. Don't give way to despair. (3) to be replaced by smth, e. g. His anger gave way to curiosity.

to go out of one's way to do smth, to make a special effort to do smth, e. g. He went out of his way to do me a kindness (a favour, an injury).

out-of-the-way remote, e. g. Students come to Moscow from the most out-of-the-way parts of the county.

2) direction (used lit and fig.), e. g. I was so ashamed, I didn't know which way to look.

to know (see, find out) which way the wind blows to know what the state of affairs is, e, g. He always seems to know which way the wind blows (is blowing).

3) progress; advance, as to make (push, fight, feel, force, elbow, shoulder, pick, etc.) one's way (along, forward, to, towards, back, home, etc.), e. g. He pushed (elbowed, forced, etc.) his way through the crowd.

4) a method or plan; a course of action, e. g. Don't change anything, I like it that way.

to know one's way about to know one's course of action, e. g. 'You needn't worry about her, she knows her way about and can take care of herself.

all (quite, just) the other way about (AE around) quite the opposite, e. g. "As far as I know he denied what he had said before." "Quite the other way about. He confirmed everything."

(in) one way or another (other, the other), e. g. You'll have to do it one way or another, there's no getting away from it.

5) a characteristic method or manner of behaving, e. g. I don't like his ways at all.

to have a way with smb to be able to win the confidence and affection of people, e. g. She'll make a good teacher, she has a way with children.

it (this) is always the way with smb, it is always the case with smb, e. g. Tom failed me again, this is always the way with him.

6) respect, degree, e. g. In one way that explanation is satisfactory, but in another way it is not.

in no way, e. g. The photos are in no way similar.

by way of: 1) as a substitute for, e. g. He said something by way of apology. 2) via, e. g. He went to town by way of the old road. ""

underway, as restructure underway, e. g. With the election campaign underway the candidates began giving a great deal of speeches.

READING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

1. a) Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words. Pay attention to stresses:

pseudonym, imperious, frivolous, depravity, asperity, obstinacy, effectually, artichoke, raspberry, paradise, germinate, tapestry, ridiculously, mandarin, discernment, disastrous.

b) Get together with another student. Listen to his/her reading of the exercise. What recommendations would you give to correct any mispronunciations?

2. Read the following words observing: a) two primary stresses; b) the secondary and the primary stress; c) a primary stress:

a) self-righteous, nevertheless, uninteresting, uncounted, unauthorized, unsympathetic, undignified, unmerited;

 b) disposition, imagination, expedition, concentration, execution, illumination, vegetation, energetic, disobedient;

c) ungovernable, unwarranted, unrivalled, forfeited, satirize, characterize, fortify, privilege.

3. a) Read out aloud the following word combinations and phrases paying attention to the phonetic phenomena of connected speech (all types of assimilation, the linking "r", all kinds of plosions, etc.):

on the seemingly frivolous ground; older and wiser and better people; seemed thfe veriest nonsense; the dramatic part; he felt entitled to know; you said there couldn't possibly be; you are in disgrace; he felt perfectly capable; in the first place; and consign them; bare and cheerless; hidden behind the trees; were

in a tight corner; quaint twisted candlesticks in the shape of snakes; behind the sheltering screen; the gooseberry garden; while the wolves feasted on the stricken stag.

b) Ask your partner to read the exercise aloud; write down all cases of erroneous pronunciation; correct them.

4. Complete the following sentences:

a) 1. I can't possibly... 2. How can I possibly...? 3. We couldn't possibly... 4. You can't possibly.;. 5. How could we possibly... ? 6. ...if you possibly can.

b) 1. This textbook is meant for... 2. I wonder who... meant for? 3. ...is evidently meant... 4. ...wasn't meant...

c) 1. That part of the house was nice if... 2. The lecture was educational if... 3. The meeting was useful if...

5. Make up five sentences on each pattern (p. 140).

6. Pair work. Make up and act out a dialogue using the speech patterns.

7. Translate the following sentences and word combinations into English:

а) 1. Как же я могу это сделать, если вы отказываетесь мне помочь? 2. Помой, пожалуйста, посуду. — Боюсь, что никак не смогу это сделать. 3. Не могу же я заставлять их ждать, у них уйма других дел. 4. Мы никак не можем отправляться сейчас, я еще не все купил. 5. Я ведь не могу делать одновременно две веши, подожди немного.

b) женщина со вкусом; человек действия; женщина с характером; мужественный (смелый) человек; чувствительный человек; человек слова; женщина со средствами; ученая женщина; человек с опытом; немногословный человек; гениальный человек; многословный чело'век; ограниченная женщина; состоятельный человек.

с) 1. Существует много различных упражнений, предназначенных для развития навыков устной речи. 2. Этот дом предназначается не для того, чтобы в нем жили, в нем разместится учреждение. 3. Эти деньги тебе на покупку нового пальто (на то, чтобы ты купила на них себе новое пальто). 4. Они были созданы друг для друга. 5. Его прочили в пианисты. 6. Сад был красивый, но запущенный. 7. Урок был хороший, но скучный. 8. Квартира была удобная, но маленькая.

8 Note down from the text (p. 134) the sentences containing the phrases and word combinations (p. 140) and translate them into Russian.

9. Complete the following sentences nsing the phrases and word combinations:

1. After it was discovered that the politician had stolen others' speeches he was ... in the public eye for a long time. 2.1 can write you a letter of recommendation any time..... I'll do it right now. 3. In answer to my question she said nothing and I found it best to.... 4. Every time that Mary sat in her dingy city apartment she would ... a nice suburbian home. 5. All her friends in Moscow had told her that visiting the Bolshoi Theatre would be her most exciting experience and as a matter of fact it.... 6.... you are on the wrong bus ..., the road to your destination is closed. 7. The bay window in her sea-side apartment... the harbour. 8. On the bus this morning there was a man who kept looking..., but when Hooked back at him he would turn away. 9. Try as he might, Smith couldn't... his rigorous work schedule. 10.1 would ... to pay the painters later so that the work gets done properly. 11. Down 3 to 1 (3-1) in the final period, it looked like the Canadian hockey team was.... 12. As you walked into Isabella's house theShagal hanging in her living-room immediately.... 13.... other great cities Moscow has many more parks. 14. All day we rummaged through the office... the old manuscript and only at five o'clock did we find it. 15. The builders worked day and night in ... finishing the new metro station.

