The Indefinite Tenses (Active). On the History of Computer Development

Конспект урока

Информатика, кибернетика и программирование

The University of Pennsylvania is famous for the production of the first electronic computer in 1946. Information for a digital computer has to be in the form of digits or numbers. Aiken began to work at the first completely automatic digital computer.



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Grammar: The Indefinite Tenses (Active)

Oral Topic: On the History of Computer Development

I. Lexical and Grammar Exercises

1. Read and translate the following international words. Mind the part of speech:

form [fɔ:m] n, v; mechanical [mi'kænikəl] a; logarithm ['lɔgəriɵm] n; automatic [,ɔ:tə'mætik] a; design [di'zain] v, n; prototype ['proutətaip] n; code [koud] n; electromagnetic [i'lektroumæg'netik] a; recommend [,rekɔ'mend] v; practice ['præktis] n; idea [аi'diə] n; standard ['stændəd] n; transistor [tnæn'sistə] n; dynamic [dai'næmik] a; contrast ['kɔntræst] n; characteristic [,kæriktə'ristik] n, a; optical [ɔptikəl] a; expert ['ekspə:t] n, a; structural ['strʌʧ(ə)r(ə)l] a; analysis [ə'næləsis] n; method ['meɵəd] n; distant ['dist(ə)nt] a; extremely [iks'tri:mli] adv; sensory ['sensəri] a.

2. Master the active vocabulary:

1) add [æd] v – складывать, прибавлять

addition(n) – сложение

We add decimal fractions in the same way as whole numbers. The sign for addition is + (plus). The result of addition is known as the sum.

2) multiply ['mʌltiplai] v – умножать

multiplication [,mʌltipli'keiʃ(ə)n] n – умножение

We may multiply numbers in any order, and a good check for multiplication 17 by 15 is to multiply 15 by 17. In the example like 12+15x2 we must perform multiplication before addition.

3) invent [in'vent] v – изобретать

invention (n)  изобретение

In 1671 Leibnitz invented the first machine which performed multiplication by repeated addition. In 1882 P. L. Chebyshev invented the first arithmometer.

4) produce [prə'dju:s] v – создавать, производить

production [prə'dʌkʃ(ə)n] n – производство, продукция

In 1642 В. Pascal produced an adding machine. Later he produced some others, one of them could add six-figures numbers. The University of Pennsylvania is famous for the production of the first electronic computer in 1946.

5) slide-rule ['slaidru:l] n – логарифмическая линейка

After the invention of logarithms in 1614,W. Oughtred constructed the first slide-rule. There are straight and circular (круговая) slide-rules in common use.

6) punch  [pʌntʃ] n, v – 1) пробивка, перфорация; 2) перфорировать

punched card [pʌnʧt ka:d] – перфокарта

The punched card is one of the methods of data input. A high-speed line printer can punch 20 lines per second, each of 80 to 120 characters.

7) digit ['diʤit] n – цифра, разряд

All periods of a number contain three digits (the first period on the left may or may not). Information for a digital computer has to be in the form of digits or numbers.

8) complete [kəm'pli:t] v – заканчивать, завершать

completely (adv) – полностью

In 1937 H. Aiken began to work at the first completely automatic digital computer. He completed it in 1944. The first electronic computer was completed at the Moore School of Engineering, Philadelphia, in 1946.

9) count [kaunt] v – считать

counter ['kauntə] – счетчик

A primitive man knew only ten number-sounds and could count in the way a small child counts today, one by one, with the help of his fingers (пальцы). The store of H. Aiken's computer had 72 counters, each counter could hold 23 digits. In 1874 a Russian engineer V. T. Ordner invented a special counter wheel (колесо) for the arithmometer.

10) generation [,ʤеnə'геiʃ(ə)п] n – поколение There are four generations of computers today, but we are on the threshold (порог) of the fifth generation. Fifth generation computer systems will be smaller, more powerful and more flexible (гибкий).

11) chip [ʧip] n – чип, кристалл

A chip has several hundred thousand electronic components (transistors, resistors, etc.). The microcomputer was the first computer with a single (одиночный) microprocessor chip as the processor.

12) rely [ri'lai] v – полагаться (на – on, upon)

reliable [ri'laiəbl] a – надежный

You may rely on the results of this experiment. The third generation of computers was more reliable than the second one due to the use of silicon (кремниевый) chips instead of transistors.

13) capacity [kə'pæsiti] n – емкость, мощность

storage capacity – емкость запоминающего устройства

The capacity of computer is the quantity of data that its memory unit can hold. The storage capacity of J. Neuman's computer was 4096 words.

