94681

Emphatic Inversion

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

To get even one report from a computer requires the prior application of a great deal of intensive skilled human labour. Given below are some fundamentals concerning computer operations. Computers perform with great speed and accuracy many operations that up to now have traditionally been done only by human labour.

Английский

2015-09-15

47 KB

0 чел.

Unit 19

Grammar: Emphatic Inversion

TEXT 19 A

Computers (Fundamentals)

Computers are devices which process input data to provide output data, but input information, which the computer is to process, centainly is far from “raw”, because in the typical case, the input information is itself the result of an extensive collection and processing operation. To get even one report from a computer requires the prior application of a great deal of intensive skilled human labour.

Given below are some fundamentals concerning computer operations.

Computers perform with great speed and accuracy many operations that up to now have traditionally been done only by human labour. Already they are showing themselves capable of playing games, translating languages and even “learning” from experience. Not only can computers be taught to prove theorems of geometry and logic, read handwritten letters and other manmade patterns, but they can write sonatas and poems.

This fact has led some writers to liken computers to ”brains”. But, perfect as modern computers are, they cannot be called “brains”, however, because most of the real brain-work goes into drawing up the orders so that the machine can carry them out. Automatic computers are not able to devise a way of solving a new problem even when given the data. Nor can computers do any data processing without being instructed. It is the human being that has to think out a way of solving the problem, and then instruct the computer how to solve the problem when given the data. The computer will do exactly what it has been asked to do.

The human operation of instructing the computer is called programming, and the resulting set of instruction is called a program or a routine. This programming activity is actually a combination of two other activities: the breaking down of a complete operation into a sequence of simple operations (such as adding, multiplying, comparing, writing, etc.) along with the modifying and writing up of the sequence of simple operations into a set of instructions that can cause the computer to do complex operations provided the input data are given.

Computers can “remember” and “recall” and virtually unlimited is the capacity of automatic computers to remember (that is, to store information). Associated with the capacity of remembering is the capacity of recalling – the larger the amount of information computers remember (store), the slower is the recall.

In operation all computers accept input symbols and produce output symbols. Because of this it is often helpful to think of a computer as a device for converting input information into output information. It must be remembered, however, that not until a program is prepared does a computer perform any conversion or transforming (that is, a data processing). To be more precise, not only is it necessary to specify in detailed form the instructions comprising a program, but the detailed instructions must be arranged in a logical sequence which involves listing the logical steps required by the input-to-output conversion. The instructions have to be made absolutely complete in every detail and yet expressed in terms the machine can ”understand”.

Computers are subject to failures, i. e. they do not completely avoid making errors. This lack of perfection is not exactly a disadvantage, however, because the proportion of error in the work of a computer is usually very much smaller than would be the case if the same amount and type of work were done in the same amount of time by any other means.

Now, in considering the capabilities of the computer it is necessary to emphasize that once prepared, a program can be reused any number of times. As far as the limitations are concerned, we may say that although the computer cannot completely avoid errors, it is much more error-free than are the available alternatives.

The electronic computer had more effect on the modern world than any other technological development the world has ever known, and its potential appears to be unlimited. Computers are used in science, education and space exploration. In fact, space exploration, as we know it today, would be literally impossible without the aid of the computer.

There is no doubt that computers will be used more and more in science and industry. Electronics is the basis of these machines. As the art of electronics – the basis of these machines – develops, so will the changes be felt throughout the whole field of computing.

Answer the questions:

  1.  What kind of devices are computers?
  2.  What can computers be taught?
  3.  What are advantages and disadvantages of computers?
  4.  What is programming? What is called a program?
  5.  What steps does programming activity include?
  6.  Are computers subject to failures? What can you say about the proportion of error in the work of a computer?
  7.  What is the role of the electronic computer in the modern world?

Exercises

  1.  Translate the hollowing words paying attention to the prefixes:

pre-war, pre-arrange, prehistoric, pre-human, preheat, post-war, post-graduate.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to the words of the same root.

Extent(n), extend(v), extended(a), extensive(a), extensively(adv).

