94740

British education

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The students of the private schools came mostly from the middle aristocratic and wealthy classes although some schools made provisions for the education of poorer children. A system of voluntary schools developed during the 19th century especially in England and Wales to extend educational opportunities to the lower classes.

Английский

2015-09-16

38.5 KB

0 чел.

Main Text

Historically, British education has derived much of its prestige from the excellence of its private preparatory schools, called "public" schools because they were originally established for the children of the middle class, such as Eton College, Harrow School, and Rugby School. The students of the private schools came mostly from the middle, aristocratic, and wealthy classes, although some schools made provisions for the education of poorer children. A system of voluntary schools developed during the 19th century, especially in England and Wales, to extend educational opportunities to the lower classes. After 1833 the voluntary schools, established by charitable and religious organizations, received some financial support from parliamentary grants. Not until the Elementary Education Act of 1870 was passed, however, did the development of publicly provided primary education begin.

By terms of the act the country was divided into school districts, each supervised by locally elected school boards, which were authorized to establish schools in areas where no voluntary schools existed; the boards, at their own discretion, were empowered to require compulsory attendance. The resulting complexity of school administration was eased in 1899 by the creation of a national board of education. Thus, by the end of the 19th century, free elementary education was available to all. Public provision of secondary education was established in 1889 in Wales and in 1902 in England.

The Education Act of 1902 abolished the school boards and placed the responsibility for public education on the councils of local government (counties, county boroughs, boroughs, and urban districts), which were made local education authorities, known as LEAs. The board schools became council schools, and the voluntary schools were subsidized by public funds. The voluntary schools were criticized, however, because they provided religious instruction.

In 1944 Parliament passed an education act that became the basis of modern public education in England and Wales. The LEAs, of which 146 were designated, were made committees of county or county-borough councils, and the council schools became county schools. Each of the local authorities was made responsible for setting up complete facilities for education, divided into three categories: primary education, secondary education, and further education, the last named for those persons under the age of 18 who were not receiving full-time education. After the reorganization of local government in the mid-1970s, LEAs in England and Wales numbered 105 and were the elected councils of counties and districts. The Education Act of 1980 provided for greater representation of parents and teachers on school governing bodies.

Education in Scotland grew vigorously, at first independent of that in the rest of Great Britain. The Education Act (Scotland) of 1872, the counterpart of the English act of 1870, placed schools under the jurisdiction of locally elected school boards. After that date, Scotland carried out its own school reforms. By the 20th century, every locality maintained free elementary schools; secondary schools were widespread in Scotland before they were developed throughout England and Wales. Voluntary schools were not a significant element of the system-only one-eighth the number of voluntary schools in England were established in Scotland. The Education Act (Scotland) of 1945 applied the provisions of the English act of 1944; it involved fewer innovations, however, because many of the reforms made in England had already been made in Scotland. Following local government reorganization in 1975, the LEAs in Scotland served as elected councils for the nine regional and three island authorities. Education in Scotland is managed by the Scottish Education Department.

Education in Northern Ireland was placed under the Board (later Ministry) of Education by the Education Act (Northern Ireland) of 1923. Counties and county boroughs were designated as LEAs, and education was based on the English system. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) of 1947 imposed reforms similar to those imposed by the English act. The Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order of 1972 established five education and library boards as the LEAs.

All schools in Great Britain are under the general supervision of three government departments: the Department of Education and Science for the schools in England and Wales, the Department of Education for the schools of Northern Ireland, and the Education Department for those of Scotland. Education is compulsory for all children age 5 to 16.

Most of the expenditures in education in Britain come from public funds. In the late 1980s the government instituted a plan by which schools could receive funding directly from the central government. This plan, called Local Management of Schools, gave schools greater control over their finances. Government expenditures in education in the early 1990s accounted for 12.7 percent of the country's annual budget.

British universities, of which there are 89 (including the television-based Open University and the privately-funded University of Buckingham), are completely self-governing, and their academic and financial independence is guaranteed by a committee that disburses to them funds authorized by Parliament. Major universities in Great Britain include three in England; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, and the University of London; and one in Scotland, the University of Edinburgh. Many new universities and other institutions of higher education have been founded since World War II ended in 1945, and admission policies have been broadened. The Further and Higher Education Act of 1992 gave the former polytechnic colleges university status. The number of secondary schools was increased at the same time. Such changes, however, have not been accepted without controversy. Certain factions within the country believe that mass education tends to lower educational standards.