14) capable ['keipabl] a – способный, восприимчивый

capability [,keipa'biliti] n – возможность, способность, производительность

The fifth generation computers are capable of speech input. Robots and machines with sensory capabilities are the fifth generation computer systems.

15) size [saiz] n – размер, величина, емкость (памяти)

The first generation computers were very large in size. Floppy (гибкий) disks have several standard sizes.

3. Give English equivalents for the words in brackets:

1. Ch. Babbage's (изобретение) of the machine which he called the Analytical Engine was a new era in the computer development. 2. In 1884 Russia began (производить) computing machines. 3. The (логарифмическая линейка) presents a quick and easy way of multiplication, division, raising to power. 4. He used (перфокарты) to operate this computer. 5. The letter "b" in the word "binary" and two letters "it" in the word ("цифра") form the word "bit". 6. They will (завершать) this program next week. 7. I shall (подсчитать) the results of this experiment with the help of a calculator. 8. MINSK 1 and IBM 650 are examples of the first (поколение) computer systems. 9. A typical microprocessor (чип) is half a centimeter on its side. 10. I (полагаюсь) on your words. 11. What is the storage (емкость) of this computer? 12. Full (размер) floppy disks are 8 inches in diameter.

4. Insert the correct word from the active vocabulary:

1. The examples of the fourth ... of computers in our country are ES-1065, NAIRI-4, ISKRA-1256, etc. 2. Microfloppy disks are from 3 to 4 inches in ... . 3. One of the characteristics of the fifth generation computer will be its high ... . 4. In our Hindu-Arabic system we use only ten...to represent any number. 5. In the example like a+bxc we must perform ... after... . 6. In 1950 the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences ... the first electronic digital computer in the Soviet Union. 7. The famous Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov ... a lot of calculating tables and several computing devices. 8. H. Aiken began to work at his Mark 2 computer in 1945 and ... it in 1947. 9. Ch. Babbage wanted to build a computer ... to hold a thousand numbers. 10. One of the methods to input data into a computer is via a ...card. 11. My younger sister likes arithmetic and can ... quite well. 12. The primary memory ... of the personal computer is 64 kilobytes or more.

5. Choose the antonyms of the following words from the right-hand column:

to add, to multiply,

to divide, to subtract,

to complete, reliable,

output, to begin,

capable, input

unreliable, incapable

6. A. Pay attention to the way some nouns are formed:

real [riəl] a + -ity   reality [ri:'æliti] n

реальный  реальность, действительность

flexible ['fleksibl] a + -ity flexibility [,fleksi'biliti] n
гибкий  гибкость

available [ə'veibəl] a + -ity availability [ə,veilə'biliti] n
доступный, пригодный   доступность, пригодность

В. Form the nouns from the following adjectives with the help of the suffix -ity. Read and translate them into Russian. Mind the stress in the derivatives:

formal, regular, similar, able, complex, electric, extreme, reliable, special, familiar, general, capable, productive, creative, equal.

Present Indefinite

Past Indefinite

Future Indefinite

I (you, we, they) live here.

He (she, it) lives here.

Я (вы, мы, они, он, она) живу здесь.

They lived here.

He wrote a letter.

Они жили здесь.

Он писал письмо.

I (we) shall live here.

You (they, he, she, it) will live here.

Я (мы, вы, они, он, она) буду жить здесь.

Do you (we, they, I) live here?

Does he (she, it) live here?

Вы (мы, они, я, он, она) живете здесь?

Did they live here?

Did he write a letter?

Они жили здесь?

Он писал письмо?

Shall we (I) live here? Will you (they, he, she, it) live here?

Мы (я, вы, они, он, она) будем жить здесь?

I (you, we, they) do not (don't) live here.

He (she, it) does not (doesn't) live here.

Я (вы, мы, они, он, она) не живу здесь.

They did not (didn't) live here.

He did not (didn't) write a letter.

Они не жили здесь.

Он не писал письмо.

We (I) shall not (shan't) live here.

You (they, he, she, it) will not (won't) live here.

Мы (я, вы, они, он, она) не будем жить здесь.

usually (обычно), always (всегда), often (часто), sometimes (иногда), seldom (редко), as a rule (как правило), every day (каждый день)

yesterday (вчера), ago (тому назад), the day before yesterday (позавчера), last week (month, year) (на прошлой неделе, в прошлом месяце, году)

tomorrow (завтра), the day after tomorrow (после- завтра), in a week (month, year) (через неделю, месяц, год), next week (month, year) (на следующей неделе, в следующем месяце, году)

7. Put the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense. Mind the reading of -ed ending:

to stop, to work, to pass, to start, to use, to store, to complete, to believe, to control, to decide, to produce, to invent, to design, to construct, to perform, to process, to finish, to record.

