Sequence of Tenses. Imperative Mood

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Albert Einstein was born in Germany on March 14,1879.His unusual ability to mathematics and physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich. At the age of 21 after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk at an office. But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science.



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Unit 7

Grammar: Sequence of Tenses

                Imperative Mood

                Quantifiers and their equivalents.

Reading Exercises:

1. Practice reading the following one-syllable words:


2. Practice reading the following two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable:


3. Practice reading the following one-syllable words with the stress on the second syllable:



4. Practice reading the following many-syllable words:

unusual,ability,mathematics,technical,university,revolutionary,discovery,photoelectric,develop, relativity,physical,energy,physisist,importance,laboratory,talented,ability,professor,scientific,continue,unify,mysterious,gravitation,logical,explanation,century.

5. Practice reading the following word-combinations:

unusual ability to mathematics and physics; four years of university study, a job as a clerk at an office, revolutionary discoveries in science, explain the photoelectric effect, by means of Plank’s quantum theory, a mathematical theory of Brownian motion, special theory of relativity, the speed of light, with great surprise, in his own way, unified field theory, combine the physical laws, forces of light and energy, the mysterious force of gravitation, a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect, the increase of human knowledge.




“Imagination is more important than knowledge”


Albert Einstein was born in Germany on March 14,1879.His unusual ability to mathematics and physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich. At the age of 21 after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk at an office. But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science. He published three papers. In the first he explained the photoelectric effect by means of Planck’s quantum theory. The second paper developed a mathematical theory of Brownian motion. He presented his third paper on “Special Theory of Relativity” to a physical journal. Einstein expressed his theory in the equation E=mc², roughly that energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light.

All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise. Few physicists understood its importance at that time. Everybody wanted to know where he taught and in what laboratory he did his research.

Albert Einstein was a very talented man, a great thinker. He had an ability to look at the world with eyes full of wonder. All problems were new to him and he liked to solve them in his own way.

Einstein’s fame among scientists grew slowly but surely. For a few years he lived in Prague where he worked as a professor. When he came to Prague, he often told his students he would always try to help them. ”If you have a problem, come to me with it, we’ll solve it together”, he said.

He liked questions and answered them at once, for there were no simple or foolish questions for him. He spoke much with his students about scientific problems and his new ideas. His advice to young students was, “Don’t take easy problems”.

Einstein continued his research. His unified field theory was the result of 35 years of intense work. He expressed it in four equations where he combined the physical laws that control forces of light and energy with the mysterious force of gravitation.

In 1922 Einstein got the Nobel Prize in physics not for the theory of relativity but for a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect.

He gave all his life to the increase of human knowledge. His ideas produced revolution in the natural science of the 20th century.

Answer the questions:

  1.  What was Einstein?
  2.  When and where was he born?
  3.  What discoveries did Einstein make in 1905?
  4.  In what equation did he express his theory of relativity?
  5.  Did many scientists of that time understand the importance of his discovery?
  6.  What theory was the result of his 35year work?
  7.  What prize did Einstein get in 1922?
  8.  How did his ideas influence scince?


1.Form nouns using the given suffixes and translate them:

-ity: equal, human, activ(e), relativ(e), productiv(e)

-ness: thick, black, great, rough


-ence: differ(ent), depend(ent), pres(ent)


-age: us(e),pass,break,leak.

2. Underline the suffixes of nouns and translate the given word-combinations:

the usage of a word; the simplicity of the equation; the expression of relativity; the roughness of the surface; temperature readings; atom structure; the solution of the problem; the productivity of a worker; the efficiency of the method; the leakage of gas; the equality of position.

3.Study the following table and translate the sentences given below:

                                 Quantifiers and their equivalents

With countable nouns

With uncountable nouns


A great many

A great number of

A lot of                changes,properties

Plenty of


A great deal of

A great amount of

A lot of                        water, knowledge

Plenty of


not many

changes, properties


not much

              water, knowledge

A few

some changes, properties

A little

some water, knowledge

  1.  The motor produces a great amount of energy.
  2.  The scientist presented a few methods of solution of this important problem.
  3.  A lot of changes took place in this field of knowledge.
  4.  If you work much, you will get good results.
  5.  There is some but not much mercury in the tube, put a little more.
  6.  How much water do rivers give off to the sea a year?
  7.  Einstein studied plenty of subjects to increase his knowledge but physics became his life interest.
  8.  Not many scientists understood Einstein’s discovery at that time.

4.Translate the following word-combinations paying attention to the use of nouns as attributes.

a) the theory of field - the field theory

   the speed of light – the light speed

   the forces of gravitation – the gravitation forces

   the study at the University – the University study

   the clerk at an office – an office clerk

b) the thoughts of a boy – the boy’s thoughts

   the knowledge of the scientist – the scientist’s knowledge.

   The advice of the scientist – the scientist’s advice.

c) Magnetism of the Earth – the Earth’s magnetism

   the energy of the Sun – the Sun’s energy

   the economy of the country – the country’s economy

   a newspaper of yesterday – yesterday’s newspaper.

5.Use the Imperative Mood and translate the sentences:

   Turn on the radio.

Model: (to turn on) Don’t turn on the radio.

