94669

FROM THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The full history of building in what became the United States reaches back 10000 years but European settlers almost universally ignored the many building traditions of Native American peoples. Over the five centuries after European arrival transplanted European building traditions were gradually reshaped and redefined.

Английский

2015-09-15

214.5 KB

1 чел.

Unit 1

FROM THE HISTORY

OF AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE

American architecture is the architecture that developed in the European colonies in America and subsequently in the United States. This development covers a period of almost five centuries, beginning with the establishment of Saint Augustine in Florida in 1565, English settlement along the Atlantic Coast in 1585, and Spanish settlement in New Mexico in 1598. Settlers from France, Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, and other countries arrived in the 1600s.   

The full history of building in what became the United States reaches back 10,000 years, but European settlers almost universally ignored the many building traditions of Native American peoples. Over the five centuries after European arrival, transplanted European building traditions were gradually reshaped and redefined. They emerged as distinctly American building traditions by the early 19th century. Each of the European colonies in North America developed its own building tradition.

In the 1800s innovations in technology and the spread of railroads made possible the rapid growth of the Midwest and West. Mass-produced building parts, manufactured in the East, could be ordered from catalogs and shipped West by rail. A major fire in 1871 destroyed downtown Chicago and offered building opportunities for American architects, who over the next 25 years developed the first skyscrapers. This new building type, devised in the United States, influenced architecture around the world from the late 1800s into the 2000s. During the 20th century architects and entrepreneurs vied to build the tallest skyscraper - a contest that continues today.                       Fig. 1. Skyscrapers in New York

Another unique building type developed in America was the single-family suburban house, a detached or stand-alone building, as opposed to the attached or semiattached suburban house popular elsewhere. It, too, influenced architecture outside the United States.

The emigration of European architects in the 1930s and 1940s brought European modernism to the United States, and in the second half of the 20th century America became a major architectural force. By the late 1900s and early 2000s American architects worked around the globe, while architects from Japan and Spain, to mention only two examples, received commissions for major public buildings in the United States.

Exercise 1: read and learn the words to help you with the text.

to cover - охватывать

downtown - центр города

settlement - поселение  

to develop - развивать, разрабатывать

settler - поселенец

skyscraper - небоскреб

to arrive - прибывать, приезжать

to devise - изобретать, придумывать

arrival - прибытие  

to influence - влиять

to ignore - игнорировать

entrepreneur - предприниматель

to reach back - уходить назад

to vie - состязаться, соперничать

to transplant - переносить

contest - состязание, конкурс

to reshape - видоизменять

unique - уникальный

gradually - постепенно

suburb - пригород

to redefine - определять заново  suburban - пригородный

to emerge - появляться

outside - за пределами

distinctly - отличительно

as opposed to - в отличие от

spread - распространение

to order - заказывать

railroad - железная дорога  

to ship - отправлять

rapid - быстрый   

force - сила

growth - рост  

commission – поручение, заказ

major – большой, главный

to mention - упоминать

to manufacture - производить

to receive - получать

detached house - особняк

to destroy - разрушать

mass-produced - серийного производства

semiattached house - один из двух особняков, имеющих общую стену

to offer an opportunity - предоставить удобный случай

stand-alone – отдельно стоящий

subsequently - затем

elsewhere – везде, повсюду   to establish - основывать

to mention – упоминать    universally – повсеместно

Exercise 2: be sure to read correctly geographical names from the text.

Europe   the Atlantic Coast  the Netherlands

European colonies  New Mexico  Germany

Saint Augustine  France   Chicago

Florida   Sweden   Japan

the Midwest   the East   North America

Exercise 3: be sure to read correctly and translate dates and numerals from the text.

a period of almost five centuries   in 1565

by the early 19th century     in 1600s

over the next 25 years     in the 1800s

from the late 1800s into the 2000s   in 1871

in the 1930s and 1940s     back 10 000 years

by the late 1900s and early 2000s

Exercise 4: read and translate family words from the text.

architect - architecture - architectural;   build - building;

develop - development;     settle - settler - settlement;

establish - establishment;    shape - reshape;   

define - redefine;      grow - growth;   

suburb - suburban;     high – height;

emigrate - emigrant - emigration;   arrive - arrival;

universe - universal - universally;   innovate - innovation;  

Europe - European;     Spain – Spanish;

attach – attached - semiattached;   unite – united;

emerge – emergence;    detach – detached.