10. Paraphrase the following sentences using phrases and word combinations:

1. We spent most of the day discussing our plans for the holidays. 2. He told a lie and is in disfavour. 3. Henry always looks so conceited; in reality he is very shy. 4. We've discussed the problem fully, let's talk about something else. 5. The womari travelled all over the country in order to find the child. 6. Try to imagine the beauty of the ocean on a bright sunny day. 7. He has a tendency towards business. 8. The ballet was as good as I had expected it to be. 9. The two rooms face the garden. 10. There are several urgent matters that attracted my attention. 11. The wood is at a very short distance from the cottage. 12. I see someone coming towards us. 13. To begin with, your story lacks confirmation, furthermore, I very much

doubt it could have happened at all. 14. I'm afraid I won't be able to deal effectively with all these difficulties.

11. Translate the following sentences into English using the phrases and word combinations:

1. Мне не хотелось разговаривать с Бобом, так как он был наказан за плохое поведение, 2. Чём вы занимаетесь большую часть своего свободного времени? 3. Джеймс жаловался, что ему никто ничего не говорит, но на самом деле он был в курсе всех событий. 4. Студент впервые читал Пушкина в оригинале, и красота стиха поэта привлекала его внимание. 5. Джейн пыталась.представить себе человека, которого знала только по переписке (по его письмам). 6. Когда она увидела его, он не оправдал ее ожиданий. 7. Во-первых, он был довольно старый, а во-вторых, суетлив и раздражителен. 8. Я могу подробно описать все, что случилось. 9. Я в.это время стояла в двух шагах от того места, где произошел несчастный случай. 10. Окна моей комнаты выходят во двор. 11. Кто эта девушка, которая смотрит в нашу сторону? 12. Этот дом кажется совсем крошечным по сравнению с новым. 13. Я все перерыла в поисках билета в театр, куда же я могла его положить? 14. В спешке отъезда никто не заметил, что старик остался на мосту.

12. Pair work. Make up and act out situations using the phrases and word combinations.

13. Explain what is meant by:

the fact that stood out clearest in the whole affair; an unwarranted stretch of imagination; the delights that he had justly forfeited; a circus of unrivalled merit and uncounted elephants; without any of the elation of high spirits that should have characterized it; (did not) admit the flawlessness of the reasoning; wriggling his way with obvious stealth of purpose; self-imposed sentry duty; having thoroughly confirmed and fortified her suspicions; the aunt by assertion; there were wonderful things for the eyes to feast on; such luxuries were not to be over-indulged in; the children could not have been said to have enjoyed themselves; (of) one who has suffered undignified and unmerited detention.

14. Answer the following questions and do the given assignments:

a) 1. What made the boy commit the offence thus bringing the punishment upon himself? 2. What was the aunt's method

of bringing up the children and what did it result in? How are the ideas of punishment and pleasure treated in the story in general? 3. Had the trip to the sands any appeal to the boy and what did he think of the pleasures promised by the aunt? What is his idea of a "treat"? 4. The author calls the boy "a skilled tactician" and not for nothing. What strategy did Nicholas work out to get into the lumber-room unnoticed and leave it without trace? 5. At the same time the author evaluates the aunt as "a woman of few ideas with immense power of concentration". How does this feature of her character define her actions in the story? What motivates her actions — strong faith or false piety? 6. The lumber-room in spite of its dust and desolation came up to the boy's expectations. What role does the lumber-room play in the evaluation of his character? 7. It was a kitchen-maid who came to the aunt's rescue. What was wrong in the family that made its members so indifferent to each other? 8. For what reasons were the members of the family silent at tea that evening? Why does the author lay special emphasis on the cause of their silence? 9. How did Nicholas manage to fight the aunt with her own weapon and finally disarm her? Speak on the conflict between the boy and the aunt: a) Does the punishment of the aunt at the hands of Nicholas suggest anything to you? b) On what issues are they opposed? 10. Speak on the story in terms of unchangeable conventional reality versus poetry and intellectual freedom. 11. On whose side do the author's sympathies lie? Based on your interpretation of the story say a few words about the author.

b) 1. In what vein is the story written? 2. What are the butts of the author's irony? What does he ridicule through the character of the aunt? 3. How is irony achieved on a verbal plane? How does the ironic intention of the author affect his style (wording and syntax) ? 4. Is the vocabulary employed by the author in keeping with the subject-matter or out of place? If it is out of place what is the author's criteria for word-choice? Account for the frequent use of a) military terms; b) religious words; c) judicial phrases; d) scientific arguments. 5. Is the author straightforward and direct in presenting the characters and telling the story or is he evasive and ambiguous? What is the device he resorts to, when saying: "a woman of few ideas", "prisoner in the rain-water tank", etc.? 6. How does the syntax contribute to the ironic effect? Is it formal or

informal, bookish or colloquial? What turns of a phrase strike you as formal and pompous? What are the grammatical constructions favoured by the author? What does the story gain through them? 7. Besides verbal, there is dramatic irony that lies in the story, the plot, the complications of the story, the relationship of the characters. Say something about the story, the turns and twists of the plot, the ending in terms of dramatic irony. 8. The theme of the story is the conflict between prose and poetry, dogmatic, pedantic, philistine mind and poetic imagination. How does the theme affect the tone and the style of the story? 9. When does the story shift to a more poetic plane? What is presented in poetic terms? Dwell upon the description of the lumber-room. What stylistic devices are employed by the author? 10. Explain the title of the story in the light of your observation on the theme, the point and the style of the story.