  1.  Infra-red radiation emitted by hot bodies extends from about 0.1 mm down to 7,000 A.
  2.  During the past year some success has been achieved in extending the range of spectrographic measurements into the soft X-ray region.
  3.  The evidence from observations of meteors appears to indicate that our atmosphere extends upward at least 500 miles.
  4.  Through experiments it has been determined that the maximum temperature at which a man can maintain efficiency for extended periods is 80˚ F.
  5.  Unfortunately, the period of visibility of a comet is generally too short to allow any extensive measurements.
  6.  These instruments are extensively used for alternating current measurements.
  7.  The extent of calculations involved in making Kepler’s discoveries are quite surprising.
  8.  Hershel’s (an astronomer of the 18th century) attempt to determine the extent of the Milky Way had largely failed.
  9.  The resistance varies to some extent with temperature.
  10.  Since all fluids possess viscosity at least to some extent, the analysis of most flow systems requires consideration of the various forces involved.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to the adverb phrases.

Along with

  1.  The equipment comprises a sensitive radio receiver along with a highly directional antenna system.
  2.  Along with a long list of possible attractive characteristics of reactors, there are, unfortunately, certain dangerous points.

By virtue of

  1.  Heat is the energy that a body possesses by virtue of the fact that its molecules are in motion.
  2.  The internal combustion engine is unlike a steam engine which works by virtue of the introduction of steam which has been raised externally in a boiler.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to the meanings of the word “subject”.

subject (n)

subject-matter

to be subject to (smth.)

to subject to

  1.  In writing this book the width of the subject has prevented the details from being presented.
  2.  The book was concerned with the subject-matter of natural science and its applications.
  3.  An instrument which reads correctly at one frequency may be subject to considerable errors at other frequencies.
  4.  Physical phenomena occurring on the earth are subject to complex influences, partly of solar origin.
  5.  Certain static fluids are subjected to accelerations.
  6.  We can now liquefy all known gases by subjecting them to high pressures and cooling them by expansion.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to the word-combinations with the noun “case”.
  2.  When the magnetic field is produced by more than one charge, as is usually the case, the resultant force must be obtained by a vector summation of the forces due to individual charges.
  3.  Every material body is made either of an element or of a combination of two or more elements. Almost always, the latter is the case.
  4.  The realization of space flight is closely connected with the development of suitable power plants and propulsion systems. Such has been the case for the development of aircraft and missiles, and to a certain extent, such is the case for space flight.
  5.  The word “atom” means “indivisible” and at the time this term was invented atom was believed to be the smallest unit. Though this is now known not to be the case.
  6.  Since Venus is the nearest of the planets it should logically be an easy object to study. Unfortunately, the this is not case.

  1.  Translate the sentences paying attention to the meaning of the word “once”.

once (adv)

once more

once (cj)

at once

  1.  The Earth revolves in its orbit once a year and also rotates uniformly on its axis once a day.
  2.  Earth and Moon travel together, making a complete trip around the Sun once a year.
  3.  Heat was once considered as being a fluid.
  4.  The rare earth elements are a group of 15 elements whose position in the periodic table was once considered exceptional.
  5.  Once a space vehicle is in its orbit, the crew will no longer experience the Earth’s gravitational pull and will be weightless.
  6.  It is surprising how simple many problems of physics become once the meaning of each concept involved is completely understood.
  7.  At ordinary atmospheric pressure helium, once liquefied, remains liquid to the lowest temperature that can be reached.
  8.  Before taking off the pilot checked his controls once more.
  9.  The thrust magnitude and direction are at once known in terms of the motor performance.
  10.  It should not be thought that Newton’s theory of gravitation was at once universally accepted.

  1.  Translate the sentences containing the noun “art” and its derivatives.
  2.  Applications of solid propellant rockets to long-range missiles, guided missiles and boosting have grown with the continuing improvements in the art of rocketry.
  3.  Radar has been defined as “the art” of detecting by means of radio echoes the presence of objects, determining their direction and range, recognizing their character and employing the data thus obtained.
  4.  This paper will attempt to review the state-of-the-art in the field of orientation and stabilization of satellites.
  5.  The launching of the first artificial Earth satellite was of great value for space research and exploration.
  6.  Artificially radioactive materials, made available through the use of nuclear reactors, have proved extremely valuable.