8. Revise the following verbs from your school active vocabulary and give the forms of the Past Indefinite Tense:

to be, to begin, to build, to come, to do, to find, to get, to give, to go, to have, to hold, to keep, to know, to learn, to make, to meet, to read, to say, to see, to speak, to take, to think, to understand, to write.

9. Express agreement using You are right or That's it.


1. You speak English. That's it. I speak English.

2. You translated this article yesterday. – You are right. I translated the article yesterday.

3. You will become a teacher. – You are right. I shall become a teacher.

A. 1. You work much in the computer room. 2. Your friend knows some programming languages. 3. Computer – assisted instruction helps us to study at our own pace. 4. Computers save much time and energy, carry out long and complex operations. 5. They process a large volume of data. 6. The microcomputer ideally answers the aims of education.

B. 1. We built up large data banks of information. 2. At the end of the 1930s computing engineering began its new era. 3. In 1945 Dr. Neuman worked out the concept of the stored program. 4. The second generation of computers started in 1959. 5. The microcomputer had its beginning in the third generation, in 1974. 6. The store of the Mark-2 computer held a hundred numbers.

C. 1. The fifth generation computers will use natural languages and a speech input. 2. They will store and process knowledge. 3. We shall study storage types at the next lesson. 4. In future computers will have optical devices. 5. This electronic translator will help us to study foreign languages. 6. We shall attend this professor's lecture on microprocessors tomorrow.

10. Express disagreement using I am afraid you are mistaken or That's impossible.


1. We perform addition before multiplication. – That's impossible. If there are no brackets (скобки), we don't perform addition before multiplication. We perform multiplication before addition.

2. He graduated from the Institute two years ago. – I'm afraid you are mistaken. He didn't graduate from the Institute two years ago. He graduated from the Institute last year.

3. We shall use punched cards. – I'm afraid that's impossible. We shan't use punched cards, we shall use floppy disks

A. 1. A slide-rule presents one of the quickest ways of calculation. 2. He knows the keyboard of this computer rather well. 3. This firm produces high-speed computers. 4. The academic year in our country begins in October. 5. They hold conferences on information science every year.

B. 1. He translated many books on computers' organization. 2. At his last lecture the professor spoke about the invention of computers. 3. M. Lomonosov constructed the first slide-rule. 4. The first automatic computer operated at high speed. 5. This student made an interesting report on the problems of storage capacity.

C. 1. We shall discuss the invention of the first electronic computer at the next seminar. 2. He will study such programming languages as PASCAL and C. 3. They will complete this program next week. 4. I'll count the results of this experiment with the help of a calculator. 5. We shall take 4 examinations next term.

11. Express disbelief using the word real у.


1. The central processor controls the actual calculations inside the computer. – Does the central processor really control the actual calculations inside the computer?

2. He studied five programming languages. – Did he really study five programming languages?

3. This supercomputer will perform 10 billion operations per second. – Will this supercomputer really perform 10 billion operations per second?

A. 1. Computers help much in training teachers, engineers, businessmen. 2. Mathematical operations include arithmetic and algebraic operations. 3. The computer does arithmetic problems million times faster than any person. 4. A large computer uses several types of microprocessors. 5. We call Norbert Wiener the father of cybernetics.

B. 1. Last month they carried out many experiments. 2. My friend constructed this electronic device. 3. B. Pascal invented the first mechanical adding machine at the age of 19. 4. During four years in Berlin S. Kovalevskaya wrote three dissertations. 5. The third generation of computers began in 1964.

C. 1. We shall study the theory of programming next year. 2. In future machines will solve many problems, which today are in competence of man. 3. He will use these data in his report. 4. We shall store the control program on the magnetic disk. 5. The fifth generation systems will apply videodisks.

12. Answer the following questions:

1. When did you finish school? 2. What Institute do you study at? 3. What Institute does your friend study at? 4. When did the academic year begin? 5. When will the academic year begin next year? 6. What subjects do you study? 7. What subjects will you study next term? 8. How long does the course of studies at your department last? 9. How many specialities do the departments of your Institute train students in? 10. Who in your group studied abroad?

