94649

The Continuous Tenses (Active). The Concept of the Computer

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

In all of this input and output the computer is doing only one thing at a time. But it may look as if several things are happening simultaneously. For example, the computer may be printing on its screen, and also sending the same text to a printer. It will look as if the two things are going at once, but in fact there is a very rapid...

Английский

2015-09-15

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1 чел.

LESSON 7

Grammar: The Continuous Tenses (Active)

Oral Topic: The Concept of the Computer

  1.  Lexical and Grammar Exercises

1. Read and translate the following international words. Mind the part of speech:

hybrid ['haibrid] n, a; symbol ['simb(ə)ll n; hydrodynamics ['haidroudai'mæmiks] n; aerodynamics ['ɛəroudai'næmiks] n; binary ['bainəri] a; abbreviation [ə,bri:vi'eiʃ(ə)n] n ; location [lou'keiʃ(ə)n] n; command [kə’ma:nd] n; manipulate [mə'nipjuleit] v; alphabetize [s’ælfəbitaiz] v; synthesizer [,sinӨi'saizə] n; test- n,v; permanent ['pə:mənənt] a.

2. Master the active vocabulary:

1. represent [,repri'zent] v – представлять, изображать

representation [,reprizen'teiʃ(ə)n] n – представление, изображение

A digital computer is a binary machine, which represents 0 and I electrically. If a number must have seven digits for its binary representation, we say that it contains seven bits. The computer stores binary representations in primary memory.

2. character ['kasrikts] n – символ; цифра; буква

The data of type character is simple enough since one byte represents each character. The characters "H", "M"   "S" may stand for "hour", "minute", "second".

3. string [strirɧ] n – строка

We use the term "string" or "character string" instead of a data type "word" (we apply "word" to describe the larger-than-byte-sized group of bits). The compare operation for strings will decide if two strings are identical, and, if they are not, which comes earlier in the alphabet.

4. integer ['intiʤə] n – целое число

The integer is the simplest data type. The computer performs arithmetic operations on the data of the integer type.

5. hardware ['ha:dwɛə] n – аппаратное обеспечение ЭВМ

The constituent parts of a computer are called hardware. The hardware inside the machine expresses arithmetical and logical relations (отношения).

6. fetch [feʧ] n, v – вызов, выборка; вызывать, выбирать (например, команду или данные из памяти)

The processor carries out four commands: fetch the instruction, fetch the data upon which the instruction is to act, carry out the instruction, store the result. If you want to fetch an instruction, you must type (напечатать) its name on the keyboard and then press the key "ENTER".

7. link [liɧk] n, v – звено; связь; команда возврата; связывать

linkage ['liɧkiʤ] n – связь; возврат; согласующее устройство

The link of the central processor to input and output devices is not as direct as the link to memory. A specialized processor, a controller, links a disk drive to a computer. A computer's architecture is the logical linkage of its processor to memory, input and output devices.

8. file [fail] n – 1) файл; 2) картотека, архив

data file – файл данных

Each file has its name, type, length in Kbytes, the date and the time of its creation. Secondary memory is organized into files.

9. access [kses] n – 1) выборка (из памяти); 2) обращение (к памяти)

access time – время обращения

RAM (Random Access Memory) – память с произвольной выборкой

Hard disks can store much more information than floppy disks, their access is faster. RAM is a working memory which can accept new information from a peripheral device.  The access time of bipolar memory is about 100 nanoseconds.

10. tape [teip] n – лента

punched paper tape – бумажная перфолента

Typical recording devices are magnetic disks and cassette tapes. Punched paper tapes are input devices. A computer can record on a magnetic tape at the rate of 1,000,000 characters per second.

11. plotter ['plɔtə] n – графопостроитель

Plotters are output devices. Plotters do no texts at all, but only graphs, maps or pictures.

12. load [loud] n, v – загрузка; нагрузка; загружать; нагружать

loader – программа загрузки

loading – нагрузка; загрузка

After self-testing the computer begins to load the operational system. IBM computers usually take 20–40 seconds for their loading.

