Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The composition of dance is creative in the same way in which the composition of music is. The notation of dance however is a work of analysis and reporting performed generally by people other than the choreographer in language or signs that may well not be understood by the creator.



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варіант 5

Виконав: студент групи _______



Викладач ___________________



Варіант 5

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The composition of dance is creative in the same way in which the composition of music is. The notation of dance, however, is a work of analysis and reporting, performed generally by people other than the choreographer, in language or signs that may well not be understood by the creator.

During the Renaissance, dance masters in Italy, such as Domenico da Piacenza, taught social dances at court and probably began to invent new ones or arrange variants of known dances, thus combining a creative function with their educational ones. Staged ballet employed the same steps and movements as social dance and differed from it principally in floor arrangement and visual projection.

In the 16th century, dance masters at the French court so organized the floor patterns and theatrical and artistic contexts of their social dances as to initiate a choreographic form, the ballet de cour. In the two centuries that followed, the gap between social dance and theatrical dance widened until ballet in the 19th century achieved a basically independent vocabulary.

The ballet master of this era, the choreographer, was an arranger of dance as a theatrical art. The giant of late 18th-century choreographic art was Jean-Georges Noverre, whose work and writings made the dramatic ballet, or ballet d’action, celebrated. In this, ballet incorporated mime as well as academic dances, giving expression to the dance by narrative and histrionic context. After Noverre and his contemporary Gasparo Angiolini, others developed this trend in various ways—especially Jean Dauberval in the realistic depiction of contemporary country folk, Charles Didelot in moving toward Romantic stage illusion and fantasy, and Salvatore Viganò in the dramatic use of the ensemble (choreodramma) and naturalness of tragic gesture.

The choreographers of the Romantic movement employed ballet, as codified by such masters as Carlo Blasis, chiefly in the ballet d’action theatrical forms of Noverre’s day or in opera divertissements (balletic interludes). The ballerina, her role heightened by the newly invented pointework (position of balance on extreme tip of toe), and the female corps de ballet both acquired new prominence. The choreographers who best developed the art of theatrical dance narrative were August Bournonville in Copenhagen; Jules Perrot, particularly in London and St. Petersburg; and Marius Petipa, who in St. Petersburg brought the spectacular classical ballet d’action to its peak in such works as The Sleeping Beauty, in which extended and complex suites of classical dance brought poetic and metaphorical expression to the plot.

The only absolute rules in choreography today are that it should impose order upon dance beyond the level of pure improvisation and that it should shape dance in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension of time, as well as according to the potential of the human body.

  1.  Виконайте наступні вправи:

Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous.

1. I’m afraid I’ve broken one of your coffee pots. – Don’t worry. I (not like) that set anyway.

2. Right now James (read) an article in the newspaper, but he (understand, not) it. Some of the vocabulary (be) too difficult for him.

3. I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong.

4. Right now the pupils (look) at the board. They (see) some words on the board.

5. You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now? – I (enjoy) myself very much. I (want) to stay to the end.

6. I (need) to call my parents today and tell them about my new apartment. They can't call me because they (know, not) my new telephone number.

7.  Tom can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it.

8. This tea is good. I (like) it. What kind is it? I (prefer) tea to coffee. How about you?

9. I’m busy at the moment. I (decorate) the sitting room.

10. Right now the children (be) at the beach. They (have) a good time. They (have) a beach ball, and they (play) catch with it. They (like) to play catch. Their parents (sunbathe). They (try) to get a tan. They (listen) to some music on the radio. They also (hear) the sound of sea gulls and the waves.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous.

1. Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern French.

2. I often (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything.

3. You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow.

4. You always (write) with your left hand?

5. Where are the children? – In the living room – What they (do)? They (watch) TV? – No, they (play) a game.

6. I won’t tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. – I (promise). 

7. You (love) him? – No, I (like) him a lot but I (not love) him.

8. You (dream) at night. – Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have) nightmares.

9. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?

10. You (see) my car keys anywhere? – No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite tense or use BE GOING TO form.

1. Did you remember to book seats? – Oh no, I forgot. I (telephone) for them now.

2. The fire has gone out! – So it has. I (go) and get some sticks.

3. He has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg. – I’m sorry to hear that. I (send) him some grapes.

4. I’ve hired a typewriter and I (learn) to type.

5. I see that you have a loom. You (do) some weaving?

6. I can’t understand this letter. – I (call) my son. He (translate) it for you.

7. You (buy) meat? – No, I (not eat) meat any more. I (eat) vegetables.

8. You’ve bought a lot of paint. You (redecorate) your kitchen?

9. Look what I’ve just bought at an auction! – What an extraordinary thing! Where you (put) it?

10. Why are you peeling that bit of garlic? – I (put) it in the stew.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite tense or use BE GOING TO form.