15. Give a summary of the text, dividing it into several logical parts.

16. Make up and act out dialogues between:

1. The aunt and Nicholas.

2. The two aunts after the tea.

3. Nicholas and the children after they all went to bed.

17. Suppose Nicholas turned up at the same house 20 years later after his aunt's death. Describe his reactions to his childhood surrounding.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Study the essential vocabulary and translate the ilustrative examples into Russian.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. James who felt very uncomfortable in that low chair, shifted his feet uneasily, and put one of them on the cat lying beside his chair. 2. Laws shift from generation to generation. 3. Abruptly it was all gone, the elation running out of me like air out of a pricked balloon. 4. The nation's wealth in the country came to be concentrated in a few families. 5. If the facts once became known, it will be impossible for them to

evade the responsibility. 6. The key to the code evaded all his efforts. 7. One would admire his excellent qualities, but avoid his company. 8. Please answer, the question; do not evade. 9. Each person avoided the eyes of the others. 10. The latest reports confirmed the information he had previously received. 11. We think, we may as well give up the flat and store our things, we'll be gone for the summer. 12. The future didn't seem to hold so many fears in store. 13. We are well underway with the publication of the textbook. 14. "I can give you a lift." "No, I'm going the other way." 15. The night was pitch dark and he felt his way about. 16. He has a way with students and they crowd to his lecture. 17. There is nothing unusual of the letter, nothing out of the way. 18. My wife went into hysterics at the mention of the police, but I stood firm and at last she gave way. 19. I'll see to everything, all you have to do is not to get in the way. 20. They go out of their way to do you good ... but you feel like a fool. 21.1 gave him up (abandon) because didn't want to stand in his way. 22. Remember if there is any way in which I help you, it will be a pleasure. 23.1 made my way into the smoking room. 24. Now they were inclined to meet us half-way. 25.1 gave way to quite ungovernable grief. 26. So we two went on our way in great happiness. 27. The way to school was plain enough; the game consisted in finding some way that wasn't plain, starting off ten minutes early in some almost hopeless direction, and working my way round through unaccustomed streets to my goal. 28. He was walking part of the way home with me. 29. She didn't say anything but made way for us to pass. 30. He estimated they were half-way to the city. 31. hi contrast to the way she had been before, she was now just another elderly woman. 32. Our garden is overlooked from the neighbours' windows. 33. He complains that his services have been overlooked by his employers. 34. Carbon acid is formed when water absorbs carbon dioxide. 35. There was no amazement, but only an impression of being reminded of happy things that had in some strange way been overlooked.

3. Give the English equivalents for:

    перекидывать в другую руку; свалить вину на кого-л.; менять точку зрения в споре; ночная смена;

    поднимать настроение; быть в приподнятом настроении; приподнятое настроение;

    сосредоточить внимание на чём-л.; сосредоточить усилия; сосредоточить власть в чьих-л. руках;

    уклоняться от ответа; обойти закон; уклоняться от ответственности; уклоняться от воинской обязанности; уклониться от сути;

    подтвердить сообщение; подтвердить слухи; ратифицировать договор; утвердить;

    иметь про запас; запасать на зиму; отдавать (меха) на хранение; снабдить экспедицию продуктами; придавать чему-л. большое значение; склад; запасы оружия;

    дать дорогу; уступить; дать волю (слезам);

    необыкновенный, незаурядный; иметь подход к кому-л;

    постараться изо всех сил; в виде, в качестве;

    комната с видом на море; смотреть сквозь пальцы на чье-л. плохое поведение; проглядеть самое важное;

    пропустить ошибку; упустить из виду обстоятельство;

    поглощать, впитывать влагу; впитывать знания; поглощать звук; быть поглощенным работой; увлекательный рассказ; быть захваченным книгой.

4. a) Give the Russian equivalents for:

airway, archway, carriage way, doorway, driveway, gangway, getaway, highway, midway, motorway, railway, runway, sideway, stairway, waterway.

b) Give the opposite of the following statements using combination with the word "way":

1. He didn't stir a finger to help us. 2. The car will clear the way. 3. I'm sure he is at a loss and doesn't know what to do.

4. Do you think they will never agree to a compromise?

5. What you suggest is quite common. 6. Are you going in the opposite direction? 7. The pictures are similar in every way.

5. Paraphrase the following sentences using the essential vocabulary:

1. It was unfair of him to make me bear the responsibility. 2. As soon as he realized his plan had failed, he immediately changed his position. 3. She became too excited to act wisely and committed an error. 4. I'm so tired, I am unable to pay close attention to anything. 5. His responses were intentionally vague so as to avoid answering directly. 6. The lion escaped from the hunters. 7. The letter gave additional proof to the truth of the story. 8. Their support steeled my determination to

put the plan into execution. 9. Since we were leaving town for the summer, we decided to put our winter clothing in a warehouse for safe keeping. 10. She did not know what awaited her in the future. 11. Don't be overcome with despair. 12. There are some people who make a special effort to do others a good turn (to give others a helping hand). 13.1 failed to notice the printer's error. 14. The people gave all their attention to building a dam in the brook.

6. Use the essential vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. What does one usually do if he is tired of standing on his feet (of holding smth in his hand)? 2. What can a dishonest person do if he does not want to take the responsibility for his fault? 3. What do you say of one who suddenly changes his opinion in an argument? 4. How do you feel if you get an excellent mark in an examination? 5. What must one do if he wants to solve a difficult problem? 6. What does one do if he does not want to give a direct answer to a question? 7. Why is an experiment necessary if one is not quite sure of the truth of his theory? 8. What do you call a man who is opposed to marriage? 9. What do you call a place where goods are kept? 10. What do you say of a person who makes a special effort to be nice to somebody? 11. What do you say of a person who is able to win the trust and affection of animals? 12. What do you say if you've missed a mistake in a dictation?

7. Make up and practise short dialogues or stories using the essential vocabulary.

8. Review the essential vocabulary and translate the following sentences into English:

1. Мальчик переминался с ноги налогу, не зная, как ответить на вопрос. 2. С вами бесполезно спорить, вы все время меняете свою позицию. 5. Не пытайтесь переложить вину на меня, вы сами во всем виноваты. 4. Когда Лиззи узнала, что ее приняли в университет, она была в таком приподнятом настроении, что бежала всю дорогу домой, чтобы скорее сообщить об этом матери. 5. Не надо заострять внимание на проступке ребенка. 6. Почему вы уклонились от прямого ответа на мой вопрос? 7. Мистера Брауна посадили в тюрьму за неуплату налогов. 8. Его поведение на суде укрепило мои подозрения. 9. Договор будет ратифицирован после встречи на высшем уровне. 10. У него всегда есть про запас всякие смешные истории и анекдоты. 11. В начале конкурса жюри не возлагало больших на-

дежд на конкурсанта, но он занял первое место. 12. Он имел подход к детям. 13. Мартин хорошо разбирался в обстановке и знал, чего ждать от будущего. 14. Не поддавайтесь отчаянию, все образуется. 15. Вы упустили самое существенное.

9. a) Give the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:

1. When children stand quiet they have done some ill.

2. He that cannot obey cannot command.

3. Where there is a will there is a way.

b) Explain in English the meaning of each proverb.

c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs.

CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

DIFFICULT CHILDREN

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. A happy child is:

a) kind-hearted, good-natured, loving, friendly, affectionate; confident, balanced, secure; getting along (comfortably) with others; gregarious: sociable, communicative; outgoing; unselfish; hard-working, industrious; self-disciplined, self-possessed

b) alert, motivated; conscientious, active, persevering; enthusiastic; polite, courteous; considerate, thoughtful; helpfully able to cope with difficulties, problems.

2. An unhappy problem child is:

a) obedient, prone to obey, submissive; disciplined, repressed; depressed, distressed; mixed-up, confused, frustrated; disturbed; neglected; self-centered; unsociable, lonely; timid, shy, fearful, sulky; indifferent, impersonal, listless; irresponsive, insensitive; hurt; humiliated; stubborn; uninterested, un-motivated, dull, inactive, bored; unable to cope with difficulties

b) irritable, annoyed, anxious; restless, naughty, wilful; inconsistent, impulsive; undisciplined, unruly, misbehaving, disobedient; resentful, arrogant, insolent, impudent; inconsiderate, intolerant, disrespectful; unrestrained; destructive, bel-

ligerent; rude, rough, coarse, offensive; wrong-doing, delinquent, unable to cope with difficulties, problems.

3. A happy parent is:

loving, caring, affectionate; kind, kind-hearted, good-natured, friendly, approving, reassuring; responsive, thoughtful, considerate, understanding; sensitive, sympathetic; sensible, reasonable; self-restrained; patient, tolerant; open, outgoing; firm, consistent; just.

4. An unhappy difficult parent is:

a) impulsive; indulging, pampering, babying; unreasonable; selfish, self-indulging, self-interested; self-willed, wilful; inconsistent; partial; sentimental; permissive

b) loveless, indifferent, impersonal; insensitive, disapproving; unjust, unfair; impatient, intolerant; insensible, unreasonable, unwise; inconsistent; nagging, fussy; cold, hard, harsh, cruel; bullying, aggressive, destructive, violent; repressing, demanding, restraining; moralizing; uncompromising, tough.

The Difficult Child

    The difficult child is the child who is unhappy. He is at war with himself, and in consequence, he is at war with the world. A difficult child is nearly always made difficult by wrong treatment at home.

    The moulded,1 conditioned, disciplined, repressed child — the unfree child, whose name is a Legion, lives in every corner of the world. He lives in our town just across the street, he sits at a dull desk in a dull school, and later he sits at a duller desk in an office or on a factory bench. He is docile, prone to obey authority, fearful of criticism, and almost fanatical in his desire to be conventional and correct. He accepts what he has been taught almost without question; and he hands down all his complexes and fears and frustrations to his children.

    Adults take it for granted that a child should be taught to behave in such a way that the adults will have as quiet a life as possible. Hence the importance attached to obedience, to manner, to docility.

__________

1 People who use this argument do not realize that they start with an unfounded, unproved assumption — the assumption that a child will not grow or develop unless forced to do so.

     The usual argument against freedom for children is this: life is hard, and we must train the children so that they will fit into life later on. We must therefore discipline them. If we allow them to do what they like, how will they ever be able to serve under a boss? How will they ever be able to exercise self-discipline?

    To impose anything by authority is wrong. Obedience must come from within — not be imposed from without.

    The problem child is the child who is pressured into obedience and persuaded through fear.

    Fear can be a terrible thing in a child's life. Fear must be entirely eliminated — fear of adults, fear of punishment, fear of disapproval. Only hate can flourish in the atmosphere of fear.

    The happiest homes are those in which the parents are frankly honest with their children without moralizing. Fear does not enter these homes. Father and son are pals. Love can thrive. In other homes love is crushed by fear. Pretentious dignity and demanded respect hold love aloof. Compelled respect always implies fear.

    The happiness and well-being of children depend on a degree of love and approval we give them. We must be on the child's side. Being on the side of the child is giving love to the child — not possessive love — not sentimental love — just behaving to the child in such a way the child feels you love him and approve of him.

    Home plays many parts in the life of the growing child, it is the natural source of affection, the place where he can live with the sense of security; it educates him in all sorts of ways, provides him with his opportunities of recreation, it affects his status in society.

    Children need affection. Of all the functions of the family that of providing an affectionate background for childhood and adolescence has never been more important than it is today.

    Child study has enabled us to see how necessary affection is in ensuring proper emotional development; and the stresses and strains of growing up in modern urban society have the effect of intensifying the yearning for parental regard.

    The childhood spent with heartless, indifferent or quarrelsome parents or in a broken home makes a child permanently embittered. Nothing can compensate for lack of parental affection. When the home is a loveless one, the children are impersonal and even hostile.

    Approaching adolescence children become more independent of their parents. They are now more concerned with what other kids say or do. They go on loving their parents deeply underneath, but they don't show it on the surface. They no longer want to be loved as a possession or as an appealing child. They are gaining a sense of dignity as individuals, and they like to be treated as such. They develop a stronger sense of responsibility about matters that they think are important.

    From their need to be less dependent on their parents, they turn more to trusted adults outside the family for ideas and knowledge.

hi adolescence aggressive feelings become much stronger, hi this period, children will play an earnest game of war. There may be arguments, roughhousing and even real fights! Is gunplay good or bad for children?

    For many years educators emphasized its harmlessness, even when thoughtful parents expressed doubt about letting their children have pistols and other warlike toys. It was assumed that in the course of growing up children have a natural tendency to bring their aggressiveness more and more under control.

     But nowadays educators and physicians would give parents more encouragement in their inclination to guide children away from violence of any kind, from violence of gun-play and from violence on screen.

    The world famous Dr. Benjamin Spock has this to say in the new edition of his book for parents about child care:

     "Many evidences made me think that Americans have often been tolerant of harshness, lawlessness and violence, as well as of brutality on screen. Some children can only partly distinguish between dramas and reality. I believe that parents should flatly forbid proprams that go in for violence. I also believe that parents should firmly stop children's war-play or any other kind of play that degenerates into deliberate cruelty or meanness. One can't be permissive about such things. To me it seems very clear that we should bring up the next generation with a greater respect for law and for other people's rights."

