94663

Modal verbs. Nouns as attributes

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Practise reading two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable radar ranging harbour landing travel measure beacon presence weather echo signal timer system object constant mountain strongest portion during. Practise reading the following word combinations: capable of determining the presence of objects their character...

Английский

2015-09-15

88.7 KB

0 чел.

Unit 6

Grammar: . Modal verbs;

 . Nouns as attributes.

Reading exercises

I. Practise reading the following one-syllable words:

  1.  fact, back, hand, land;
  2.  range, made, same, face, safe, take, name, wave;
  3.  large, star;
  4.  clock, fog, strong;
  5.  both, whole; storm, short, word;
  6.  set, get;
  7.  these, three; beam;
  8.  pick, ship, this, give, which;
  9.  wide, blind, time, life, strike; fly; high, night, light; pulse, just, thus; use.

II Practise reading two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable

radar, ranging, harbour, landing, travel, measure, beacon, presence, weather, echo, signal, timer, system, object, constant, mountain, strongest, portion, during.

III Practise reading two-syllable words with the stress on the second syllable

across, appear, equip, complete, desired, direct, consist, entire, present, install, reflect, rotate, translate, within.

IV Practise reading the following many-syllable words:

determination, equipment, capable, direction, character, recognize, essential, component, transmitter, receiver, antenna, indicator, frequency, fluorescent, interval, predetermined, synchronizer, velocity, accuracy, azimuth, elevation.

V. Practise reading the following word combinations:

capable of determining, the presence of objects, their character, all of them, ultra-high frequency radio wave energy, directional antenna, in a beam, visual readable signals, within the field of view of radar, the use of these timed pulses, at the constant velocity, the fluorescent screen, predetermined interval, the accuracy of the range, with the help of a radar set, location of an object, entirely safe, regardless of night or weather, to fly over mountain ranges.

VI. Memorize the spelling and pronunciation of the following words:

harbour  ['ha:bə]   гавань, порт

transmitter  [trænz'mItə]   передавач

asimuth  ['æzIməθ]   азимут

synchronizer ['sIηkrənaIzə]  синхронізатор

measure  ['meZə]   1. міра; 2. вимірювати

fluorescent  [fluə'resnt]  флуоресцентний

essential  [I'senəl]   істотний,головний

frequency  ['fri:kwənsI]  1. частота; 2.частотність

dimension  [dI'menən]  вимір, розмір

TEXT 6 A

RADAR

The word “radar” means Radio Determination and Ranging. Radar equipment is capable of determining by radio echoes the presence of objects, their direction, range and recognizing their character.

There are several types of radar sets, all of them consist of six essential components, namely: a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna system, an indicator, a timer, and, of course, a power supply.

A radar set detects objects by sending out short powerful pulses of ultra-high frequency radio wave energy from a highpower transmitter. The directional antenna takes this energy from the transmitter and radiates it in a beam (similar to that of a searchlight).

As the transmitted energy strikes an object, a portion of it is reflected back. The receiver picks up the returning echo through its antenna and translates it into visual readable signals on a fluorescent screen. The appearance of these signals shows the presence of an object within the field of view of radar.

The electron beam sweeps across the fluorescent screen in somewhat the same way as a hand sweeps across the face of a clock. Just as the hand of a clock completes its sweep in sixty seconds, the electron beam can be made to travel across any desired portion of the screen in some predetermined interval of time. It is the timer, which is the synchronizer of the whole system, that times the transmitter pulse and the indicator. The use of these timed pulses and the fact that the radio waves travel at the constant velocity of light gives a simple means of measuring range. The accuracy with which time is measured determines the accuracy of the range.

How then is the direction in which an object lies to be found? Both azimuth and elevation can be determined by means of the directional antenna. The antenna may be rotated as the pulses are sent out and the strongest signal appears on the screen when the antenna points directly at the object. The direction of the antenna enables the determination of azimuth and elevation. Thus, with the help of a radar set we can get a three-dimensional location of an object.