Exercise 5: which word is the odd one?

a) make   destroy  produce  manufacture

b) emerge   appear  spring up  cover

c) major   slight   huge   large

d) skyscraper  building  settlement  edifice

e) vie    compete  contest  ship

f)  establish   devise   invent   create

g) downtown  city   suburb  town

h) arrive   come   turn up  receive

Exercise 6: read and translate compounds and word combinations from the text.

European settlers; Spanish settlement; English colonies; downtown; building traditions; transplanted European building traditions; building type; Native American peoples; railroads; skyscrapers; mass-produced building parts; suburban house; single-family suburban house; detached house; semiattached suburban house; stand-alone building; major architectural force; public buildings; major fire; rapid growth.

Exercise 7: read and translate the text “From the History of American Architecture”.

Exercise 8: find a word in the text that has the same or similar meaning.

around the world  to invent  differently  high-rise building

to produce   to appear  to found  abroad

town centre   competition  to come  highest

everywhere   to fight  social   railway

fast     large   power   to destruct

Exercise 9: match A with B and C.

A

B

C

Saint Augustine

from Europe

in the 1930s and 1940s

English settlement

around the globe

in the 20th century

A major fire

from the Netherlands

in 1565

American architects

along the Atlantic Coast

in 1600s

Spanish settlement

in Florida

in 1585

Emigration of architects

in New Mexico

the late 1900s and early 2000s

The tallest skyscrapers

in Chicago

in 1871

Settlers

in the USA

in 1598

Exercise 10: put the sentences in chronological order. Number them 1 – 10.

A major fire in 1871 destroyed downtown Chicago.

Distinctly American building traditions emerged by the early 19th century.

English settlement was established along the Atlantic Coast in 1585.

The spread of railroads made possible the rapid growth of the Midwest.

American architects were offered building opportunities.

American architects and entrepreneurs vied to build the tallest skyscraper.

The emigration of European architects brought modernism to the USA.

Over the next 25 years American architects developed the first skyscrapers.

10

American architects work around the globe.

Transplanted European building traditions were reshaped and redefined.

Exercise 11: fill the gaps with prepositions.

  1.  The development of American architecture covers a period  . . . five centuries.
  2.  The first settlements were established . . .Florida, . . .the Atlantic Coast, . . . New Mexico.
  3.  . . .  the five centuries  . . .  European arrival, transplanted European building traditions were gradually reshaped and redefined.
  4.  Distinctly American building traditions emerged  . . . the early 19th century.
  5.  Building parts could be ordered  . . .  catalogs and shipped  . . .  rail.
  6.  A major fire  . . . 1871 destroyed downtown Chicago and offered building opportunities  . . .  American architects.
  7.  High-rise buildings were devised  . . . the United States.
  8.  This new building type influenced architecture  . . . the world.
  9.  A detached suburban house influenced architecture  . . .  the United States.
  10.   European architects brought modernism  . . . the United States.
  11.   American architects work  . . .  the globe.

Exercise 12: ask and answer the questions on the text (work in pairs).

  1.  What period does the development of American architecture cover?
  2.  Who were the first settlers in the USA?
  3.  Did European settlers ignore building traditions of Native Americans?
  4.  When did distinctly American building traditions emerge?
  5.  What event offered building opportunities for American architects?
  6.  Did they vie to build the tallest skyscraper?
  7.  Which unique building types developed in America?
  8.  What did the emigration of European architects bring to the USA?
  9.  When did the USA become a major architectural force?
  10.   Do American architects work around the globe?

Exercise 13: speak on the topic “From the History of American Architecture” using the above questions as a plan.

Exercise 14: read additional material about American architect Frank Lloyd Wright; use a dictionary to help you with new words; make a short story about his career.

Exercise 15: read additional material about American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; use a dictionary to help you with new words.

Exercise 16: read additional material about American architect Robert Venturi; use a dictionary to help you with new words.

Exercise 17: read additional material about American architect Charles Moore; use a dictionary to help you with new words.

Exercise 18: read additional material about American architect Robert Stern; use a dictionary to help you with new words.

Exercise 19: remember the words in the box, get ready to write a word test.

cover (v); settlement (n); settler (n); arrive (v); arrival (n); ignore (v); reach back (v); transplant (v); gradually (adv); reshape (v); redefine (v); emerge (v); distinctly (adv); spread (n); railroad (n); growth (n); mass-produced (adj); manufacture (v); ship (v); major (adj); destroy (v); downtown (n); develop (v); skyscraper (n); devise (v); influence (v); entrepreneur (n); force (n); contest (n); unique (adj); suburb (n); suburban (adj); receive (v); commission (n); vie (v); to offer an opportunity; detached house; semiattached house; as opposed to

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