1. As you read the text: a) Look for the answers to the following questions:

1. What makes a child unhappy? 2. Why do you think, a child who, according to the text "sits at a dull desk at school"

will later sit "at a duller desk in his office"? What is implied here? 3. Why do many adults attach such importance to obedience? Is it really in the child's interests? 4. What are the usual arguments put forward against giving more freedom to the child? Are the arguments well-founded? 5. Why is it wrong to pres-; sure a child into obedience? 6. What kinds of fear does a child experience? 7. What kind of atmosphere is necessary for child's proper emotional development? 8. What new traits and habits emerge in adolescence? 9. How and why did Dr Spock's attitude change regarding the adolescents' games of war? 10. Why is it so dangerous for children to be exposed to violence? 11. How should the new generation be brought up?

b) Summarize the text in three paragraphs specifying the following themes:

1. The prime importance of home in the upbringing of children. 2. The negative and harmful role of fears in a child's life. 3. The impact of aggressive gun-play on children's character.

2. Use the topical vocabulary in answering the following questions:

1. What traits of character would you name as typical for a normal happy child? Consider the following points with regard to his attitudes to: a) his family, parents; b) the school, teachers, studies, rules and regulations; c) his classmates; d) his friends.

2. What traits of character would you consider prominent in a difficult child, a problem child? Consider the points given above. 3. What traits of character are brought about by excessively harsh discipline and pressure? 4. What traits of character would be brought about by lack of discipline and control, by pampering or permissiveness? 5. How would you describe a good parent? 6. What traits of a parent would you consider most favourable for a child? 7. What are the dangerous symptoms of a problem child? 8. What kind of parents' attitude may make a child irresponsive, and unable to cope with difficulties? 9. Under what circumstances would a child grow confident, self-possessed, able to cope with difficulties?

3. Below are the statements expressing different opinions. Imagine that you are expressing these opinions, try to make them sound convincing:

I. The parents' permissiveness breeds contempt in children. 2. The child is born selfish and he will need the best part of-his life to get over it. 3. Popularity and success in" life seldom come to totally self-centered people. 4. Enjoying things is essential to a child's development. 5. True enjoyment comes mostly from using skills for real achievement. 6. Enjoyment may come not only from personal experience but also from passive enjoyment.

4. Read the text:

The Bell Family Charter

Homework: All members of the family must do an equal share of the housework according to age and ability. A list of duties will be put up each week.

Free Time: Children and parents have an equal right to free time.

Visitors: Children have a right to bring friends home whenever they like.

Bedtime: Bedtime will be fixed according to age. Children of 15 may go to bed when they like.

Rules for parents: Parents must not break promises. Parents must not cancel plans suddenly. Parents must not criticize their children in public.

N.B. Parents are not always right.

a) What is your opinion of the charter?

b) What does it imply?

c) Do you agree or dsiagree with the following statements? What are the arguments for and against each one?

1. Boys should do so much work as girls. 2. Small children should be given jobs too. 3. Children should be given as much free time as adults. 4. Parents must not do anything to upset their children.

d) Talk it over:

1. What duties do parents have that children don't? 2. How will you bring up your children?

5. Team up with your partner and discuss the following rules for parents. Extend on the items given below:

1. Take a good look at yourself; consciously or unconsciously children pattern themselves on their parents. If you have certain traits you don't want your children to inherit, make a constant effort to get rid of these qualities. In other words, one of the most effective ways to child control is self-control.

2. Be relaxed. If you are ill at ease with children, they know it and become uneasy themselves. Children are very sensitive to tension.

3. Assert your authority. From the beginning try to make it clear to the children that while you love them and make any reasonable sacrifices for them, they are not rulers and have limited privileges and definite obligations.

4. Don't expect miracles. The rule is particularly important in trying to cope with children. It is both unfair and unwise to expect miracles in dealing with children. Unfair, because very often they simply haven't reached that level of achievement yet. And unwise because if you constantly demand more than a child can give, you damage his confidence and may even end by making him doubt his value as a human being. Modern children grow physically and mentally very fast. But their rate of emotional growth is the same as it always was.

5. Be consistent. Few things upset a child more than indecisive and erratic treatment from two people who represent law and order and stability in his world — his parents.

(From: "The Secret World of Kids" by A. Ldnkletter)

6. Work in pairs or in small groups. Discuss problems of child upbringing outlined in the extracts below:

1. Timidity is another common personal defect in children. A reasonable amount of timidity is normal enough. But some children are more fearful than others. Don't force the child to face his fears! Most children outgrow their timidity.

2. Selfishness. Many parents complain that their children are self-centered, never think of anyone but themselves. Have no sense of responsibility. Won't share things and so on... Selfishness is often prolonged in kids by parents who tend to make slaves of themselves for the children's benefit.

3. It is high time to stop being permissive to children. It is urgent to change your attitude and learn to take a stand and be tough in your love.

7. Work in groups of three or four. Decide which of the following statements you agree or disagree with. Discuss these with the other members of your group. Be ready to report your discussion to other groups:

1. There's never a problem child, there are only problem parents. 2. Anyone who expects quick results in child upbringing is an incurable optimist. 3. Under dictatorial control adolescents work submissively, show little initiative. 4. Happiness may be defined as the state of minimal repression. 5. Healthy children do not fear the future, they anticipate it gladly. 6. The adults who fear that youth will be corrupted by freedom are those who are corrupt themselves.

8. The text below is an extract from a TV discussion on a burning problem of today "Horror Firms and Children" — a matter of great concern to many people in the world:

Guests participating in the discussion use expressions that convey respect to one another, and though at times they completely disagree with something they remain tactful and do not let the discussion degenerate into quarrelling.

Read the text. The expressions in bold type show how people react to opinion. Note them down:

    TV Host: What were you saying?

Woman: I was saying that in my view, and I'd like to emphasize it, kids today got used to all kinds of violence. We scared much easier in my daysr

    Teacher: Exactly. My personal opinion is that it goes even further than that. The children can take so much more violence now and unfortunately not even think about it.

     Man: True. They even laugh at scenes which horrified us.

    Psychiatrist: Don't you think that documentaries about war and hostilities showing awful violence may have something to do with that?

    Film director: I'm not sure you are right about it! I would find it difficult to link violence to documentaries.

    Art critic: As for me, I can certainly give the idea my backing. The young people are easily affected by violence on screen.

    Woman: You have my whole support! Cartoons and TV films have become so much worse. There is an awful lot of violence and horror everywhere.

    TV Host: The question is whether we have a community in Hollywood which goes for a young audience with their horror films in a gross and socially harmful way.

    Art critic: I must say I can see no reason to oppose.

