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To make computers work fast and correctly is a very significant task. A problem to be solved by digital computers must be expressed in mathematical terms. Digital computers are likely to be more widely used than analogue ones. The changes in air temperature prove to have affected the operation of the computer.



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        Revision III

I. State the form and the function of Participle, translate the sentences.      

1. Being born in 1952 quantum electronics has been developing fast in recent years. 2. It was, in fact, the increasing demand for new communication channels that first led radio engineers to investigate the bands approaching visible light. 3. Scientists have found a simple way to produce a laser beam of any colour and frequency required. 4. Having used a laser beam scientists obtained accurate calculation of Jupiter's temperature-minus 150° F. 5. Being produced by the laser the narrow intense beam travels great distances without spreading. 6. When sent to the Moon in 1962 an intensive red beam illuminated a section of the Moon only two miles in diameter. 7. Having reached the surface of the Moon, it returned to the Earth three seconds later, its return being recorded by sensitive devices. 8. The beam travelled 800,000 km in space, its velocity approaching that of light. 9. The time of the beam's travel and its velocity being known, the scientists were able to calculate the distance to different parts of the Moon's surface with great precision.

II. Connect the two sentences using Nominative Absolute Participle Clause.

Model A

The report is incomplete.

I must add some facts.

The report being incomplete, I must add some facts.

  1. This laser is rather powerful. We can instantly weld together thick steel girders.          2. The technology of the application of quantum generators is comparatively new. Lasers have not yet found wide application in various fields of industry. 3. The problem of producing very high temperatures has a great significance in physics. Scientists work out various kinds of lasers.

Model B

The conversation was interesting.Many designers took part in it.

The conversation was interesting, many designers taking part in it.

l. The study of the interaction of laser radiation with matter promises great prospects. Investigators carry out extensive research in this sphere. 2. Scientists foresee many useful applications of maser and laser beams. The latter already perform numerous highly important tasks both in research and industry.

Model C

The experimenters have described the technology of producing this polymer. It was obtained at our plant.

The experimenters having described the technology of   producing    this polymer, it was obtained at our plant.

1. The theory of the use of molecular beams has been given by Basov and Prokhorov. Experimental construction of quantum devices began. 2. The engineers of our institute have developed a new type of semiconductor laser. It was tested at several plants.

III. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of the participles.

A. 1. As the radium decomposed it passed through several stages, forming new substances, and finally the breaking up stopped, lead being the final product. 2. All three forms of water, solid, liquid, gas, are the same substance, one being changed to the other simply by the addition or subtraction of heat. 3. Electrical machines perform a giant's share of the work done today, this share steadily increasing. 4. The gas being compressed, the number of molecules in each cubic centimeter is increased. 5. The modern machines consist of only a small number of kinds of parts - never more than six, these being called the simple machines or the machine elements. 6. Atmospheric air being put under increased pressure, its volume is reduced according to Boyle's law. 7. Temperature remaining the same, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure. 8. By the magic of chemistry useful fibers are produced from coal, air and water, these fibers being nylon, kapron, etc. 9. Large masses of substances are made up of molecules, molecules being made up of atoms. 10. If conductors are connected in parallel, the electron stream splits as it enters the parallel wires, part of it going through one and part through the other. The current in one is independent of that in the other, each current depending on the resistance of its own path. Having passed through parallel wires, the electron streams join each other.

B. 1. The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure applied. 2. The magnitude of the charge of the ion depends upon the number of negative electrons transferred. 3. The strength of the magnet increases with the number of amperes flowing. 4. The insertion of an ammeter into a circuit must not change the magnitude of the current flowing. 5. Burning or combustion of any kind is really a chemical reaction in which rapid oxidation takes place due to the combination of the oxygen from the air with the substance burnt. 6. In the alloying and tempering of steel the size and character of the crystals formed determine the qualities of the product. 7. The thermometers depend for their operations upon the fact that the liquids used expand more than glass when heated and contract more when cooled. 8. The electric current consisting of a stream of electrons can be driven through the conductor, just as water may be forced through a pipe filled with stones. 9. Being heated, a magnet loses some or all of its magnetism. 10. The ion of a metal, having lost electrons, is no longer electrically neutral - it is positive. 11. A falling barometer usually means wind and rain. On the other hand, a rising barometer means descending air current, little, if any, cloud and consequently no rain and no high winds, that is fine weather. 12. Being placed in a liquid, a body will sink until it has displaced its own weight of the liquid. 13. Being electrically neutral, an atom must have an equal number of positive and negative charges. 14. Automation having been firmly established in space research, our spaceships employ automatic instruments in the study of cosmic space.

