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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

This new building type influenced architecture around the world from the late 1800s into the 2000s. His brilliant early designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led to the emergence of the skyscraper as the distinctive American building type. Sullivan gave new expressive form to urban commercial buildings.



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Unit 2


A skyscraper was devised in the United States. This new building type influenced architecture around the world from the late 1800s into the 2000s.

The honor of the first American skyscrapers belongs to the Chicago architect Louis Sullivan. His brilliant early designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led to the emergence of the skyscraper as the distinctive American building type. Sullivan gave new expressive form to urban commercial buildings. His earliest and most distinguished architectural designs were the ten-story Auditorium Building (1889), the Wainwright Building (1891), also ten stories high, with a metal frame, the Carson Pirie Scott Department Store (1904), regarded by many as Sullivan’s masterpiece. His career converges with the so-called Chicago School of architects, whose challenge was to invent the skyscraper or high-rise building, facilitated by the introduction of the electric elevator and the sudden abundance of steel. They made a successful transition from the masonry bearing wall to the steel frame, which assumed all the load-bearing functions. The building's skeleton could be erected quickly and the remaining components hung on it to complete it, an immense advantage for high-rise buildings on busy city streets.  Fig. 2. Chicago City Skyline

In the office skyscrapers of the 1920s, American architects moved from historic detailing to more original and abstract art deco detailing. Skyscrapers in the art deco style had a soaring shaft with office space, upper floors were set back from the floors below, and at the top additional setbacks created a pyramid or spire in a final flourish. Building and zoning ordinances in many American cities required setbacks of upper floors to allow light and air to reach the streets. The best example of art deco style is the Chrysler Building (1930) in New York City, designed by William Van Alen.

A race to build the tallest skyscraper also characterized the late 1920s and early 1930s. The Chrysler Building briefly held the record, with 77 floors and a needlelike spire that reached 319 m. The Empire State Building, completed in 1931, almost immediately broke that record. Designed by architects Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, the Empire State Building has 102 stories and a dramatic art deco spire that soars to a height of 381 m. This record height remained unsurpassed for nearly 40 years.      Fig. 3. The Empire State Building

The shift to a larger, almost antihuman scale began with giant skyscrapers built from 1965 to 1975 that successively claimed to be the world's tallest building. The first to claim the distinction was the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago (1970) with a height of 344 m. (Although the height given above for the Empire State Building is greater, it includes the spire.) The Sears Tower in Chicago (1974) followed at 442 m. One of the twin World Trade Center towers (1973) in New York City next claimed the record with an antenna that brought its height to 527 m. (Unfortunately, they were destroyed due to tragic events on September 11, 2001).  

As the 20th century ended, the quest to build the world's tallest building shifted to Europe and Southeast Asia, and experience in skyscraper design made American architects especially desirable for these projects.

    Fig. 4. The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur 

The Argentine American architect Cesar Pelli is known internationally for his refined, elegant designs for skyscrapers and institutional buildings. In the 1980s Pelli designed numerous skyscrapers and corporate buildings that drew praise for their varied forms; their colorful use of glass, metal, and other materials; and their sensitivity to their surroundings. His Petronas Towers (1996) in  Kuala Lumpur are the tallest buildings in the world; these soaring, tapered towers of metal and glass rise to 452 m. The towers are also noteworthy for their modern materials, including bands of stainless steel, that echo the forms of traditional Malaysian architecture.

As the 21st century began, architects prepared for even taller projects, including a building to rise 600 m in Chicago. A contest to build the world’s tallest skyscraper continues.

Exercise 1: read and remember the words to help you with the text.