    Psychiatrist: But Walt Disney had a lot of horror in his films which also scared kids, things like kids turned into donkeys in "Pinnoccio".

    Woman: Coming from you... I can't believe it! As far as I am able to judge "Pinnoccio" bears no relation to horror films.

    Teacher: You are quite right! Disney has done so much good for the children!

    TV Host: Do we have in this greedy arena of film-making to rely too much on effect, illusion, technology which can make horrors beyond imagination, such as visualization of a man blown up, a man decapitated in front of your eyes?

    Film director: I am inclined to think that kids are looking for fantasies, aren't they? And we are giving them to kids. All the same they are having horror in their minds.

    Man: Here I differ with you! The visualization of horror deadens children's souls. That's what Is so dangerous about it!

    TV Host: What kind of grown-ups our kids are going to be if today they are already used to all kinds of film horrors and are not terrified by the awful sights and especially human suffering!

9. When reacting to opinion we may state our agreement, approval as well as complete solidarity with what has been said, or we may express only a partial agreement. One may be straightforward in stating his view, or cautious, or even evasive. Here are some comments that may be used to express one's positive response:

Right; You are quite right; True; Exactly; I am all out for it; I am in favor of it. You have my full support; I am giving it my backing; I can see no reason to oppose.

When stating our negative response or partial disagreement we can use the following:

I am afraid not; No, you are not right here; I can't approve it (accept); No, it bears no relation to; I would find it difficult to (accept it).

The following phrases may be used to introduce either agreement or disagreement:

My personal opinion is; I am inclined to think that; It goes further than that; That's one way of looking at it, but....

a) From the dialogue above (Ex. 8) make up a list of phrases expressing response to opinion differentiating between 1) agreement and disagreement; 2) phrases worded in a straightforward way and those worded in a less categorical, polite way.

b) Be ready to act out the dialogue in class.

10. Here is a letter expressing concern, opinion and advice. Please note its respectful tone and polite wording.

a) Write a letter in response stating your agreement or disagreement.

b) Using both the letter and the answer as a basis turn the contents into a dialogue and act it out in class:

Dear Helen,

I have just received your letter and I feel that I should let you know what I think of your plans for the future. I hope you won't take offence, but will accept what I say here as fatherly advice.

    I was very surprised when I read in your letter that you had decided not to finish your studies at the University. I realize that Peter wants you to marry him this summer. But with only one year to go, you would be well advised to finish the course. A year is really a very short time, and later you will be glad you took my advice.

    As you know, my reaction to Peter was extremely favourable when I met him, he is an exceptionally fine young man and should make a good husband. But I urge you to complete your education first.

     You are twenty-one and old enough to make up your own mind. This is something you'll have to work out for yourself. As your uncle, I have always tried not to interfere in your affairs and I don't intend to begin now. But, my dear, please, do con-

sider my words very carefully before you decide. Whatever you do, though, Ellen, you know I only want one thing for you, and that is your happiness.

Affectionately, uncle Tom

11. Pair work. Agree or disagree with the statements below. Be sure to provide sound arguments. Consider the following points and extend them whenever possible:

1. Children are not supposed to have their opinion, but if they do, the adults ignore them.

2. The difference between a child and an adult amounts to achieving the state of independence.

3. The most painful time is adolescence with intense feelings, lack of confidence and rebellion against authority.

4. The essence of happiness is complete freedom from care.

5. Most adults think of their childhood as being most happy time.

12. Group discussion. "New Prospects in Education". Here are a number of predictions which have been made by futurologlsts:

1. In his book Alvin Toggler                                             Don't worry about parenthood! suggests that in the future                                                      We'll bring out your children there will be advertise-                                                          and make them into respon-ments like the one on the                                                              sible, successful adults. right.                                                                                   1. Excellent food and education.

                                                                                           2. Just visit your children once

                                                                                               a week.

                                                                                           3. Minimum five-year contract.

Would you like your children to be brought up by professional "parents"?

What would be some advantages and disadvantages?

2. Alvin Toggler also suggests that children won't go to school. They will study at home instead with video-tape, cassettes, other electronic aids.

Would you like this arrangement? What do you think of such "electronic cottage" school? Imagine what some of the consequences might be.

3. In what way, do you think, the advertisement above reflects the new trends in child rearing?

13. Below are some quotations dealing with family life and children. Illustrate them with a short story:

1. When children are doing nothing they are doing mischief. (H. Fielding)

2. Teach your child to hold his tongue and he will learn to speak fast. (Benj. Franklin)

3. Anger is never without a reason, but seldom without a good one. (Benj. Franklin)

4. If children grew up according to early indications, we should have nothing but geniuses. (Goethe)

5. We are all geniuses up to the age of ten. (A. Huxley)

6. Children begin by loving parents, as they grow older they judge them, sometimes they forgive them. (O. Wilde)

Unit Six

TEXT

GROWING UP WITH THE MEDIA

By P. G.Aldrich

    What do you remember most about your childhood? Running through the long dewy grass of a meadow or the Saturday morning TV cartoons? Sitting in the kitchen watching your mother cook supper or sitting in the living-room watching Captain Kangaroo?1 Which came first on Sunday morning — breakfast or the comics?

    Now bring your memories up to date. What did you and your friends talk about, at least part of the time, before class? An item from a newspaper? An ad that you noticed in a magazine or a television commercial? An episode from a popular TV series? A movie? Or a new record that you heard on the radio?

    If your answers parallel those of most young people, you add to the proof that mass media play a large and influential

____________

1Captain Kangaroo — a children's morning television programme.

part in your life. Your answers also prove just how casually you accept the media, just as you accept the house you live in, cars, electricity, telephones, your school, and your family as part of your environment. Parents and teachers agree that all young people growing up with the media learn from them sometimes more than adults wish you to. (And this is the cause for alarm.)

    If the use of them referring to media in the last sentence seems strange, remember that the word media linguistically is plural. When people make a fuss about the media being a bad influence, they usually are talking about television, the most powerful medium of all. Maybe calling television the media can be justified technically because, as a medium, it embraces functions of several media such as newspapers, magazines, movies, and recordings.

    The major media can be divided into two kinds, print and electronic. The print media — newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets, catalogues, circulars, brochures, anything you read — are the oldest, dating back to the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century. The electronic media — radio, television, films of all kinds, records, tapes, anything that is transmitted by the use of electricity — are less than a hundred years old.

