Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents. Impersonal Sentences. Computers in Education


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

There are some forms of programming for the computer. One of the forms of programming is the construction of programs which accept (принимают) instructions in standard words and translate these words into a machine language. BASIC is a programming language for solving mathematical and business problems.



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Grammar: 1. Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

2. Impersonal Sentences

Oral Topic: Computers in Education

I. Упражнения на повторение правил чтения

1. Повторите правила словесного ударения и прочтите упражнения в чтении:

Правила ударения

Упражнения в чтении

1. В двухсложных словах ударение, как правило, падает на  первый слог.

'student, 'teacher, 'paper, 'voltage, 'concept, 'final, 'useful, 'unit, 'differ, 'process, 'cursor, 'basis

2. В трех- и четырехсложных словах ударение обычно падает на третий слог от конца, причем ударная гласная произносится кратко, согласно своему чтению в закрытом слоге.

'element, 'energy, 'integral, cur'riculum, 'calculate, 'processor, 'monitor, bi'ology, 'comfortable, tech'nology, 'seminar, 'operate, 'quantity, psychology

3. Если слово состоит из пяти и более слогов, то оно обычно имеет два ударения: главное - на третьем слоге от конца, и второстепенное – на пятом слоге от конца слова.

,uni'versity, ,possi'bility, ,elect'ricity, ,engineering, ,inex'perienced, ,immo'bility, i,mmuta'bility, ,supplementary, i,rregu'larity, o,rigi'nality

4. В существительных с суффиксом -tion главное ударение падает на гласную, предшествующую суффиксу.

inst'ruction, se'lection, ,insti'tution, ,ope'ration, ,combi'nation, co.mmuni'cation, ,application, ,calculation

5. В словах с префиксами о-, bе-, сот-, соя-, dls-, mis-, in-, im-, pre-, re- ударение падает на второй слог.

a'mount, a'ssign, be'side, be'long, com'pile, con'cede, con'cave, com'pare, dis'cover, displacement mis'chief, mis'deed, im'pair, im'portant, in'famous, in'frequent pre'pare, pre'clude, re'lease, re'mainder, con'duct

6. В сложных существительных, как правило, ударение падает на первый слог.

'textbook, 'Englishman, 'newspaper, 'keyboard, 'database, 'spreadsheet 'feedback, 'framework, 'hardware 'software, 'kylobyte

2. А. Прочтите слова, определив ударную гласную:

member, logic, input, interesting, arithmetic, algebra, conform, become, along, compact, miscarry, display, immoral, inform, rerun, replace, predict, kilobit, network.

В. Прочтите слова, определив слоги с главным и второстепенным ударениями:

introductory, anniversary, examination, conversation, agitation, transformation, education, repetition, hexadecimal, indivisible, elasticity, generality, allocation.

П. Лексика, грамматика

3. Догадайтесь о значении следующих интернациональных слов. Проверьте по словарю их транскрипцию и перевод:

ideal, mass, material, final, concept, theory, fact, element, principle, assistant, assist (v), integral, basis.

4. Прочтите слова школьного минимума. Вспомните их значение:

become (v), build (v), discover (v), following (a), free (a, v), mistake (n), prepare (v), repeat (v), until (prep), useful (a), vocabulary (n), world (n).

5. Прочтите и запомните новые слова:

1. aim [eim] – цель

Syn. Goal

The microcomputer ideally answers the aims of mass education. The aim of this computer programme is to make the process of learning interesting and easy.

2. correct [kə'rekt] – правильный 

Syn. right

This answer is correct. The method of the experiment isn't correct.

3. aid [eid] – 1) помогать; 2) помощник, помощь

visual aids – наглядные пособия

Computers aid to carry out scientific experiments. We build up large data banks of information with the aid of computers. Computer programs can be good visual aids as, for example, «electronic blackboards».

4. drill – обучать, тренировать; тренировка 

Computers can drill students in vocabulary or arithmetic. They can repeat the drill if students' answers are not correct.

5. curriculum [kə'rikjuləm] – учебный план, программа

pi. curricula

The computer is a part of the curiculum in schools and institutes today. Secondary school curricula in England include (включают) mathematics, science, foreign languages, history and other subjects.