honor - честь, заслуга

frame - каркас, скелет

distinction - отличие, различие, отличительная особенность

distinctive - отличительный, характерный, особый

to regard - расценивать, считать

career - карьера, деятельность, жизненный путь

to converge - сходиться, сойтись

challenge – задача, проблема, цель

to facilitate - облегчать, способствовать, содействовать

elevator - лифт

abundance - изобилие, избыток, достаток

masonry - каменная кладка

(load)-bearing - несущий (нагрузку)

skeleton - каркас

component - составная часть, деталь

immense - огромный, громадный, безмерный

detailing - детализация, разработка проекта, конструирование

to soar - возноситься, взмывать, высоко взлетать, парить

shaft - стержень, ствол, ось, столб

space - пространство, помещение, место

to set back - отодвигать

setback - смещение назад

to tower - выситься, возвышаться

scale - масштаб, размер

height - высота

spire - шпиль, высокая пирамидальная крыша башни

flourish - размах

to zone - разбивать на зоны

ordinance - указ, декрет

needlelike - в виде обелиска,

похожий на обелиск

dramatic - поразительный, сенсационный

to surpass - превосходить

unsurpassed - непревзойденный

to shift - перемещать, сдвигать

successively - подряд, последовательно

to claim - заявлять, утверждать, предъявлять требования

to claim the record - заявить о рекорде, претендовать

quest - поиск, погоня

desirable - желанный

refined - изысканный, утонченный

to draw praise - заслужить похвалу

colorful - красочный, яркий, колоритный

sensitivity - чувствительность, чуткость, восприимчивость

surroundings - среда, окружение

tapered - конический, клиновидный, пирамидальный, суженный

noteworthy - достойный внимания

band - лента, полоса

stainless - нержавеющий

to echo - вторить

to rise - возвышаться

varied - разнообразный

urban - городской

Exercise 2: read and translate family words from the text.

arch - architect - architecture - architectural; to build - building; to bear - bearing; high - height; to emerge - emergence; to design - designer; detail - detailing; distinctive - distinction; commerce - commercial; to facilitate - facilities; success - successful - successively; to remain - remaining; to soar - soaring; to add - additional; brief - briefly; to complete - completion; to surpass - surpassed - unsurpassed; human - antihuman; fortune - misfortune - unfortunately; desire - desirable; international - internationally; fine - refined; institute - institutional; color - colorful; sensitive - sensitivity; to surround - surroundings; tradition – traditional.

Exercise 3: match A with B (work in pairs).

English - Russian

Russian - English















в виде обелиска








стержень, ствол




масштаб, размер



честь, заслуга















Exercise 4: which word is the odd one?

a) steel   metal   iron   masonry

b) height   length   width   space

c) challenge  problem  issue   honor

d) shift   move   transition  set back

e)  race   quest   contest  emergence

f) frame   skeleton  wall   floor

g) borrow  devise   invent   create

h) commercial  institutional  corporate  residential

i) huge   giant   slight   immense

j) emerge  appear  spring up  converge

k) space   room   premise  tower

Exercise 5: read and translate compounds and word combinations from the text.

skyscraper; building type; early designs; steel-frame skyscraper construction; expressive form; urban commercial buildings; high-rise building; electric elevator; sudden abundance of steel; successful transition; masonry bearing wall; steel frame; load-bearing functions; remaining components; immense advantage; busy city streets; office skyscrapers; soaring shaft; office space; upper floors; needlelike spire; art deco spire; unsurpassed record height; antihuman scale; giant skyscraper; World Trade Center towers; tragic events; refined elegant designs; institutional buildings; corporate buildings; varied architectural forms; soaring tapered towers; world’s tallest building; stainless steel; traditional Malaysian architecture forms.

Exercise 6: combine adjectives in A with nouns in B; write them in C.




























Exercise 7: be sure to read correctly dates and numerals from the text.

from the late 1800s into the 2000s 77 floors  1920s

on September 11, 2001   319 m   1930

20th century     102 stories  1970

the late 1920s    381 m   1996

the early 1930s    40 years  452 m

from 1965 to 1975    344 m   600 m

in the 1980s     442 m

the 21st century    527 m

Exercise 8: read and translate the text “The Skyscraper”.

Exercise 9: write English equivalents from the text.

