94629

Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Practise reading the following word-combinations: earliest times useful power hot-air engines solar energy solar evaporation sun-activated processes surrounding air sun’s rays straight lines the most effective ways the loss of energy glass-like material effective prevention transparent sheets of glass or plastic actual applications...

Английский

2015-09-15

48.5 KB

0 чел.

Unit 5

Grammar:  1.Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

                                 2.Reflexive Pronouns

                                 3.Zero that-clauses

Reading Exercises

1. Practise reading the following one-syllable words:

sun,men,but,from,hot,salt,most,man,cell,angle,fact,when,drop,loss,with,one,glass,wave,lengths,space,flat,once,some,simple,low,now,plant,track,new,small,world,

scarce, hence, home, fresh, block.

2. Practise reading the following two-syllable words with the stress one the first syllable: solar, water, process, meter, thermal, sunlight, factor, surface, blacken, cover, plastic, purpose, forward, progress, subject, prospect, power.

3. Practise reading the following two-syllable words with the stress on the second syllable: invent, device, produce, extent, extend, depend, between, prevent, effect, before, create, supply, collect, begin, immense.

4. Practise reading the following many syllable words:

generate,evaporation,application,fundamental,surrounding,absorptivity, perpendicular, horizontal, radiation, minimum, transparent, convection, distillation, refrigeration, arrangement, relatively, irrigation, inexhaustible.

5. Practise reading the following word-combinations:

earliest times, useful power, hot-air engines, solar energy, solar evaporation,     sun-activated processes, surrounding air, sun’s rays, straight lines, the most effective ways, the loss of energy, glass-like material, effective prevention, transparent sheets of glass or plastic, actual applications, typical arrangements, high-pressure boilers, large block of electric power.

6. Memorize the spelling and pronunciation of the following words:

pressure-тиск; evaporation-випаровування,паротворення; applicaton-

застосовування,використання;absorptivity-абсорбцiйна здатнiсть;

precaution-обережнicть,застереження; transparent-прозорий; convection-                                              

конвекцiя;distillation-дистиляцiя,опрiснювання;arrangement-розташуваня, розчищення; loss-втрата,збиток; portable-портативний,розбiрний; expensive-дорогий;inexhaustible-невичерпний;immense-величезний,неосяжний;

unit-елемент,секцiя,агрегат; to focus-збирати у фокус,зосереджувати.

TEXT 5 A

Solar Power

  The sun’s energy manifests itself as thermal, photo-electric and photo-chemical effects. Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times, but no means existed to generate useful power from the sun’s heat until steam and hot-air engines were invented.

Crude devices for heating water by solar energy date back many years, and production of salt by solar evaporation of sea water is probably the most ancient of man’s sun-activated processes. Photo-electricity has been known for almost a century, and millions of selenium photo-cells have been used as light-meters and in similar application.

Most fundamental of all thermal solar processes is the simple fact that, when sunlight falls upon a surface of any kind, the surface becomes warmer than the surrounding air. The extent to which the surface temperature rises depends upon many factors, most important of which are the angle between the surface and the sun’s rays, the absorptivity of the surface and the precautions taken to prevent the surface from losing the absorbed heat.

The angle effect is caused by the fact that the sun’s rays travel in straight lines. When a surface is perpendicular to the rays, their intensity is at its maximum, when the surface is horizontal, the radiation intensity drops off and reaches its minimum.

 The most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the sun heated surface is to cover it with one or more sheets of a glass-like material which is transparent to the sun’s rays but opaque to the longer wave lengths emitted by the warmed surface. The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of heat loss by convection.

A flat plate of blackened metal covered with one or more transparent sheets of glass or plastic is the simplest collector of solar energy. Once collected, heat can be used in a variety of ways. Here are some of the potential and actual applications.

Space heating is probably the most important, since nearly one-third of our energy supply is used for this purpose. Water heating can be achieved by portable solar heaters which are able to give as much as 400 litres of boiling water on a sunny day.

The distillation of the sea water is another process to be accomplished by variations the simple flat plate collector. The production of temperatures low enough for air conditioning and domestic refrigeration is a very important potential use of solar energy which is only now beginning to receive the attention it deserves.