1. Why have you set your alarm to go off at five-thirty? – Because I (get) up then. I have got a lot to do.

2. You look frozen. Sit down by the fire and I (make) you a cup of tea.

3. They’ve bought a rope and they (tow) the car to the garage.

4. I haven’t bought any cigarettes because I (give) up smoking.

5. I have tried to explain but she doesn’t understand English. – I (say) it to her in German: perhaps she’ll understand that.

6. I’ve come without any money. – Never mind, I (lend) you some. How much do you want?

7. They’ve hired a bulldozer. They (clear) away this rubble.

8. I’ve torn my dress. – I (mend) it for you.

9. I’ve bought some blue velvet and I (make) curtains for this room.

10. There’s the phone again. Take no notice. – You (not answer) it?

Exercise 3. Use Future Simple to fill the spaces in the following sentences.

1. When you are in bed I _____ be at work.

2. Who’ll help me? – I _____.

3. What _____ we do now? – Wait.

4. She _____ tell the same story over and over again.

5. He _____ not come here again.

6. Who _____ take this letter to the post for me? – I _____.

7. Do you know the way? – No. – Then I _____ show you.

8. Where _____ I put it? – Put it behind the piano.

9. What _____ you do with all the food that’s left over?

10. By this time next year I _____ be earning my own living.

Make the following sentences negative using the shortened negative forms of WON’T. Suggest some changes in the meaning of the sentences.

1. I like this man and I will help him.

2. He will meet her, because they will not be in different places.

3. My husband will cut down the tree, because he hasn’t got a lot of other jobs to do.

4. Tom will come to our party, because he will not be away on that date.

5. Peter says that he will come to our party. He approves of parties.

6. She says that she will lend me the book because I always give books back.

7. We’ll be in the same firm and at the same departments, so we’ll work together.

8. They were very kind to me. I’ll go there again.

9. I’ll borrow his van again. The brakes work properly.

10. She says that she will send the child to school. She thinks it’s far better to educate children at school than at home.

Put an adjective or an adverb.

1. He is a  boy. (clever)

2. He is tired because he has worked . (hard)

3. He isn’t tired because he has  worked. (hard)

4. She is a  girl. (quiet)

5. She went to bed . (quiet)

6. He is not a good student but he writes . (good)

7. You should speak more . (soft)

8. The children behaved . (bad)

9. The brave men fought . (brave)

10. They lived together . (happy)

11. She looks . (pretty)

12. That milk tastes . (sour)

13. I don’t know  where they live. (exact)

14. She turned . (pale)

15. This brown fur feels . (soft)

Complete the following sentences using adverbs.

1. They laughed (happy)

2. The dog ran (quick)

3. Ruth solved the problem (easy)

4. Bob spoke about his new job (dramatic)

5. She is always аdressed. (beautiful)

6. You are writing too (slow)

7. She spoke about him. (nice)

8. I think you are working (hard)

9. He drives very (careful)

10. His temperature went up (fast)

Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).

1. My house is (big)  than yours.

2. This flower is (beautiful)  than that one.

3. This is the (interesting)  book I have ever read.

4. Non-smokers usually live (long)  than smokers.

5. Which is the (dangerous)  animal in the world?

6. A holiday by the sea is (good)  than a holiday in the mountains.

7. It is strange but often a coke is (expensive)  than a beer.

8. Who is the (rich)  woman on earth?

9. The weather this summer is even (bad)  than last summer.

10. He was the (clever)  thief of all.

           Complete the following sentences using the correct degree of the adjective given in the brackets.

1. My brother’s handwriting is …………………….. (bad) mine.

2. Health is …………………….. wealth. (important)

3. Blood is …………………… water. (thick)

4. Everest is …………………….. peak in the world. (high)

5. This is ……………………. play I have ever heard on the radio. (interesting)

6. Susie is …………………………. of all the four sisters. (beautiful)

7. The planet Mars is ……………………. from the earth than the satellite Moon. (far)

8. The elephant is …………………..  animal in the world. (large)

9. An ocean is certainly ……………………… a sea. (big)

10. I am …………………… in cricket than in football. (interested)

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