Numerals. Many, much, (a) few, (a) little. Our Institute

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The departments of our Institute train students in 14 specialities. Many students of our department are members of Student Science Society and carry out research in different fields of mathematics. grant Most students of our group get state scholarships. The best students can get special scholarships named after well-known scientists.



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Grammar:    1. Numerals

2. Many, much, (a) few, (a) little

Oral topic: Our Institute

I. Упражнения на повторение правил чтения

1. Повторите правила чтения буквосочетаний, прочтите упражнения в чтении:

Правила чтения

Упражнения в чтении




equip, quote, queen, 'quality, quite, 'frequency, 'conquest, 'quarter, 'quotient, 'quantity, 'qualified e'quation




В середине слова

brown, gown, how' ever, crowd, clown, crown, 'flower, 'tower



a'bout, cloud, count, round, wi'thout, south, house, sound, pound, found, proud, 'thousand




В закрытом слоге

set, 'chemist, 'centre, 'member, ten, "seven, 'letter, 'level, 'February, 'section



dead, deaf, 'heavy, spread, bread, breakfast, in'stead, thread, 'weather, health

еа + r + согл



earn, heard, earth, 'earnest, 'hearse, pearl, 'earldom, 'early

i, y


В открытом слоге

dive, line, type, bye, de'vice, life prime

i+ld, nd

kind, mind, mild, find, hind, child, bind, be'hind, wild, grind, blind

i + gh

gh – не произносится

might, night, tight, sight, high, flight, fight, sigh

i + gn

g  не произносится

sign, design, align, a'ssignment

Правила чтения

Упражнения в чтении


star, hard, part, art, tar, bar, 'article, department, March

а + th


path, bath, lath, 'lather, 'father, 'rather

а + s + согл.

ask, fast, grasp, glass, grass, cast, past, last, mask, 'master, 'plaster,


В закрытом слоге

cup, shut, bus, lunch, plus, 'hundred, in'struct, con'struct, 'study



young, trouble, 'country, couple, 'flourish, 'nourish, en'courage, 'doubling, 'cousin

ou + gh [f]

rough, enough, tough, clough, slough

o + m, n, th, v

some, son, 'mother, love, glove, come, 'other, 'brother, 'govern, 'money, won, month, 'wonder


for, port, sport, norm, born, or, short, force



shore, sore, store, wore, explore, ignore, 'boredom, be'fore


door, floor

а +11, lk, lt

I перед k не читается

hall, balk, salt, chalk, tall, halt, fall, call



cause, 'autumn, 'August, 'saucer, cause, be' fault, 'automaton, 'automobile, pause,


saw, raw, draw, awful, dawn, lawn, thaw, bawl, law



ward, war, warm, 'water, walk, warn, swarm, waits


your, four, pour, mourn, court, source, course

ough + t


fought, bought, brought, ought, thought, sought, nought

augh + t

taught, caught, fraught, 'daughter, 'haughty, 'naughty

2. Прочтите слова:

loud, allow, 'power, squeeze, right, learnt, 'steady, help, bite, 'binding, sign, 'second, 'wildcat, a'mount, man'kind, 'finder, all, bright, 'childish, re'search, sum, double, front, equal, 'roughly, 'rather, arc, 'wardrobe, a'bove, large, more, vast, launch, floor, pass, re'store, fasten, de'fault, nought, 'courtship, 'drawer, talk, course, wall, 'daughter.

II. Лексика, грамматика

3. Прочтите слова, обращая внимание на ударение. Догадайтесь о значении слов, проверьте себя по словарю:

Literature ['lit(ə)гiʧə], geography [ʤigrəfi] methodology [,mеθə'dɔləʤi], biology [bailəʤi], physics ['fiziks], zoology [zo(u)'ɔləʤi], psychology [sai'kɔləʤi], algebra [ælʤibrə], qeometry [ʤimitri], laboratory [lə'Ьɔгət(ə)гi], instrument ['instrumənt], modern [mɔdən], section ['sekʃ(ə)n], conference ['kɔnf(ə)rəns], committee [kə'miti], social [souʃ(ə)l], ensemble [a:n'sa:mbl].

4. Прочтите слова школьного минимума. Вспомните их значение:

assembly-hall (n), camp (n), chemistry (n), dance (n, v), everything (n), foreign (a), found (v), gym hall (n), history (n), language (n), learn (v), necessary (a), part (n), rest (n), Russian (a, n), society (n), stadium (n).

5. Прочтите и запомните значения новых слов:

1. department [di'pa:tmənt] – 1) отделение; 2) факультет

day-time department – дневное отделение;

extra-mural (correspondence) department – заочное отделение

preparatory department – подготовительное отделение

Syn. faculty.

My friend is a second-year student of the Physics Department. There is no Extra-Mural Department in this institute. There was a meeting of the Preparatory Department in the assembly-hall.