13. Change the following statements to questions beginning with the question-words given in brackets:

1. I studied English at school (where?) 2. My friend finished school last year (when?) 3. My sister does computer programs well (who?) 4. My father knows three foreign languages (how many?) 5. Our classes will begin at 10 o'clock tomorrow (when?) 6. We shall hold a seminar on this problem (what?) 7. He wants to help his friend to complete the experiment (whom?) 8. It took me two weeks to write a report (how long?) 9. My brother became a programmer last year (whose?) 10. He usually looks through foreign journals in the library (what?)

14. Read and translate the sentences. Mind the tense and the conjunctions of subordinate clauses:

1. Before he begins to read his report he will look through it. 2. If you change the method of your experiment you will get different results. 3. As soon as I get any news I shall tell you about it. 4. We shall not hold the conference until our scientific supervisor comes back from London. 5.You will find it difficult to communicate with a computer unless you have more practice. 6. When he gets a book "Microcomputer Design" he'll give it to you. 7. She will translate the text provided she knows this grammar rule. 8. They will finish the work after they get these data.

15. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense (Future Indefinite or Present Indefinite):

1. I (to discuss) some problems with our system-engineer as soon as I (to see) him. 2. She (to take) her exam in English before the term (to be) over. 3.- He (to help) you if he (to know) all the facts. 4. You (to do) a computer program provided you (to know) programming. 5. When we (to complete) our experiment we (to come) to see you. 6. If you (to add) these numbers you (to get) the sum. 7. Before he (to carry out) complex calculations he (to learn) how to operate the computer. 8. A teacher (not to make) the computer an integral part of his lessons until he (to be able) to select programs.

16. Translate into English:

1. Лейбниц изобрел первую вычислительную машину, которая выполняла умножение. 2. Кто создал первую логарифмическую линейку? 3. Что вы знаете о емкости запоминающего устройства этого компьютера? 4. Мой младший брат хорошо умножает и складывает числа. 5. Эта фирма создаст новую марку микрокомпьютера в следующем году. 6. Мы не будем пользоваться перфокартами для ввода данных. 7. Вы работаете в дисплей-классе каждый день? 8. Он не закончил работу, так как не было надежного электрического оборудования. 9. Сколько экзаменов мы будем сдавать в этом семестре? 10. Он читает журналы на английском языке? 11. Вы не будете хорошо говорить по-английски, если не будете знать грамматику. 12. Мы не применяем этот метод вычисления.

17. Determine the meaning of the underlined words and word-combinations with the help of the context and word-building elements. Give the index of the corresponding translation.

1. This device remained the only aid to calculation until the 17th century. 2. Ch. Babbage was the first who conceived the idea of the automatic machine for complex calculations. 3. Lady Lovelace was a brilliant mathematician. 4. It is fair to say that she was the world's first computer programmer. 5. The first electronic computer weighed 30 tons and measured 20x40 feet. 6. Though the operations of the first generation computers were very rapid in comparison with manual calculations, they were slow by today's standards. 7. Programs for one model can be run on other models in the same family. 8. Because of its small size, ease of use, large capacities the microcomputer is very popular today.

а) легкость использования; б) блестящий; в) быстрые по сравнению с вычислениями вручную; г) справедливо сказать; д) весил; е) имел размеры; ж) оставался единственным средством; з) у кого зародилась мысль; и) могут быть запущены на...

18. Text A. Read the text and draw a table showing the main stages in the development of computer systems:

On the History of Computer Development

The oldest form of mechanical calculating devices was the abacus1. It remained the only aid to calculation until the 17th century. After the invention of logarithms in 1614, W.Oughtred constructed the first slide-rule in 1630. B. Pascal built an adding machine in 1642 at the age of 19. Later he produced some others, one of them could add six-figure numbers. In 1671 Leibnitz invented the first machine, which performed multiplication by repeated addition.

Ch. Babbage, the English mathematician of the 19th century, was the first who conceived the idea of the automatic machine for complex calculations. He designed his Analytical Engine to perform four arithmetic operations. It was to have three parts: a store, a mill2, and sequence mechanisms3. The store was to hold 1000 numbers, as well as intermediate results and instructions. The mill called up numbers from the store and performed arithmetic calculations with them. It corresponded to the modern processor. The sequence mechanisms, which we would call4 a program, decided which numbers to call up from the store and how to operate on them. A system of punched cards controlled the sequence of operations. Ch. Babbage couldn't translate his ideas into reality because there were no reliable and accurate electrical equipment, but his Analytical Engine was a true prototype of the modern digital computer. Ch. Babbage and Lady Lovelace, Lord Byron's daughter, worked out a coded program. Lady Lovelace was a brilliant mathematician. She believed and fully understood the potentialities of the Analytical Engine. She took an active part in Babbage's experiments. So it is fair to say that she was the world's first computer programmer.