Typical arrangements of concentrator-type solar plants with high-pressure boilers must be able to track the sun, so that its rays can be focussed upon a collection-element.

When physicists discover a new way to generate electricity directly from radiation, without going through the thermal cycles both nuclear and solar units will probably continue to be relatively small and applicable only to special purposes such as irrigation and power production in isolated locations.

Solar radiation is an immense and inexhaustible source of energy our world possesses. Up to the present time, mankind has been able to produce energy from the earth’s fuel, but the time will come when this energy will be scarce and hence expensive. Research is needed now to learn how to use solar energy cheaply and effectively to heat and cool our homes, produce fresh water from sea water, and to generate large blocks of electric power.

 

Notes: 1.crude device – найпростiший прилад

           2.collection element – збиральний елемент

           3.large block of electric power – велика кiлькiсть електроенергii

Answer the questions:

1. In what effects does the sun’s energy manifest itself? 2. Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times, haven’t they? 3. When does the surface become warmer than the surrounding air? 4. What does the surface temperature depend upon? 5. What is the angle effect caused by? 6. What is the most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the sun heated surface? 7. What is the simplest collector of solar energy? 8. What can water heating be achieved by? 9. When will both nuclear and solar power move forward rapidly? 10. Is solar radiation an immense and inexhaustible source of energy our world possesses? 11. How does mankind produce energy at present? 12. What is needed to learn how to use solar energy cheaply and effectively? 13. What can solar energy be used for? 14. Is the earth’s fuel an inexhaustible source of energy?

Exercises:

1. Translate the following words paying attention to the suffixes:

   thermal, useful, evaporation, probably, absorptivity, intensity, horizontal, distillation, collector, arrangement, concentrator, boiler, physicists, relatively, inexhaustible, cheaply, effectively.

2. Translate the following sentences paying  special attention to the translation of the suffix-able:

   1.The sun’s energy is valuable because of its thermal, photo-electric and photo-chemical effects.

   2.The air space between the surface and the glass is a reliable prevention of heat loss by convection.

   3.Until that time solar units will probably continue to be relatively small and applicable only to special purposes such as irrigation and power production on isolated locations.

3. Translate these words paying attention to negative prefixes:

   Ineffective, ineffectively, inexhaustible, unprocessesed, unproductive, unimportant, incapable, illogical, irrational, non-conducting, discharge, underestimate.

4. Form words after the models and translate them:

    1.-ment: to measure - measurement

       to move; to require; to achieve; to develop; to improve; to equip.

    2.-tion: to invent - invention

       to produce; to compress; to evaporate; to prevent; to distillate; to concentrate.

    3.-ly: bad - badly

       usual, steady, probable, cheap, effective, relative, simple, experimental,        

       general, common, rapid.   

5. Translate the following words and state their part of speech:

    thermal, production, surface, absorptivity, heater, arrangement, boiler, directly,  

    applicable, difference, careless, resistant, workable, convertible.

6. Translate the following word-combinations:

    useful power; hot-air engine, crude devices, thermal solar processes, surrounding air, the sun’s rays, angle effect, to minimize the loss of energy, glass-like material, flat plate collector, typical arrangements, high-pressure boiler, special purposes, isolated locations, solar radiations, inexhaustible source of energy, large blocks of electric power.                                                                                             

7. Translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the words in bold type:

   1. Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times, but no means existed to generate useful power from the sun’s heat until steam and hot-air engines were invented.2. Photo-electricity has been known for almost a century, and millions of selenium photo-cells have been used as light-meters and in similar application. 3. They used the most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the sun heated surface.4. Crude devices for heating water by solar energy date back many years. 5. Our houses can be heated by solar energy cheaply and effectively. 6. They heated a flat plate of blackened metal.

8. Translate the following international words:

  photo-electric, energy, selenium, fundamental, temperature, factor, absorptivity, effect, perpendicular, maximum, horizontal, radiation, minimum, effective, material, potential, special, irrigation.

9. Fill in the blanks with the words given below:

  Inexhaustible, radiation, loss, heaters, scarce.

