94652

The Present Indefinite Tense. The Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Secondary (образование) is a compulsory minimum in our country. The (скорость) of this computer translation is one page per 40 seconds. А (текстовой процессор) can correct grammar mistakes. Memory units on magnetic disks store a large (объем) of data. We (применяем) this method to solve the problem.

Английский

2015-09-15

117 KB

0 чел.

LESSON 4

Grammar: 1. The Present Indefinite Tense

2. The Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Oral Topic: Computers in Everyday Life

I. Упражнения на повторение правил чтения

1. Повторите правила чтения следующих буквосочетаний, прочтите упражнения:

Правила чтения

Упражнения в чтении

ck

[k]      clock

deck, check, back, black, rock, pack, 'feedback, 'joystick

wr

[r]      write

wrong, written, wrap, wring, wreck, wrist, wrest, wretch

wa

[]    перед n,s,t want

wash, was, wand, watch, 'wanton, watt, 'wander, water

wor

[wə:]  перед согласной work

worst, world, worth, word, worm, 'worthy, 'worship, 'workshop

о 

oa

ow

o+ld o+st

в открытом слоге

[ou]    в конце

         слова Исключение: how, now, allow

whole, note, code, pole, zone, vote, cope, hope, rope goal, load, road, float, soap, coach, coal, loan, boast, boat low, row, know, show, slow, blow, flow, snow, 'follow old, cold, told, fold, hold, gold, 'soldier

post, most, host, post'pone, 'poster, 'roster, 'hostess

oi

оу

         join

[ɔi]     boy

noise, voice, foil, point, boil, oil, doit, coin, toil, choice,

toy, coy, cloy, joy, troy, 'loyal, 'royal, 'oyster, 'foyer

а 

ai

ay

еу 

eigh

eign

в открытом слоге

[ei]

gh не произносится g не произносится

name, take, tale, same, stage, late, make, safe, rate, date

ail, rain, laid, main, brain, mail, aim, chain, vail, paint day, ray, may, say, pay, gay, tray, play, clay

grey, they, obey, hey, prey, whey, trey

heigh, freight, eight, weight, sleigh, neigh, 'neighbour

feign, deign, reign, 'seignior

u 

ew 

eu

в открытом слоге

[ju:]

use, due, fuse, cube, fume, tube, tune, cute, huge

new, dew, knew, few, hew, mew, pew, 'Newton

feud, 'neutral, deuce, 'Euclid, 'eulogy, 'euphemism, 'Teuton

еег 

ere

ear

[iə]     Исключение: there, where

beer, sheer, cheer, deer, steer, sneer, leer, queer

here, mere, sphere, sin'cere, stere'ometry, 'cereal

ear, hear, near, fear, dear, clear, beard, a'ppear

are 

air

в конце слова

[ɛə]

dare, mare, rare, fare, care, stare, flare, spare, square, de'clare

air, stair, hair, fair, pair, chair, lair, a'ffair, des'pair

2. Прочтите следующие слова:

stick, wrote, coat, 'olden, joint, 'joyful, sale, fail, soy, 'eighty, 'bracket, writ, 'washy, worse, mode, oath, 'arrow, 'postage, moist, way, state, plain, mute, 'fewer, Euc'lidean, 'cheery, ad'here, snare, 'ups'tairs, worst, grey, weigh, skew, 'euphony, 'steersman, sere, pare, 'airy, tear, inter'fere, shear.

II. Лексика, грамматика

3. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на ударение. Догадайтесь об их значении, проверьте точность догадки по словарю:

bank [bæɧk], business ['biznis], complex ['kɔmpleks], result [ri'zʌlt], category ['kætigəri], energy ['enəʤi], medicine ['medsin], segment ['segmənt], administrative [əd'ministrətiv], period ['piəriəd], diagram ['datəgræm], diagnostic [,daiəg'nɔstik], finance [fai'næns], intensive [in'tensiv], machine [mə'ʃi:n], technology [tek'nɔləʤi], confidential [,kɔnfi'denʃ(ə)l], transformation [,trænsfə'meiʃ(ə)n], potential [pə'tenʃ(ə)l]

4. Прочтите слова школьного минимума. Вспомните их значение:

achievement (n), because (conj), can (v), chess (n), creative (a), different (a), do (v), easy (a), find (v), game (n), great (a), help (n, v), home (n), kind (n), long (a), make (v), play (n,v), run (v), second (n), secondary (school), short (a), time (n).

