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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

It includes companies that manufacture sell and lease computers as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers. A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions.



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Lesson 14


The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.

A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions, which determine the mathematical operations on the information.

A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions, such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Active Vocabulary

to give instructions

давать инструкции

to put data

закладывать данные

to solve mathematical problems

решать математические задачи

to process data

обрабатывать данные

preparation of payrolls

подготовка ведомостей

inventory control

инвентаризационный контроль


складирование товаров

distribution operations

распределительные операции

customer accounting

расчёт с клиентом

Comprehension Questions

  1.  What does the computer industry include?
  2.  In what way does a computer operate?
  3.  How was the computer traditionally used in business?
  4.  What new kinds of jobs is the computer taking on?

Vocabulary Practice

Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

  1.  Distribution operations, preparation of payroll are … functions that the computer performs for business.
  1.  process data
  1.  Computer is programmed to … fast and accurately.
  1.  lease
  1.  If a small company cannot afford to buy a computer, they can … services of computer.
  1.  inventory control
  1.  A programmer feeds the … into the computer.
  1.  processing
  1.  Many companies use computers for their … .
  1.  administrative
  1.  A computer solves problems by … information.
  1.  data and instructions


Simona and Berg work in a large supermarket. Berg is the manager and Simona is the Head Buyer.


I'm so glad you had this business trip. I also would have liked to go but it's a problem for me to get away. Tell me everything about your business trip.


It was really great, Berg. It was worth looking over the operations of the store. It's very well organized. I believe we should consider adopting some of the methods.


Is it really so?


Absolutely. Berg, their computer system is remarkable.


Can you tell me more about it?


Oh, sure. First, they've replaced their cash registers with special terminals.


What for?


They record on tape the department number, classification of items, amount of sale and name of a salesclerk for each sale.


Do you think we really need all that information on tape?


We put on the same information on our sales checks.


Yes, but in cases of exchanges we need to know all that.


And for other things too.




For inventory control, for example. During the night, the tapes containing the information are fed into the computer.


And then what?


Every morning the computer prepares reports on the sales of the day before, classified by department and buyer.


So, it is possible to have almost instant records.


You are right. The inventory is kept up-to-date automatically. Imagine how efficient we could be.


It is great. But I think with the help of a computer we could offer more personal services to our customers.


What do you mean?


Having such up-to-date records and complete inventory we could keep records of birthdays and anniversaries and have gift suggestions based on customer records and a million of other things.


Don't hurry. Let's get going on first things first.

Active Vocabulary

Head Buyer

начальник отдела снабжения магазина

to adopt methods

внедрять методы


терминал, вывод, конец, граница

to feed the information in the computer

закладывать информацию в компьютер

to date

вычислять, подсчитывать

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: It was worth looking over the operations of the supermarket.

It was worth looking them over.

  1.  They picked out the new merchandise.
  2.  They talked over the new software.
  3.  The manager tried out new sales checks.
  4.  She filled out the payroll form.
  5.  They took down the statistical data.
  6.  She put off her work.
  7.  He had to look over the new program.

Exercise 2. Change the sentence according to the model.

Model: The sales are numerous. I can't mention them all.

They are too numerous for me to mention.

  1.  This software is very expensive. The company can't buy it.
    1.  The results are numerous. They can't remember them all.
    2.  The computers are complicated. I can't use them.
    3.  Processing this data is difficult. John can't learn them.
    4.  I am tired. I can't do the billing right now.
    5.  I am busy. I can't go on a business trip right now.
    6.  The data is complicated. I can't explain them.
    7.  The situation is difficult. We can't overcome it at once.

Exercise3. Read the text and put 10 questions to it.

Lorain Weller from "Modern English International" warns us. However hard the manufacturers and advertisers of personal computers try to convince1 us of friendliness of their product, it is still a fact that if you want to program your own computer, you have to learn its language. It doesn't understand yours.

This simple fact is the reason why so many home computers are underused2. It also prevents3 lots of people from buying their own computer. Rather than licking4 your hand the computer quite often bites5.

Imagine yourself having a conversation with an English person. You make one small grammar mistake; maybe you say "have" instead of "has". It doesn't matter. The person understands your meaning and the conversation continues. This doesn't happen with a computer. If you make even the smallest mistake in its language, the conversation breaks down completely and you have to go back to the beginning. It can be very frustrating6.

In the United States, in Japan, in Britain, computer specialists are all trying to develop a computer that will understand the human language.

to convince


to underuse

использовать не на полную мощность

to prevent

(зд.) останавливать, предотвращать

to lick


to bite




Exercise 4.

a. Make a speech in favor of modern electronic equipment (personal computers, electronic printing aids). Why can't a modern enterprise do without them?

b. You are the Head of a firm producing computers. Advertise your product

Grammar Exercise.

Transform the sentences from Future Indefinite into Future-in-the-Past.

Model: The accountant says that she will prepare the financial statement very soon.

The accountant said that she would prepare the financial statement very soon.

  1.  He confesses that their business will fail.
  2.  The government says that they will increase the taxes.
  3.  The secretary says that she will get the credit reference letter in two days.
  4.  The lawyer states that the company won't be eligible for a loan.
  5.  He is sure that he will get a credit.
  6.  They suppose that the new product will be not so expensive.
  7.  He thinks he will buy the stove in the discount house.
  8.  He is happy that he will go on this business trip.

Translate into English.

  1.  Некоторые компании не производят и не продают компьютеры, а сдают их в прокат.
  2.  Программист закладывает данные в компьютер.
  3.  В бизнесе компьютер используется для обработки данных.
  4.  Программное обеспечение очень дорого.
  5.  Компьютер помогает принимать решения на высшем административном уровне.
  6.  Компьютер используется для осуществления многих административных функций, подготовки ведомостей, инвентаризационного контроля.


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