94641

Present Participle. Continuous Tenses (Active, Passive)

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Practice reading the following word-combinations: Taken into account for example in order to in fact in the language of science in everyday life connected with the idea of time a state of rest a state of motion from motion to rest in scientific sense of the word the force is applied to result in no work the amount of performed work...

Английский

2015-09-15

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Unit 3

Grammar:

  1.  Present Participle
  2.  Continuous Tenses (Active, Passive)
  3.  Quantifiers: some, any, no, much, many, little, a little, few, a few

 

Reading Exercises

  1.  Practice reading the following one-syllable words:

few, force, work, push, pull, change, rest, case, weight, lie, ground, stone, done, sense, word, hold, true, through, mean, kind, fall, store, flow, use, wheel, coal, thrown, heat, burn.

  1.  Practice reading the following two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable:

equal, product, body, order, over, meaning, language, distance, turbine, differ, factor.

  1.  Practice reading the following two-syllable words with the stress on the second syllable:

among, connect, apply, perform, effect, possess, begin, refer, demand, belong, result, produce, account, amount, divide, require.

  1.  Practice reading many-syllable words:

Chemical, definite, different, determine, multiply, operate, ability, energy, mechanical, physical, calculate, multiply, electrical, everyday, scientific.

  1.  Practice reading the following word-combinations:

Taken into account, for example, in order to, in fact, in the language of science, in everyday life, connected  with the idea of time, a state of rest, a state of motion, from motion to rest, in scientific sense of the word, the force is applied, to result in no work, the amount of performed work, the product of the force by the distance, the ability to work, different kinds of energy, all moving bodies, to drive the waterwheels of turbines.

TEXT 3 A

FORCE, WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

In the language of science a few words, among them force, work, energy and power, have definite meanings differing a little from the meanings that are often given to them in everyday life.

The word “force” meaning a simple push or pull, is not connected with idea of time. When forces are pushing upon an object or pulling upon it, they change it from a state of rest to a state of motion or from motion to rest.

Work is done when a force is acting over a distance. In this case, too, the time is not taken into account. For example, work is done when a weight lying on the ground is lifted, when a stone is thrown. However, no work is done in the scientific sense of the word when a man is standing and holding a weight. True, the force is applied, but it results in no work.

The amount of performed work is determined by two factors: the applied force and the distance through which the force acts. In order to calculate the amount of work, the force is multiplied by the distance, that is, the amount of performed work is equal to the product of the force by the distance

Work = Force  Distance or W = F  S

When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account. Power means the rate at which work is done. It is equal to the work divided by the time which is required to perform it.

Power = Work/Time = (FS)/t

 The ability to do work is called energy. There are different kinds of energy: mechanical, chemical, electrical, heat and light energy. All moving bodies, in fact, possess it. For example falling water has a store of energy, for as it is flowing down it can be used to drive the water-wheels of turbines. Coal and other fuels also hold a store of energy. It can be made use of when we are burning fuels to produce steam.

Notes:

  1.  a state of rest –стан спокою
  2.  a state of motion –стан руху
  3.  to take into account –приймати до уваги

Answer the questions:

  1.  When do forces change an object form a state of rest to a state of motion?
  2.  When is work done?
  3.  Is a man performing work when he is standing and holding a weight?
  4.  What is the amount of performed work determined by?
  5.  How is the amount of performed work calculated?
  6.  What is power?
  7.  What is power equal to?
  8.  What is energy?
  9.  Are there different kinds of energy?
  10.  What are they?

Exercises:

  1.  Translate the following words paying attention to the suffixes:
  2.  operate –operation –operator –operable –operative
  3.  act –action- active- activity
  4.  mechanics –mechanic –mechanical –mechanism –mechanization
  5.  electricity –electric –electrification –electrify –electrician
  6.  industry –industrial –industrialization –industrialist –industrious
  7.  science –scientist –scientific –scientifically

 

  1.  Translate the adjectives paying attention to the negative prefixes:

incorrect, unkind, dissimilar, immovable, irresistible, disloyal, uncomfortable, incomparable, illogical.

  1.  Give verbs of the same root and translate them:

assistance, education, establishment, expression, existence, receiver, equipment, exhibition, reference.