5. Прочтите и запомните значения новых слов:

1. to solve [sɔlv] – решать (задачу)

solution [sə'lu:ʃ(ə)n] – решение

Computers solve not only arithmetic problems, but draw diagrams, construct models, do a lot of important operations. The solution of this problem is very important.

2. speed [spi:d] – скорость

Syn. rate

The speed of the first automatic computer was rather low. A modern computer can record on a magnetic tape at the speed of 1,000,000 characters per second.

3. to operate [рəгеit] – работать

Today computers operate at great speed. In primary and secondary schools pupils learn how to operate computers.

4. to store [stɔ:] – запоминать, хранить (в памяти)

storage ['stɔ:riʤ] – запоминающее устройство, память We store information or data in the memory or storage of the  computer.   Storage units on magnetic disks  store more than 100,000,000 bytes. We use the term «memory» for the internal (внутренний) storage of a computer.

5. quantity ['kwɔntiti] количество

Modern computers store large quantities of information. The capacity (мощность) of a computer memory is the quantity of the data that a memory unit can store.

6. to apply [a'plai] – применять 

application [,aspli'keif(a)n] – применение 

Today people apply computers to translate from and into foreign languages. There are some categories of computer application: business, science, engineering, medicine, etc.

7. education [,edju:'keif(a)n] – образование, обучение

Syn. instruction

Our country has a uniform system of education. There are three stages in the state system of education in England.

8. to process [,prouses] – обрабатывать 

word-processor [,wa:d'prousesa] – текстовый процессор 

In science and engineering computers process results of experiments in a short period of time. A word-processor is a program which can create,  store,  edit (редактировать) and print different texts.

9. volume ['voljum] – объем

Let's find the volume of this cube. A personal computer hard(jKecTKHU) disk has a capacity up to 100 and even more megabytes and can store a large volume of data.

10. sum [злт] – сумма

to do sums – решать арифметические задачи 

12 plus 18 is equal to 30, 30 is a sum. No man can do 500,000 sums per second, but a modern computer can.

11. to calculate ['kaelkjuleit] – вычислять, подсчитывать 

calculation [,ktelkju'leij(a)n] — вычисление, расчет 

Modern computers can calculate and perform logical operations. In science and engineering computers do calculations, draw diagrams, process the results of experiments.

12. device [di'vais] – устройство, прибор An output unit is a device or devices which put out computer information. A buffer is a storage device which takes in (принимает) information at a very high speed.

13. skill – умение, опыт

The ability to work with a computer is a necessary basic skill today. He has no skill in the translation of English texts.

14. spreadsheet ['spredfi:t] – электронная таблица 

A spreadsheet is a program for automatic calculations in the form of the table (таблица). Such spreadsheets as SuperCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, Quattro are very popular today.

15. database ['deitabeis] – база данных

A database is a set (набор) of organized data or information in the computer storage. A data control system is a program for different operations with a database.

6. Замените слова в скобках их английскими эквивалентами:

1. Try to find the proper (решение) of the problem. 2. The computer's memory can (хранить в памяти) numbers and instructions. 3. The usual (количество) of characters of a printer's line is 120–150. 4. Secondary (образование) is a compulsory minimum in our country. 5. The (скорость) of this computer translation is one page per 40 seconds. 6. А (текстовой процессор) can correct grammar mistakes. 7. Memory units on magnetic disks store a large (объем) of data. 8. We (применяем) this method to solve the problem. 9. A (сумма) is the result of addition. 10. An input (устройство) provides communication between the computer and the user. 11. RBase is a well-known (база данных) of the Microrim Co. 12. The first automatic machine for complex (вычисления) was designed by Ch. Babbage. 13. I don't know how to (работать) this computer. 14. (Электронные таблицы) are very helpful in business and research. 15. Computers in education help to test a particular (умение) or knowledge.