13. switch [swiʧ] n, v – переключатель; переключать

to switch on – включать

to switch off – выключать

Before our work with a computer we must switch its disk drive and system unit on. There is a special switch on the computer keyboard that regulates the work with Russian and Latin alphabets.

14. message ['mesiʤ] n – сообщение

error message – сообщение об ошибке

The error message "BAD COMMAND OR FILENAME" means that the name of the command or file is not correct. When arithmetic operations are incorrect, e. g., division by 0, there is a special message on the screen.

3. Give English equivalents for the words in brackets:

1. Through binary arithmetic, in which all numbers are (строки) of Os and Is, the computer can (представить) any letter, number or symbol in a binary code. 2. The computer immediately translates (целое число) into its binary (представление). 3. The computer can join (символьные строки). 4. The terms "byte" and ("символ") are sometimes used synonymously. 5. We shall discuss (аппаратное обеспечение) of this computer at the next seminar. 6. What must a user do (вызвать) the necessary data from memory? 7. (Связь) of the central processor to input devices may be through a very small specialized processor, a channel. 8. There are two important factors about the memory unit: an (обращение) time and a capacity. 9. Storage units may use magnetic (ленты) and disks. 10. One of the forms of computer output is output on paper with the help of printers and (графопостроителей). 11. When the process of (загрузки) is over, we shall see a special (сообщение) on the screen. 12. The command "MODE" of the operational system MS DOS allows (переключать) the screen for the demonstration of graphic or text information.

4. Match the parts of the sentences from the left and right columns:

1. An ordinary business adding machine

1. how to use hardware at his lessons.

2. We add decimal fractions in the same way as

2. the data of types "string" and "character".

3. Computers can alphabetize

3. represents a very simple example of the computer.

4. A teacher must know

4. we add integers.

5. As usual processors all microprocessors

5. is the speed of access to their memory.

6. Loading is the process of

6. have the ability to fetch and carry out a limited number of instructions.

7. The speed of modern computers

7. reading information from a disk to the random-access memory.

5. Choose the synonyms of the following words from the right-hand column:

to vary, to get, to send, to carry out, type, speed, memory, screen, quick, symbol

to receive, to transmit, kind, to differ, storage, character, to perform, display, fast, rate

6. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words and word combinations given below:

a) mean – средний; среднее число (значение)

means – средство

to mean – значить, означать

meaning – значение

by means of – посредством

I. This is a mean line. 2. Printers, plotters, music and speech synthesizers are means of output. 3. The symbol < means "is less than". 4. The meaning of the word "voltage" is "электрическое напряжение". 5. A joystick is an input device by means of which we can control the position of a letter, word or picture on the screen. 6. Let's find the arithmetic mean of these numbers.

b) a record – 1) запись; 2) пластинка; З) данные (о чем-либо)

a recorder – записывающее устройство

to record – записывать

1. In science computers do calculations and keep records of the results of experiments. 2. He has a large collection of musical records. 3. We may use cassette recorders as input and output devices. 4. A computer must have a special equipment, which records each bit of information. 5. This computer can store students' records.

c) a type – тип

to type – печатать

a typewriter – пишущая машинка

1. Modern computers are of three types: analog, digital, and hybrid. 2. A computer keyboard looks like a typewriter keyboard. 3. Our computer centre has several types of printers. 4. My friend types on the keyboard of this computer very well.

7. Study the following suffixes of adjectives. Translate the adjectives into Russian:

–ful          :

beautiful, powerful, useful, peaceful, thankful.

– less         :

useless, endless, formless, childless, limitless.

– al           :

central, pedagogical, digital, industrial, logical.

– ive          :

productive, illustrative, progressive, passive, creative.

– able         :

reliable, remarkable, comfortable, measurable, favourable.

– ible         :

possible, sensible, divisible, extensible, reversible.

– ic            :

automatic, scientific, electronic, democratic, public.

– y              :

easy, noisy, windy, cloudy, happy.

– ous         :

famous, various, enormous, numerous, synonymous,

– ent          :

different, permanent, dependent, excellent, constituent.

8. Form adjectives from the nouns with the help of the suffixes: 

  1.  - ful, - less; b) - al; c) - ic and give their translation.