6. figure ['figə] – 1) цифра; 2) рисунок, чертеж

pi. figures – арифметика

We separate (отделяем) figures of numbers into groups of three so, that it becomes easy to read large numbers. Figure 2 illustrates a magnetic disk. Computers can drill students in figures.

7. programming ['prougræsmiɧ] – программирование 

programming languages – языки программирования 

There are some forms of programming for the computer. One of the forms of programming is the construction of programs which accept (принимают) instructions in standard words and translate these words into a machine language. BASIC is a programming language for solving mathematical and business problems.

8. select [si'lekt] – отбирать, сортировать

selection [si'lekʃən] – отбор

Every teacher must learn how to select computer programs. This selection is important to make the computer an integral part of the curriculum.

6. Замените слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами:

1. The (цель) of this research is to study the application of laser in computers. 2. The solution of the problem is (правильное). 3. Each group of three (цифры) is called a period. 4. Our new school (учебный план) includes the most important problems of information science. 5. A computer can repeat the (тренировка) over and over again. 6. We'll discuss the principles and methods of (программирование) at this seminar. 7. The (отбор) of educational programs is an important teacher's task. 8. With the (помощь) of computers teachers can make their lessons more creative and interesting.

7. Заполните пропуски словами из упр. 5:

1. Computer programs ... students in many aspects of knowledge. 2. BASIC and PASCAL are popular ... languages. 3. Help me, please, to ...a useful computer program to study English grammar. 4. The .. of our seminar is to discuss some problems of computer technology. 5. If your answers are ..., you'll pass the exam. 6. Computers are often used as ...to demonstrate different phenomena. 7. This ... illustrates all the sections of the central processing unit. 8. The primary school ... includes reading, writing, arithmetic, nature study, drawing, etc.

8. Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания. Обратите внимание на употребление существительного слева в качестве определения:

laboratory science, laboratory experiment, examination courses, computer equipment, computer language, computer screen, computer technology, computer studies.

9. Обратите внимание на отрицательное значение префиксов in(im)-, un-, il-, ir-, употребляемых с прилагательными.


expensive – дорогой; inexpensive – недорогой

Прочтите и переведите слова:

indirect, unusual, illogical, irrational, unimportant, impracticable, illegal, irregular, independent, impossible, incorrect.

Modal verbs

Modal verbs

and their







to be able


умственная и физическая возможность, способность совершить действие

I can read

I am able

to read

I could read

I was able

to read

I'll be

able to



to be allowed




I may read

I am

allowed to


I might read

I was

allowed to


I'll be


to read


to have (to)

обязанность, необходимость

I must read

I have to


I had to


I'll have

to read

to have (to)

необходимость совершения действий в зависимости от обстоятельств

I have to


I had to


I'll have

to read

to be (to)

необходимость совершения действия, заранее запланированного

I am to


I was to



совет, субъективное мнение о необходимости совершения действия

You should


ought (to)

необходимость совершения действия, обусловленная логикой

вещей, моральным долгом

You ought

to read


необходимость совершения действия или отсутствие таковой (только в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях)

Need I





10. Прочтите предложения, обращая внимание на оттенки значений, передаваемые модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами:

a) can – could – to be able to

1. He can speak English. 2. The computer can ideally answer the aims of mass education. 3. They could use a computer to do calculations. 4. I shall be able to operate a computer. 5. Can you help me? 6. She can't translate from English into French. 7. We couldn't translate this article without a dictionary. 8. Will you be able to come to the lecture? 9. He won't be able to carry out this experiment. 10. I wasn't able to write my lecture notes.

b) may – might – to be allowed to

1. You may use a dictionary. 2. He may take my book. 3. She might use this computer program. 4. They are allowed to take books home. 5. May I ask you a question? 6. He may not take this exam earlier. 7. They mightn't work in the computer room yesterday. 8. Were you allowed to operate their new computer? 9. She won't be allowed to stay here till tomorrow. 10. Shall we be allowed to use the printer?

c) must

1. I must finish the translation in time. 2. He must work much. 3. Must she write a report? 4. Must we retell this text? 5. They must not be late for the lecture. 6. You mustn't use your lecture notes during the exam.