IV. State the forms and functions of the participles; translate the following sentences.

1. Discussing chemical reactions we ought first to make clear what a chemical

reaction is. 2. The heat generated by the friction of the match on the box agitated the molecules in the tip of the match. 3. When combined with the oxygen of the air the match was lighted. 4. While burning different substances combine with oxygen. 5. Having discussed chemical reactions we proceeded to the experiments. 6. Having overcome the electrical bond that holds the atoms together, the molecule breaks into fragments. 7. Raising the temperature we increase the agitation of the molecules. 8. Decreasing the temperature we slow down the reaction. 9. Having spent much time studying catalysts, scientists now use them widely in chemical industry. 10. The catalysts being used in this reaction accelerate the chemical change. 11. The experiment being made at our laboratory shows the action of catalysts. 12. The temperature used depended upon the substances entering the reaction. 13. The figures following show the dependence of the rate of reaction on temperature. 14. Efforts being made in the development of chemical industry meet with great success. 15. Science has opened out possibilities for the conquest of nature hardly dreamed of a few years ago. 16. The experiments referred to in our article demonstrate the action of catalysts in chemical reactions. 17. The substance acted upon by heat changed its composition. 18. The molecules of a substance affected by a catalyst are changed more easily. 19. This reaction, when completed, will give us a new proof of the use of a catalyst in living systems. 20. Sometimes a molecule breaks into two fragments, if struck with enough violence to overcome the electrical bond that holds its atoms together.

V. State the forms and functions of the participles in the following sentences and translate them.

1. Natural radioactivity having been discovered, many scientists became interested in it. 2. Radium having been discovered, scientists found that the effects

produced by it were caused by the break-up of its atoms. 3. Many technical and scientific problems having been solved, the first spaceflight could be realized. 4. Technical and scientific problems being solved by our scientists are a great contribution to the development of world science and technology. 5. Having solved many scientific and technical problems, scientists, engineers and workers could launch the first spaceship into outer space. 6. Being the cheapest metal with a strong tendency to lose electrons, zinc is the most commonly used metal for the production of electric current. 8. The metals being used in our work possess many important properties, such as light weight, corrosion resistance, etc.

VI. State the form and the function of the infinitives. Translate the sentences.

1. The traditional approach to this problem is to consider each new process as a new problem. 2. To make computers work fast and correctly is a very significant task. 3. Scientists make the new electronic machines store information, handle calculations and even control production processes. 4. A problem to be solved by digital computers must be expressed in mathematical terms. 5. Digital computers are likely to be more widely used than analogue ones. 6. The changes in air temperature prove to have affected the operation of the computer. It yields wrong information. 7. Plastics are supposed to be used instead of metals in many cases.    8. Scientists found beta-rays to consist of negative electrons. 9. Tidal forces are expected to make considerable contribution if not to present day, at least to future electricity production. 10. Scientists are conducting space research in order to study the Earth's space environment and our solar system. 11. It takes much time for the reaction to complete at low temperature. 12. Cosmic rays are intense enough to penetrate to the bottom of lakes 1,700 feet deep. 13. Newton was the first to realize elliptical paths of comets. 14. F = m  a is one of the equations to be used when we want to calculate changes in speed. 15. It required some more experiments for the engineer to prove the precision of the results obtained. 16. Every ton of ordinary water is said to contain about 40 grams of deuterium. At first sight this may seem to be insignificant, however, it should be remembered that the power generating capacity of one gram of deuterium is equal to ten tons of oil. 17. The computing equipment enabled investigators to process the received data much quicker. 18. It was for our engineer to decide what kind of computer to utilize for such calculations.

VII. Underline the Complex Object with the Infinitive in the following sentences and translate them.

1. We know the electric current to flow in metal parts. 2. Many years ago scientists believed an electric current to be a stream of tiny electrical particles. 3. The engineer wants the new devices to be tested in the laboratory. 4. They have seen the device begin to operate. 5. We know radio to play a great part in human life. 6. They wanted the device to be examined carefully by experts. 7. Suppose the transmitted signal to be very weak. 8. Everybody considers electronic devices to play a great role in industrial control. 9. The operator considered the amplifier to be powerful enough for the given operation. 10. We often watched the operator control the functioning of the equipment. 11. We heard geophysicists do prospecting by means of radio instruments. 12. Time and again we saw the planes take off from the airdrome. 13. Suppose a large number of electrons to be concentrated on a very small area of a body. 14. Radio beacons permit the pilot to find the way in fog or storm. 15. Radio allows us to communicate with the remotest corners of the world. 16. Vacuum tubes enable us to amplify the voltage or power. 17. Radio enabled the human voice to be transmitted around the globe. 18.  We asked the engineer to show us different radio instruments. 19. The electric pressure of lightning causes the current to pass through the air. 20. Light causes electrons to be knocked out from the metal coating into the cathode ray tube.