Consult a dictionary if necessary.

a) art, help, doubt, success, hope, purpose.

b) music, physics, person, operation, form, nature, structure.

c) system, academy, history, base, alphabet, magnet.

9. Form adjectives from the verbs with the help of the suffixes: 

  1.  - able; b) - ive and give their translation.

Consult the dictionary if necessary.

a) to prove, to question, to move, to suit, to compare, to separate.

  1.  to act, to collect, to cooperate, to distribute, to effect.

10. Give the initial forms of the following words:

symbolic, unthinkable, inactive, wonderful, friendless, unhappy, indifferent, illogical, irregular, needless, convertible, rainy, unreadable, arithmetical, mechanical.

11. Put the verbs in the form of Participle I.

Model: to build – building [‘bildiɧ]

to read, to write, to speak, to repeat, to design, to represent, to coordinate, to transmit, to record, to show, to perform, to type.

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Future Continuous

I              am 

He            is

(she, it)

I             was

(he, she, it)

I (we)      shall

working.

working

at 5 o'clock

be working

at 5 o'clock

now

yesterday.

tomorrow.

We are (you, they)

Я (он, она, мы, вы, они) работаю сейчас.

We (you, they) were

Я (мы, он, она, вы, они) работал в 5 часов вечера.

He         will

(she, it, you, they) Я (он, она, мы, вы, они) буду работать в 5 часов завтра.

Am I

Is    he           working

(she, it)           now?

Are you (we, they)

Was    he (she, it, I) Were you  working at (they, we)     5 o'clock

yesterday?

Shall we (I)

Will    he    be working

(she,         at it, you,    5 o'clock they)

tomorrow?

I am

He is not working

now 

(she, it)

We are

(you, they)

I was 

(he, she, it)

We were not working

(you, they) at 5

o'clock

yesterday.

I shall

(we)

He will           not be (she, it           working you, they)     at 5 o'clock

tomorrow.

now (сейчас), at this moment (в этот момент)

all day long (весь день), all the time (все время), at 6 o'clock, when you came, from 6 till 7

all day long, at 5 o'clock tomorrow, from 5 till 6, when you come

12. Express agreement using That's right or Quite so.

Models:

1. The computer is testing its basic units now. – That's -right. The computer is testing its basic units.

2. You were working in  the computer all room the evening yesterday. Quite so. I was working in computer room all the evening yesterday.

3. The computer will be loading the operational system in a minute. – That's right. The computer will be loading the operational system in a minute.

1. Your friend is writing English words on the blackboard. 2. You are writing these words in your note-book. 3. Another student is looking up the words in the dictionary. 4. They were solving that algebraic problem all the evening yesterday. 5. He was discussing the problems of hardware with his teacher when we came. 6. You will be working at the seminar from 10 till 11.30 tomorrow. 7. Your friend will be calculating, the results of the experiment when you come. 8. I shall be doing my research at this time tomorrow.

13. Express disagreement using I can't agree with you or On the contrary.

Models:

1. The computer is loading the operational system now. – / can't agree with you. The computer is not loading the operational system. It is testing its basic units.

2. You were having a computer class at 10 o'clock yesterday. – / can't agree with you. I was not having a computer class at 10 o'clock yesterday. I was having an English class at this time yesterday.

3. You will be speaking instead of your friend at 9 o'clock meeting tomorrow. On the contrary. I shan't be speaking instead of my friend at 9 o'clock meeting tomorrow. My friend will be speaking instead of me at the meeting tomorrow.

1. This man is waiting for you. 2. Mary is typing the name of the programme now. 3. You are sitting at the computer display. 4. You were doing exercises in writing at your English class. 5. The computer was performing arithmetic operations when you switched it off. 6. We shall be discussing analog and digital computers at the morning seminar tomorrow. 7. He will be 'speaking about recording devices at his tomorrow's lecture.

14. Express disbelief using the word really.

Models:

1. I am checking addition by division. – Are you really checking addition by division instead of subtraction?

2. He was typing all the evening yesterday. Was he really typing all the evening yesterday?

3. The computer will be sending the text to the printer in two minutes. – Will the computer really be sending the text to the printer in 2 minutes?

