Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
It is only within the past decade however that computer technology has become essential in the work environment. Almost every profession is deeply affected by the computer revolution: physicians consult computer-based expert systems to help diagnose illnesses; musicians compose and perform music using computers...
The beginnings of
The beginnings of the modern computer date back to the 1600's when Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and scientist, developed one of the first mechanical calculating devices.
It is only within the past decade, however, that computer technology has become essential in the work environment. Almost every profession is deeply affected by the computer revolution: physicians consult computer-based expert systems to help diagnose illnesses; musicians compose and perform music using computers, and students and professionals in every field use electronic mail to communicate with both colleagues and strangers. With so many applications for computer technology, it is not surprising that the demand for computer professionals has been steadily rising.
Computer science is a broad discipline that involves the study of the structure, functions, and applications of computers and related technologies. At the advanced level, computer science can involve the study of highly specialized subfields such as knowledge engineering, cognitive science, or management information systems.
Students interested in pursuing careers in computer and related fields will find that many educational opportunities exist. Depending on one's professional goals, training for various computer careers can range from vocational education programs in such areas as data processing technology and computer maintenance; to bachelor's degree programs that prepare programmers, database managers, and systems analysts; to graduate programs focusing on cutting-edge research in artificial intelligence, robotics, or software engineering.
The emphasis of a computer science program can sometimes be determined from the title of the program: those with titles such as data processing, management information systems, or information science are usually business- oriented; computer science, software engineering, or engineering and computer science programs tend to be oriented toward science and engineering, and those titled computer and information science usually provide a mixture of orientations.
Advising students about computer science study can be difficult because many gray areas exist where computer science and other disciplines such as engineering, business, mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and psychology overlap. For example, artificial intelligence has close ties with cognitive psychology and linguistics; computer graphics is tightly linked with fine arts and industrial design, and the student of robotics must understand basic engineering concepts.
Significant overlap also exists among the various computer science specializations themselves, with differences measurable only in level of emphasis. Knowledge engineering, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence, often considered separate areas of study, are all involved in the effort to understand and recreate human intelligence and reasoning. Likewise, computer information systems, management information systems, and information science all focus on the nature and efficient flow of information within organizations. Even the well-established division between hardware and software begins to blur when one considers specializations such as systems analysis, robotics, computer engineering, and other subfields that require in-depth knowledge of all major aspects of computer science.
Because the computing field is so broad and complex and because it always changing, it is advisable for students to obtain a broad base of knowledge that includes training in both hardware and software before pursuing specialized study. While the specializations offered by universities will no doubt change as technological advancements are made, computer professionals with a comprehensive background in computer science will always be in demand.
11. computer maintenance эксплуатация, техническое обслуживание
12. cutting-edge передовой, прогрессивный, самый современный
13. artificial intelligence (AI) искусственный интеллект
14. software engineering программотехника, инженерия разработки ПО
15. title название, заглавие
16. to overlap частично совпадать
17. knowledge engineering инжениринг знаний (дисциплина , занимающаяся вопросами формализации знаний предметной области с целью построить базу знаний разрабатываемой экспертной системы)
18. computer engineering конструирование (проектирование) ЭВМ (дисциплина, занимающаяся вопросами архитектуры и методами разработки компьютеров)
19. hardware аппаратные средства, аппаратура, оборудование (совокупность физических устройств компьютера или отдельных его частей)
20. to blue сделать неясным, затуманить, затемнить
21. to obtain получать, добывать
22. technological advancement технический прогресс
23. comprehensive background всесторонняя подготовка
1. Read the introductory text again and answer these questions.
2. Find in the text equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:
Necessary, to be influenced by, sphere, use, to include, aim, different, up-to-date, to supply, to be connected, fundamental, very important, attempt, to comprehend, similarly, to concentrate, to become indistinct, main, thorough, complicated, to get, undoubtedly.
COMPUTER LITERACY FOR ALL
Fortunately, fewer and fewer people are suffering from computer anxiety. The availability of inexpensive, powerful, and easier-to-use personal computers is reducing the intimidation factor. As new generations grow up in the Information Age, they are perfectly at home with computers.
(2) Why are you studying about computers? In addition to curiosity (and perhaps a course requirement!), you probably recognize that it will not be easy to get through the rest of your life without knowing about computers. Let us begin with a definition of computer literacy that encompasses three aspects of the computer's universal appeal:
• Awareness. Studying about computers will make you more aware of their importance, their versatility, their pervasiveness, and their potential for fostering good and (unfortunately) evil.
• Knowledge. Learning what computers are and how they work requires coming to terms with some technical jargon. In the end, you will benefit from such knowledge, but at first it may be frustrating.
• Interaction. There is no better way to understand computer than through interacting with one. So being computer literal also means being able to use a computer for some simple applications.
Note that no part of this definition suggests that you must be able to create the instructions that tell a computer what to do. This would be tantamount to saying that anyone who plans to drive a car must first become an auto mechanic. Someone else can write the instructions for the computer; you simply use the instruction to get your work done. For example, a bank teller might use a computer to make sure that customers really have as much money in their account as they wish to withdraw. Or an accountant might use one to prepare a report, a farmer to check on market prices, a store manager to analyze sales trends and a teenager to play a video game. We cannot guarantee that these people are computer literate, but they have at least grasped the "hands-on" component of the definition they can interact with a computer. It is possible for everyone to be computer literate?
Computer literacy is not a question of human abilities. Just about anyone can become computer literate. In the near future, people who do not understand computers will have the same status as people today who cannot read.