тип здания; принадлежит; первые проекты; конструкция небоскреба со стальным каркасом; выразительная форма; городские коммерческие здания; школа архитекторов в Чикаго; изобилие стали; удачный переход; каменная несущая стена; остальные составные части; огромное преимущество; детализация в стиле ар деко; возносящийся вверх стержень; верхние этажи; пропускать свет и воздух; шпиль в виде обелиска; удерживал рекорд; побил рекорд; рекордная высота; оставалась непревзойденной; заявил о рекорде; гигантский небоскреб; последовательно (один за другим) заявляли; из-за трагических событий; самое высокое здание в мире; гонка (погоня) переместилась в Европу и Азию; опыт в проектировании небоскребов; утонченный проект; заслужил похвалу; разнообразные формы; колоритное использование стекла и металла; чуткость к окружающей среде; экстерьер здания; пирамидальные башни; достойны внимания; современные материалы; нержавеющая сталь; состязание продолжается.

Exercise 10: match A with B and C; complete D with missing information from the text.









The World Trade Center

The Chrysler Building

The Empire State Building

The Sears Tower

The John Hancock Center

The Petronas Towers

The Wainwright Building

The future Chicago project

452 m

442 m

381 m

319 m

10 stories

600 m

344 m

527 m




21st century





Exercise 11: complete the sentences below with information from the text.

  1.  A skyscraper was devised in  . . .  in  . . .
  2.  The honor of the first American skyscrapers belongs to  . . .
  3.  The designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led  . . .
  4.  Sullivan gave new expressive form to  . . .
  5.  His career converges with  . . .
  6.  The challenge of this school was  . . .
  7.  This challenge was facilitated by  . . .
  8.  The architects made a successful transition from  . . .
  9.  The building’s skeleton could be  . . .
  10.   In the 1920s American architects moved from  . . .
  11.   Art deco skyscrapers had  . . .
  12.   Upper floors were  . . .
  13.   Additional setbacks created  . . .
  14.   The best example of art deco style is  . . .
  15.   The Empire State Building was completed in  . . .
  16.   Its record height remained unsurpassed for  . . .
  17.   From 1965 to 1975 the world’s tallest buildings were  . . .
  18.   Cesar Pelli is known internationally for  . . .
  19.   His skyscrapers drew praise for their  . . .
  20.   The tallest buildings in the world are the Petronas Towers in  . . .
  21.   A building to rise 600 m is going to be constructed in  . . .
  22.   A contest to build the world’s tallest building  . . .

Exercise 12: complete the questions and answer them (work in pairs).

  1.  (Где?) was a skyscraper devised?
  2.  (Когда?) did the first high-rise buildings emerge?
  3.  (Кому?) does the honor of the first skyscrapers belong to?
  4.  (Что?) did he give to urban commercial buildings?
  5.  (С чем?) does the Sullivan’s carreer converge with?
  6.  (Какая?) was the challenge of the Chicago School of architects?
  7.  (Чем?) was this challenge facilitated by?
  8.  (Какой?) transition did the architects make?
  9.  (Как?) was the building’s skeleton erected?
  10.   (Когда?) did American architects move to art deco detailing?
  11.   (Что?) did skyscrapers in the art deco have?
  12.   (Какое?) building is the best example of art deco style?
  13.   (Сколько?) floors does the Empire State Building have?
  14.   (Как долго?) did the record height remain unsurpassed?
  15.   (Какое?) building is the tallest in the world?
  16.   (Где?) is it situated?
  17.   (Когда?) was it erected?
  18.   (Кто?) designed it?
  19.   (Чем?) is Cesar Pelli internationally known for?
  20.   (За что?) did he draw praise for?
  21.   (Почему?) are American architects desirable for skyscraper projects?

Exercise 13: discuss the items below referring to skyscrapers; use the above questions (work in pairs).

a) a new building type;  

b) Chicago School of architects;

c) structure and construction;

d) height and size; 

e) building materials;

f) future projects;

g) architects.

Exercise 14: read additional material about Louis Sullivan; use a dictionary to help you with new words; make a short story about his career.

Exercise 15: read additional material about Cesar Pelli; use a dictionary to help you with new words; make a short story about his career.

Exercise 16: speak on the topic “The Skyscraper”.