Additional text

British education emas us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post school education is organized flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to continue studying through out life.

Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't employ teachers, or prescribe curricular or textbooks. All shools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsary. That is religious instruction.

Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools.

Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing.

Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher except for PT and music. The work is beist upon the pupils interests as far as possible.

The junior stage extence over four years. Children have set base knowledge of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligent test. According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehansive schools began to appear after World War 2. They are muchly mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.

By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdevided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certeficate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).

Candidats set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of everage abilities of their age.

Special Education

In Great Britain, the 1870 Education Act marked the direct involvement of the state in education. Previously, education had been left to the Voluntary Church Societies. The 1870 Act, established during the reign of Queen Victoria, set up a system of local school boards with the power to provide schooling paid by taxpayers. In 1880 compulsory education was law and became free in 1891.

It was not until 1981, however, that children with special needs were specifically protected under the Education Act approved by Parliament. The U.K. generally lags behind the U.S. in the provision of special education and the recognition and identification of disabilities, particularly learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders.

The British system of classifying students for purposes of determining service levels is quite different than in the United States. In the U.S., all students whose disability interferes with their ability to learn are entitled to the same statutory protections and procedures under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In particular, all students have access to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and, to varying degrees, the funding needed to deliver it. Roughly 12 percent of U.S. students receive special education under the IDEA.

In the U.K., however, there are two completely different eligibility categories, which ultimately determine the student’s access to services, funding, and legal protections. These two categories are informally referred to as "Statemented" and "Non-Statemented" students. Since individual Local Education Authorities (or LEAs, the equivalent of school districts in the U.S.) determine a student’s eligibility for a Statement, it is possible for two students with the exact same needs to find themselves eligible for entirely different levels of service (e.g. one is granted a Statement; the other is not). Eligibility for Statements is highly restrictive; just 2 percent of British students (217,000 children in England and Wales) have Statements, the statutory equivalent of American IEPs. The 18-20 percent of children with special needs who are not eligible for Statements do receive some special education services, but not to the same extent as Statemented students.

Britain’s special education policy is far more restrictive than U.S. laws when it comes to providing intensive special education services and identifying students with moderate to severe needs. However, its policy acknowledges that a larger proportion of students (18-20 percent versus the 12 percent of U.S. students with IEPs) have some special needs, which it attempts to meet through limited special education services provided in the regular classroom. This two-tier approach is the key difference between the special education policies of the U.S. and the U.K.

The term "special schools" refers to schools specializing in the education of students with disabilities and includes both private and public institutions. The number of special schools in England has steadily declined from roughly 1,600 in 1979 to 1,200 in 1999. Likewise, the number of full-time students enrolled in special schools has fallen from 130,000 to just over 95,000 over the same time period. Reasons for the decline include full inclusion, high transportation costs, and lack of teachers with specialized qualifications.

Most special schools are publicly owned and operated; many are co-located as a separate unit within a public school. The Gabbitas Guide to Schools for Special Needs 1999, which covers primarily private or independent schools, lists 192 private special schools in England, 29 in Scotland, 5 in Wales, and 1 in Northern Ireland. For the most part, tuition at these schools is paid by the students’ parents, though in some cases, the LEA will fund tuition for students in a private or independent school.

One of the challenges of serving an American and British student population is that the academic requirements are quite different at the upper school. (Students receive the same general curriculum at the lower and middle schools.) In the upper school, there are two tracks. The Americans have a college bound curriculum, attend the school until age 18, and nearly 100% of the graduates go onto college, according to Mr. O’Regan. The British students generally leave Centre Academy at age 16. Their curriculum focuses on preparing them for the GCSE, a series of about 10 difficult tests that they take at age 16. (The A-levels, which are administered at age 18 and which contain college-level content, are too advanced for most Centre Academy students. Instead of preparing for these exams, the students leave school at age 16 and go into vocational programs.)