  1.  Translate the following word-combinations:

a few words, the language of science, to connect with, to change an object from a state of rest to a state of motion, to act over a distance, in this case, to take into account, to lift a weight, to throw a stone, the scientific sense of the word, to result in, the amount of, the applied force, in order to, to multiply by, to be equal to, to divide by, kinds of energy.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the words in bold type:
  2.  Many electric stations use the power of water.
  3.  One horse power equals 75 kilogram –meters.
  4.  This power station was built 10 years ago.
  5.  Scientists achieved good “results” in constructing semiconductor devices.
  6.  The application of this device results in better operation of the equipment.
  7.  These forces “change” the direction of motion.
  8.  The “change” of the state of matter was caused by heat.

  1.  Fill in the blanks with the words given below:

. Bodies that are not in … often have great capacities for doing work.

(1. power 2. weight 3. motion)

. In physics the term “work” is defined as a … of force and motion in the direction of force.

(1. sum 2. product 3. division)

. Pushing something along the floor against friction … doing work.

(1. means 2. defines 3. connects)

. Bodies in the … of rest often have great capacities for doing work.

(1. sense 2. state 3. force)

. The kinetic energy of a body is the energy which it … because of its speed.

(1. throws 2. possesses 3. applies)

. Work and energy are closely …

(1. acted 2. observed 3. connected)

. The internal energy of a body is … by work and also by heat transfer without work.

(1. used 2. changed 3.travelled)

. Energy is the law … all natural phenomena.

(1. leading 2. possessing 3. governing)

  1.  Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms and translate them:
  2.  application  a) vapour
  3.  steam   b) for instance
  4.  possess  c) force
  5.  in fact   d) use
  6.  for example  e) keep
  7.  require   f) do
  8.  hold   g) really
  9.  perform  h) have
  10.  power   i) way
  11.  means   d) demand
  12.  often   k) motion
  13.  rest   e) seldom

  1.  Translate the following international words:

distance, lift, act, calculation, mechanics, mechanical, chemistry, chemical, electricity, electrical, energy, turbine, product , produce, operate, operator, idea, object, special.

  1.  Make up pairs of the following words and translate them:

1) burning  a) force

  b) energy

  c) fuel

) driving  a) weight

  b) rest

  c) wheel

) growing  a) nature

  b) weight

  c) example

) working  a) word

  b) machine

  c) productions

) changing  a) force

  b) fact

  c) equality

) mechanical   a) meaning

  b) energy

  c) ground

) falling  a) distance

  b) water

  c) state

  1.  Fill in the blanks with the prepositions given below: to, of, at, in, on, with, for, from, by:
  2.  Great amounts … energy are sent … us … the sun.
  3.  Part … this energy comes … the sun … the form … light.
  4.  The energy … light differs … other kinds … energy.
  5.  Light energy is stored … such fuels as coal, … example.
  6.  Steam … a steam engine is produced … a boiler.
  7.  When a weight is lifted … the ground, a definite amount … work is done.
  8.  A change … a state … rest … a state … motion is connected … the application … force.
  9.  Physics is taught … all technical colleges.
  10.  When a weight is lying … the ground, no work is done.

TEXT 3 B

SOURCES OF POWER

Translate the text using a dictionary.

The industrial progress of mankind is based on power: power for industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting systems, transport, communication. In fact, one can hardly find a sphere where power is not required.

At present most of the required power is obtained mainly from two sources. One is from the burning of fossil fuels, i.e. coal, natural gas and oil, for producing heat that will operate internal- and external-combustion engines. Many of these engines will actuate generators which produce electricity. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from stream or water turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines to houses, industrial plants, enterprises, etc.

It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Only about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity. Besides, the world resources of fossil fuels are not everlasting. On the other hand, the power produced by hydroelectric plants, even if increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction of the power required in the near future.

Therefore much effort and thought is being given to other means of generating electricity.

One is the energy of hot waters. Not long ago we began utilizing hot underground water for heating and hot water supply, and in some cases, for the generation of electric power.

Another promising field for the production of electricity is the use of ocean tides. Engineers are engaged in designing tidal power stations of various capacities.

The energy of the Sun, which is being used in various ways, represents a practically unlimited source.

Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is one of the most promising sources. It is a well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains as much energy as three million pounds of coal, so cheap power can be provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent.

No wonder, therefore, that scientists all over the world are doing their best to find more efficient ways of generating electricity directly from the fuel (without using intermediate cycles). They have already succeeded in developing some processes which are much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, and in creating a number of devices capable of giving a higher efficiency.

Scientists are hard at work trying to solve all these and many other problems.

Notes:

  1.  i.e ( лат. id est) = that is –тобто
  2.  On the one hand; on the other hand;–з одного боку; з іншого боку
  3.  to do ones best –робити все залежне вiд себе
  4.  hard at work –працюють невтомно


 

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