Exercise 17: remember the words in the box; get ready to write a word test.

honor (n); belong to (v); brilliant (adj); frame (n); lead (v); emergence (n); distinction (n); distinctive (adj); expressive (adj); urban (adj); converge (v); regard (v); career (n); challenge (n); facilitate (v); elevator (n); abundance (n); transition (n); masonry (n); load-bearing (adj); assume (v); skeleton (n); component (n); immense (adj); complete (v); completion (n); advantage (n); hang (v); surpass (v); unsurpassed (adj); shift (v); shift (n); scale (n); claim (v); giant (adj); successively (adv); tower (n); tower (v); quest (n); experience (n); desirable (adj); refined (adj); numerous (adj); draw praise (v); varied (adj); sensitivity (n); surroundings (n); tapered (adj); noteworthy (adj); band (n); stainless (adj); echo (v); rise (v); detailng (n); soar (v); shaft (n); space (n); upper (adj); story (n); floor (n); set back (v); spire (n); flourish (n); zone (v); ordinance (n); briefly (adv); needlelike (adj); dramatic (adj); remain (v); height (n); hold record (v); break record (v); light (n); below (adv); allow (v); commercial (adj); high-rise (adj)

Unit 3


The years following World War I brought not only a renewed use of historical precedent in residential, business, and governmental architecture, but also a determined search for a clearly modern architecture. For governmental buildings, architects and government officials felt that classical architecture was particularly appropriate. The Supreme Court Building (1935) designed by Cass Gilbert in Washington provides a good example. From a distance its inspiration from a classical temple is obvious. At close range, however, the building's sculpture in particular shows a degree of simplification and abstraction that connects it with art deco modernism of the time.                      Fig. 5. The Supreme Court Building           

In the suburbs, which continued to expand rapidly with the rise of private ownership of automobiles, residences were built in historic styles that carried with them the romance of the past, such as colonial revival, late medieval Tudor, and Mediterranean. The best of these houses were designed by trained architects. Such houses exhibited a sure knowledge of architectural history in their accurate details, while at the same time satisfying modern living requirements. The various rooms might be in historic styles different from that used for the exterior, but seldom were historic periods mixed in any single room.

Another new building type that arose after World War I exploited historical references to the utmost: large motion-picture palaces. Just as the movies evoked emotions through an illusionistic medium, so too the movie palaces exploited elaborate ornamentation, designed to give the illusion of France or Spain in the glorious past, or of less familiar locales such as China, Maya Mexico, or ancient Egypt. (Egypt became especially popular after the discovery of the tomb of Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun in 1922.) Some large movie houses had auditoriums designed to resemble town squares, with walls presenting a series of building facades and a smooth plaster vault painted blue to suggest open sky.

Even office skyscrapers continued to have designs based on historical styles. A competition for a new office tower for the Chicago Tribune newspaper, held in 1922, demonstrated dramatically the continued appeal of such designs. Most of the 270 entries to the competition, which came in from around the world, were executed in historically based styles, although some, primarily from Europe, were dramatically modern in style. The conservative jury selected a Gothic design from the firm of Howells & Hood, which drew its inspiration from a late Gothic tower added to the Rouen Cathedral in France in 1485.

Exercise 1: read and remember the words to help you with the text.

renewed - обновленный

precedent - предшественник

search - поиск

in particular - в частности

determined - решительный

appropriate - подходящий

simplification - упрощение

abstraction - отвлечение, абстракция

to connect - связывать, соединять, ассоциировать

ownership - собственность, владение

rise - подъем, увеличение

revival - возрождение

medieval - средневековый

accurate - точный

requirement - требование, условие, нужда, потребность

to arise - возникать, появляться

to exploit - использовать

reference - ссылка, отнесенность, направленность

utmost - крайний, предельный

motion-picture - кино

clearly - четко, ясно, чисто

officials - чиновники, служащие

inspiration - вдохновение

to draw inspiration - черпать вдохновение

obvious - очевидный

movie house - кинотеатр

to evoke - вызывать, пробуждать

through the medium - посредством

elaborate - искусно сделанный, отделанный, замысловатый

glorious - славный

familiar - знакомый

locale - место, местность

to resemble - иметь сходство, походить

smooth - гладкий, ровный

plaster - штукатурка

vault - свод

to suggest - зд. напоминать, наводить на мысль

appeal - привлекательность, обращение

entry - зд. заявка на участие

to execute - выполнять, исполнять

Exercise 2: match a word in A with a word in B.






























look alike

dwelling house








































Exercise 3: read and translate family words from the text.

new - renew - renewed; history - historicism - historic - historical - historically; resident - residence - residential; particular - particularly; busy - business; govern - government - governmental; architect - architecture - architectural; office - officials; inspire - inspiration; connect - connection; simple - simplify - simplification - simplicity; abstract - abstraction; rapid - rapidly; own - owner - ownership; revive - revival; train - trained - training; know - knowledge; require - requirement; refer - reference; illusion - illusionistic; ornament - ornamentation; glory - glorious; family - familiar; discover - discovery; compete - competition; dramatic – dramatically.