d) to have to

1. He has to look up the words in the dictionary. 2. We had to miss (пропустить) several lessons. 3. I'll have to look through these articles. 4. Do you have to repeat the drill? 5. She doesn't have to select computer programs. 6. Will you have to learn programming? 7. We shan't have to discuss their plan. 8. Did he have to store the data? 9. They didn't have to come once again.

e) to be to

1. We are to have an English class on Tuesday. 2. They were to take examinations in January. 3. He is to speak at the conference. 4. Was she to give you only a general idea of her work? 5. Are you to attend tomorrow’s lecture?

6. They aren't to work in the computer room on Monday.

7. She wasn't to study English last term.

f) should

1. You should help your friend to solve the problem. 2. Every teacher should prepare himself for the application of computer technology. 3. Should I read this book? 4. Should we repeat the experiment? 5. You should not use computer equipment without special training. 6. They shouldn't print all the data.

g) ought (to)

1. You ought to find time to help them. 2. We ought to return books to the library in time. 3. Ought the teacher to know the needs and abilities of her pupils? 4. Ought they to carry out this work? 5. You ought not to go there every day. 6. She oughtn't to know about it.

h) need

I. You need not do this exercise in writing. 2. He needn't draw a diagram. 3. Need I use this spreadsheet? 4. Need they store all the data? 5. Need we go further with these experiments?

11. Поставьте предложения сначала в Past Indefinite, а затем в Future Indefinite, где это возможно:

1. Computers can drill students in different subjects. 2. He may have a rest. 3. We have to repeat the experiment. 4. Need they know all the details of this phenomenon? 5. I am to have 3 classes today. 6. You should study this new method. 7. Students must know how to solve this problem. 8. She ought to help her parents.

12. Поставьте предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной форме:

1. We are to discuss the curriculum. 2. You should know programming for your research work. 3. He may take his exam in maths on Friday. 4. My brother can play chess. 5. They ought to inform us about the result of the experiment. 6. We must study this database. 7. She had to open the meeting. 8. He will be able to select all the programs. 9. They could find the correct answer. 10. She will be allowed to come later. 11. We might work in the lab on that day. 12. They will have to work very hard.

13. Прочтите предложения и задайте вопрос, воспользовавшись вопросительным словом в скобках:

1. A computer can build up large data banks (what). 2. The first automatic computers were able to operate at a low speed (what speed). 3. He might work in the computer center (where). 4. You are to begin your classes at 8 o'clock (when). 5. Our lab assistant has to construct this electronic device (who). 6. We have to study two computer languages (how many). 7. You ought to learn programming to become a good specialist (why). 8. Our students will be allowed to watch the operation of this new computer tomorrow (when). 9. Every student must work hard at his research (how). 10. They should process the result of the experiment (what).

14. Заполните пропуски глаголами can, may или их эквивалентами:

1. A computer ... train teachers, engineers, businessmen. 2. No man ... do 500,000 sums per second, but a modern computer ... . 3. ... I take your book? Yes, you .... Here it is. 4. My brother knows programming well. He ... help you. 5. My friend ... take his exam in April. 6. Computers ... process a large volume of data.

15. Заполните пропуски глаголами must, ought(to), should, have(to), be(to).

1. Every teacher ... know his subject very well. 2. He ... use a computer in his classroom to make his work more creative. 3. A teacher ... know the application of computer technology. 4. The method of this experiment isn't correct.We ... repeat the experiment once again. 5. The meeting ... begin at 7 o'clock. 6. I have much work in our Student Science Society. I ... stay at the Institute after classes. 7. We ... take 5 exams this term.