We live in the age of the computer revolution. Like any revolution, it is widespread, all-pervasive, and will have a lasting impact. It is as fundamental to our economic and social order as was the industrial revolution. It will affect the thinking patterns and life style of every individual.

The industrial revolution was essentially the augmentation of man's physical powers; the amplification of man's muscle. The pressing of a button could cause a large machine to stamp a pattern in a metal sheet. The movement of a lever could result in a heavy scoop scraping out a mass of coal. Certain repetitive aspects of man's physical activities were replaced by machines.

By analogy, the computer revolution is the augmentation of man's mental powers; the amplification of man's brain. The pressing of a button can cause a machine to perform intricate calculations, to make complex decisions, or to store and retrieve vast quantities of information. Certain repetitive aspects of man's mental activities are being replaced by machines.

What is a computer, that it can have such a revolutionary impact? A first step toward an answer is to say that a computer is a machine which can carry out routine mental tasks by performing simple operations at high speed. The simplicity of the operations (typical examples are the addition or comparison of two numbers) is offset by the speed at which they are performed (about a million a second). The result is that large numbers of operations can be performed and significant tasks can be accomplished.

Of course a computer can accomplish only those tasks which can be specified in terms of the simple operations it can execute. To get a computer to carry out a task one must tell it what operations to perform—in other words, one must  describe how the task is to be accomplished. Such a description is called an algorithm. An algorithm describes the method by which a task is to be accomplished. The algorithm consists of a sequence of steps which if faithfully performed will result in the task, or process, being carried out.

The notion of an algorithm is not peculiar to computer science—there are algorithms which describe all kinds of everyday processes.


What is a High Level Language?

A high level language is a problem oriented programming language, whereas a low level language is machine oriented. In other words, a high level language is a convenient and simple means of describing the information structures and sequences of actions required to perform a particular task.              

A high level language is independent of the architecture of the computer which supports it. This has two major advantages. Firstly, the person writing the programs does not have to know anything about the computer on which the program will be run. Secondly, programs are portable, that is, the same program can (in theory) be run on different types of computer. However, this feature of machine independence is not always achieved in practice.

In most cases, programs in high level languages are shorter than equivalent programs in low level languages. However, conciseness can be carried too far, to the point where programs become impossible to understand. More important features of a high level language are its ability to reflect clearly the structure of programs written in it and its readability.

High level languages may be broadly classified as general-purpose or special-purpose. General-purpose languages are intended to be equally well suited to business, scientific, engineering or systems software tasks. The commonest general-purpose languages are Algol 68 and PL/I. The language Ada also falls into this category. Because of their broad capabilities, these languages are large and relatively difficult to use.

The commonest categories of special-purpose languages are commercial, scientific and educational. In the commercial field, Cobol still reigns supreme, while Fortran is still the most widely used scientific language. In the computer education field Basic is widely used in schools, with Logo and Prolog gaining popularity. Pascal is the most popular language at universities. Pascal is a powerful general-purpose language in its own right.


Computer Manufacture

There are two overall stages in the manufacture of computers, namely original equipment manufacture, and the design and assembly of complete computer systems.

Integrated circuits are designed and developed by electronics engineers, and fabricated by highly skilled workers using sophisticated equipment. Computers are used in the design, manufacture and testing of these circuits.

The complete process of designing and constructing a computer is extremely complex, and involves the work of a number of people. The stages are generally as described in the following sections.

Most computer manufacturers have a research department, investigating new computer architectures, new hardware devices, new software techniques and new computer applications. Scientists, research engineers and technicians, as well as highly skilled software engineers are among the staff of these departments. A more detailed discussion of computing research is to be found in Section 32.5.

The overall design of a new computer, or series of computers, is in the hands of computer architects. Modern computers are designed from both the hardware and the software point of view. Accordingly, systems programmers, who write the systems software for the computer, are also involved in the design process.

Highly skilled production workers are responsible for the various stages of construction and assembly of units. Production lines are not used. Generally, a team of workers is assigned to take a unit through all stages of construction and exhaustive testing.

One of the highest paid jobs in computing is that of computer salesman. Salesmen operate in an intensely competitive environment, where their level of pay depends to some extent on their sales figures. The process of selling a large computer system can take several months.

Field engineers are responsible for the installation and commissioning of new computer units, and the maintenance and repair of systems in operation. With many computers running 24 hours a day, this type of work often involves calls at unsocial hours.


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