About seventy years passed before the production of the first digital computer, which was similar to Babbage's Analytical Engine. In 1937 Dr. H. Aiken of Harvard University began to work at the first completely automatic digital computer which he called the Mark 1. He completed it in 1944. The Mark 1 was mainly mechanical with some electro-magnetic devices. It was a very large computer, 51 feet long and 8 feet tall. The store had 72 counters. Each counter could hold 23 digits.

The first electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), was constructed in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. The machine used 18,000 vacuum tubes5 for storage and basic functions in arithmetic and logic. Though it was not as large as the Mark 1, it weighed 30 tons and measured 20 by 40 feet. Whereas the Mark 1 could add 2 numbers in one-third of a second, ENIAC could add 5000 numbers in one second.

In 1945 John von Neuman worked out the concept of the stored program. He recommended to store operational instructions and numbers in the same unit in the binary system. ED VAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC were the first computers which put these new ideas into practice.

The first generation computers (from 1940s till 1959) were very large in size and used thousands of vacuum tubes. Though their operations were very rapid in comparison with manual calculations they were slow by today's standards.

The second generation computers began in 1959. The use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes made these computers smaller, more powerful, and more reliable. The second generation also saw the development of programming languages.

The third generation computers started in 1964. There were silicon chips instead of transistors. This advance made possible the invention of the microcomputer in the 1970s, which, because of its low cost, small size, ease of use, large capabilities, is the computer most characteristic of the fourth generation.

All computers of the present time, from the microcomputer to the supercomputer, belong to the fourth generation. This fourth generation is the first in which there are a lot of computers for the application in business, science, medicine, education, or for general use.

The computer revolution is very dynamic. We are on the threshold of the fifth generation of computers. Today researchers in the USA, Western Europe, Japan work at the problems of artificial intelligence6, the application of, natural languages, very large-scale integration (VLSI)7 technologies, etc.


1an abacus – абак, счеты

2a millзд. решающее устройство

3a sequence mechanism – устройство, определяющее порядок работы

4would call – назвали бы

5a vacuum tube – электронная лампа

6artificial intelligence – искусственный интеллект

7VLSI – сверхбольшая интегральная схема

19. Read the text once again and fill in  the blanks with the proper dates and names:

1. After the invention of logarithms in 1614, ... constructed the first slide-rule in ... . 2. ... built an adding machine in 1642. 3. In 1671 ... produced the first machine capable of multiplication. 4. ... was the first who conceived the idea of the automatic computer. 5. Ch. Babbage and ... worked out a coded program. 6. In 1937 ... began to work at the first completely automatic digital computer. 7. He completed his Mark 1 in ... ..8. The first electronic computer was constructed in ... at ... . 9. In 1945 ... worked out the concept of the stored program. 10. The first generation computers began in ... . 11. The second generation computers started in ... . 12. The third generation computer systems beginning in ... made use of silicon chips. 13. The first microcomputer appeared in ... .

20. Arrange the items of the given outline in the order acceding to the text:

1. Ch. Babbage's contribution to the automatic computer development.

2. The abacus, the oldest form of mechanical calculating devices.

3. The first generation computers.

4. Calculating devices of the 17th century.

5. The first electronic computer (ENIAC).

6. The fourth generation computers.

7. The first completely automatic digital computer.

8. Future computer development.

9. The second and third generation computer systems.

21. Ask your classmates:

1) about the oldest form of mechanical calculating devices; 2) about the calculating devices of the 17th century; 3) about the main components of Babbage's machine; 4) what he/she knows about the Mark 1; 5) what he/she can say about the first electronic computer; 6) what J. Neuman's concept was; 7) what computers belong to the first generation; 8) about the difference between the 2nd and 3rd generation computers; 9) when the fourth generation computers began; 10) what problems of the fifth generation computers researchers work at.

22. Tell the group about the scientists who contributed to the development of computers.

23. Give the historical account of the computers evolution. Use the correct outline of task No. 20.

24. Compare the main characteristics of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations computer systems.

25. Comment on the future computer development.

26. Text B. Read the text and answer the questions:

1. What is the difference between the 4th and 5th generation computer systems?

2. What are the categories of artificial intelligence application?

3. What technological problems of the 5th generation computer system do researchers work at?

The Fifth Generation Computer System

The fifth generation computer will not only differ in size, speed, and storage capacity. By contrast with the fourth generation systems, which mainly store and process data, it will have the following characteristics: the use of artificial intelligence and natural languages, a speech input, knowledge bases, very large-scale integration technologies, the application of optical fibres1 and videodisks, flexibility and high reliability.