16. Руководствуясь смыслом предложения, переведите модальные глаголы, данные в скобках:

1. What (должен) I do to learn to speak English? 2. You (следует) work hard at your English. 3. At what time (должен) the next English class to take place? -It (должен) to take place at 2 o'clock on Tuesday. 4.You (не нужно) go to the library. You (можете) take any French book from me. 5.When (сможете) you come to see us? –I (смогу) to visit you in a few days. Now I am very busy. I (должен) to prepare for the seminar. In order (чтобы) to make a good report I (придется) to sit for many hours in the reading hall. 6. I (должен) to help my grandparents to do some work. 7. You (должен) know a lot of English words to read books on your speciality. 8. Computers (могут) help to solve many important problems in science. 9.We (разрешат) to attend the conference on cybernetics. 10. Everyone (следует) know that resonable operations are logical and mathematical operations. 11. Classes (должны) to begin on Monday. 12. He (не смог) translate this article himself. 13. (Могу) I see the dean? – You (придется) to wait for 15 minutes. 14.You (должны) to attend seminars more regularly. 15. He (не нужно) do the whole exercise again.

Impersonal Sentences

It is warm here.

Здесь тепло.

It was Sunday yesterday.

Вчера было воскресенье

It is 5 o'clock now.

Сейчас 5 часов.

17. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. It is cold here. 2. It was Tuesday yesterday. 3. It will be Thursday tomorrow. 4. It is difficult to translate this article without a dictionary. 5. It is important to know programming. 6. It was late. It was necessary to finish the work.

18. Прочтите и запомните:

6.00 – It is six o'clock (sharp).

6.10 – It is ten (minutes) past six.

6.15 – It is a quarter past six.

6.30 – It is half past six.

6.45 – It is a quarter to seven.

6.55 – It is five (minutes) to seven.

7 a.m. (ante-meridiem - до полудня) – 7 часов утра

7 p.m. (post-meridiem - после полудня) – 7 часов вечера

What's the time? – Который час?

by my watch  по моим часам

My watch is right (correct).  – Мои часы идут правильно.

My watch is wrong (not correct). – Мои часы идут неправильно.

My watch is (two minutes) fast. –  Мои часы спешат (на две) минуты.

My watch is (five minutes) slow. – Мои часы отстают (на пять минут).

19. Назовите по-английски:

8.00, 8.05, 8.10, 8.15, 8.30, 8.40, 12.15, 12.25, 12.30, 12.45, 12.50, 10.00, 10.23, 10.47, 10.58.

20. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the time now? 2. Is your watch correct? 3. Is your watch fast? 4. Is your watch slow? 5. At what time will you be free? 6. At what time are your classes over?

21. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Зимой холодно. 2. Вчера было тепло. 3. Сегодня среда. 4. Сейчас девять часов утра по моим часам. 5. Поздно. Время заканчивать собрание. 6. Трудно изучать языки программирования. 7. Важно работать над иностранным языком регулярно.

22. Определите значение выделенных слов и словосочетаний по контексту и словообразовательным элементам. Укажите индекс соответствующего им перевода:

1. Until 1980s there was a computer assisted instruction primarily in universities. 2. The computer can point out mistakes and repeat the drill. 3. Pupils may learn more about the computer if they become interested. 4. In a well-run school the computer can function as a teacher's assistant. 5. One of the problems in computer assisted instruction is the projection of teaching systems. 6. A computer ideally answers the aims of mass education from primary school on up.

а) обучение с помощью компьютера; б) указывать ошибки; в) и выше; г) заинтересоваться; д) в школе с хорошей организацией дела; е)проектирование обучающих систем; ж) выполнять функции.

23. Прочтите текст и перечислите ключевые вопросы, затронутые в нем:

The use of computers in education is not new but until 1980s there was a computer assisted instruction primarily in universities. With the coming1 of inexpensive microcomputers their applications nave become more versatile2. Today we can see the microcomputer in schools, institutes, universities, in training teachers, engineers, businessmen. It ideally answers the aims of mass education from primary school on up.

In many subjects the personal computer helps to do long or complex calculations. In others it builds up large data banks of information. Computers are very useful to drill students in spelling3, vocabulary or arithmetic. They can point out mistakes and repeat the drill. A student may go on to the next question if his answers are correct. He can learn the material at his own pace.

Computers help much in teaching laboratory sciences. A student can carry out, on the computer screen, long, expensive or otherwise impracticable experiments in physics, chemistry, or social sciences.

So the computer is a part of school or institute curricula today. It can drill students in the facts and figures which they are to know. It can aid to carry out scientific experiments. At the same time students learn something about the computer and programming, and they may learn more if they become interested. In England, for example, most examination courses in computer studies have some or all of the following elements: history of computers, principles of programming, computer languages, computer applications, social problems of computer technology, etc.