1. He is making a report on data types now. 2. The controller is running the disk drive at the present moment. 3. We are writing a précis on the microcomputer's organization. 4. Our teacher was speaking on the history of computers at his lecture yesterday. 5. We were constructing this electronic device all day long yesterday. 6. He was writing a report on the binary system when we came. 7. We shall be discussing computer's architecture problems at this time tomorrow. 8. He will be reading up for his exam all day long tomorrow.

15. Change the following statements to questions beginning with the question words given in brackets:

1. We are reading an error message on the screen (where?). 2. I am typing the name of the program on the keyboard to run it (why?). 3. The operational system was asking to point out the date and the time (what?). 4. They were working in the computer room from 8 till 9.30 yesterday (how long?). 5. They will be holding a conference at this time tomorrow (when?). 6. The lecturer was speaking about new types of digital computers (who?). 7. We shall be discussing types of printers at 5 o'clock tomorrow (what?).

16. Put the verbs in brackets in the Indefinite or Continuous tenses:

1.We (to discuss) various problems at the seminar. 2. We (to discuss) the difference between analog and digital computers now. 3. I (not to write) a new computer program last week. 4. I (to write) my report when the bell rang. 5. He (to calculate) the problem when you come. 6. He (not to solve) all these problems next week. 7. You (to answer) all the questions at the exam? 8. She (to answer) the students' questions now. 9. My friend (not to study) at the university. 10. You (to study) at the same department? 11. When I came into the room he (to compile) a program. 12. You (to wait) for me at 7 o'clock tomorrow? 13. We (to get) new laboratory equipment next month.

17. Translate into English:

1. Куда Вы идете? – Я иду в библиотеку. Я всегда хожу туда в это время. 2. Я хочу видеть профессора Никитина. – Простите, его здесь нет. Он читает лекцию в аудитории 205. 3. Не входите в аудиторию. Студенты пишут там контрольную работу. 4. На какую тему ты писал доклад, когда я зашел в читальный зал вчера? – "Аппаратное обеспечение ЭВМ". 5. Вы регулярно читаете литературу по информатике на английском языке? – Да, я стараюсь делать это регулярно. Вот и сейчас я читаю журнал "Компьютер Пресс". 6. Мы будем работать над новой программой в это время завтра. Я думаю, мы окончим ее на следующей неделе. 7. Что ты делал вчера в 7 часов вечера? – Я слушал лекцию профессора Смирнова. Профессор рассказывал об истории развития ЭВМ. 8. Я не буду работать в библиотеке завтра. – Почему ты не придешь? – В это время я буду сдавать экзамен по английскому языку.

18. Determine the meaning of the underlined words with the help of the context and word-building elements. Give the index of the corresponding translation:

1. The term bit is an abbreviation for "Binary digit". 2. In the instruction cycle the central processor carries out four commands. 3. Internal memory has its location inside the computer. 4. External memory consists of recording devices that are outside the computer. 5. Peripherals include input and output devices. 6. The operation of addition is different for integers and reals. 7. A light pen is one of the input devices. 8. The first step in the work of the computer is self-testing, loading is the second step.

а) цикл; b) внешняя; с) термин; d) внутренняя; е) периферийные устройства; f) шаг; g) световое перо; h) действительные числа

19. Text A. Read the text and name the constituent parts of the computer. Suggest your title for the text:

1. Modern computers are of three types: analog, digital, and hybrid1. An analog computer uses physical analogs of numerical measurements, such as length, rotation, voltage, etc. People design analog computers for specialized fields (hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, industrial control, etc.). A digital computer is a binary machine, which represents 0 and I electrically. Through binary arithmetic, in which all numbers are strings of Os and Is,the computer can represent any letter, number or symbol on its keyboard in the binary code. If a number (for example, 100) must have seven digits for its binary representation, we say that it contains seven bits. The term bit is an abbreviation for "Binary digIT". An 8-bit string is a byte. A hybrid computer is a machine which combines some of the characteristics of digital and analog computers.

2. The constituent parts of a computer are called hardware. Computers vary greatly in their internal organization, but every digital computer has a processor, memory, an input device to receive information, and an output device to transmit information. Computer's architecture is the internal logical linkage of the processor to the memory and peripherals, that is, input and output devices.