The idea of artificial intelligence is the intensification of man's creative activities with the aid of computers. Artificial intelligence is a machine intelligence. A programmer packs a program in the computer fur the solution of some practical problems. In operation it looks like human intelligence. There are different categories of artificial intelligence uses, such as robots and machines with sensory capabilities, knowledge-based systems and expert systems. A knowledge base is more flexible and less structural than a database. It is able to function with fewer stored facts, to generate2 and infer3 new facts in the process of the problem solution. Expert systems are knowledge-based systems for highly specialized areas: branches of medicine, spectroscopic analysis, and the like.

Artificial intelligence needs new methods of program organization and construction. Very large-scale integration technologies will reduce4 the size of the computer, enlarge its speed and storage capacity. For the solution of these problems some researchers think of optical circuitry5, gallium arsenide6 circuitry, and cryogenic (extremely cold) circuitry. For the solution of still more difficult problems, such as the production of hyper intelligent robots, some researchers discuss the problems of biochip circuitry. This is a revolutionary idea and its realization is in the distant future.


1fibre –волокно

2to generate – производить

3to infer – делать заключение

4to reduce – уменьшить

5circuitry – схема

6gallium arsenide – арсенид галлия

27. A. Reconstruct the paragraphs of the text in logical sequence:


But the most unusual section in the museum is "History of computer development". There is a mechanical calculating device, which was used for the census1 of the population in the USA in 1890. One can also find NEC electronic computer that controlled the Moon expedition of the American astronauts, and the first commercial computer UNIVAC (1951) that predicted2 an election3 victory for president Eisenhower.

Not long ago Oliver Streampel, one of the museum research workers, proposed to build up such a computer that one could walk inside of it. It took a group of enthusiasts a year to construct this museum exhibit. Its keyboard is about 7.5 meters long, and diskettes are 1.8 meter in diameter. All visitors can have a look of the opposite side of the screen and make sense how the computer operates.

The oldest electronic machines of the Boston computer museum were designed soon after World War II. The first IBM personal computer appeared in 1981, but 5–10 years in the computer world seem to be a century.


1census – перепись

2to predict – предсказывать

3election – выборы

В. What questions would you ask Mr. Streampel if you were a visitor of the museum?


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  Центральное место в философскокультурологической концепции Ницше занимает понятие жизнь основу которой образует воля. Однако взгляды Ницше на протяжении творческой деятельности претерпевали определенную эволюцию. По Ницше понять импульсы воли выразить ее характер невозможно с помощью разума и науки. Искусство представляется Ницше как дополнения и завершение бытия.
29243. Культурологическое образование в России 32 KB
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29244. Культура 41.5 KB
  Это совпадение имени симптоматично – оно лишний раз подчеркивает единство культуры народов включенных в орбиту европейского мира является знаком своеобразной культурной общности всех разноплеменных носителей европейских языков. Понятие цивилизация воспринимается как синоним слова культура В немецкой традиции впервые было сформулировано – и стало весьма популярным – представление о различии культуры и цивилизации. Со второй половины Х1Х века идея противопоставления культуры и цивилизации приобрела особое значение и...
29245. Религия как культурный феномен 30.5 KB
  Именно религия дает ответ на главный вопрос всех ценностнонормативных систем. Религия формирует у человека чувство независимости и уверенности в себе.Дюркгейм сравнивал религию в качестве интегратора социокультурных систем с клеем поскольку именно религия помогает людям осознавать себя как духовную общность скрепленную общими ценностями и общими целями.
29246. Феномен Ренессанса 37 KB
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29247. Феномены русской, российской, советской культуры 52.5 KB
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29249. Символ. Смысловая структура символа 53.5 KB
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29250. Культура как смысловое поле человеческой жизнедеятельности и способ реализации творческих возможностей человека 60.5 KB
  Речь не о какомто единственном и едином способе деятельности а о целом их ансамбле таком же сложном как и система созидательных способов деятельности деятельность распредмечивания изоморфносимметрична деятельности опредмечивания. Но и зеркально симметричным и возвращает нас к исходному пункту деятельности – человеку. Какими качествами он должен обладать чтобы выполнить эту функцию Человек – субъект деятельности.