    One of the problems facing us today is being reached by the media when we really don't choose to be. Do you sometimes find it difficult to locate a moment of complete silence in your environment or a time when your eyes are not presented with signs, billboard, or pictures demanding attention?

    Another meaning the word mass suggests is "the people", a phrase too often associated with adjectives like dull-witted, credulous, ill-informed, uncritical, and passive. Or are the mass of people well-informed, sophisticated, thoughtful, and active? Which are you? How much of what you know about yourself has been taught you by the media? You may not realize how greatly the media influence you because in your lifetime they have always been there, hi fact, short of deliberate isolation on a mountain top or being lost in a forest and reared by wolves, no one will ever again grow up without the presence and influence of the mass media.  

     Is this good or bad?

    An experiment recently conducted in Europe by the Society for Rational Psychology showed that watching television is psy-

chologically addictive. The idea of becoming addicted to television brings up questions involving subtle conditioning and brainwashing that could be friendly or vicious, altruistic or self-serving.

     In a commercial society the media's ability to stimulate motivation to buy — almost as though people were puppets on strings — builds other people's power. It can be power for good or power for bad, but it is always power for control.

    All these negative aspects of growing up with the media need consideration, at the same time you are enjoying the positive aspects of immediately knowing what's going on in the world, sharing great entertainment and historical events with everyone else in our "global village", and having the fun of trying out a new product that you wouldn't have known about without advertising.

    According to a recent research report, more than a third of all children by the age of three are viewing TV with some regularity and more than half are listening to books read to them. Before they are old enough for school — a third of the children are looking through magazines, 40 percent are listening to radio, and 80 percent are viewing television. At age seven, newspapers enter a child's life, usually through the comic strips. You are one of these children. As you grew, you absorbed uncritically, as children do.

    And what did you absorb? Hundreds of items of information, most of them accurate as far as they went.  Increasing sophistication of taste and appreciation of technical skills. High standards of performance by talented musicians and actors that sometimes make your teachers despair of competing effectively for your attention.

    With all this, you also absorbed ideas about behaviour, about right and wrong, good and bad, the permissible and the forbidden. These ideas were presented to you — and still are — directly and indirectly with the entertainment, advertising, and information. The most powerful ideas are the ones you absorb indirectly. They are digested emotionally at psychological depths that we still know little about, although we can tell that the effect of reaching those depths is particularly strong and long lasting from behaviour patterns that emerge.

    ... Another indicating of media influence is in the language we use. Whole new vocabularies come into existence with new

inventions. Look back at the first two paragraphs of this chapter. How many expressions can you identify that came into popular usage with the development of a medium? How about TV cartoons? Or the abbreviated version of the word television?  In this country, we say TV and spell it several different ways: tv, T.V., TV, teevee. In Britain, it's the telly, as everyone who watches the British "stand-up" comedian will know. That term, stand-up comic, seems to be another media invention. Actually, a comedian does sit sometimes, whenever the action of a skit demands, but there is always that string of jokes, or would-be jokes, delivered standing up, first at a stationary microphone during early radio days, now just standing or wandering about a stage, mike in hand. In advertising, the stand-up commercial was the first kind used, hi this, the announcer or star of the program would grasp the product firmly in hand, making sure the name faced the camera, and as persuasively as possible, recite or read the copy written about it at an advertising agency.

    Words introduced in the media frequently enlarge into meanings far beyond the scope originally intended for them. How many meanings do the words Mickey Mouse have today? Which show approval? Which disapproval?

    The impact of the mass media is very strong. It changes our language, stimulates our emotions, informs our intellect influences our ideas, values, and attitudes. When you were young and absorbing uncritically, you could not possibly know that the majority of the material you saw and heard was designed to produce specific responses from you. Some adults, for that matter, either do not know or refuse to admit the following basic fact of media production: the MAJORITY of material is chosen or designed to produce a predetermined response. Even that part of media output called "entertainment" is chosen to keep you quiet, unquestioning, available, and receptive to commercial messages inserted throughout. This is evident whether the entertainment is a TV drama with commercials every few minutes or a newspaper or magazine article with columns of type wrapped around the advertisements.

    The journalism, urgent issues, news, or information-giving portion of media output is selected, edited, produced, placed in time slots or positioned in the newspaper or magazine to reflect and support the owner's policies. These policies are sometimes intricate and interwoven strands, difficult to isolate individually,

because ownership is a giant conglomerate made up of intertwining sections of the current commercial-military-governmental complex. However, no reporter, photographer, film or copy editor, script or continuity writer in either print or electronic media has ever needed to be told specifically what the boss's policies are. You pick them up through your pores within a week or two of accepting a job, and you work accordingly.

    The owner's policies, therefore, determine the response that the media wish from you even if it's only to keep quiet and accept. Then the material is written, staged, photographed with or without audio, printed and/or broadcast. We — counted in the millions, the mass audience of mass media —^are then programmed to buy, vote, contribute, believe, and support other people's interests, interests which may be commercial, political, charitable, philosophical, or educational. Sometimes these interests will coincide with your own; sometimes they won't. Most of the time, the response comes in as programmed; occasionally it doesn't, or there is an additional, unexpected response. Some of the media's output has long lasting value and worth; some is not only cheap, tawdry, and superficial stuff, but physically, emotionally, and intellectually harmful.

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. What I really lacked was experience.

What he suffered from was inferiority complex.

2. I will say this for Sue, she was a kind soul.

I will say this for Ann, she taught me a lot.

3. Little did she guess what he had on his mind.

Little did they realize why he was being so nice to them.

Phrases and Word Combinations

to come first (second, ...)                   to become addicted to

up to date                                           to come into existence (being,

to date back to                                       usage)

ill-informed                                       for that matter

(ill-mannered, ill-bred, etc.)