If this is your first computer class, you might wonder whether using a computer is really as easy as the commercials say. Some students think so, but many do not. In fact, some novice compute users can be confused and frustrated at first. Indeed, a few are so frustrated in the early going they think they never will learn. To their surprise, however, after a couple of lessons they not only are using computers but enjoying the experience.
Some students may be taken aback when the subject matter turns
out to be more difficult than they expected especially if their only computer experience involved the fun of video games. They are confused by the special terms used in computer classes, as if they had stumbled into some foreign-language course by mistake A few students may be frustrated by the hands-on nature of the experience, in which they have one-to-one relationship with the computer. Their previous learning experiences, in contrast, have been shared and sheltered they have been shared with peers in a classroom and sheltered by the guiding hand of an experienced person. Now they are one-on-one with a machine, at least part of the time. The experience is different, and maybe slightly scary. But keep in mind that others have survived and even triumphed. So can you.
And don't be surprised to find that some of your fellow students already seem to know quite a bit about computers. Computer literacy courses are required by many schools and colleges and include students with varying degrees of understanding. That mix often allows students to learn from one another and provides a few with the opportunity to teach others what they know.
компьютерная грамотность; доступность (наличие); осведомленность; век информации; прожить оставшуюся жизнь; притягательность компьютеров; снять с банковского счета; технический жаргон; взаимодействие; рекламный ролик; к удивлению; пара занятий; растеряться; предыдущий учебный опыт; поделиться со сверстниками; быть наедине с; помнить; страшноватый; однокурсники; вырасти в компьютерной среде; учиться друг у друга; пользователь-новичок.
1. What does being computer literate mean?
2. What are the three aspects of the computer's universal appeal?
3. What is the best way to understand computers?
4. What are the simplest applications of computers?
5. What is the hand-on, component of computer literacy?
6. What are some novice computer users frustrated by?
7. What is the first computer literacy skill?
8. Is it possible for everyone to be computer literate? Do you need any special talents?
computer networks, info, computer literate, routine, boring, repetitive tasks, accuracy, to come to terms with, quantative.
1. Society is heading in the direction of ... majority.
2. Computer programs now can integrate text, ... data and graphs.
3. The source of... is the computer.
4. It is difficult for some people to come ... the speed of change in tin modern world.
5. Many ... which people Find ... and tiring can now be carried out b} machines.
6. Computers give us speed, ..., scope, quality, flexibility, large capacity, elimination of the ... and ..., increased efficiency.
7. We need ... with expanding computer technology and adjust our vision to a whole new world..
8. As more and more people are linked by ..., how soon will it be before the paperless office becomes a reality?
Listen to these people talking about how they use computers at work and write each speaker's job in the table.
electrical engineer secretary accountant librarian composer
What he/she uses computers for
Now listen again and write what each speaker uses his/her computer for.
Working in pairs choose one of the areas in the diagram below and discuss what computers can do in this area.
Formula 1 cars I Entertainment
Factories and industrial processes Hospitals and medical research
Formula 1: racing car, car body, design, mechanical parts, electronic components, engine speed
Entertainment: game, music, animated image, multimedia, encyclopedia In factories: machinery, robot, production line, computer-aided manufacturing software
In hospitals: patients, medical personnel, database program, records, scanner, diagnose, disease, robot, surgery
Computers are used to ...
A. PC can also be used/or ...
Computers can help ... make ... control... store... keep ... provide ... manage. ... give.. perform ... measure... test... provide access to ...
B. Now write a short paragraph summarizing your discussion. Then ask one person from your group to give a summary of the group's ideas to the rest of the class.
In business, computers are used jor financial planning, accounting and specific calculations. In the office, computers are used to write letters and keep records of clients, suppliers and employees.
WHAT CAN COMPUTERS DO?
Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the help of computers, we read magazines which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialing a number involves the use of a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.
We encounter daily many computers that spring to life the instant theyre switched on (e.g. calculators, the cars electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology.
What makes your computer such a miraculous device? Each time you turn it on, it is a tabula rasa that, with appropriate hardware and software, is capable of doing anything you ask. It is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations. It is an electronic filing cabinet, which manages large collections of data, such as customers lists, accounts, or inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of document letters, memos or legal documents. It is a personal communicator that enables you to interact with other computers and with people around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.
3. In the near future people who do not understand computers will have the same status as people today who cannot read.
C. В ближайшем будущем к людям, не знающим компьютер, будут относиться так, как сегодня относятся к тем, кто не умеет читать.
4. Ввиду постоянных изменений в компьютерной сфере, студентам необходимо приобрести глубокие фундаментальные знания как в аппаратном, так и в программном обеспечении прежде, чем приступить к изучению специализированной области.
5. comprehensive background
6. software engineering
7. cutting-edge research
8. industrial design
9. artificial intelligence
10. One of the first calculating devices was developed by…
A. Ch.Barbage B. B. Pascal
11. Within recently computer technology has become … in the work environment.
A. unnecessary B. difficult
C. essential D. superfluous
12. Being computer … also means being able to use a computer for some simple applications.
A. literal B.illiteral
13. Training for various computer careers one cam focus on cutting-edge research in … intelligence.
14. … processing technology is one of the areas in vocational education programs.
15. Such computer programs as data processing, management information systems, and information science are usually …-oriented.
16. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can use your … to relax with computer games.
17. There exist many gray areas where computer science and other disciplines … .
18. Computer science is a broad … that involves the study of the structure, functions, and applications of computers.
19. There is no better way to understand computer than through … with one.
20. The well-established division between hardware and software begins to … when one considers specializations such as systems analyses, robotics, computer engineering and other subfields.