The wide use of radar sets in our everyday life will make air and sea entirely safe. Radars may be installed on every ship at sea as well as in every large harbour. They will prevent collisions in fog and aid a ship to sail safely into any harbour, regardless of night or weather. Similarly airplanes will be able to fly over mountain ranges in storms and effect blind landing during poor visibility.

Notes

  1.  ranging    визначення відстані
  2.  timer    відмітчик часу
  3.  to time    синхронізувати
  4.  to effect blind landing  зробити сліпу посадку

Answer the questions:

1. What can be determined by the use of radar equipment? 2. What are the essential components of a radar set? 3. How does radar detect an object? 4. What gives a simple means of measuring range? 5. What location of an object can we get with the help of radar? 6. How is radar used?

Exercises

I State the parts of speech of the following words and translate them

similarly, visibility, entirely, dimensional, appearance, presence, direction, transmitter, receiver, indication, timer, powerful, frequency, directional, readable, location, synchronizer, elevation, determination, equipment.

II Add the prefix “in-“ or its variant “im-“ (before “m”, “p”), “ir-“ (before “r”), “il-“ (before “l”) to the following words. Translate them into Ukrainian:

direct, visible, active, possible, comparable, complete, measurable, resistible, responsible, logical.

III Translate the following international words:

radar, object, antenna, system, component, indicator, timer, detect, energy, echo, signal, second, portion, interval, pulse, fact, azimuth, location, safe, storm, effect.

IV Make up pairs of the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:

  1.  
  1.  radar
  2.  essential
  3.  power
  4.  directional
  5.  ultra-high
  6.  powerful
  7.  highpower
  8.  fluorescent
  9.  electron
  10.  radio
  11.  three-dimensional
  12.  predetermined
  13.  supply
  14.  transmitter
  15.  components
  16.  frequency
  17.  screen
  18.  location
  19.  beam
  20.  equipment
  21.  interval
  22.  waves
  23.  pulses
  24.  antenna

V Translate the following groups of words of the same root:

  1.  to elevate –elevation –elevator;
  2.  to reflect –reflection – reflective –reflector;
  3.  direct –direction –directional –directive –directly –directness –director –directress;
  4.  to install –installation;
  5.  to locate –location –locality –local;
  6.  to desire –desire –desirable;
  7.  to measure –measure –measurement –measurable.

VI Find nouns of the same root in the text. Translate them into Ukrainian:

to equip, accurate, directional, to determine, useful, to set up, to translate, to receive, to indicate, frequent, visible, to transmit.

VII Fill in the blanks with the words given below:

detects, beam, determined, antenna, radar sets, collisions, safe, three-dimensional, pulses, highpower, the returning echo, frequency.

  1.  The wide use of ________ _________ in our everyday life will make air and sea entirely _________.
  2.  Radars will prevent __________ in fog.
  3.  The electron _____________ sweeps across the fluorescent screen.
  4.  Both azimuth and elevation can be __________ by means of the directional _________.
  5.  With the help of a radio set we can get a _________ location of an object.
  6.  A radar set __________ objects by sending out short powerful ________ of ultrahigh _________ radio wave energy from a ________  transmitter.
  7.  The receiver picks up ________ ________ through its antenna.

VIII Finish the sentences:

  1.  As the transmitted energy strikes an object …
  2.  The electron beam can be made to travel across any desired portion of the screen …
  3.  The timer times …
  4.  The use of timed pulses and the fact that the radio waves travel at the constant velocity of light gives …
  5.  Both azimuth and elevation can be determined by …
  6.  With the help of a radar set we can get …
  7.  Radars may be installed on every ship as well as …
  8.  Airplanes will be able to fly over mountain ranges and effect ….
  9.  All radar sets consist of six essential components…

IX Make up questions to the following answers:

  1.  They consist of six essential components: a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna system, an indicator, a timer and a power supply.
  2.  A radar set detects objects, their direction, range and recognizes their character.
  3.  A radar set sends out short powerful pulses of ultra-high frequency radio wave energy.
  4.  The electron beam on the fluorescent screen resembles a hand sweeping across the face of a clock.
  5.  It times the transmitter pulse and the indicator.
  6.  The radio waves travel at the constant velocity of light.
  7.  The accuracy, with which time is measured, determines the accuracy of the range.
  8.  Both azimuth and elevation can be determined by means of the directional antenna.
  9.  With the help of a radar set we can get a three-dimensional location of an object.

X Translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of “as”:

  1.  As ordinary radars cannot detect very small objects microwave radars are used for the purpose.
  2.  The possibility of using microwave radars as an aid to meteorological forecasting was recognized long ago.
  3.  As the radar transmitter sends out ultra-high frequency radio wave energy in short powerful pulses, the directional antenna takes this energy and concentrates it into a beam.
  4.  As soon as the beam strikes an object, a portion of its energy is reflected back.
  5.  The electron beam sweeps across the fluorescent screen just as a hand of a clock sweeps across its face.
  6.  As to the weather, it is known that it greatly affects the direction ranges of radar sets.

XI Translate the following word combinations:

ultra-high frequency radio wave energy; ground controlled radar; low frequency signalling current; straight-line wave length, long distance radio station; load carrying capacity; hand control system; daily current consumption.

XII Translate the following words paying attention to the meaning of the prefix “pre-“:

predetermined, presupposed, prefabricated, pre-established, pre-war, prehistorical, prerevolutionary.

TEXT 6 B

RADAR GUIDES HARBOUR TRAFFIC

Give a summary of the text.

A number of world’s largest ports have already installed radar systems in their harbours. Radars survey ship traffic in fog and bad weather. They are designed not only to assist ships entering and leaving the harbour during poor visibility, but also to provide continuous observation of shipping and give immediate information on the location of ships in the harbour.

From a radio control room having the necessary transmitting appliance of ship-to-shore communication, with a radar unit set at a certain range, the operator can observe the harbour and give necessary orders immediately to ships.

TEXT 6 C

RADIO WAVES

Read the text. Find out the main information of the text.

During the last few decades, a subtle change has occurred which none of our senses can register. Radio waves, bearing messages in many tongues, flow ceaselessly around us, through us and above us. We can only hear and see them if we convert them to other waves to which our ears and eyes are receptive.

Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. In the spectrum, in which the waves are arranged in order of increasing wavelength, they lie beyond the infrared waves. Their wavelengths range from about three hundredths of a centimetre to about 300 kilometers. Radio broadcasts today are made by two different methods known as AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency modulation). The frequencies of the waves used are expressed in kilocycles or megacycles. The vibrating current is fed into an antenna from which the radio waves are broadcast into space.

Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. In the spectrum of electromagnetic waves they lie between infrared rays and the long radio waves. The shortest microwaves have a wavelength of about three hundredths of a centimetre and a frequency of one million megacycles. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of about three metres and a frequency of one hundred megacycles.

The first microwaves made by man were the two-foot waves produced by Heinrich Hertz. It is interesting that they were the last to be put to a practical use. Long waves were easier to produce and send out over long distances. Scientists had to return to the use of short waves in order to solve a problem that came up during World War II. The problem was “How can you detect an approaching enemy plane while it is still far away?” A possible answer to the problem was to send a beam of radio waves. Long radio waves could not be used for this purpose because they fan out too quickly from the broadcasting antenna. Very short waves were necessary to make the radar system work. So new transmitters and receivers were designed to make and use microwaves.

                                          Notes

1. none of our senses –жодне з наших почуттів

2. bearing messages in many tongues –які несуть повідомлення на багатьох мовах                                                                                     

3. in order of increasing wavelength –щоб збільшити     довжину хвилі

4. in order to solve a problem –щоб вирішити проблему.

Find answers to the following questions:

. Can we hear and see radio waves? 2. What place do radio waves occupy in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves? 3. Who produced the first microwaves? 4. Were the microwaves the first to be put to a practical use?  5. What kind of problem came up during World War II?

Speak about the characteristics of radio waves and microwaves.


 

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