94673

COMPUTER LANGUAGES

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The only language they can understand directly is called machine code: central processors operate on codes which consist of a series of binary digits 1s and 0s. For this reason we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then by using a special program these languages can be translated into machine codes.

Английский

2015-09-15

115 KB

1 чел.

92

UNIT VII

COMPUTER LANGUAGES

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

 Unfortunately, computers cannot

                                       understand ordinary spoken English or any other

                                       natural language. The only language they can understand directly is called machine code: central processors operate on codes which consist of a series of binary digits (1s and 0s). In this form, the instructions are said to be in machine codes.

However, machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine codes. For example, the so-called assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. These mnemonic codes are like labels easily associated with the items to which they refer.

Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low-level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called an assembler. These languages are still quite complex and restricted to particular machines.

To make the programs easier to write and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of machines, higher-level languages were designed such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN or PASCAL. These languages are all problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented and can be converted into the machine codes of different types of computers. Programs written in one of these languages (known as source programs) are converted into a lower-level language by means of a compiler (generating the object program). On compilation, each statement in a high-level language is generally translated into many machine code instructions.

People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be made the wider the application of computer will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

  1.  machine code                    машинный код, программа на машинном языке
  2.  binary                                двоичный (представленный в двоичной системе счисления)
  3.   assembly language                  ассемблер  ( машинно- ориентированный язык)
  4.   assembler                               ассемблер (программа,                          преобразующая исходный текст на языке низкого уровня в исполняемый машинный код)
  5.   abbreviation                          аббревиатура, сокращение
  6.   mnemonic code                    мнемонический код
  7.   item                                       элемент данных
  8.   low-level language (LLL)     язык низкого уровня (предназначенный для прямого управления аппаратурой компьютера)
  9.  high-level language (HLL)    язык высокого уровня
  10.  to convert                           преобразовывать
  11.  restricted                            узкий, ограниченный
  12.  to overcome a problem      преодолеть, решить проблему
  13.  problem-oriented language (POL)       проблемно-ориентированный язык (предназначенный для решения задач в определённой предметной области)
  14.  source program                   исходная программа
  15.  compiler                              компилятор, транслятор
  16.  object program                    объектная программа

EXERCISES

1. Read the introductory text again and answer these questions:

  •  What is called ‘machine code’?
  •  What is the reason for using ‘symbolic languages’ in computers?
  •  How can you characterize ‘low-level languages’?
  •  Can you give examples of “high-level languages”? What are their advantages?
  •  Do you think computers will be able to understand human languages?

2.Match each term in column A with its definition in column B:

1. Assembler

a program that translates instructions from a high-level

language into a form that can be understood by the computer

2. Machine code

a low-level symbolic code converted by an assembler

3. High – level language

a series of instructions written in a form that a computer can read and understand

4. Assembly language

a set of instructions for a computer program that a computer programmer understands and that are translated into instructions that a  computer understands

5. Compiler

a computer program that translates instructions from a low-level language into a form that can be understood and executed by the computer

6. Low-level language

a computer language that is made as similar as possible to a human language

7. Source code

a language close in form to machine code used for writing

computer programs

3. Read the text. Before reading translate into Russian the following international words used in he text:

Formula, mathematics, type, problem, program, structure, algorithmic, college, university, symbol, modern, logical, mathematical, concept, interactive, dialect, instruction

Computers can deal with different kinds of problems but they must be given the right instructions. Instructions are written in one of the high-level languages, for example, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, PASCAL, BASIC, or C. But a program written in one of these languages should be interpreted into machine code. Usually when one instruction written in a high- level language is transformed into machine code, it results in several instructions. A brief description of some high-level languages is given below. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages but some are better suited to particular types of work than others.

FORTRAN (FORmular TRANslator) Written in 1956, this is one of the oldest languages. It is particularly suited to solving problems using formulas in science, engineering and mathematics. Although it is widely used in these fields, it is not as suitable for business applications and is more difficult to learn than some other languages. It was really designed for use on mainframe computers using punched cards.

COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) This is another of the older languages dating 1958. It is mainly used for business applications but is not as suitable for mathematics. This language is closer to English than the others and is therefore easier to read and write. However, programs written in COBOL tend to be very long.

ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) This language was written in 1958. It is suitable for business applications and is also good for mathematics. It is easy for understanding because of its very clear structure.

PASCAL  This language, based on ALGOL, is named after famous scientist Blaise Pascal. It is a more recent language, dating from 1973. It is a general purpose language and is often used in colleges and universities as a teaching language. It is also commonly used for small business applications. Although it has a very clear structure, it is little more difficult to learn than some other languages.

