Научная статья

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The center of modern architecture in Europe was the Bauhaus, a design school in Germany established in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius. In 1932 an exhibition held at the new Museum of Modern Art in New York featured the work of Gropius and other European architects who had defined the modernist design philosophy...



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Unit 5


The center of modern architecture in Europe was the Bauhaus, a design school in Germany established in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius. In 1932 an exhibition held at the new Museum of Modern Art in New York featured the work of Gropius and other European architects who had defined the modernist design philosophy, including Mies Van der Rohe and Le Corbusier. The organizers of the exhibition, museum curator Philip Johnson and architectural historian Henry Hitchcock, prepared a small book to accompany it. Both the book and the exhibition were entitled “The International Style: Architecture Since 1922”. They introduced the American public to the new European approach to design. Although the initial public reaction to the International Style was not overly enthusiastic, the power of Johnson and Hitchcock's arguments in its favor gradually gained it broader acceptance. In the book they defined International Style modernism, discussing its rejection of historical styles and applied ornament and its emphasis on pure utilitarian functionalism. International Style architects favored enclosed spatial volumes over opaque enclosing materials, smooth industrial finishes (especially metals and glass), and open, nonsymmetrical plans without any dominant                  Fig. 7. The Seagram Building 

The International Style was particularly well suited to large metropolitan apartment and office towers. The chaste elegance and subtle proportions of Mies's Lake Shore Drive Apartments (1951) in Chicago and (with Philip C. Johnson) his Seagram Building (1958) in New York City represent modernism at its finest. Many of his imitators, however, seized on its commercial potential; it proved extremely efficient for large-scale construction, in which the same module could be repeated indefinitely. Inner spaces became standardized, predictable, and profitable, and exteriors reflected the monotony of the interiors; the blank glass box became ubiquitous.

The modernism of the French and German architects influenced Frank Lloyd Wright, as demonstrated in portions of his best-known building Fallingwater (1938), a private weekend house built for Pittsburgh department-store magnate Edgar Kaufmann.

Wright positioned the house directly over a stream, giving rise to the house's name, and on a spot used by Kaufmann and his family to view a lush rhododendron forest. To merge the house with its landscape, Wright used rough limestone and created strongly horizontal wings that appear to extend from the rocky ledges of the site. Like houses in the International Style, Fallingwater lacks conventional interior walls, although stone piers enclose the kitchen. The arrangement of Fallingwater's rough limestone vertical piers and smooth concrete horizontal planes in a somewhat abstract composition also shows the influence of the International Style.

Fig. 8. The Fallingwater

Exercise 1: be sure to remember the words from Units 1-4; translate them.

to establish


to hold

to introduce

public (n)



to define




to represent


approach (n)





to appear







Exercise 2: read and remember new words to help you with the text.

to feature - освещать

curator - хранитель

to accompany - сопровождать

to entitle - озаглавить

overly - слишком, чересчур

to favor - поддерживать, оказывать предпочтение благоприятствовать

in favor - в пользу

to gain - добиваться, завоевывать

acceptance - принятие, одобрение

to reject -отвергать, отклонять, не принимать

rejection - отказ, отклонение

applied - прикладной

emphasis - ударение, акцент

pure - чистый

utilitarian - утилитарный, практичный, полезный, выгодный

to enclose - окружать, огораживать

spatial - пространственный

opaque - опаковый, непрозрачный, темный

finishes - отделочные материалы

axis - ось

chaste - строгий

subtle - утонченный

imitator - подражатель

to seize on - ухватиться за

to prove - оказаться

extremely - чрезвычайно

lush - пышный, роскошный

to merge - сливать, объединять

limestone - известняк

strongly - зд. очень, весьма, строго

to extend - удлинять, продлевать, увеличивать

wing - крыло (здания), флигель

ledge - выступ, край

conventional - обычный, принятый

pier - столб, стойка, пилон

arrangement - расположение, размещение

plane - плоскость, уровень, горизонт

somewhat - в некотором роде, как-то, несколько, довольно

module - модуль

indefinitely - неограниченно, неопределенно

inner - внутренний

predictable - предсказуемый

profitable - прибыльный

to reflect - отражать

blank - пустой, глухой (о стене)

ubiquitous - вездесущий

to position - размещать, ставить, помещать

stream - ручей

spot - место

to view - смотреть, обозревать

Exercise 3: read and translate word combinations from the text.

initial public reaction; overly enthusiastic; broader acceptance; rejection of historical styles; pure utilitarian functionalism; enclosed spatial volumes; opaque enclosing materials; smooth industrial finishes, dominant axis; particularly well suited; large metropolitan apartment towers; chaste elegance; subtle proportions; extremely efficient; large-scale construction; inner spaces; blank glass box; best-known building; private weekend house; rough limestone; strongly horizontal wings; rocky ledges; conventional interior walls; stone piers; rough limestone vertical piers; smooth concrete horizontal planes; somewhat abstract composition.

Exercise 4: remember the words having the same or similar meaning.

overly = too

to gain = to acquire

emphasis = accent

chaste = austere

to position = to place

conventional = traditional

blank = empty

pier = post, pylon

subtle = refined

inner = inside

ledge = edge, projection

to reject = to refuse to accept

Exercise 5: put the following words in the right column (some words can go into more than one column).

feature, favor, pure, overly, utilitarian, strongly, spatial, space, position, reject, applied, wing, plane, limestone, inner, extremely, indefinitely, finishes, seize, chaste, subtle, ubiquitous, lush, merge, ledge, pier, conventional, extend, gain.





Exercise 6: read and translate the text “International Style Modernism”.