3. A processor or CPU, which is short for central processing unit, is the nerve centre of any digital computer system. It coordinates and controls the activities of other units and performs all the arithmetic and logical processes. In the instruction cycle the processor carries out four commands: fetch the instruction, fetch the data (if any) upon which the instruction is to act, carry out the instruction, store the result in the memory. It repeats the same four steps with the next instruction. The link of the CPU to input and output devices is not as direct as the link to the memory. To run a disk drive, for example, the CPU has a specialized processor, a controller, that transmits instructions directly to a disk drive.

4. The computer stores and manipulates binary representations in primary memory and records results in secondary memory. Primary memory is organized into bytes and words. A word is a larger-than-byte-sized group of bits. We need words to store large numbers. Secondary memory is organized into files. Internal memory is a term for primary memory, since its location is within the computer. Secondary memory is called external memory as it usually consists of recording devices that are outside the computer. Typical recording devices are magnetic disks and cassette tapes. Disks may be floppy or hard. Some manufacturers of floppy disks call them minidisks, flexible disks, or diskettes. Hard disks can store much more information than floppy disks, their access is faster.

5. Although the computer can represent any kind of information, it is necessary to tell the computer what kind of information it is currently representing. Data types include integers, reals, characters, and character strings (or strings). The computer manipulates data of different types in different ways. It performs arithmetic operations on integers or reals. It can move data of any type from one place in memory to another. It can compare pieces of data of the same type, rank integers or reals in magnitude2 and alphabetize characters or character strings.

6. All computers can accept input from many sources and send output to many directions. Microcomputers in particular can accept input directly from a keyboard, by reading a disk, by communicating with another computer over a telephone line. Other input devices are: a touch screen3, a mouse, a joystick, a light pen, etc. Output devices for microcomputers and larger computers include printers, plotters, music and speech synthesizers.

7. In all of this input and output the computer is doing only one thing at a time. But it may look as if several things are happening simultaneously. For example, the computer may be printing on its screen, and also sending the same text to a printer. It will look as if the two things are going at once, but in fact there is a very rapid alternation of output – first to the screen, then to the printer, then to the screen again, and so on. In a large computer, which operates at great speed, the switch from one form of output to another is so rapid that the computer can appear to be talking simultaneously to a large number of devices.

NOTES

1an analog computer –  вычислительное устройство непрерывного действия

2to rank in magnitude – распределить по величине 

3a touch screen – сенсорный экран

20. Read the first paragraph of the text and explain the difference between analog, digital and hybrid computers.

21. Read the third paragraph of the text and find the information dealing with the CPU. Give the definition of the CPU, point out its functions.

22. Prove the following statements using the information of the fourth and fifth paragraphs and your background knowledge. Make use of the list of expressions: that's right; quite so; I agree; I suppose so; I won't deny that ...

1. A computer stores and manipulates binary representations in primary memory and records the results in secondary memory. 2. Internal memory is a term for primary memory. 3. Secondary memory is called external memory. 4. Hard disks can store much more information than floppy disks. 5. Although the computer can represent any kind of information, it is necessary to tell the computer what kind of information it is currently representing. 6. The computer manipulates data of different types in different ways.

23. Read the sixth paragraph and give examples of input and output devices.

24. Translate the seventh paragraph of the text

25. Match the following words and their definitions. Consult the text if necessary.

A digital computer

is

an 8-bit string.

A computer's architecture

a larger-than-byte-sized group of bits.

A processor

a term for primary memory.

The term bit

a binary machine which represents 0 and I electrically.

A byte

a term for secondary memory.

A word

the internal logical linkage of the processor to memory and input and output devices.

Internal memory

the nerve centre of a digital computer which coordinates and controls the activities of all the other units and performs all the arithmetic and logical processes.

External memory

an abbreviation for "Binary digIT".

26. Ask your groupmates:

1) what hardware is; 2) what constituent parts the computer consists of; 3) what the function of the CPU is; 4) what a controller is; 5) where the computer stores and manipulates binary representations; 6) where the computer records results; 7) what typical recording devices are; 8) what data types include; 9) what input and output devices your friend knows.

