94694

COMPUTER SCIENCE

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

It is only within the past decade however that computer technology has become essential in the work environment. Almost every profession is deeply affected by the computer revolution: physicians consult computer-based expert systems to help diagnose illnesses; musicians compose and perform music using computers...

Английский

2015-09-15

234.5 KB

1 чел.

8

UNIT I

COMPUTER SCIENCE

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

 The beginnings of

The beginnings of the modern computer date back to the 1600's when Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and scientist, developed one of the first mechanical calculating devices.

It is only within the past decade, however, that computer technology has become essential in the work environment. Almost every profession is deeply affected by the computer revolution: physicians consult computer-based expert systems to help diagnose illnesses; musicians compose and perform music using computers, and students and professionals in every field use electronic mail to communicate with both colleagues and strangers. With so many applications for computer technology, it is not surprising that the demand for computer professionals has been steadily rising.

Computer science is a broad discipline that involves the study of the structure, functions, and applications of computers and related technologies. At the advanced level, computer science can involve the study of highly specialized subfields such as knowledge engineering, cognitive science, or management information systems.

Students interested in pursuing careers in computer and related fields will find that many educational opportunities exist. Depending on one's professional goals, training for various computer careers can range from vocational education programs in such areas as data processing technology and computer maintenance; to bachelor's degree programs that prepare programmers, database managers, and systems analysts; to graduate programs focusing on cutting-edge research in artificial intelligence, robotics, or software engineering.

The emphasis of a computer science program can sometimes be determined from the title of the program: those with titles such as data processing, management information systems, or information science are usually business- oriented; computer science, software engineering, or engineering and computer science programs tend to be oriented toward science and engineering, and those titled computer and information science usually provide a mixture of orientations.

Advising students about computer science study can be difficult because many gray areas exist where computer science and other disciplines such as engineering, business, mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and psychology overlap. For example, artificial intelligence has close ties with cognitive psychology and linguistics; computer graphics is tightly linked with fine arts and industrial design, and the student of robotics must understand basic engineering concepts.

Significant overlap also exists among the various computer science specializations themselves, with differences measurable only in level of emphasis. Knowledge engineering, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence, often considered separate areas of study, are all involved in the effort to understand and recreate human intelligence and reasoning. Likewise, computer information systems, management information systems, and information science all focus on the nature and efficient flow of information within organizations. Even the well-established division between hardware and software begins to blur when one considers specializations such as systems analysis, robotics, computer engineering, and other subfields that require in-depth knowledge of all major aspects of computer science.

Because the computing field is so broad and complex and because it always changing, it is advisable for students to obtain a broad base of knowledge that includes training in both hardware and software before pursuing specialized study. While the specializations offered by universities will no doubt change as technological advancements are made, computer professionals with a comprehensive background in computer science will always be in demand.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

  1.  calculating devices                   вычислительные приборы
  2.  essential                                   существенный, важный, необходимый
  3.  to be affected by                      находиться под влиянием
  4.  application                               применение
  5.  demand for                               потребность, спрос
  6.  to be in demand                       пользоваться спросом
  7.  related                                      родственный, связанный с
  8.  advanced level                         продвинутый
  9.  cognitive                                  познавательный
  10.  to pursue a career                     заниматься ч-л, иметь профессию
  11.  data processing                        обработка данных

11. computer maintenance            эксплуатация, техническое              обслуживание

12. cutting-edge                             передовой, прогрессивный, самый современный

13. artificial intelligence (AI)        искусственный интеллект

14. software engineering               программотехника, инженерия разработки ПО

15. title                                           название, заглавие

16. to overlap                                 частично совпадать

17. knowledge engineering            инжениринг знаний (дисциплина , занимающаяся вопросами формализации знаний  предметной области с целью построить базу знаний разрабатываемой экспертной системы)

18. computer engineering               конструирование (проектирование) ЭВМ (дисциплина, занимающаяся вопросами архитектуры и методами разработки компьютеров)

19. hardware                                   аппаратные средства, аппаратура, оборудование (совокупность физических устройств компьютера или отдельных его частей)

20. to blue                                       сделать неясным, затуманить, затемнить

21. to obtain                                    получать, добывать

22. technological advancement      технический прогресс

23. comprehensive background      всесторонняя подготовка

 

EXERSISES

1. Read the introductory text again and answer these questions.

  •  What is the role of Blaise Pascal in the development of computer science?
  •  Why can we say that computer technology is essential in the work environment nowadays?
  •  How can you define “ computer science”?
  •  What educational opportunities exist for students interested in pursuing careers in computer?
  •  Why is it difficult to advise students about computer science?
  •  Why do you think it is advisable for students to obtain a broad base of knowledge in computer science before any specialized study?
  •  Why will highly qualified professionals always be in demand?