LISP (LISt Processing) This language first made its appearance in 1959. It is designed for processing lists and symbols and is used for artificial intelligence research. A LISP program can improve itself each time it is run. It is more flexible than other computer languages, however, it is difficult to learn.

LOGO is another modern language derived from LISP which made its appearance in 1969. It is a very simple language to learn and was designed to be used by very young children. It encourages a logical, structured use of language and has most often been used to teach mathematical concepts such as angles.

BASIC (Beginers All-purpose Symbolic Introduction Code) was written in 1964 as a teaching language. It is a general purpose language which is interactive i.e. data can be input while the program is running. It is quite easy for beginners to learn and is very userfriendly e.g. it displays helpful error messages to tell the user when he has made a mistake. But there are different dialects of BASIC, which makes it difficult to use the same program on two different makes of computer.

C is developed to support UNIX operating system. C is a general-purpose language.

Other well known languages include FORTH, ALP, ADA, PL/I, PROLOG, RPG, COMAL and APT.

When a program is designed to do a specific type of work it is called an application program.

  •  Find in the text equivalents to:

иметь дело с, краткое описание, решать проблемы, перфокарта, большая ЭВМ, пригодный для, язык общего назначения, вести начало от/ датироваться, искусственный интеллект, запускать программу, появиться, происходить от, лёгкий в использовании, указание на ошибку, прикладная программа.

  •  Fill in the table.

Language

FORTRAN

COBOL

ALGOL

PASCAL

LISP

LOGO

Date

Use

Features

Other points

  •  Complete the sentences choosing proper endings:

1. FORTRAN is a high-level language, which is used for…

a) supporting UNIX operating system;

b) commercial purposes;

c) solving scientific and mathematical problems;

2. ALGOL is a high-level language, which is intended to…

a) be used for commercial purposes;

b) solve mathematical and scientific problems;

c) be used by students who require a simple language to begin programming.  

3. COBOL is a high-level language, which is designed …

  1.  to solve mathematical and scientific problems;
  2.  to be used for commercial purposes;
  3.  to support the UNIX operating system;

5. C is a high-level language, which is developed…

  1.  to support the UNIX operating system;
  2.  to deal with mathematical problems;
  3.  for commercial purposes.

DISCUSSION

 Complete the table by asking for information like this:

– What does “FORTRAN” mean?

– “FORTRAN” stands for…

– When was it developed?

– In….

– What's it used for? -It's used for ...

– What features has it got? —It's a combination of algebraic formulae and English phrases. It's difficult to learn.

Answer your partner's questions too.

Notes for student A:

Language

Date of development

Characteristics

Use/function

• FORT-RAN (FOR-mula RAN-slation)

•   1954-56

•  Has combination of algebraic formulae and English phrases.

• Difficult to learn.

• Problem-oriented language for scientific and mathematical use.

• COBOL

• 1958-59

• Mainly used for business applications.

• PASCAL

(Named after

• Structured language with algorithmic features designed for fast execution of the object program.

• A fast compiler called TurboPascal was created in 1982. Von" popular.

• LOGO

•  1969

•  Easy to learn.

• Flexible: it can do maths, make lists, construct graphics.

• Its drawing capabilities allow children to construct simple graphics programs.

• LISt

Processing

•  1959

• Developed to work on natural languages and Artificial Intelligence (АГ).

•  Suitable for manipulating and analyzing text.

• PROLOG

• Implemen-ted by …

•  Has its roots in mathematical logic.

• Programmers do not specify 'how' something is done, but 'what' is to be done, describing situations and problems.

Notes for student B: 

 

Language

Date of development

 Characteristics

 Use/Function

• FORTRAN

FORmula TRANslation;

•    1954-56  

•  Has combination of algebraic formulae and English phrases.

•  Difficult to learn.

•  Problem-oriented language for scientific and mathematical use.

• Common Business (Oriented Language )

•   Easy to read.

• Able to handle very large data files.

•  Written in English.

• (Named after the famous scientist Blaise Pascal.)

•    1970-73

• ......................................................

• General-purpose.

•  Often used in colleges and universities to teach programming.

• LOGO

•  Designed for use in schools to encourage children to experiment with programming.

• LISP

•  Designed for processing lists and symbols (non-numeric data;.

•  Numerous commercially available LISP implementations.

• PROgram-ming in LOGic

• Implemen-ted by David Warren in the mid 1970s.

Early 1970s

•  for AI research.

•  In Japan, was central to the development of fifth-generation computers.

LISTENING SKILLS

  •  Listen to Vicky Cameron, the Information Technology (IT)

lecturer from Units 7 and 12, talking to her students about C language. Complete the table with the relevant information.