27. Entitle each paragraph and make an outline of the text. Write a précis according to your outline.

.

28. Give the description of the computer you use, point out its name, manufacturer, size, constituent parts, recording devices, jobs assigned.

29. Text B. Read the dialogue and 1) point out the first steps in the computer's work; 2) say what a user must do to run a program:

NOTES

1to have a vague idea – смутно представлять себе

2I'd like – я хотел бы

3to replace each other – сменять друг друга 

4to run a program – запустить программу 

5a directory – директорий, справочник

A: Hallo, Mike! Where are you going?

M: Hallo, Ann! Haven't seen you for ages! I am going to the computer room.

A: Oh, you, students of the Information Science Department, work much in the computer room.

M: You are right. We must spend much time with the computer to become good specialists. But you, students of the Philological Department, also read much to become good teachers, don't you?

A: I agree with you. But we have a vague idea what the computer is. I'd like to go with you and see how a computer will be operating.

M: O.K. Let's go together. (In the computer room.)

M: Have a seat, please, near this personal computer. First of all, we must switch the disk drive and the system unit on.

A: Oh, I see digits are replacing each other on the screen. What does it mean?

M: It means that the computer is testing its basic units: a keyboard, a screen, and primary memory. We call this process self-testing. A special program is controlling this self-testing now.

A: And now I see the message "NON-SYSTEM DISK OR DISK ERROR". What is it?

M: It means, there is a diskette in the disk drive, but there is no operational system on it. The user must put the system diskette in the disk drive, press a key, and repeat loading.

A: As far as I understand the process of loading is the next step, isn't it?

M: That's it. After self-testing the computer begins to load the operational system from the diskette.

A: And how shall we know when the process of loading is over?

M: There will be special messages on the screen. Some of them are questions to the user. Well, look, now the operational system is asking to point out the date and the time.

A: And what must the user do to run a program?

M: The user must put the diskette in the disk drive, then type the name of the program on the keyboard, and press the key "ENTER".

A: But why are you typing "DIR" now ?

M: I want to be sure that there is really the program I need on the diskette. Now you see there is a directory of diskette files on the screen. Each file has its name, type, length in Kbytes, the date and the time of its creation.

A: So you must find the name of the program and type it, mustn't you?

M: You are quite right. Now you see the necessary program is running.

A: Thank you very much for your computer lesson. I'm sorry, I'm afraid to be late for my English class. So long!

M: Glad to help you. See you.

30. Read the beginning of the dialogue. Finish it with your own version.

A: Hallo, Nick! Where are you going?

N: Hallo, Ada! I'm going to the reading room to read up for the seminar.

A: Oh, I'm going to the reading room too. I want to finish my report on computer's hardware.

N: I'd like to ask you some questions about computers.

A: You are welcome.

31. Work in pairs to fill in the missing information about I processor types. Student A work from table 1, and Student В work from table 2. Give your partner the information he or she needs to fill in the chart.

Table 1

Processor

Manufacturer

Clock rate1 (megacycle2)

Bus capacity3

Additional information

286

Intel

– – –

– – –

Chip is typical for the beginning of 1980s. Windows can't be used

386DX

– – –

20, 25, 33,

– – –

– – –

486DX

– – –

25, 33, 40

32-bit

– – –

486 SX

Intel

– – –

32-bit

It is the same as 486DX but there is no mathematical coprocessor.

Pentium

– – –

60, 90, 100

64-bit

PowerPC

IBM, Apple, Motorola

– – –

– – –

It is a powerful RISC processor (Reduced Instruction Set Chip) incompatible with Intel means of emulation type. Dos and Windows can be used by means of emulation

286

– – –

8, 12, 16

16-bit

– – –

386DX

Intel

32-bit

The first 32-bit chip Intel was produced in 1985.

486DX

Intel

Productivit is much higher than in 386DX. There is a mathematical coprocessor.

486SX

– – –

25, 33, 40

– – –

– – –

Pentium

Intel

It is the first 64-bit chip Intel.

Power PC

– – –

60, 66, 80

64 -bit

– – –

NOTES

1clock rate – тактовая частота

2megacycle – мегагерц

3bus capacity – разрядность шины


 

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