7. Заполните пропуски словами из упр. 5:

1. The ... of supercomputers is about 10 billion operations per second. 2. The ... of memory cells (ячейки) of this computer is more than 100. 3. A... helps the user to manipulate with a text. 4. There are three forms of ... in our country: fulltime, evening and correspondence. 5. Educational games are very useful if you want to develop a ... or knowledge. 6. Computers process a large ... of data in a short period of time. 7. 35 plus 16 is equal to 51, 51 is a ... . 8. This electronic ... was constructed by our lab assistant. 9. We store information and form a ... with the help of the computer. 10. If you want to ... the computer, press this key. 11. I do all mathematical ... with the help of the computer. 12. SuperCalc is a wellknown ... . 13. The part of the computer which stores information is called a ... or memory. 14. Computers help to ... many problems in science. 15. Today people ... computers in business, medicine, education, at home.

8. Образуйте наречия от прилагательных при помощи суффикса -ly. Обратите внимание на чередование гласной у перед данным суффиксом.

Models:

 different differently

easy – easily

creative, great, quick, necessary, bad, happy, heavy, intensive, usual, special, real, mathematical.

9. Прочтите слова, назовите суффиксы, при помощи которых образуются от глаголов имена существительные. Имена существительные переведите:

to work – worker; to agree – agreement; to write – writer; to use – user; to enjoy – enjoyment; to translate – translator; to educate – educator; to teach – teacher; to equip – equipment; to compute – computer; to operate – operator; to govern – government; to process – processor; to calculate – calculator; to record – recorder; to move – movement; to speak – speaker; to develop – development.

10. Установите контекстуальное значение выделенных слов и словосочетаний, укажите индекс соответствующего им перевода.

1. Today computers play chess and compose music. 2. Computers operate at great speed, save a lot of time. 3. Computers make administrative work easier, help business to run more efficiently. 4. In science computers do calculations and keep records of experiments results. 5. Computer-assisted instruction helps students to study more intensively. 6. In medicine databases and diagnostic devices serve doctors in their work. 7. A technophobia, the fear of machines and computers, is a social problem of computer technology. 8. Scientists study all these problems to find the way out.

а) чтобы найти выход; б) сочинять; в) боязнь машин; г) экономить много времени; д) служить; е) помогать вести дела; ж) обучение с помощью компьютера; з) вести записи.

11. Поставьте глаголы в форму 3-го лица единственного" числа Present Indefinite. Обратите внимание на правильное чтение окончания -(e)s (см. табл. на стр. 50).

to play, to translate, to help, to operate, to live, to use, to run, to process, to store, to make, to teach, to close, to draw, to finish.

The Present Indefinite Tense

I (we, you, they)

study

French

She (he)

studies

I (we, you, they)

do not (don't)

study

French

She (he)

does not (doesn't)

Do

I (we, you, they)

study

French?

Yes, we do

No, we don't

Does

she (he)

Yes, he does

No, he doesn't

12. Прочтите предложения. Обратите внимание на форму глагола-сказуемого, на структуру вопросительных и отрицательных предложений.

A. I study at the Mathematics Department. My friend studies at the same department. We perform many computer operations. This group of students does research. I also do research. They attend lectures regularly. He also attends each lecture.

B. Do you do reseach? Does he do mathematics? Do they study different aspects of this problem? Does a computer help to solve many important problems? Do computers translate into foreign languages? Does your sister teach English?

C. This work does not take much time. You do not work •much. He does not study at Physics Department. She doesn't attend lectures. We do not live in this town. They don't discuss such problems.

13. Поставьте глагол в скобках в Present Indefinite:

1.The students (to take) books from the library. 2. This student (to put out) wall newspapers. 3. We (to begin) our work at 9 a. m. 4. My sister (to study) Russian. 5. The pupils (to learn) how to operate a computer. 6. This computer (to operate) well. 7. Computers (to process) large volumes of data. 8. My friend (to play) chess. 9. My friends (to translate) from and into foreign languages. 10. He (to look) through morning newspapers every day.

14. Поставьте предложения в отрицательной и вопросительной форме:

1. I speak English well. 2. This professor gives them lectures on the subject. 3. My father works at the University. 4. They study at the Preparatory Department. 5. Computers do calculations and draw diagrams. 6. This pupil draws well. 7. You_ like this program. 8. A computer does sums in a short period of time. 9. We often see him in the computer room. 10. She knows Latin.

15. Спросите своих товарищей по группе:

1) what subjects they study; 2) what newspapers they read; 3) if his (her) friend studies at the University; 4) what language his (her) friend speaks; 5) if he (she) attends lectures regularly; 6) if they take part in conferences; 7) if he knows BASIC; 8) whose lectures they like best.

16. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным членам предложения. Используйте вопросительные слова: who, what, whom, whose, which, where, why, how many (much), how often, when.

1. My friend lives in Minsk. 2. Computers help doctors in their work, in medical and laboratory research. 3. Our Institute trains future teachers. 4. The second term (семестр) begins in February. 5. She teaches algebra. 6. He spends much time in the library to make a report. 7. We listen to his lectures on Saturdays. 8. This mathematican works in the Academy of Sciences. 9. Computers do 500,000 sums per second. 10. I work in the computer room every day.

17. Переведите на английский язык:

1. Все студенты вашей группы получают стипендию? 2. Они проводят научную конференцию каждый год. 3. Моя сестра не преподает информатику, она учится на филологическом факультете. 4. Ты знаешь английский язык? 5. Мы не применяем этот метод в решении таких задач. 6. Как компьютер помогает людям?

Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

Прилагательные

и наречия

Положительная степень

Сравнительная степень

Превосходная степень

а) односложные

short – короткий

-ег

shorter – короче; более короткий

-est

(the) shortest – кратчайший

б) двусложные на-ег, -у, -ow, -1е

early – ранний, рано

earlier – раньше; более ранний

(the) earliest - самый ранний

многосложные

important – важный

more + ...

(the) most + ...

more

(the) most

important –

important –

важнее, более

наиважнейший

важный

Исключения

much - много

many

more - больше

(the) most -

наибольший,

больше всего

little  маленький, мало

less - меньше

(the) least

наименьший,

меньше всего

good  хороший

better – лучший, лучше

(the) best - наилучший, лучше всего

well – хорошо

bad – плохой

worse – худший, хуже

(the) worst – наихудший, хуже всего

badly – плохо

far  далекий,

далеко

farther – более далекий (о расстоянии)

further – дальнейший, последующий (по порядку)

(the) farthest – самый далекий (о расстоянии) (the) furthest – самый далекий (по порядку)

18. Образуйте сравнительные и превосходные степени от данных слов:

great, high, low, intensive, interesting, bad, easy, much, old, young, well, comfortable, good, popular, difficult, long, little, complex, narrow, clever, simple, far.

19. Употребите слова в скобках в нужной степени сравнения:

1. Moscow is (old) than St. Petersburg. 2. February is (short) than March. 3. 6 is (little) than 8. 4. An electronic computer is one of (great) achievements of man. 5. What is (important) unit in the computer? 6. To be late is (badly) than to be early. 7. The Sudan is (large) country in Africa. Its territory is (many) than 2,505,800 sq. km. 8. The Lena is (long) river in Russia. 9. PASCAL is (practical) than BASIC. 10. It is (easy) exercise in this lesson.

20. Прочтите и озаглавьте текст:

An electronic computer is one of the greatest achievements of the man. Today computers play chess, compose music, translate from and into foreign languages, help to solve many important problems in science, engineering, business. They save a lot of time and energy, operate at great speed, store large quantities of information, carry out long and complex operations. There are some categories of computer application: business, science, medicine, engineering, education, home.

The business segment is one of the largest. Computers process a large volume of data in a short period of time. No man can do 500,000 sums per second, but a modern computer can. Databases, speadsheets, and word-processors help business to run more efficiently, make administrative work easier.

In science and engineering, computers do calculations, draw diagrams, process the results of experiments, keep records, help with different kinds of chores1.

In medicine databases, diagnostic devices, monitoring2 systems serve doctors in their work, in medical and laboratory research.

The ability to work with a computer is a necessary basic skill today. In primary and secondary schools pupils learn how to operate a computer. Computer-assisted instruction helps students to study at their own pace3 more intensively, and helps teachers to do their work more creative.

At home most often people use personal computers to play video games or for education, to teach children. Computers serve as wordprocessors, electronic message4 centres and personal finance devices.

There are some social problems of computer technology. The most important is the elimination of jobs5 by computers. Another problem is the invasion of privacy6, the security7 of all confidential data banks. Still another is a technophobia, a fear of machines in general and of computers in particular. Very often the technophobia is the result of the elimination of jobs or the invasion of privacy. Scientists study all these problems to find a way out, because computer technology has a great potential for more progressive transformation of our society.

