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That is the purpose of the printers joined to the computing equipment. There are different types of printers and the results you can obtain with different types of printers vary substantially. It must be taken into account that printers vary in cost speed print quality and other factors such as noise or compatibility.



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                                         We interact with computers by entering

                                              instructions and data into them. After this

                                              information has been processed  internally,

                                              we can see the results on the screen of the monitor.

The characters and pictures that we see on the screen are made up of dots, also called picture elements (pixels). The total number of pixels in which the display is divided both horizontally and vertically is known as the resolution. If the number of pixels is very large we obtain a high resolution display and therefore a sharp image. Typical resolutions are 640x480, or 1024x768 pixels.

The cathode ray tube of the monitor is very similar to that of a TV set. Inside the tube there is an electron beam which scans the screen and turns on or off the pixels that make up the image. The beam begins in the top left corner, and scans the screen from left to right in a continuous sequence which repeats 50, 60 or 75 times per second, depending on the system. If the rate of this repetition is low, we can perceive a flickering, unsteady screen, which can cause eye fatigue. However, a fast-moving 75 Hz ‘refresh rate’ eliminates this annoying flicker.

The monitor is controlled by a separate circuit board, known as the display adaptor, which plugs into the motherboard of the computer. Different boards drive different types of display. For example, the VGA (Video Graphics Array) card has become a standard for colour monitors.

Portable computers use a flat Liquid-Crystal Display, instead of a picture tube. An LCD uses a grid of crystals and polarizing filters to show the image. The crystals block the light in different amounts to generate the dots in the image.

Printing is the final stage in creating the document. That is the purpose of the printers joined to the computing equipment. There are different types of printers and the results you can obtain with different types of printers vary substantially. It must be taken into account that printers vary in cost, speed, print quality and other factors such as noise or compatibility.   

First  daisywheel and dot-matrix printers were of impact type that made them very noisy. Modern printers are non-impact and give almost silent printing by using methods that do not require mechanical contact between the print head  and the paper (e.g. heat, electrostatics or laser).

One common type of non-impact printer is an ink-jet printer. It operates by firing a fine spray of quick-drying ink onto paper. The ink jet is formed into the required character by electrostatic fields. This type of printer is quite fast and can print at the rate of up to about 400 cps.

Laser printers are extremely fast, printing a complete page at a time. They scan the image with a laser beam and transfer it to paper with a special ink powder. They are constantly being improved. In terms of speed and quality they are preferred by experts for different reasons: they have a wider range of scalable fonts, they can emulate different language systems, they can produce graphics, and they have many other advantages.

Another type of non-impact printer is thermal printer which uses heat, a special kind of paper and electrosensitive methods.

Photosetters can be regarded as an attractive alternative. They do not print on regular paper, but on photographic paper or microfilm. They can produce output with a resolution of over 2000 dots per inch. In addition, they are extremely fast, but very expensive.

Finally, plotters are a special kind of printer. Plotters use ink and fine pens held in a carriage to draw very detailed designs on paper. They are used for construction plans, engineering drawings and other technical illustrations.


  1.  dot                                      точка,
  2.  pixel                                   пиксел, элемент изображения
  3.  resolution                           разрешение, разрешающая


  1.  cathode ray tube                 электронно-лучевая трубка
  2.  scan                                    просматривать, сканировать
  3.  flicker                                 мерцание, дрожание                          
  4.  refresh rate                          частота обновления


  1.  display adaptor                   адаптер дисплея
  2.  plug                                     подключать, вставлять в разъем
  3.  motherboard                        системная плата (разг.

                                                             материнская плата)                                                                                                                                                     

  1.  Video Graphics Array         видеографический адаптер
  2.  Grid                                     сетка, решетка
  3.  compatibility                       совместимость
  4.  daisywheel printer               лепестковый принтер
  5.  dot-matrix printer                точечно-матричный принтер
  6.  impact  printer                     принтер контактной печати                
  7.  non-impact printer              принтер бесконтактной печати    
  8.  ink-jet printer                      струйный принтер   
  9.  scalable font                        масштабируемый шрифт (с

                                                    программно изменяемым кеглем)

  1.  emulate                               эмулировать (выполнять на одном  

                                                    компьютере программы,


                                                    для компьютера другого типа)

  1.  thermal printer                    термографический принтер                

22.  plotter                                  плоттер, графопостроитель


1. Read the introductory text again and answer these questions.

  •  According to the writer, what is the importance of ‘pixel resolution’?
  •  Why can a low refresh rate produce eye fatigue?
  •  What does ‘LCD’ stand for? What type pf computers use LCD displays?
  •  What output device gives permanent copy of processed data?

What types of printers do you know? What technical features make them different from each other?

2. Study the adjectives given in the box and use them to describe the types of printers from the text.





3.Read the text to study recommendations for healthy experience with the computer. Do the tasks given below.


