Производство и промышленные технологии

The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards computerization. Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.



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Among various recent trends in the engineering profession computerization is the most widespread. The trend in modern engineering offices is also towards computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with.

Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles.

Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people, to determine, for example, how machines can be operated most efficiently by workers. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering.

A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and 1980s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment.

Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centred design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.

Add to your active vocabulary:


mechanical engineerінженер-механік

electric engineerінженер-електрик

electronic engineerінженер-електронщик

computer engineerінженер-компютерщик

military engineerвійськовий інженер


prestigious job (work) —престижна робота

well-paid jobвисокооплачувана робота

employeeнайманий працівник


businessmanпідприємець, бізнесмен

state-employedдержавний службовець

white-collar worker —«білий комірець», працівник розумової праці

blue-collar worker —«синій комірець», працівник фізичної праці

skilled workerкваліфікований працівник

unskilled workerнекваліфікований працівник

experienced workerдосвідчений працівник


to be hired for a jobбути найманим на виконання роботи

to look for a new job (work, position) —шукати нову роботу

to apply for a new jobпретендувати на яку-небудь посаду

application for a position ofзаява на яку-небудь посаду


C.V. (curriculum vitae) —автобіографія

to be firedбути звільненим

to retireвиходити на пенсію

to be unemployedбути безробітним

General understanding:

1. What is the most widespread trend in the engineering profession?

. What are computers used for in modern engineering?

3. What approaches are used in modern engineering?

. What isergonomics”?

5. What human-factors does engineering deal with?

Task 1.1. How do you see your future profession? Answer the following questions:

1) What kind of work are you interested in?

a) well paid

b) interesting

c) in a large and famous company

d) quiet

e) in an industry which has a future

f) prestigious

g) not to sit the whole day in the office 

h) to travel a lot

2) What position would you like to have?

a) to manage peoplemanager

b) to work for someone elsean employee

c) to be your own bossself-employed, businessman

d) be responsible for everythingtop manager, director

e) to work for the statestate employee

Task 1.2. Please discuss with your group advantages and disadvantages of your future profession. Do you think that engineering profession is prestigious? Is it well-paid? How difficult is it to find a good work in this field?

Task 1.3. Translate into English:

  1.  Батьки купили мені компютер, коли я вчився(лася) в десятому класі.
  2.  Ніякий сучасний бізнес неможливий без компютерної техніки.
  3.  Комп’ютерна індустрія – підприємство, яке найбільш швидко розвивається.
  4.  Комп’ютерне управління автоматизованими виробничими лініями відкриває нові горизонти дешевого та якісного виробництва товарів.
  5.  Великим досягненням в сфері комунікації являється заміна аналогових систем цифровими.
  6.  В наш час оптоволокнисті цифрові технології забезпечують більш якісний і доступний зв'язок, ніж аналогові системи.