2. to draw [drɔ:] – чертить, рисовать

drawing  черчение, рисование

We have a Drawing Department in our Institute. My sister is fond of drawing.

3. to train [trein] – обучать, готовить

Teachers Training Institute – педагогический институт

The departments of our Institute train students in 14 specialities. Vitebsk State Teachers Training Institute was founded in 1918.

4. chair [ʧɛə:] – кафедра There are 27 chairs in our university. The Chair of Foreign Languages is on the second floor.

5. to hold [hould] – 1) держать; 2) проводить, организовывать

to hold tutorials (seminars) – проводить практические занятия (семинары)

We shall hold an English club at our department. Professors and lecturers give lectures, hold seminars and tutorials on a high level (уровень). The memory (память) of this computer holds programs up to 64 kilobytes.

6. to supervise [sju:pəvaiz] – руководить

Highly qualified teachers supervise our scientific work. A well-known actor supervises the drama studio of our institute.

7. research [ri'sə:ʧ] – исследование, научно-исследовательская работа

to carry out research – проводить исследование 

I am very busy with my research this week. Many students of our department are members of Student Science Society and carry out research in different fields of mathematics.

8. primary ['praiməri] – начальный 

primary school – начальная школа 

My friend is a student of the Primary. School Department. He will be a primary school teacher.

9. equipment [ik'wipmənt] – оборудование 

We have new equipment in our laboratory. There is no equipment for this research.

10. scholarship ['skɔləʃip] – стипендия

Syn. grant

Most students of our group get state scholarships. The best students can get special scholarships named after well-known scientists.

11. hostel ['hɔst(ə)l] – общежитие

There is a modern hostel not far from the university. My friends live in the hostel of the Mathematics Department.

12. condition [kən'diʃ(ə)n] – условие

The students of our university have good conditions for study, research and rest. Have you any conditions for computer study?

13. to take part (in) – принимать участие (в)

Most of my friends take part in the social life of the department. I always take part in scientific conferences.

14. construction unit (team) – стройотряд In summer the students of the institute take part in the work of student construction units. The student construction units movement (движение) began in May 1959.

6. Замените выделенные словосочетания словами из упр. 5:

1. My sister is a student of Art Faculty. 2.We shall organize a seminar on this problem. 3. She will be an elementary school teacher. 4. I am a student of the Pedagogical Institute. 5. He is very busy with his scientific work. 6. All the students of our group get grants. 7. Most of my fellow students are active members of the Student Science Society.

7. Заполните пропуски словами из активного словаря:

1. The... of Mathematical Analysis is on the second floor. 2. This professor will ... the work of our Student Science Society. 3. Our laboratory has new... . 4. Most of the students live in modern... . 5. In summer about 1,000 students take part in the work of ... .

8. Прочтите и переведите следующие существительные с суффиксом -ture [ʧə]:

nature, future, lecture, picture, culture, structure, feature, sculpture, architecture, mixture, literature, temperature.

9. Образуйте существительные при помощи суффикса -ness от следующих прилагательных, существительные переведите.


dark – darkness; busy – business.

Clear, clever, ready, happy, ill, bad, easy, friendly, same.

10. Определите значение выделенных слов по контексту и словообразовательным элементам. Укажите индекс соответствующего им перевода.

1. Students of the Physical Education Department have good conditions for study: a large sports complex with a stadium, a swimming pool, gym halls, sport grounds. 2. After the graduation from the Preschool Department students will work with children who are 3-6 years old. 3. The Institute has a Faculty of Social Professions where students learn to be organizers of dance ensembles, drama studios, etc. 4. Members of student construction units organize agitation teams, give lectures, stage concerts, put out wall newspapers. 5. The course of studies at our department is 5 years.

а) курс; б) организаторы; в) драмстудии; г) физическое воспитание; д) агитбригады; е) факультет дошкольного воспитания; ж) ставить концерты; з) выпускать (газету).

11. Прочтите и запомните названия месяцев:

January [‘ʤænjuəri]

July [ʤu:’lai]

February [‘februəri]

August [‘ɔ:gəst]

March [ma:ʧ]

September [р’tembə]

April ['eipr(ə)l]

October [ɔk'toubə]

May [mei]

November [nou'vembə]

June [ʤu:n]

December [di'sembə]

12. Прочтите и запомните:

There are seven days in a week. The first day of the week in the English calendar is Sunday [‘sʌndi]. The last day of the week is Saturday [‘sӕtәdi]. The other days of the week between Sunday and Saturday are: Monday [’mʌndi], Tuesday [tju:zdi], Wednesday ['wenzdi], Thursday ['ɵə:zdi], Friday ['fraidi].

