Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Banks are different in different countries. There, commercial banks are classified into 2 main groups. First, there are national banks. They are chartered and supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are chartered and supervised by the state in which they operate. All commercial banks make loans to borrowers.



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Lesson 8


Banks are different in different countries. Let's speak about the banks in the United States of America. There, commercial banks are classified into 2 main groups. First, there are national banks. They are chartered and supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are chartered and supervised by the state in which they operate. All commercial banks make loans to borrowers.

Major commercial banks in such cities as Tokyo, Paris, and Rio cooperate with each other. In this way they finance imports and exports between countries.

An importer buys merchandise from another country using the currency of that country. For that purpose he buys this currency from the foreign exchange department of his bank. And in the same way if an exporter receives foreign money from sales to other countries, he sells this currency to his bank. By this method the currency of any country can usually be exchanged.

Active Vocabulary

commercial bank

коммерческий банк

national bank

национальный банк

to charter

учреждать, создавать

to supervise

заведовать, контролировать

state bank

государственный банк




валюта, деньги

foreign exchange department

отдел обмена валют

to exchange currency

обменивать валюту

Comprehension Questions

  1.  What do all commercial banks do?
  2.  What kinds of commercial banks in the USA do you know? What are they called?
  3.  Who supervises the operations of the national bank
  4.  What kind of currency does an importer generally use when he buys goods from another country?
  5.  What do you know about the "international exchange"?
  6.  What is the currency of this country called?
  7.  What is the exchange rate between your currency and the $/euro? How can you find it out?

Vocabulary Practice

Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

  1.  Federal government … and … all national banks.
  1.  merchandise
  1.  International cooperation between banks makes it possible … imports and exports.
  1.  currency
  1.  It is possible to convert American dollars to Swiss francs in a … department.
  1.  commercial
  1.  The … of Germany is the euro.
  1.  foreign exchange
  1.  All … banks make loans to borrowers.
  1.  to finance
  1.  If the importer buys … from another country he will pay for it in the currency of this country.
  1.  supervise
  2.  charter


A banker's office in New York City. Mr. Smith, a Vice President is speaking to Bill Wilson.


OK, Bill. As a secretary you ought to know certain things about banking.


That's what I want. I hope to make my career in banking.


And what bank services are you familiar with?


Oh, let me see. I am familiar with checking and savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, insurance and things like that.


It is something.


But I don't have a clear idea of the services, which banks offer to businesses.


Ok. Let's discuss it then. In fact it is more directly concerned with what passes over my desk.


I think businesses come to banks for loans.


You are right. Banks make loans to corporations, to organizations, to individuals and to small companies. For this service we always charge interest.


But how can a bank decide whether a business should receive a loan?


First of all, we request a financial statement. It shows what the company has in inventory, accounts receivable and other assets and liabilities. Profit and loss statement shows the company's income and expenses.


In other words you look over the financial situation of a business.


Exactly. If the company is eligible for a loan, it may choose a long-term loan or a short-term loan.


I see. And how much interest does the bank charge on these loans?


It can be different. We have the so-called prime rate that is the lowest interest rate available at the particular time. Only preferred customers can have it.


Who decides on the prime rate then?


Major lending banks do.


Oh, I must know that. And very often I hear the term "a line of credit". I have a vague idea what it is.


A line of credit is the maximum amount of money that a company can borrow from a bank. This top amount of customer's credit is based on the profits and earnings of a business.


Well. Then it is very important to have a good line of credit, isn't it?


Sure. Bank also issues letters of credit. Such a letter says that its holder can borrow up a certain sum of money. Or a bank can also issue a letter of credit for a person who goes to the other country where another bank is involved. Then there is the credit reference letter, which recommends a company to its suppliers, and well – I could go on all morning.


Thank you. It's very useful information.


OK. We can pass on to a more complicated subject. That is tax service.

Active Vocabulary


банковское дело

to make a career in smth

сделать карьеру в чём-либо

bank services

банковские услуги

checking account

чековый счёт

savings account

сберегательный счёт с установленным процентом

safety deposit box

сейф для депозитов, предоставляемый частным лицам в банке



to make a loan to smb

давать заём кому-то

eligible for a loan

подходящий для займа (т.е. признаваемый платежеспособным)

long-term loan

долгосрочный заем

short-term loan

краткосрочный заем

prime rate

наименьший процент со ссуды, установленный в определённом месте в определённое время

preferred customer

привилегированный клиент


наличный, имеющийся в распоряжении

line of credit

кредитный лимит

to borrow


letter of credit

кредитное письмо, аккредитив

credit reference letter

рекомендательное кредитное письмо

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: We use the safety deposit boxes (sometime).

We sometimes use the safety deposit boxes.

  1.  All the banks provide credit services (usually).
  2.  Banks give investment advice (sometimes).
  3.  Banks charge interest (always)
  4.  You can borrow money quickly (rarely).
  5.  Businesses want to borrow money (frequently).
  6.  The amount of interest depends on the prime rate (generally).
  7.  Companies need a line of credit (seldom).
  8.  A line of credit is available (occasionally).

Exercise 2. Change the sentences from active into passive according to the model.

Model: They use the safety deposit boxes very often.

Safety deposit boxes are used very often by them.

  1.  Federal government supervises and charters national banks.
  2.  This bank is asking 10 % interest.
  3.  The bank requests a financial statement of the company.
  4.  Their company takes a long-term loan from the Federal Bank.
  5.  The executive shows the company's expenses.
  6.  The manager is instructing the secretary.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

  1.  Is there a difference between banking systems in Ukraine and western countries? What is the difference?
  2.  What bank services are you familiar with?
  3.  Do the banks in Ukraine have safety deposit boxes?
  4.  Whom do the banks make loans to in Ukraine?
  5.  What kind of loan would you prefer, long-term or short-term?
  6.  What prime rates are available in Ukraine?
  7.  What does the line of credit of the enterprise depend on?
  8.  What is a credit letter written for?
  9.  What can one do with credit reference letter?

Grammar Exercises

Exercise 1. Make the sentences negative.

  1.  This commercial bank had already stopped to exit when the war started.
  2.  He had already changed currency when I rang him up yesterday.
  3.  They had already chartered the commercial bank when I organized my private café.
  4.  He had looked over the financial statement by 5 o'clock yesterday.
  5.  My brother had made a career in banking when he was 26.
  6.  He had put all his money on his savings account before the money reform was introduced.

Exercise 2. Put up 4 questions of different typed to each sentence.

  1.  They had written a credit reference letter before he left abroad.
  2.  He had been a preferred customer for this bank till his business was successful.
  3.  My parents had settled everything connected with insurance before they retired.
  4.  He had borrower the money before I managed to find him.
  5.  The lawyer had given me investment advice before I asked him about it.
  6.  He had arrived to the conclusion to take a long-term loan when I met him yesterday.

Translate into English.

  1.  Государство учреждает коммерческие банки.
  2.  Если ты хочешь купить товары за границей, ты должен поменять деньги в отделе обмена валюты.
  3.  Я бы хотел сделать карьеру в банковском деле.
  4.  Все банки устанавливают проценты на ссуду.
  5.  Наш банк намерен предоставить краткосрочную ссуду этому предприятию.
  6.  Наименьший процент со ссуды предоставляется привилегированным клиентам.
  7.  Банки могут выпускать аккредитивы и рекомендательные кредитные письма.
  8.  Я намерен занять крупную сумму денег.
  9.  Банк считает, что это предприятие платежеспособно и ему можно предоставить заем.


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