Grammar: Participle (Passive and Perfect Forms)

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Radio supplies the communication service which is so essential to the modern world and meeting these needs it has become a rapidly developing industry itself. It is from radio that the subject of electronics was born which being applied to automation brought such remarkable changes to the technique of today.



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Unit 11

Grammar: Participle (Passive and Perfect Forms)



The radio is probably the only invention, which has found universal recognition and application in a comparatively short time.

Radio supplies the communication service, which is so essential to the modern world, and meeting these needs it has become a rapidly developing industry itself. It is from radio that the subject of electronics was born which being applied to automation brought such remarkable changes to the technique of to-day.

The fastest, most reliable way to detect an artificial satellite and to determine its orbit is by radio. It is by means of radio that we receive most of the information collected by the satellites at the borders of space. Without radio we should be hardly able to observe them at all. Indeed, radio makes it possible to follow them even when they are too small to be visible.

More obvious still is the ever-growing influence on mankind of radiobroadcasting, both sound and television. Along with the construction of television centers powerful relay-stations located at considerable distances from the main television centers are being built. Extensive work is also being carried on in the field of colour television.

Having already made remarkable progress, radio and television continue to develop and to find wider and wider application in science, industry and agriculture. They enable us to measure distances on land and water, to see through the surface. Specially designed radio and television sets can be found on board a ship, on board a plane, on the very bottom of the sea.

Radio and television are not only the reliable means of communication but also effective means of education people , speading knowledge and ideas and raining the cultural level of the population.

Broad casting based on digital coding has revealed many advantages over conventional bread casting. It consist in converting sound–waves into series of digits and their subsequent transmission in the form of monofre quential pulses. A signal is then received and after amplification is sent to the acoustic system for reproduction. Digital coding enhances the quality of broad casting, makes it possible to reduce considerably the size of new receiver –decoders. In digital broadcasting more than one station can use one and the same wavelength without interference. 

These few examples give but a poor idea of what other uses radio and television might still find in various spheres of life and how much they would contribute to the further progress of science.

Answer the questions:

1) What invention has found universal recognition and application in a comparatively short time?

2) What are the advantages of the radio?

) What can you say about the influence of radio and television on mankind?

) Where do radio and television find wider and wider application?


1.Translate the following adjectives paying attention to the suffixes –able,  -ible.

usable, measurable, solvable, changeable, connectable, observable, remarkable, detectable, applicable, reliable, variable, visible, considerable.


2.Translate the following nouns paying attention to the suffixes –ation (-tion,-ion) .

invention, recognition, application, communication, automation, information, construction, consideration, station.

3.Form words after the models and translate them:

to move –movement;

to develop –

to improve –

to measure –

4.Form words with opposite meaning by adding the prefixes: un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis-;

probable –

essential –

to connect –

visible –

logical –

able –

known –

to charge –

regular –

proper –

5.Translate  the following words and state their parts of speech :

reception, powerful, comparatively, various, agriculture, constantly, darkness, universal, rapidly, electronics, influence.

6.Translate  the following word-combinations:

universal recognition, a comparatively short time, to be essential to, to meet needs, a rapidly developing industry, remarkable changes, the most reliable way, to detect an artificial satellite, to determine the orbit by radio, by means of, the borders of space, the ever-growing influence of radio broadcasting, on board a ship, to contribute to the progress of science.

7.Translate into English:

  •  придбати світове визнання;
  •  за порівняно короткий час;
  •  найнадійніший засіб;
  •  виявити супутник;
  •  визначити орбіту супутника;
  •  зростаючий вплив;
  •  знайти застосування в науці та промисловості.

8.Translate  the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the words in bold type:

1) For our experiment we must take the mean of several temperature measurements.

) We must strive by all possible means to complete the experiment in time.

) We receive most of the information by means of radio and television.

) The word “television” means seeing objects at a great distance.

9.Translate  the following international words:

television, radio, technique, automation, relay –station, design, information, satellite.

10.Make up pairs of the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:

extensive                                    pictures

communication                          current

artificial                                     satellite

moving                                      service

up –to –date                             work

electric                                       technique

11.Make up sentences according to the following model:

1) Having made remarkable progress, radio and television continue to develop.

) It is by means of radio that we receive most of the information.

12.Find synonyms among the following words:

wide, tall, broad, high, great, hard, large, changeable, difficult, variable

13.Translate  the sentences paying attention to different meanings of the word “carry”:

1) The word “broadcasting” carries the idea of lectures, music and information of any kind sent out  from a radio transmitting station to an unlimited number of receiving stations.

) Intensive research is being carried on in the field of electronics.

) Within the next few years this plan will be carried out.