Cardinal Numerals

1 – one

11 – eleven

21 – twenty-one

101 – a (one) hundred

2 – two

12 – twelve

22 – twenty- two

and one

3 – three

13 – thirteen

30 – thirty

102 – a (one) hundred

4 – four

14 – fourteen

40 – forty

and two

5 – five

15 – fifteen

50 – fifty

200 – two hundred

6 – six

16 – sixteen

60 – sixty

1,000 – a (one)

7 – seven

17 – seventeen

70 – seventy


8 – eight

18 – eighteen

80 – eighty

1,001 – a (one)

9 – nine

19 – nineteen

90 – ninety

thousand and one

10 – ten

20 – twenty

100 – a(one)

1,032 – a (one)


thousand and thirty–two

2.000 – two thousand

2,456 – two thousand

four hundred and fifty-six

100,000 – a (one) hundred thousand

439,147 – four hundred (and) thirty-nine thousand one hundred and forty-seven

1,000,000 – a (one) million

2,385,467 – two million three hundred (and) eighty-five thousand four hundred and sixty-seven

1,000,000,000 – a (one) milliard (in England), a (one) billion (in the USA)

13. Прочтите следующие количественные числительные:

15; 17; 26; 33; 45; 57; 62; 104; 178; 381; 1,941; 2,018; 135,368; 8,000,111; 243,121,314.

14. Прочтите следующие арифметические примеры.


5 +12 =17 Five plus twelve is equal to seventeen.

18 - 3 = 15 Eighteen minus ['mainəs] three is equal to fifteen.

21 x 2 = 42 Twenty-one multiplied [’mʌltiplaid] by two is equal to forty-two

39 : 3 = 13 Thirty-nine divided [di’vaidid] by three is equal to thirteen













































































Ordinal Numerals

1st –


llth –



– twenty-fist

2nd –


12th –



– twenty-second

3rd –


13th –



– thirtieth

4th –


14th –



– fortieth

5th –


15th –



– fiftieth

6th –


16th –



– sixtieth

7th –


17th –



– seventieth

8th –


18th –



– eightieth

9th –


19th –



– ninetieth

10th –


20th –



– hundredth

101st –

hundred and first


– thousandth

102nd –

hundred and second


– thousand and third

200th –

two hundredth

1,000, 000 – millionth

300th –

three hundredth

Fractional Numerals

Common Fractions

Decimal Fractions

– a (one) half

– a (one) fifth

0.1 – nought [nɔ:t] point one (or point one)

– a (one) third

– two fifths

0.01 – nought point nought one (or point nought one)

– two thirds

– one and a half

1 .42 – one point four two

– three fourths

two and two thirds

23.506 – two three (twenty-three) point five nought six

15. Прочтите порядковые числительные и дроби:

а) 1st; 2nd; 3rd; 5th; 12th; 19th; 27th; 58th; 99th; 100th; 244th; 636th; 1,142,014th; 150,233,122nd.

b) , ,, , , , , ,

c) 0.1; 0.17; 1.0053; 12.00141; 141.620; 520.001; 100.887; 735.35.

16. Прочтите даты:

I/I – 1990; 8/III – 1953; 22/IV – 1870; 7/II – 1812; 30/XI – 1667; 9/V – 1945; 23/IV – 1564; 4/VI – 1066; 25/XI – 1709; 2/IX – 1127.

17. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How many days are there in a year? 2. How many seconds are there in a minute? 3. How many students are there in your group (at your department, in your Institute)? 4. What is the first month of the year? 5. Which month of the year is March (June, August, October)? 6. When was your town founded? 7. What is the date today? 8. What date was it yesterday? 9. What date will it be tomorrow? 10. When were you born? 11. When was your mother (father, sister, brother, friend) born? 12. What dates are important in the history of our country?

18. Прочтите предложения, обратите внимание на употребление местоимений much, many, (a) Little, (a) few:

1. I have many friends. 2. My friend has a few English books. 3. There is much water in the glass. 4. He had little money to buy this car. 5. Few people were present at this lecture. 6. I know a little about the history of computer development.

19. Прочтите предложения, переведите слова, данные в скобках:

1. Have you (много) lessons today? 2. I have (много) work to do. 3. There are (мало) students in the library. 4. (Много) students in our group get state scholarships. 5. There are (несколько) construction teams at our department. 6. There is (много) snow here in December. 7. They had (мало) time for the test. 8. She speaks English (немного). 9. There are (мало) terminals in this computer room. 10. We have (несколько) seminars this week. 11. Have you (мало) coffee? 12. They have (много) new subjects this year.

20. Прочтите и постарайтесь понять основное содержание текста:

Our University

My name is Nick. I am a first-year student of Vitebsk State University. It is one of the oldest educational establishments in Belarus. It was founded as Vitebsk State Teachers Training Institute in 1918. It became a University in 1995.