Exercise 4: read and translate compounds and word combinations from the text.

renewed use; historical precedent; residential architecture; classical temple; art deco modernism; private ownership; historic style; colonial revival; trained architect; accurate details; modern living requirements; historic period; new building type; historical reference; motion-picture palace; illusionistic medium; movie palace; elaborate ornamentation; glorious past; Egyptian pharaoh; movie house; town squares; building facade; smooth plaster vault; painted blue; open sky; office skyscrapers; office tower; continued appeal; dramatically modern; conservative jury; Gothic design; late Gothic tower.

Exercise 5: read and translate the text “Historicism”.

Unit 4


The first modern European movement to have a wide influence in America was art deco, with its simplified shapes and geometric ornament. But American architects did not fully embrace European modernism until after World War II, when architects who had emigrated from Germany introduced it in the USA.

European architectural developments did have an impact on American architecture, and no development more so than a small international exposition held in Paris in 1925 devoted to the decorative arts. This exposition immediately influenced many American patrons and architects who desired to create a modern design that was not so austere or lacking in ornament as the modernism developed by the Bauhaus school in Germany or by Le Corbusier in France. The modernism that stemmed from the Paris exposition quickly came to be called art deco in a shortened version of the exposition's name “ International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts”. It was a modernism that was not too modern and that incorporated elegant materials, including new materials such as aluminum, stainless steel and early plastics. Art deco used a great deal of ornament with stylistic motifs such as zigzags and multiple curved forms. Its bold linear or flat geometric patterns were accentuated by strong color contrasts.              Fig. 6. The Chrysler Building

In the 1930s, art deco detailing became somewhat less exaggerated and shifted toward linear continuity and smooth rounded surfaces in a style that came to be called streamlined moderne.

In the ever-larger office skyscrapers of the 1920s, American architects moved from historic detailing to more original and abstract art deco detailing. Skyscrapers in the art deco style had a soaring shaft with office space, upper floors that were set back from the floors below, and at the top additional setbacks that created a pyramid or spire in a final flourish. (Building and zoning ordinances in many American cities required setbacks of upper floors to allow light and air to reach the streets.) The best example of art deco style is the Chrysler Building (1930) in New York City, by William Van Alen.

Exercise 1: be sure to remember the words from Units 1-3; read and translate them.

to influence  simplified  shape   light   

to introduce  to desire  to create  to develop

development  stainless  detailing  to shift  

air   smooth  surface  shaft

soar   space   upper   setback

spire   flourish  to require  ordinance  

to allow  to reach  devoted

Exercise 2: read and remember new words to help you with the text.

to embrace - принимать

development - зд. событие

impact - влияние

to hold - проводить

patron - покровитель, меценат

austere - строгий, суровый

lack - отсутствие, недостаток

to stem - происходить

to incorporate - включать, объединять, содержать, соединять

elegant - изящный

plastic - пластик, пластмасса

a great deal of - много, множество

multiple - множественный

curved - изогнутый

bold - четкий, отчетливый, резкий, жирный, смелый

linear - линейный, продольный, прямолинейный

pattern - образец, модель, схема, узор, рисунок

to accentuate - подчеркивать, акцентировать

to exaggerate - преувеличивать

continuity - неразрывность, беспрерывность, непрерывность

streamlined - стройный, элегантный, упрощенный

to shift - менять, изменять, смещать, передвигать


Exercise 3: read and remember the words having the same or similar meaning.

influence = impact

development = growth

development = event

to stem = to originate

to incorporate = to include

elegant = streamlined

simplified = streamlined

pattern = model

multiple = numerous

rounded = circular

to shift = to move

shift = change

to lack = to miss

a great deal of = a large number of

Exercise 4: put the words below  into the right column.

simplified, geometric, devoted, decorative, elegant, wide, lacking, developed, shortened, including, held, austere, multiple, curved, linear, exaggerated, bold, smooth, rounded, streamlined, soaring, stainless, original, called, incorporated, introduced.