Can all this computing be good for you? Are there any unhealthy side effects? The computer seems harmless enough. How bad can it be, sitting in a padded chair in a climate-controlled office?

Health questions have been raised by the people who sit all day in front of the video display terminals (VDTs) of their computers. Are computer users getting bad radiation? What about eyestrain? And what about the age-old back problem, updated with new concerns about workers who hold their hands over a keyboard? What about repetitive-action injury also known as carpal tunnel syndrome? What about the risk of miscarriage?

Unions and legislators in many communities continue to push for laws limiting exposure to video screens. Many manufacturers now offer screens with built-in protection.

Meanwhile, there are a number of things workers can do to take care of themselves. A good place to begin is with an ergonomically designed workstation. Ergonomics is the study of human factors related to computers. A properly designed workstation takes a variety of factors into account, such as the distance from the eyes to the screen and the angle of the arms and wrists. Experts recommend these steps as coping mechanisms:

Turn the screen away from the window to reduce glare, and cover your screen with a glare deflector. Turn off overhead lights; illuminate your work area with a lamp.

Put your monitor on a tilt-and-swivel base.

Get a pneumatically adjustable chair. Position the seat back so your lower back is supported.

Place the keyboard low enough to avoid arm and wrist fatigue. Do not bend your wrists when you type. Use an inexpensive, raised wrist rest. Do not rest your wrists on a sharp edge

Sit with your feet firmly on the floor.

Exercise at your desk occasionally rotating your wrist, rolling your shoulders, and stretching. Better yet, get up and walk around at regular intervals.

  •  Find in the text equivalents to:

вредные побочные эффекты; мягкое кресло; вентилируемое помещение; электромагнитное излучение; облучение; радикулит;

усталость рук и кистей; рабочее место; верхнее освещение;

учитывать (принимать в расчет); наклонная и вращающаяся поставка; уменьшить свечение; встроенная защита; пневматически регулируемое кресло; вращать; потягиваться; острый край, регулярно.

  •  Fill in the table:



How to cope



Staying indoors




immune system diseases, risk of miscarriage

Increase distance from the eyes to the screen

Install radiation protection devices (a glare reflector)

4. Look through the advertisements of computer monitors from IBM. Compare the monitors taking into account their features and price.


Flat Panel monitors

from $329.00 IBM web price*
Common features:
· As small as one-sixth the depth of a typical CRT Consumes less power than comparable CRT monitors
· Sharp, stable image provides flicker-free viewing
· Design floats display towards user, emphasizing its sleek, light look

Performance flat panel monitor features:
· Hybrid models allow digital or analog input
· Ergonomic stands swivel, tilt and lift for comfortable viewing
· Supports applications from general business up to ultra-high-resolution imaging

CRT monitors
from $119.00 IBM web price*
Performance CRT monitor features:
· High resolution and fine-strip pitch for sharp, scalable images
· Flat screen Aperture Grille for brightness and clarity
· Great value for those who desire excellent text and graphics viewing

Essential CRT monitor features:
· Ideal for value-conscious customers
· Excellent choice for viewing basic applications
· Flat screen technology and speakers available on select models



  •  Tony Clark, a lecturer in computer ergonomics, is talking to some students about health and safety in a computer classroom. Listen and complete the sentences below.

You should get a good chair, one that. …………………………….

Position the keyboard………………………………………………

Position the monitor…………eye level, or just……………………

A tilt-and-swivel display lets you…………………………………..

You should stay an arm’s length away from……………………….

If you work in a room with a lot of computers, sit…………………

  •  Listen to the radio interview and decide whether these statements about ink-jet printers are true or false.

Ink-jet printers are quieter than dot-matrix printers.

Ink-jet printers are cheaper than dot-matrix printers

It is unlikely that ink-jet printers will ever become real competition for laser printers.

Ink-jet printers can easily print on envelopes, labels and transparencies.

Ink-jet colour printers use four inks: magenta, yellow, cyan and black.

Only large businesses can afford colour ink-jet printers.


Working in pairs make up dialogues discussing the following problems.

  1.  Ask another student to describe  the monitor of his computer. Touch upon these aspects: resolution, size, image quality, display type.

  1.  A company requires quite a fast printer for their minicomputer which does not need special paper and which will not disturb the work of the office. Help this company representative choose appropriate printer.

  1.  A computer user complains of eyestrain caused by his monitor. Try to find out the reasons and give helpful recommendations.





                                     One of the most exciting new areas of сomputer research is virtual reality. Having been featured in TV sitcoms as well as public television documentaries, virtual reality is merely an ambitious new style of computer interface. Virtual reality creates the illusion of being in an artificial world — one created by computers.

Virtual reality visitors strap on a set of eyephones, 3-D goggles that are really individual computer screens for the eyes. Slipping on the rest of the gear allows you not only to see and hear, but also to sense your voyage. The world of virtual reality has been called cyberspace, a computer-enhanced fantasy world in which you move around and manipulate objects to your mind's content.