  1. The time will come when this energy will be ____ and hence expensive.

2. Solar radiation is an immense and ____ source of energy our world possesses. 3. Water heating can be achieved by portable solar ____ .4.The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of heat ____ by convection.5. ____intensity drops off and reaches its minimum.

10. Make up sentences using the worlds given below:

 1. Applications, of, here, some, are, potential, the, actual, and. 2. Can, once, ways, of, variety, a, be, used, in, collected, heat. 3. The, another, distillation, process, of, to be, sea, accomplished, water, by, of, variations, plate, flat, collector, the, simple, is. 4. Lines, in straight, travel, rays, the, sun’s, that, fact, the, caused, by, is, effect, angle, the.

11. Make up pairs of the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:

  1.  photo-electric                                              b)water

solar                                                               source

straight                                                           lines

heated                                                            energy  

effective                                                         heating

space                                                              cycles

boiling                                                            purposes   

domestic                                                         locations

typical                                                             power

thermal                                                            prevention

special                                                             refrigeration

isolated                                                            surface

inexhaustible                                                   effects

fresh                                                                arrangements

12. Chose the right word combinations to finish the following sentences:

 straight lines, in a variety of ways, the potential and actual applications at its maximum, heat loss by convection, an immense and inexhaustible source.

1) When a surface is perpendicular to the rays, their intensity is ____. 2) Once collected, heat can be used ____. 3) The angle effect is caused by the fact that the sun’s rays travel in ____. 4) The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of ____. 5) Here are some of ____. 6) Solar radiation is ____.

13. Make up questions to the following answers:

1. The sun’s energy manifests itself as thermal, photo-electric and photo-chemical effects. 2. Production of salt by solar-evaporation of sea water is probably the most ancient of man’s sun-activated processes. 3. The angle effect is caused by the fact that the sun’s rays travel in straight lines. 4. The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of heat loss by convection. 5. Water heating can be achieved by portable solar heaters. 6. Solar radiation is an immense and inexhaustible source of energy our world possesses.

TEXT 5 B

Give a summary of the text:

  The energy of the sun’s rays has been used from ancient times.

  One of the Egyptian statues produced sounds every morning to greet the rising sun. The secret of the singing statue has been discovered.

  The inside of the statue was divided into two parts. The lower part was filled with water and the upper one with air. One section of the chamber was situated against the eastern wall of the statue. When the sun rose, it heated the air in the upper part of the statue. The air expensed, pressed on the water and forced it into the other section of the chamber. The water, in turn, forced out the air and sent it through pipes of different musical tone producing various sounds.

Text C

Scales of Temperature

Translate the text using a dictionary

Temperature is usually measured on either the centigrade or Fahrenheit scale. In scientific work the centigrade system is used exclusively, but in engineering the Fahrenheit scale is preferred in many countries. This has led to much confusion, but difficulties can be avoided if one remembers that the fixed points on both scales are the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water. The height to which the thread of the liquid rises in a thermometer of the usual construction when immersed in an ice-water mush is marked as 0° on the centigrade scale or 32° on the Fahrenheit. A similar mark is made when the thermometer is placed in steam above boiling water; this becomes 100° centigrade or 212° Fahrenheit. The distance between these fixed points is divided into equal intervals thus making 100 divisions on the centigrade scale equivalent to 180 divisions on the Fahrenheit. The Fahrenheit division is smaller than the centigrade division in ratio 5:9.

      Since there are two scales in common use, the problem often arises of converting readings on one scale to the other. Let us consider a practical example. We wish to convert 95° F to centigrade. This is 95-32=63 degrees above the melting point of ice on Fahrenheit scale. Hence the distance AB is 63 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale or equivalent to 5/9 of 63=35 degrees on the centigrade scale. Therefore the temperature is 35° C. Suppose that it has been required to convert 35° C to Fahrenheit. We would reason as follows: From A to B is 35-centigrade divisions or 9/5 of 35=63 divisions on the Fahrenheit scale. These divisions added to 32 (since the Fahrenheit reading is 32 when the centigrade is zero) make the actual reading 95° F.  


 

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