2. Find in the text equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

Necessary, to be influenced by, sphere, use, to include, aim, different, up-to-date, to supply, to be connected, fundamental, very important, attempt, to comprehend, similarly, to concentrate, to become indistinct, main, thorough, complicated, to get, undoubtedly.

3. Read the text. Do the tasks given below.

COMPUTER LITERACY FOR ALL

     

Fortunately, fewer and fewer people are suffering from computer anxiety. The availability of inexpensive, powerful, and easier-to-use personal computers is reducing the intimidation factor. As new generations grow up in the Information Age, they are perfectly at home with computers.

(2) Why are you studying about computers? In addition to curiosity (and perhaps a course requirement!), you probably recognize that it will not be easy to get through the rest of your life without knowing about computers. Let us begin with a definition of computer literacy that encompasses three aspects of the computer's universal appeal:

Awareness. Studying about computers will make you more aware of their importance, their versatility, their pervasiveness, and their potential for fostering good and (unfortunately) evil.

Knowledge. Learning what computers are and how they work requires coming to terms with some technical jargon. In the end, you will benefit from such knowledge, but at first it may be frustrating.

Interaction. There is no better way to understand computer than through interacting with one. So being computer literal also means being able to use a computer for some simple applications.

Note that no part of this definition suggests that you must be able to create the instructions that tell a computer what to do. This would be tantamount to saying that anyone who plans to drive a car must first become an auto mechanic. Someone else can write the instructions for the computer; you simply use the instruction to get your work done. For example, a bank teller might use a computer to make sure that customers really have as much money in their account as they wish to withdraw. Or an accountant might use one to prepare a report, a farmer to check on market prices, a store manager to analyze sales trends and a teenager to play a video game. We cannot guarantee that these people are computer literate, but they have at least grasped the "hands-on" component of the definition they can interact with a computer. It is possible for everyone to be computer literate?

Computer literacy is not a question of human abilities. Just about anyone can become computer literate. In the near future, people who do not understand computers will have the same status as people today who cannot read.

If this is your first computer class, you might wonder whether using a computer is really as easy as the commercials say. Some students think so, but many do not. In fact, some novice compute users can be confused and frustrated at first. Indeed, a few are so frustrated in the early going they think they never will learn. To their surprise, however, after a couple of lessons they not only are using computers but enjoying the experience.

Some students may be taken aback when the subject matter turns

out to be more difficult than they expected especially if their only computer experience involved the fun of video games. They are confused by the special terms used in computer classes, as if they had stumbled into some foreign-language course by mistake A few students may be frustrated by the hands-on nature of the experience, in which they have one-to-one relationship with the computer. Their previous learning experiences, in contrast, have been shared and sheltered they have been shared with peers in a classroom and sheltered by the guiding hand of an experienced person. Now they are one-on-one with a machine, at least part of the time. The experience is different, and maybe slightly scary. But keep in mind that others have survived and even triumphed. So can you.

And don't be surprised to find that some of your fellow students already seem to know quite a bit about computers. Computer literacy courses are required by many schools and colleges and include students with varying degrees of understanding. That mix often allows students to learn from one another and provides a few with the opportunity to teach others what they know.

  •  Find in the text equivalents to:

компьютерная грамотность; доступность (наличие); осведомленность; век информации; прожить оставшуюся жизнь; притягательность компьютеров; снять с банковского счета; технический жаргон; взаимодействие; рекламный ролик; к удивлению; пара занятий; растеряться; предыдущий учебный опыт; поделиться со сверстниками; быть наедине с; помнить; страшноватый; однокурсники; вырасти в компьютерной среде; учиться друг у друга; пользователь-новичок.

  •  Answer the following questions:

1. What does being computer literate mean?

2. What are the three aspects of the computer's universal appeal?

3. What is the best way to understand computers?

4. What are the simplest applications of computers?

5. What is the hand-on, component of computer literacy?

6. What are some novice computer users frustrated by?

7. What is the first computer literacy skill?

8. Is it possible for everyone to be computer literate? Do you need any special talents?

  •  Put the proper words into sentences:

computer networks, info, computer literate, routine, boring, repetitive tasks, accuracy, to come to terms with, quantative.

1. Society is heading in the direction of ... majority.

2. Computer programs now can integrate text, ... data and graphs.

3. The source of... is the computer.

4. It is difficult for some people to come ... the speed of change in tin modern world.

5. Many ... which people Find ... and tiring can now be carried out b} machines.

6. Computers give us speed, ..., scope, quality, flexibility, large capacity, elimination of the ... and ..., increased efficiency.

7. We need ... with expanding computer technology and adjust our vision to a whole new world..

8. As more and more people are linked by ..., how soon will it be before the paperless office becomes a reality?

LISTENING SKILLS

                                                                Listen to these people talking about how they use computers at work and write each speaker's job in the table.

electrical engineer    secretary    accountant    librarian    composer

Speaker

Job

What he/she uses computers for

1

2

3

4

Now listen again and write what each speaker uses his/her computer for.