14.Connect the following sentences using adverbial participle clauses:

1) Television sets are made according to special designs. They make visible the resources of the earth and of the ocean.

2) Engine drivers will use special television devices designed for application in railroad transport. They will be able to see in the dark.

) Radio is the fastest way to detect an artificial satellite. It is largely used for that purpose.



Give a summary of the text

Today the optical telescope is no longer the means of exploration of space. Most of the information we get about other galaxies comes through the radio-telescope. As an astronomical device the radio-telescope is a far more efficient means than any of those used in the last century. The possibilities of radio-astronomy are much greater than those of optical astronomy.

Radio-astronomy gives us not only more and more information of what the universe is like but also provides technical means for its exploration. Without radio the observation of artificial satellites and cosmic ships would be quite impossible.

The development of radio has resulted in the discovery that radio-waves from outer space are continually coming to the Earth. Giant radio-telescopes listen to the voices of the stars so far away that it takes one thousand five hundred million years for their light to reach us. It has been proved that the Sun itself emits radio-waves. Radio-waves from the Sun have recently been put to practical use in an instrument called a radio sextant.   



1) Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:

1. Without understanding the inquiries of pure science, we cannot follow the story of radio. It begins perhaps with Joseph Henry, an American physicist, who discovered in 1842 that electrical discharges were oscillating. A gigantic step forward was taken by James Maxwell, a Scottish physicist and one of the great mathematical geniuses of the 19-th century. By purely mathematical reasoning, Maxwell showed that all electrical and magnetic phenomena could be reduced to stresses and motions in a medium, which he called the ether. Today we know that this “electrical medium” does not exist in reality. Yet the concept of an ether helped greatly, and allowed Maxwell to put forward his theory that the velocity of electric waves in air should be equal to that of light waves, both being the same kind of waves, merely differing in wave length.

2. In 1878, David Hughes, an American physicist, made another important discovery in the pre-history of the radio and its essential components. He found that a loose contact in a circuit containing a battery and a telephone receiver (invented by Bell in 1876) would give rise to sounds in the receiver which corresponded to those that had impinged upon the diaphragm of the mouthpiece.

. In 1883, George Fitzgerald, an Irish physicist, suggested a method by which electromagnetic waves might be produced by the discharge of a condenser. Next we must turn to Heinrich Hertz, the famous German physicist, who was the first to detect and measure electromagnetic waves, and thereby experimentally confirmed Maxwell’s theory of “ether” waves. In his experiments he showed that these waves were capable of reflection, refraction, polarization, diffraction and interference.

. A.S. Popov (1859-1906) was in 1895 a lecturer in physics. He set up a receiver in 1895, and read a paper about it at the Meeting of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society on April 25 (May 7, New Style) 1895. He demonstrated the world’s first radio receiver, which he called “an apparatus for the detection and registration of electric oscillations”. By means of this equipment, Popov could register electrical disturbances, including atmospheric ones. In March 1896 he gave a further demonstration before the same society. At that meeting the words “Heinrich Hertz” were transmitted by wireless telegraphy in Morse code and similarly received before a distinguished scientific audience.

. Marconi invented a system of highly successful wireless telegraphy, and inspired and supervised its application. Such is the story of the many inventors of wireless telegraphy, working with each other’s equipment, adding new ideas and new improvements to them. It was a patient, persistent inquiry into natural laws and it was animated by the love of knowledge.

. During the first year of its development, radio communication was called “wireless telegraphy and telephone”. This name was too long for convenience and was later changed to “radio” which comes from the well-known Latin word “radius” –a straight line drawn from the center of a circle to a point on its circumference. Wireless transmission was named radio transmission, or simply “radio”.

. The term “radio” now means the radiation of waves by transmitting stations, their propagation through space, and reception by receiving stations. The radio technique has become closely associated with many other branches of science and engineering and it is now difficult to limit the word “radio” to any simple definition.

2) Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. H. Hertz was the first to create electromagnetic waves. 2. A.S. Popov could not register atmospheric disturbances. 3. A.S. Popov is the inventor of the radio. 4. The words “Heinrich Hertz” were transmitted by wireless telegraphy in Morse code.

3) Answer the following questions on paragraph 1:

1. Who discovered the oscillation of electrical discharges? 2. Does “the ether” exist in reality? 3. What did the concept of an ether help Maxwell in?

4) Find information dealing with the discovery made by David Hughes. Relate this information to your partner.

) Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the invention of radio. Render this information.

) Read paragraph 6 and speak about Marconi’s contribution to the development of radio.

) Explain the origin of the word “radio”.

) Speak about the story of radio using the information from the text.


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