NOTES

1chores [ʧɔ:z] – черновая работа

2monitoring – мониторинг, наблюдение

3at their own pace – собственным темпом

4message – сообщение

5elimination of jobs – упразднение рабочих  мест, должностей

6invasion of privacy [in'veiɜ(ə)nəv'praivəsi] – посягательство на секретность

7security [si'kjuəriti] – безопасность

21. Письменно переведите последний абзац текста, посвященный социальным проблемам компьютерной индустрии.

22. Заполните пропуски предлогами, где необходимо:

1. Today computers translate ... and ... foreign languages. 2. They operate ... great speed. 3. Computers process a large volume of data ... a short period ... time. 4. A modern computer can do 500,000 sums ... second. 5. In science computers help ... different kinds of chores. 6. In schools pupils learn how to operate ... a computer. 7. One of the social problems is the elimination of jobs ... computers. 8. Computer technology has a great potential ... more progressive transformation of our society.

23. Подберите в тексте английские предложения, которые дополняют содержание данных русских:

1. Компьютеры проникают во все сферы деятельности человека. 2. Широкое использование компьютеров объясняется их огромными потенциальными возможностями. 3. Использование компьютеров в коммерческой деятельности – одно из главных областей их применения. 4. Современная научно-исследовательская работа не может обойтись без вычислительной техники. 5. Компьютеры помогают врачам в медицинских и лабораторных исследованиях. 6. Обучение с помощью компьютеров проникает в стены школ и институтов. 7. Компьютер становится другом человека в его доме. 8. Использование компьютерной техники приводит к ряду социальных проблем.

24. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Why is an electronic computer one of the greatest achievements of man? 2. What are the categories of computer applications? 3. What do you know about business applications of computers? 4. How do computers help scientists and engineers? 5. What is a computer application in medicine? 6. What place do computers occupy in education? 7. How do people use computers at home? 8. What are social problems of computer technology? 9. What is a technophobia?

25. Выделите в тексте вступление, основную часть и заключение. Составьте письменное резюме.

26. Восстановите интервью, данное корреспонденту журнала «Компьютер Пресс» английским социологом:

Journalist: .............

Sociologist: Computers are very popular in England today. 90% of young people at the age of 12—19 have an experience how to operate a computer.

Journalist: .............

Sociologist: 43% of them have computers at home and about 25% use home computers every day.

Journalist: .............

Sociologist: 93% of pupils operate computers at school.

Journalist: .............

Sociologist: 75% of young Englishmen think that computers make their life easier and more interesting and the knowledge of a computer helps to find a good job.

Journalist: Are there any social problems of computer technology in England?

Sociologist:. ............

27. Вы хотите приобрести персональный компьютер. Убедите членов своей семьи в необходимости этой покупки.


 

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  Локалова Н.П. Л73 120 уроков психологического развития младших школьников {Психологическая программа развития когнитивной сферы учащихся IIV классов. М.: Ось89 2006. Содержание Уроки психологического развития в III классе 6190 Содержание занятий
14147. Уроки психологического развития в IV классе (91-120) 1.1 MB
  Локалова Н.П. Л73 120 уроков психологического развития младших школьников Психологическая программа развития когнитивной сферы учащихся IIV классов. М.: Ось89 2006. Содержание Уроки психологического развития в IV классе 91120 Содержание занятий в IV классе Указате...
14148. Немецкий для начинающих Самоучитель 5.86 MB
  В.М. Бухаров Т.П. Кеслер Немецкий для начинающих Самоучитель Данный самоучитель универсален как по форме так по содержанию. Он позволяет в максимально сжатые сроки приобрести навыки правильного немецкого произношения усвоить наиболее употребительные в немецком
14149. THE UNITED KINGDOM 262 KB
  The United Kingdom Pretext exercises 4.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. United total leader population capital major command business commerce principle focus liberalization regulation economy concentrate industry international global calendar production textile private public product constitutional monarchy parliamentary cultural military. 4.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation. ...
14150. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 188.5 KB
  Unit 5. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Pretext exercises 5.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. Electronics microchip passive components integration manual discrete photolithography contain term economically reflect combination vertically horizontally microwave silicon. 5.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation. substrate [...