Developed by         Date         Characteristics         Uses          Extension

Dennis Ritchie       ……         Created to replace   Originally    C+C and

At……………                        …………………    designed for  ……….

………………                        …………………     …………      Object-

                                               The language is        …………      oriented

        small, ……….          Today it is   Languages

        ………………         used to….      

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

FEED IN ENGLISH,

PRINT OUT IN FRENCH   

Once upon a time, according to a much told story, a computer was set a task of translating ‘traffic jam’ into French and back into English. The machine buzzed, clicked, blinked its lights and eventually came up with ’car-flavored marmalade’. Machine translation has come a long way since then. Computer translation systems are now in use in many parts of the world.

With so many official languages, translating and interpreting take up more than 50% of the Community’s administrative budget. But although the efficiency of machine translation is improving rapidly, there’s no question of human translators being made redundant. On the contrary, people and machines work together in harmony. Today’s computers are of little value in translating literary works, where subtlety is vital, or the spoken word, which tends to be ungrammatical, or important texts, where absolute accuracy is essential. But for routine technical reports, working papers and the like, which take up so much of the translation workload of the international organizations, computers are likely to play an increasing role. The method of operation will probably be for the machines to make a rough version, which the translator will then edit, correcting obvious mistakes, and where necessary referring back to the original.

If machines can translate languages, could they ever teach languages? Yes say enthusiasts, although they doubt that the teacher could ever be totally replaced by a machine in the classroom. Good old teachers know best!

 FINAL TEST

    

  •  Put the following sentences in the same sequence as the information is arranged in the introductory text (Расположите следующие предложения в той же последовательности, в какой информация представлена в вводном тексте)

1. A. Programs written in assembly languages are translated into machine code by a special program called an assembler.

B. It’s possible to expect the appearance of computers, which will be able to understand human languages.

C. High-level languages make programs easier to write, modify and understand.

D. Writing a machine code program takes a very long time is best left to experts

  •   Choose the right English equivalent to the following Russian sentence (Выберите верный английский эквивалент следующему русскому предложению).

2. Программу, написанную на одном из языков высокого уровня, следует преобразовывать в машинный код.

  1.  The program, written in one of high-level languages, should be converted into machine code.
  2.  The program, written in one of assembly languages, should be converted into machine code.
  3.  The program, written in one of low-level languages, should be converted into machine code.

  •  Choose the right Russian equivalent to the following English sentence (Выберите верный русский эквивалент следующему английскому предложению)

3. Although the efficiency of machine translation is improving rapidly, there’s no question of human translators being made redundant.

A. Вследствие того, что эффективность машинного перевода быстро растёт, встаёт вопрос о том, что перевод, выполненный человеком, больше не потребуется

B. Хотя эффективность машинного перевода быстро растёт, не может быть речи о том, чтобы отказаться от переводов, выполненных человеком.

C. Несмотря на то, что эффективность машинного перевода быстро уменьшается, встаёт вопрос о том, чтобы отказаться от переводов, выполненных человеком.

  •  Find the equivalents in two languages (Найдите эквиваленты в двух языках)

4. low-level language                            A.пригодный для

5. to solve problems                              B. исходная программа

6. suitable for                                        C. решать проблемы

7. high-level language                           D. язык низкого уровня

8. source program                                  E. язык высокого уровня

  •  Complete the sentences with the proper word (Закончите предложения подходящим по смыслу словом)

9. High level language, which is mainly used for business applications but is not as suitable for mathematics is called …

10. Codes which consist of a series of binary digits and which central processors operate on are known as…

11. Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are…

12. A general-purpose language often used in colleges and universities as a teaching language is called…

13. Computer languages, which resemble English to some extent, are called…

14. A general-purpose language, which is interactive, easy for beginners and very user-friendly, is known as…

15. Programs written in one of the high level languages are known as …

16. Computer language developed to support the UNIX operating system is called…

17. A computer program that translates instructions from a low-level language into machine code is called…

  •  Choose the right variant (выберите правильный вариант)

18. The only language computer can understand directly is called…

A. Assembly language           B. High-level language

C. Machine code                     D. Low-level language

19. LISP language was written in…

A. 1958                                     B. 1973

C. 1964                                      D. 1959

20. FORTRAN was really designed for use on…

A. minicomputers     B. mainframe computers     C.microcomputers  

21. … as a means of communication is very difficult to write.

A. symbolic language                     B. machine code

C. high-level language                    D. compilation

22. High-level languages are usually…

A. problem-oriented                      B. machine-oriented

23. Computer language designed to be used by very young children is…

A. PASCAL                                   B. FORTRAN

C. ALGOL                                      D. LOGO

24. High-level programming languages are…

A. BASIC, FORTRAN                  B. assembly and machine

                                                                  Languages


 

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