DISCUSSION

                                                  Working in pairs choose one of the areas in the diagram below and discuss what computers can do in this area.

Formula 1 cars I Entertainment

Factories and industrial processes                         Hospitals and medical research

Useful words:

Formula 1: racing car, car body, design, mechanical parts, electronic components, engine speed

Entertainment: game, music, animated image, multimedia, encyclopedia In factories: machinery, robot, production line, computer-aided manufacturing software

In hospitals: patients, medical personnel, database program, records, scanner, diagnose, disease, robot, surgery

Useful constructions:

Computers are used to ...

A. PC can also be used/or ...

Computers can help ... make ... control... store... keep ... provide ... manage. ... give.. perform ... measure... test... provide access to ...

B. Now write a short paragraph summarizing your discussion. Then ask one person from your group to give a summary of the group's ideas to the rest of the class.

Examples:

In business, computers are used jor financial planning, accounting and specific calculations. In the office, computers are used to write letters and keep records of clients, suppliers and employees.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

     WHAT CAN COMPUTERS DO?

Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the help of computers, we read magazines which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialing a number involves the use of a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.

 We encounter daily many computers that spring to life the instant they’re switched on (e.g. calculators, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology.

What makes your computer such a miraculous device? Each time you turn it on, it is a tabula rasa that, with appropriate hardware and software, is capable of doing anything you ask. It is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations. It is an electronic filing cabinet, which manages large collections of data, such as customer’s lists, accounts, or inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of document– letters, memos or legal documents. It is a personal communicator that enables you to interact with other computers and with people around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.

FINAL TEST

  •  Put the following sentences in the same sequence as the information is arranged in the introductory text (Расположите следующие предложения в той же последовательности как информация представлена в вводном тексте)

1.

  1.  There exist a lot of educational opportunities for those who are interested in pursuing computer careers
  2.  The difference in computer specializations can sometimes be measured only in level of emphasis.
  3.  Nowadays computer technology has become essential almost in every profession.
  4.  Thanks to technological advancement computer professionals will always be in demand.

  •  The main idea of the text “Computer Literacy For All” can be expressed as:

2.

  1.  Every person must have a computer nowadays.
  2.  It’s quite possible for everyone to become computer literate now.
  3.  Computer literacy depends on your human abilities.

  •  Choose the right Russian equivalent to the following English sentence (Выберите верный русский эквивалент следующему английскому предложению)

3. In the near future people who do not understand computers will have the same status as people today who cannot read.

  1.  В ближайшем будущем изменится статус людей, не знающих компьютер и не умеющих читать.
  2.  В ближайшем будущем понимание компьютера станет важнее, чем умение читать.

C. В ближайшем будущем к людям, не знающим компьютер, будут относиться так, как сегодня относятся к тем, кто не умеет читать.

  •  Choose the right English equivalent to the following Russian sentence (Выберите верный английский эквивалент следующему русскому предложению)

4. Ввиду постоянных изменений в компьютерной сфере, студентам необходимо приобрести глубокие фундаментальные знания как в аппаратном, так и в программном обеспечении прежде, чем приступить к изучению специализированной области.

  1.  Thanks to computer advancements it is necessary for students to have a special study of hardware and software.
    1.  Because the computing field is always changing it’s essential for students to obtain a broad base of knowledge both in hardware and software before carrying out any specialized study.
    2.  Although computing field is always changing students must have deep basic knowledge not only in hardware and software but also in different computer specializations.

  •  Find the equivalents in two languages (Найдите эквиваленты в двух языках)

5. comprehensive background       

6. software engineering

7. cutting-edge research

8. industrial design

9. artificial intelligence

  1.  искусственный интеллект
  2.  промышленное проектирование
  3.  всесторонняя подготовка
  4.  передовое исследование
    •  

  •  Choose the right variant:

10. One of the first calculating devices was developed by…

  A. Ch.Barbage                     B. B. Pascal

11. Within recently computer technology has become … in the work environment.

    A. unnecessary                                       B. difficult

    C. essential                                             D. superfluous

12. Being computer … also means being able to use a computer for some simple applications.

A. literal                                               B.illiteral

  •  Insert the proper words into the following sentences:

13. Training for various computer careers one cam focus on cutting-edge research in … intelligence.

14. … processing technology is one of the areas in vocational education programs.

15. Such computer programs as data processing, management information systems, and information science are usually …-oriented.

16. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can use your … to relax with computer games.

17. There exist many gray areas where computer science and other disciplines … .

18. Computer science is a broad … that involves the study of the structure, functions, and applications of computers.

19. There is no better way to understand computer than through … with one.

20. The well-established division between hardware and software begins to … when one considers specializations such as systems analyses, robotics, computer engineering and other subfields.


 

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