Ing forms: Participle/Gerund/Verbal Noun
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Transistors made it possible to design compact small-dimensioned electronic devices which consume very little power. The transistors are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy into electrical energy by means of thermal elements. In later years light sources and lasers were built on the basis of transistors.
Grammar: -Ing forms: Participle/Gerund/Verbal Noun
Optoelectronics [OptqιlektrOnιks] оптоелектроніка
Engineering [ֽendZι'nιqrιŋ] техніка
Technology [tek'nOlqdZι] технологія
Economical [ֽi:kq'nOmιkql] економічний
Transistor [træn 'zιst q] транзистор
Element ['elιmqnt] компонент
Compound ['kOmpaund] зєднання
Crystal ['krιstl] кристал
Instrument ['ιnstrumqnt] прилад
TEXT 10 A
Ever since electrical engineering and, later on, radio engineering, came into being, and up to the end of the first half of the 20-th century, metals and dielectrics were mainly used. They were very good or very poor electricity conductors. Semiconductors occupy an intermediate place between metals and insulators.
Transistors made it possible to design compact, small-dimensioned electronic devices, which consume very little power. The transistors are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy into electrical energy by means of thermal elements. They are also used to transform radiant energy into electricity with the help of photocells or so-called solar batteries. In later years light sources and lasers were built on the basis of transistors.
Transistors revolutionized radio engineering and electronics. Because of their small size, the absence of incandescence and other properties, transistors make it possible to produce devices which cannot be made with vacuum tubes.
Transistors are extremely sensitive to external influences. Even thousandths of one per cent of admixtures change their electrical conductive properties by hundreds of thousands of times. They are very sensitive to the action of light, nuclear particles, pressure, etc.
The turning of the tiny crystal into a transistor device, sometimes of extreme complexity, is achieved by adding mixtures to it. The outer looks of the crystal may not change when this is done, but alien atoms appear inside it, imparting new properties to the crystal.
Transistors are very sensitive to light, some of them react even to starlight. Cadmium sulphide as well as a number of other transistors, act as insulators in darkness. But already under ordinary room lighting their resistances decrease millions of times. This property was used as the basis for making the so-called photoresistances. Some of them react not only to visible light, but also to ultra-violet, infra-red and X-rays, and radioactive radiation. At present such photoresistances, being very small in size, are successfully used as the main elements for various measuring instruments and automatic devices.
The energy of light is transformed directly into electricity in photocells. It is precisely this energy that is used to power sputniks and spaceships with electricity. The photoelectric properties of transistors are largely used in TV sets, and other devices.
Opto-electronics holds out great promise. It is a synthesis of optics and electronics done on the basis of transistors. In this case electricity is directly transformed into light energy with great efficiency. Research in this field has already led to the making of miniaturized, reliable sources of light of very simple design. In the future they will be used on a great scale in computers, automatic devices, aviation, communications, etc.
The supply of transistors is inexhaustible. But up to now only a limited number of them are being used for engineering purposes. Semiconductors are germanium, silicon, selenium and some of the simple compounds, like lead sulphide and arsenic and phosphoruses with indium and gallium. The electrical properties of germanium may be changed provided the latter is exposed to light. A very fine technology has been developed for obtaining transistors with pre-set physical properties by introducing into them admixtures of gold, copper, nickel, zinc, etc.
holds out great promise відкриває перспективи
Answer the questions:
1. What is a semiconductor? 2. What is a transistor? 3. What place do semiconductors occupy? 4. What are transistors successfully used for? 5. What kind of electronic devices is it possible to design with the help of a transistor? 6. With the help of what batteries are transistors used to transform radiant energy into electricity? 7. What is the size of transistors? 8. How do some transistors act in the dark? 9. Are photoresistances small or big in size? 10. Where are the photoelectric properties of transistors widely used? 11. In what case is electricity directly transformed into light energy with great efficiency? 12. Is it possible to make miniaturized reliable sources of light of very simple design or not? 13. Where will transistors be used on a large scale in the future? 14. Do you know any transistor devices?
1. In later years both light sources and lasers were built on the basis of transistors. 2. Both silicon and germanium are semiconductors. 3. Transistors are very sensitive both to the action of light and to that of nuclear particles. 4. Both cadmium sulphide and number of other transistors act as insulators in darkness. 5. Some of the photoresistances react both to visible light and to radioactive radiation. 6. Such photoresistances are successfully used as the main elements both for various measuring instruments and automatic devices.
Heat energy, radio engineering, transistor crystals, , vacuum tubes, light sources, future technology, room lighting, radioactive radiation, light-energy, engineering purposes, semiconductor devices, high voltage transmission lines, coal deposits, to power machines, to power spaceships with electricity, to occupy an intermediate place, to impart new properties, to impart knowledge, one per cent of admixtures, different admixtures, admixtures of some metals, to expand the range of transistors, to expand the use of crystals, to expand the application of new measuring instruments, in this case, in that case, in case, some of simple compounds, the same simple compounds, some tiny crystals, the same tiny crystals, the so-called solar batteries, the so-called photoresistances, because, because of, by means of, by no means, by all means
Demand v get v
Precisely adv receive v
Small-sized a decrease v
Obtain v aim n
Ordinarily adv exactly adv
Reduce v small-dimensioned a
Purpose n usually adv
Successful a outside adv
Visible a inner a
Like a impossible a
Directly adv inexhaustible a
Inside adv unreliable a
Possible a complex a
Increase v unlike a
Exhaustible a indirectly adv
Reliable a invisible a
Simple a decrease v
Outer a unsuccessful a
prerevolutionary, prehistoric, pre-establish, prefabricated, predetermined, pre-set, precast, preheat, pre-sonic, superprecise, superconductor, superconductivity, super-high, inexhaustible, impossible, irregular, disadvantage, disconnect
1. Напівпровідники використовуються як у фізиці, так і в техніці.
2. Метали та діелектрики є або дуже добрими, або дуже поганими провідниками електрики.
3. Сульфід кадмію, як і інші транзистори, діють як ізолятори у темряві.
1. These experiments provided data necessary for the completion of our research. 2. All the members of the expedition are provided with all the necessary things. 3. Provided our plant is equipped with up-to-date machinery, well be able to raise the quality of the manufactured goods.
1. Small dimensioned electronic devices consume very little power. 2. Under ordinary room lighting the resistance of transistors decreases millions of times. 3. Transistors revolutionized radioelectronics and electronics.
Transformation, energy, properties, supply, insulators, sensitive, occupy, efficiency.
TEXT 10 B
Transistors and Semiconductor Devices
Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
No t e s
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