The University has three departments: Extra-Mural (or Correspondence), Preparatory and Day-Time. There are 11 faculties at the Day-Time Department which train specialists of Byelorussian and Russian language and literature, foreign languages, history, geography, mathematics, information science, physics, chemistry, biology, drawing, physical education. We have Pre-school and Primary School Faculties too.

There are 43 chairs at the University. 500 lecturers and professors train about 4,500 students, give lectures, hold seminars and tutorials, supervise students' research work.

The students have good conditions for study and rest: all necessary instruments, new equipment, laboratories, computer rooms, 4 reading halls, a library with 1,000,000 volumes of books, an assembly-hall, a cinema hall, a TV centre, 6 gym halls, a stadium. There are 4 museums in the University: the museum of the history of the University, the P. M. Masherov museum, a literature museum, a zoology museum. Many students get state scholarships.

Most of the students live in modern hostels. Every year hundreds of students have a good rest in the University camp.

More than 1,500 students are members of 60 sections of the Student Science Society. There are scientific conferences at the University every year.

The University has a Faculty of Social Professions where about 1,600 students learn to be organizers of dance ensembles, drama, film and art studios, sport instructors, guides, etc.

In summer many students of the University take part in the work of student construction units. They organize agitation teams, give lectures, stage concerts, put out wall newspapers, help to decorate club-houses.

I study at the Mathematics Faculty. It is rather large. Its 650 students study such subjects as pedagogics, psychology, methodology, algebra, geometry, mathematical analysis, information science, physics, foreign languages, etc. Usually students have 3 or 4 classes a day. The course of studies is 5 years. Many students are busy with social and scientific work in different students committees and societies.

21. Выпишите из текста слова по темам: 1) специальности факультетов университета; 2) учебные предметы; 3) материально-техническая база университета; 4) научная и общественная деятельность студентов.

22. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами:

1. The University has three ...: Extra-Mural, Preparatory and Day-Time. 2. Professors and lecturers ... about 4,500 students, ... lectures, ... tutorials, ... many students research work. 3. The students have good ... for study and rest. 4. Every year they have a good rest in the University ... 5. More than 1,500 students are members of 60 ... of the Student Science Society. 6. In summer many students of the University ... ...in the work of student construction ... . 7. Our students study such ... as psychology, methodology, algebra, geometry, information science, etc. 8. Some students are busy with social work in different students ....

23. Дайте развернутые ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. When was Vitebsk State Teachers Training Institute founded? 2. What departments and faculties are there at the University? 3. What can you say about the professors and lecturers of the University? 4. What conditions for study and rest have the students? 5. What is the scientific life of the University? 6. Is there a Faculty of Social Professions in the University? 7. What is the social life of the University?

24. Расскажите о своем институте. Составьте вопросы из данных слов и используйте их в качестве плана ответа:

1. What, student, are, Institute, you? 2. What, you, year, are, student? 3. What, are, in, the Institute, there, departments? 4. Chairs, are, how, there, many, in, the Institute? 5. What, conditions, have, rest, you, study, and, for? 6. Any, Student, at, is, Science, there, Society, the Institute? 7. What, the work, is, of, the Faculty, Professions, Social, of? 8. Students, are, how, there, your, many, at, department?

25. Составьте диалоги между студентами разных факультетов. Используйте следующие вопросы:

1. Is your department large? How many students are there? 2. What is the course of studies? 3. What subjects do you study? 4. How many students in your group get state scholarships? 5. What societies and clubs are there at your department? Are you a member of any society? 6. Is sport popular at your department? 7. What is difficult (easy, interesting) in your student life?

26. Напишите письмо зарубежному другу о своей учебе в институте.

27. Проведите экскурсию по институту, расскажите о его истории, настоящем и будущем.


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  Очаговость поражения почек т. Хронический пиелонефрит занимает третье место после врожденных заболеваний почек и гломерулонефрита среди причин ведущих к развитию хронической почечной недостаточности и к летальному исходу. Для развития воспаления кроме бактериального обсеменения необходимо: изменение общего состояния организма изменение реактивности изменение реактивности почечной ткани изменение почек и мочевыводящих путей сопровождающихся нарушением пассажа мочи лимфооттока и кровоотока.
78252. Почечная недостаточность у детей 144.5 KB
  В соответствии с рекомендациями IV Европейского конгресса педиатров-нефрологов диагностировать ХПН следует при сохранении у детей в течение не менее 36 месяцев клиренса эндогенного креатинина ниже 20 мл мин увеличении сывороточного креатинина выше 0177 ммоль л концентрации азота мочевины выше 03 ммоль л. В отличие от ОПН для ХПН характерно неуклонное прогрессирование и необратимость склеротических изменений в почках нарушение их регуляторной экскреторной и биосинтетической функции. Известно свыше 50 заболеваний которые проявляются...