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY

1. bring vt (with prepositions and adverbs)

to bring about to cause smth, e. g. What brought about this quarrel?

to bring back to recall

to bring to mind (things of the past), e. g. The snapshot brought back to me my childhood.

to bring down 1) to cause smth or smb to fall or come down, e. g. The hunter brought down a deer. 2) to reduce (a pricej, e. g. Shopkeepers have been asked to bring down their prices.

to bring someone down to earth (with a bang/bump) (colloq.) to make someone face reality, unpleasant truth, etc., e. g. He had no idea how food prices had risen, so a day's shopping soon brought him down to earth with a bump!

to bring forward to suggest (an idea), as to bring forward a proposal.

to bring home to to persuade smb to believe smth, e. g. You must bring the difficulty home to John.

to bring in 1) to yield (money), as profit or earnings, e. g. He does odd jobs that bring him in ten to twelve pounds a week. 2) to introduce (an idea), as to bring in a bill

to bring in a verdict (in a court of law) to give a judgement to bring on to cause (to happen), e. g. You've brought the trouble on yourself. ,   .

to bring out 1) to reveal (smth) to be seen or known, e. g. Difficulties can bring out a person's best qualities. 2) to publish (a book, etc.), e. g. When are the publishers bringing out his new book?

to bring round to persuade smb to change his opinion, e. g. We must bring the rest of the committee round to our point of view.

to bring smb to one's or to his senses

to bring smb round to cause smb to regain consciousness or remember his surroundings, e. g. Some cold water on her face might bring her round (bring her to herself/to her senses). The sudden sound of the train whistle brought me to myself; I had not known how far I had been walking, deep in thought.

to bring up 1) to educate; raise (a child), e. g. My aunt brought up four children. 2) to mention or introduce (a subject), e. g. Your suggestion will be brought up at the next meeting.

to bring up to date to advance the knowledge of smb, to bring smth. level, esp. in time, e. g. We must try to bring Mother more up to date with modern styles, and persuade her not to wear such old-fashioned clothes.

2. alarm n 1) a call to arms or action; a warning of danger, e. g. When the people in the street noticed the clouds of smoke coming out of the window, they gave the alarm. 2) a sudden feeling of fear and excitement because of the possible approach of danger, e. g. The mother rushed out of the house in alarm when she heard her son crying loudly in the yard.

an alarm bell, e. g. The soldiers were roused from their sleep by the sound of the alarm bell.

an alarm clock a clock that will ring and wake up a person at any time he wishes, e. g. I didn't hear the alarm clock and overslept.

a false alarm a hoax, e. g. There is nothing to be panicky about, it was a false alarm.

a fire-alarm, e. g. No sooner had they seen the flame than they sounded the fire-alarm. .

to raise an alarm, e. g. Those who raise false alarms will get no help when help is needed.

alarm vt to arouse to a sense of danger, e. g. The whole world is alarmed by these events.

alarming a exciting fear or anxiety, e. g. The news was

alarming.

alarmist n a panic-monger, e. g. He's often subject to panic.

An alarmist, that's what he is.

3. fuss (often about) vi to get nervous or excited, e. g. He fussed continually. Don't fuss over the children so much! She fussed about, scarcely able to hide her impatience.

fuss n unnecessary or irritating activity, especially in small matters, e. g. Why make a fuss!

to make a fuss about (over) smtb to show too much anxiety ornervousness about smth. e. g. Why make all that fuss about trifles?

to make a fuss of smb to pay all sorts of little attentions to a person, e. g. They made a fuss of their guest, eager to please him.

fussy a paying too much attention to little, unimportant things, e. g. The old lady was so fussy, nothing seemed to satisfy her. She's a fussy housewife.

to be fussy about smth, e. g. Should we be fussy about our clothes or food?

4. lose vt/i to have no longer; to be deprived of, as to lose one's money (life, mind, balance, job, etc.), e. g. The boy lost his parents in the war. The poor man has lost a leg in the battle. The boy lost 5 pence in a bet. I've lost the key to my suitcase.

to lose sight (track) of smb (smth) not to know where smb (smth) is, e. g. I lost sight of the boy in the crowd. The policemen lost track of the thief.

to lose one's temper to get angry or impatient, e. g. Don't lose your temper, try to control yourself.

to lose one's place (in a book, etc.) to be unable to find the line, paragraph, etc. at which one stopped reading, e. g. "Go on reading!" "I beg your pardon I lost my place. I'll be ready in a moment."

to be lost in thought (wonder, admiration) to be absorbed in, e. g. The girl was gazing at the picture, lost in admiration.

to be lost upon smb to fail to impress or attract the attention of smb, e. g. My hints were lost upon my friend, he failed to notice any of them.

to lose one's head to become confused or excited, e. g. She lost her head at the sight of the fire and started screaming instead of acting (being useful).

to lose one's heart to smb to fall in love with smb, e. g. Do you know that Jack has lost his heart to Gwendolen ?

to lose heart to feel discouraged; to lose courage, e. g. Jim lost heart after his failing the exam for the third time.

loss n the act or fact of losing or having lost smth, e. g. The death of Jim's, friend was a great loss to him. Loss of health is worse than loss of wealth. The soldier died from loss of blood. Do it without any loss of time. The regiment suffered heavy losses.

to be at a loss to be puzzled and perplexed, not to know what to do, e. g. Nellie was seldom or never at a loss.

5. addict n a person who is unable to free himself from a harmful habit, 05 a drug addict, a TV addict, a coffee addict

addicted (to) a in need or in the habit of having, e. g. She's addicted to reading detective stories.

addiction n the state of being addicted or an example of this, e. g. Does he have any other addictions besides smoking?

addictive a causing addiction, habit-forming, e. g. Drinking coffee or eating chocolate can be addictive.

6. involve vt 1) to cause smb or srnth to take part or be mixed up (in trouble, a difficult condition, etc.), e. g. Don't involve me in your fights, please. They are deeply involved in debt 2) to have as a necessary result, e. g. The new design is involving me in a lot of extra work.

involvement n the condition of being involved-, e. g. His involvement with that woman brought him nothing but trouble.

involved a 1) complicated in form, etc., e. g. It's a very involved story and I kept getting confused. 2) (of people) closely concerned in relationships and activities with others, esp. in a personal relationship, e. g. He's deeply involved with her and wants to get married.

7. sophisticated a 1) having lost natural simplicity through experience of the world, as with sophisticated taste, sophisticated clothes, e. g. I feel rather gauche among all these sophisticated people. She wears very sophisticated clothes. Some sophisticated device was used to defuse the bomb. 2) (of mental activity) cultured, elaborate, as a sophisticated discussion/argument

sophistication n the state of being sophisticated or an example of this, e. g. She entered the room with an air of great sophistication.

8. value n 1) the worth of smth. in money or as compared with other goods for Which it might be changed, e. gr.The value of the British pound is less than it was 50 years ago. Jewels are articles of value; they are articles of great value. 2) worth compared with the amount paid (often in the value for money),