          (not to turn on) the radio


  1.  (to define) and (to explain) the terms of this equation.
  2.  (to draw) a line and (to divide) it into three equal parts.
  3.   (not to change) the speed of the motor motion.
  4.  (to present) your paper in time.
  5.  (not to begin) your experiment now. It’s already late.

6.Use the Imperative Mood in the following sentences and translate them:

Model: Say it again (she). Let her say it again.

           Don’t say it again (they).Don’t let them say it again.

1.Ask the professor about the difference between the metric and imperial systems (we).

2.Don’t solve this equation (he).We have already the answer.

3. Freeze the liquid in the tube and then measure its volume (they).

4. Illustrate my explanation with an example (she).

5. Help him in his laboratory work (I).

7. a. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meanings of some and same:

  1.  These two elements have different colours but their chemical properties are the same. Some of them are very important.
  2.  There is some gas in these pipes. We use the same gas in both pipes.
  3.  The engineers of the research laboratory developed some new methods of work. The same methods are of great importance for our plant.

    b. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meanings of for:

  1.  The unusual phenomenon occupied the boy’s thoughts for hours.
  2.   For a few years Albert Einstein lived in Prague.
  3.  Einstein’s work on relativity was a great surprise for the scientists all over the world.
  4.  In 1922 Einstein got his Nobel Prize not for relativity but for a logic explanation of photo-electric effect.
  5.  Einstein always answered all students’ questions for there were no foolish or simple questions for him.
  6.  Translate the following sentences using the words and word-combinations given below:

1.А.Эйнштейн був видатним фiзиком 20 столiття.2.Вiн мав незвичайнi здiбностi до математики i фiзики.3.На протязi кiлькох рокiв Ейнштейн мешкав у Празi i викладав фiзику в унiверситетi.4.У 1905 роцi вiн зробив декiлька наукових вiдкриттiв.5.Його iдея вразила усiх вчених.6.У 1922 роцi Ейнштейн отримав Нобелiвську премiю.7.Сьогоднi кожен студент технiчного вузу вивчае теорiю вiдносностi.8.Вивчiть бiографiю Ейнштейна, i ви побачите, що вiн вiддав свое життя науцi.

To get the Nobel Prize, to make some discoveries any college student, to be a great physicist of the 20th century, to study Einstein’s biography, to give his life to.., for a few years..,to teach physics..,to have an unusual ability to ..,to surprise all scientists

10.Read and retell:

“How are new inventions made?”

“How are new inventions that change the face of the world made?” somebody asked Einstein. ”Quite simply,” answered Einstein. ”Everybody knows that something is impossible. Then quite by chance, there happens an ignorant man who does not know it and he makes the invention”.

Different means

During his visit to an observatory Einstein got interested in the gigantic telescope with a mirror of 2.5 meters in diameter.

“What do you need such a big instrument for?” asked Einstein’s wife.

“We use it to study the structure of the universe”, answered the director of the observatory.

“Really?” said the lady. ”My husband usually does it on the inside of an old envelope.”



Give a summary of the text

…that Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist and engineer, was known for the invention of dynamite. Everything that he invented served military purposes. He understood how terrible his inventions were, but he easily forgot about them saying: ”The things which we develop are terrible indeed, but they are so interesting and so perfect technically that it makes them more attractive.”

But one morning, while looking through a French newspaper Nobel read about…his own death. The paper described his inventions as “terrible means of destruction” and he was named “a dynamite king” and “a merchant of death”.The thought that his name would always be connected with dynamite and death shook Nobel. He felt he could never be happy again. He decided to use all his money (about 2,000,000 pounds) for some noble purpose.

According to his will, prizes for “the most outstanding achievements” in physics,chemistry,medicine,literature and fight for peace are awarded every year. Nobel prizes have become the highest international scientific awards. Perhaps it’s an irony of life that some of Nobel prize winners helped to make the atom bomb.



Translate the text using a dictionary

To explain the characteristics of thermal radiation, that is, the radiation emitted by hot bodies, Planck (1900) suggested that the emission and absorption of radiant energy by matter is in discrete quanta of energy h.

Einstein (1905) extended this hypothesis and postulated the quantum nature of radiation itself.

It is further seen that the absence of a time lag in photoelectric emission arises naturally, the absorption of quantum energy is instantaneous as is the resultant emission of an electron. This is to be contrasted with the hitherto accepted view that radiation consists of waves; the energy in the incident beam is spread uniformly over the area of the surface on which it falls. An electron which is at the surface or near it requires some time (of the order of seconds), to absorb sufficient energy from the beam to be able to escape from the surface.

The simplicity of Einstein’s equation conceals the revolutionary nature of the concept underlying it. Light and all forms of radiation are emitted, and absorbed, in quanta of energy, the quanta are localized in space.

This is in fact a corpuscular theory, a beam of light or other radiation consisting of a stream of corpuscles called photons. Every photon moves with the velocity of light, and has a definite energy hv.

The study of the photoelectric effect was of major importance for the development of physical theory during the first two decades of the 20th century. The role played by the photoelectric effect during this period was largely due to the manner in which it displayed the quantum properties of radiation, which are not describable by the electromagnetic wave theory.


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