In a well-run school with creative educational aims, the computer can function as a teacher's assistant. It can free teachers to do what teachers ought to do – help students to discover the world.

Every teacher should prepare himself for the application of computer technology. The ability to operate the computer is an important basic skill today. A teacher must become familiar4 with computer equipment (hardware) and know how to use this hardware in the classroom. He must learn how to select computer programs (software) to make them an integral part of his lesson plans. He also must have basic knowledge to discuss uses and effects of computer technology with students and other teachers.

There are some groups of problems in computer assisted instruction (CAI): the elaboration5 of the theory of CAI on the basis of modern scientific concepts; the creation of the CAI technology; psychological and pedagogical questions of the projection of teaching systems. The final aim of such systems is to make the process of learning interesting and easy.


1with the coming – с появлением

2have become more versatile ['və:isətail] – стали более многосторонними

3spelling – правописание

4to become familiar [fə'miljə] – близко познакомиться 

5elaboration [i'læЬə'геiʃ(ə)n] – разработка

24. Письменно переведите предпоследний абзац текста.

25. Подберите из текста 2–3 предложения, дополняющие содержание данных предложений:

1. The use of computers in education is not new. 2. The microcomputer ideally answers the aims of mass education. 3. The computer in schools and institutes is a part of the curriculum today. 4. Every teacher should prepare himself for the application of computer technology. 5. There are some groups of problems in computer assisted instruction.

26. Подтвердите или опровергните следующие утверждения. Используйте выражения: That's (not) right. That's (not) correct, It's incorrect, It's possible, It's impossible.


1. Until 1980s there was a computer assisted instruction primarily in universities. – That's right. Until 1980s there was a computer assisted instruction primarily in universities.

2. The microcomputer doesn't answer the aims of mass education. — That's incorrect. The microcomputer ideally answers the aims of mass education.

1. In many subjects the personal computer helps to do calculations. 2. Computers are very useful to drill students in vocabulary or arithmetic. 3. A student may go to the next question if his answers are incorrect. 4. A student can carry out on the computer screen experiments in physics, chemistry, or social sciences. 5. The computer can't function as a teacher's assistant. 6. The ability to operate a computer is an unimportant skill. 7. Every teacher must become familiar with the computer equipment. 8. A teacher needn't know how to select computer programs.

27. Дайте развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. Is the use of computers in education new? 2. How can computers help students in different subjects? 3. How can computers help in laboratory sciences? 4. Why is the computer a part of the curriculum today? 5. What elements have the examination courses in computer studies in England? 6. Can the computer function as a teacher's assistant? 7. What should every teacher do to prepare himself for the application of computer technology? 8. What problems are there in computer assisted instruction?

28. Обсудите в парах возможности использования компьютера в учебном процессе.

29. Сделайте сообщение о задачах учителя в деле компьютеризации учебного процесса.

30. Вы считаете, что компьютеризация значительно повысит эффективность учебного процесса. Убедите в этом своих коллег-учителей.

31. Вы – сотрудник фирмы "Мультимедиа Технологии" (Москва). Прорекламируйте обучающий курс английского языка "English Gold". Следующая информация сделает Вашу рекламу более убедительной:

– Volume 500 megabytes!

– Dialogue with a computer by microphone!

– Dictations under computer control!

– Slide-films with subtitles in English and Russian!

– 12,000 words with pronunciation patterns!

– 3,000 words with illustrations!

– Grammar with the sound!

– Texts are read by BBC announcers!


Words and expressions to help you:

1) advantages of the computer assisted teaching course – преимущества компьютерного обучающего курса;

2) to suit the aims of independent work  соответствовать целям самостоятельной работы;

3) to record all the stages and results of student's work – записывать все стадии и результаты работы обучающегося;

4) to work in a dialogue mode – работать в диалоговом режиме;

5) to display words, still or moving pictures – демонстрировать слова, неподвижные или двигающиеся картинки;

6) to master vocabulary (grammar) – овладеть лексикой (грамматикой).


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