When you move your head, magnetic sensors instruct the computer to refocus your eye phones to your new viewpoint. sounds surround you, and a fiber-optic glove allows you to "manipulate" what you see. You may seek out strange new worlds, fight monsters in computer combat, or strap yourself into the seat of a Star Wars-type jet and scream through cyberspace, blasting all comers to oblivion (computer oblivion, at least). Or, with your stomach appropriately settled, you might even try out the most incredible roller coaster ride you will ever take in your life.

For the disabled, virtual reality promises a new form of freedom.  Consider the wheelchair bound paraplegic child who is suddenly able to use virtual reality gear to take part in games like baseball or basketball. Research funded by the government takes a military point of view, investigating the possibility of sending robots into the real conflict while human beings don cyberspace gear to guide them from back in the lab.

Spectrum Holobyte, a Computer games development Company, announced its first virtual reality Computer game for the home during 1991 Christmas season. Imagine yourself suddenly clutching your handheld laser pistol as a giant bird swoops right at you from the age of dinosaurs! Your laser shot goes astray, and you feel yourself suddenly lifted off the ground and carried higher and higher. That's enough - for some of us it can be virtually too real.




  •  Put the following sentences in the same sequence as the information is arranged in the introductory text (Расположите следующие предложения в той же последовательности, какой информация представлена в вводном тексте)

1.  A. There are different types of printers.

  1.  For seeing the result of processing data we need a special output device.
  2.  The more is the number of pixels the better image we get.

        D. Using a printer type depends on the application.

  •  The main idea of the text «To Your Health» can be expressed as: (Главная идея текста «Для вашего здоровья» может быть выражена как:)

2. A. It is impossible to be healthy while working at the computer.

  1.  One can be quite healthy while working at the computer if he follows some useful rules.
  2.  Trade unions should take care of computer users.

  •  Give the right English equivalent to the following Russian sentence (Дайте верный английский эквивалент русскому предложению)

Если Вы работаете в офисе  с большим количеством компьютеров, не сидите боком или спиной слишком близко к мониторам.

3. A. If you work in an office with a large number of computers, don’t sit too close to the sides or backs of monitors.

B. If your work in an office includes computers, don’t do anything with monitors.

C. While working in an office, don’t use computers and monitors too much.

  •  Give the right Russian equivalent to the following English sentence (Дайте верный русский эквивалент английскому предложению)

It is unlikely that ink-jet printers will ever become real competition for laser printers.

4. A. Вероятно, скоро струйные принтеры будут конкурировать с лазерными.

  1.  Маловероятно, что лазерные принтеры составят конкуренцию струйным.
  2.  Маловероятно, что струйные  принтеры составят реальную конкуренцию лазерным.

  •  Find the equivalents in two languages (Найдите эквиваленты в двух языках)

5. daisywheel printer       А.  точечно-матричный принтер

6.dot-matrix printer         В.  струйный принтер  

7.impact  printer              С. принтер бесконтактной печати    

8.non-impact printer        D. термографический принтер    

9.ink-jet printer                E.  принтер контактной печати                

                                    F. лепестковый принтер

  •  Complete the sentences with the proper word (Закончите предложения подходящим по смыслу словом)

10. A grid of crystals and polarizing filters to show the image are used in …….

11. If the number of pixels is small the resolution is ………….

12. The monitor is controlled by a separate circuit board, known as ………

13. Printers using methods that do not require mechanical contact between the print head  and the paper are known as …….

14. Printers that scan the image with a laser beam and transfer it to paper with a special ink powder are known as ……...

15.  Non-impact printer which uses heat, a special kind of paper and electrosensitive methods is ……….

16.  Monitors and printers are the most common ………….

17.  The study of human factors related to computers is ………….

18.  If computer users don’t want to ruin their experience there are a number of things they can do to take care of ………………..

  •  Choose the right variant (Выберете правильный вариант)

19. We get flickering screen if …….. is low

  1.  Pixel                                       B. Dot

C. Refresh rate                            D. Display

20. The picture tube of the display which is made of glass and contains a vacuum is…….                                     

    A. Display adaptor                      B.Cathode ray tube

    C. Monitor                                   D.. Video card

21……. is known to exist between two computers if programs can be run on both without any change

    A. Compatibility                         B. Resolution

    C. Refresh rate                            D. Display adaptor

22. A very common graphics output device which is used to make different types of engineering drawing is……..

    A. Thermal printer                      B. Plotter

    C. Inl-jet printer                          D. Dot-matrix printer

23. A flickering screen can cause ………

    A. Carpal tunnel syndrome        B. Eyestrain

    C. Back injury                            D. Immune system diseases

24. Ink-jet, laser and thermal printer are known as……….                    

    A. Non-impact                           B. Impact

25……..is used to give a permanent copy of a document.

    A. Monitor                                 B. Printer


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