Participle I

Participle II


Exercise 5: read and translate word combinations from the text.

art deco; European movement; wide influence; simplified form; geometric ornament; European architectural developments; decorative arts; international exposition; modern design; lacking in ornament; austere design; shortened version; elegant materials; stainless steel; early plastics; a great deal of ornament; stylistic motifs; multiple curved forms; bold linear pattern; flat geometric pattern; strong color contrasts; art deco detailing; less exaggerated detailing; linear continuity; smooth rounded surfaces; streamlined modern style

Exercise 6: read and translate the text “Art Deco”.


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40378. Психические нарушения при интоксикациях лекарственными средствами бытовыми и промышленными токсическими веществами 39.5 KB
  Первые признаки интоксикации заключаются в появлении астении сильной сонливости расстройстве зрения. При атропиновой интоксикации возникают картины делирия с выраженным возбуждением и изменчивым аффектом а также состояния оглушения переходящего в сопор и кому. При хронической интоксикации барбитуратами наблюдаются психопатоподобные состояния с эйфорией расторможенностью расстройствами памяти значительным снижением критики. Психические нарушения близки к расстройствам при интоксикации анилином.
40379. Справочник по психиатрии: Психические расстройства сосудистого генеза 57.5 KB
  Психические нарушения сосудистого генеза отличаются большим клиническим многообразием и среди них значительное место занимают сравнительно неглубокие непсихотические нарушения неврозоподобные психопатоподобные нерезко выраженные аффективные и психоорганические изменения. Только при разных формах сосудистой деменции а также некоторых острых психозах экзогенноорганического типа патогенетическая связь между собственными закономерностями сосудистого заболевания и возникновением психических расстройств представляется прямой и очевидной. В...
  Психотерапия в широком смысле охватывает всю область общения врача и больной. Психотерапия имеет целью устранить проявления болезни изменить отношение больного к своему состоянию самому себе и окружающему. Выделяют следующие основные методы психотерапии: 1 рациональная психотерапия; 2 суггестивная психотерапия включающая внушение наяву в состоянии гипнотического сна и самовнушение аутосуггестия; 3 коллективная групповая психотерапия семейная поведенческая игровая имаготерапия психоэстетотерапия и т.
  Реактивные состояния легче возникают у психопатических личностей а также у лиц ослабленных инфекциями тяжелыми соматиче скими заболеваниями интоксикациями черепномозговыми травмами сосудистыми заболеваниями длительной бессонницей тяжелыми авита минозами и др. Реактивные состояния и психозы подразделяются на: 1 аффективношоковые психогенные реакции; 2 депрессивные психогенные реакции реактивная депрессия; 3 реактивные пси хогенные бредовые психозы; 4 истерические психотические реакции или истерические психозы. В большинстве...
  Сверхценные идеи сопровождаются выраженным аффективным напряжением. Сверхценные идеи отличаются от бреда толкования интерпретативного тем что в их основе реальные факты и события а источники интерпретативного бреда целиком ошибочные неправильные умозаключения. Сверхценные идеи с течением времени при определенных условиях блекнут и исчезают а бредовые имеют тенденцию к дальнейшему развитию. Сверхценные идеи нередко сопутствуют депрессиям и бывают при этом тесно связаны с бредом самообвинения.
40384. Психические нарушения при сосудистых поражениях головного мозга. Расстройства возраста обратного развития 51 KB
  Все психические нарушения при сосудистых поражениях головного мозга не выходят за рамки психоорганического синдрома. сосудистая амнестический синдром органический бредовый синдром органический галлюциноз органическое кататоническое расстройство нарушения настроения органической природы синдром тревоги органического характера органические диссоциативные расстройства астенические расстройства расстройства личности вследствие органического поражения мозга и другие более редко встречаемые нарушения. Каждому этапу развития заболевания...