TEXT 19 B

The automated factory

Give a summary of the text

If a computer can control the machine directly, this leads to the natural evolution of computer-controlled multiple machines and eventually computer control of the entire factory. The totally automated factory is a manufacturing facility which processes raw materials or components into finished products without direct human intervention. Factory automation can therefore be defined as a process without direct human activity within the process. The human would only be involved in designing the system and monitoring its operation. Realistically, this is an objective for the future. In the near term we can look for more automated material handling intelligent work stations for processing, fabrication and assembly, and for integrated automated inspections as well as computer-aided product design. The worker’s involvement in an automated factory would be in a control centre from which all operation could be remotedly monitored, or in equipment maintenance, or in computer aided design of the original product. All of the industrialized countries are working toward the development of automated factories and most countries have examples of such systems in operation.

Today factories are becoming more flexible as well as more productive. Increased flexibility achieved through the use of computers will enable the manufacturing plants of tomorrow to incorporate robots, NC machine tools, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, unmanned parts carriers, automatic warehouses, and sensors for control of the overall system. Thus the future plant will also be more controllable.

The flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) of the future will combine the technologies of NC machine tools, computers, material handling systems, and industrial robots. They will also include CAD systems and automatic warehouses.

Many FMS exist today in the world of automation. We can expect that tomorrow more integrated factory systems will become economically viable. With the enhanced functions of computer software and hardware, the introduction of computers for industry automation becomes more prevalent.

The application of FMS requires advanced technical know-how.

Notes:

manufacturing facility – виробничi засоби (потужностi), human intervention – втручання людини, to be involved – бути включеним, intelligent work – iнтелектуальна робота, automated inspection – автоматизована перевiрка, computer-aided product design – проектування виробу за допомогою компютера, to be remotedly monitored – керуватися на вiдстанi (дистанцiйно), computer-aided design (CAD) – автоматизоване проектування, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system – система автоматизованого виробництва, flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) – система гнучкого виробництва, material handling system – система транспортування, technical know-how – технiчнi знання.

TEXT 19 C

Integrated Circuits

Translate the text using a dictionary

An integrated circuit (IC) is a collection of interconnected transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors mounted in one package or case with as many as fourteen leads.

The word “integrated” does not refer to the mathematical process of adding together an infinite number of infinitesimally small terms, but rather to the fact that all transistors, diodes and resistors are formed from a single piece of semiconductor material called a “chip” or a “die”. If only one chip is present in the case, the IC is called “monolithic”; if several chips are mounted inside the case the IC is called “hybrid”. Some integrated circuits contain several thousand transistors and resistors, and so extreme miniaturization is possible.

Because of their extremely small size, integrated circuits tend to be restricted to low power applications. Their small size, however, does enable them to operate at high frequencies. The cost of an IC is considerably less than the total cost of the separate components.

Monolithic ICs are by far the most common, but there are other kinds. Thin-film and thick-film ICs are larger than monolithic ICs but smaller than discrete circuits. With a thin-or thick-film IC, the passive components like resistors and capacitors are integrated simultaneously on a substrate. Then, discrete active components like transistors and diodes are connected to form a complete circuit. Therefore, commercially available thin- and thick-film circuits are combinations of integrated and discrete components.

If only a few components have been integrated to form the complete circuit it is an example of small-scale integration (SSI). As a guide, SSI refers to ICs with less than 12 integrated components.

Medium-scale integration (MSI) refers to ICs that have from 12 to 100 integrated components per chip. Large- scale integration (LSI) refers to more than a hundred components.

The IC is becoming more important as a component to be used in the design of electronic equipment, not only in equipment that must be small and light in weight, but where reliability and performance are demanded. In many areas of application particularly in digital computers, the IC provides more economical designs.

A number of important new developments are being evaluated both in the laboratory and in limited product usage. Some of these promise to bring about significant changes in the way microcircuits are designed and used.

Notes:

SSI (small-scale integration) – мала iнтегральна схема,

MSI (medium-scale integration) – середня iнтегральна схема,

LSI (large-scale integration) – велика iнтегральна схема.

  1.  Answer the following questions:
  2.  What is an integrated circuit?
  3.  What does the word “integrated” mean?
  4.  What types of integrated circuits are known to you?
  5.  What is large-scale integration?

  1.  Speak about integrated circuits.


 

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