Пересказ

Historically, British education has derived much of its prestige from the excellence of its private preparatory schools, called "public" schools because they were originally established for the children of the middle class, such as Eton College, Harrow School, and Rugby School. The students of the private schools came mostly from the middle, aristocratic, and wealthy classes, although some schools made provisions for the education of poorer children. Not until the Elementary Education Act of 1870 was passed, however, did the development of publicly provided primary education begin.

By terms of the act the country was divided into school districts, each supervised by locally elected school boards, which were authorized to establish schools in areas where no voluntary schools existed; the boards, at their own discretion, were empowered to require compulsory attendance. Public provision of secondary education was established in 1889 in Wales and in 1902 in England.

The Education Act of 1902 abolished the school boards and placed the responsibility for public education on the councils of local government (counties, county boroughs, boroughs, and urban districts), which were made local education authorities, known as LEAs. In 1944 Parliament passed an education act that became the basis of modern public education in England and Wales. Each of the local authorities was made responsible for setting up complete facilities for education. Education in Scotland grew vigorously, at first independent of that in the rest of Great Britain. Education in Northern Ireland was placed under the Board (later Ministry) of Education by the Education Act (Northern Ireland) of 1923. In the late 1980s the government instituted a plan by which schools could receive funding directly from the central government. The number of secondary schools was increased at the same time.

Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at school for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools. Most pupils receive free education finenst from public fonds and the small proportions attend schools wholy independent. Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdevided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11). By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16.

In 1981 children with special needs were specifically protected under the Education Act approved by Parliament.  The term "special schools" refers to schools specializing in the education of students with disabilities and includes both private and public institutions. The number of special schools in England has steadily declined from roughly 1,600 in 1979 to 1,200 in 1999. Most special schools are publicly owned and operated.


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

81576. Биохимические изменения при мышечных дистрофиях и денервации мышц. Креатинурия 106.28 KB
  Общими для большинства заболеваний мышц прогрессирующие мышечные дистрофии атрофия мышц в результате их денервации тенотомия полимиозит некоторые авитаминозы и т. являются резкое снижение в мышцах содержания миофибриллярных белков возрастание концентрации белков стромы и некоторых саркоплазматических белков в том числе миоальбумина. Наряду с изменениями фракционного состава мышечных белков при поражениях мышц наблюдается снижение уровня АТФ и креатинфосфата.
81577. Химический состав нервной ткани. Миелиновые мембраны: особенности состава и структуры 152.07 KB
  Данилевский впервые разделил белки мозговой ткани на растворимые в воде и солевых растворах белки и нерастворимые белки. которые разделили белки нервной ткани на 4 фракции: извлекаемые водой 45 раствором КСl 01 раствором NOH и нерастворимый остаток. В настоящее время сочетая методы экстракции буферными растворами хроматографии на колонках с ДЭАЭцеллюлозой и дискэлектрофореза в полиакриламидном геле удалось выделить из ткани мозга около 100 различных растворимых белковых фракций.
81578. Энергетический обмен в нервной ткани. Значение аэробного распада глюкозы 129.8 KB
  На долю головного мозга приходится 2–3 от массы тела. Следовательно 100 г мозга потребляет в 1 мин 37 мл кислорода а весь головной мозг 1500 г – 555 млкислорода. Газообмен мозга значительно выше чем газообмен других тканей в частности он превышает газообмен мышечной ткани почти в 20 раз. Интенсивность дыхания для различных областей головного мозга неодинакова.
81579. Биохимия возникновения и проведения нервного импульса. Молекулярные механизмы синаптической передачи 109.17 KB
  Молекулярные механизмы синаптической передачи Большинство исследователей придерживаются мнения что явления электрической поляризации клетки обусловлены неравномерным распределением ионов К и Nпо обе стороны клеточной мембраны. Мембрана обладает избирательной проницаемостью: большей для ионов К и значительно меньшей для ионов N. При определенных условиях резко повышается проницаемость мембраны для ионов N. Объясняется это тем что количество ионов N выкачиваемых из клетки с помощью натриевого насоса не вполне точно уравновешивается...
81580. Медиаторы: ацетилхолин, катехоламины, серотонин, γ-аминомаслянная кислота, глутаминовая кислота, глицин, гистамин 107.74 KB
  γАминомасляная кислота выполняет в организме функцию ингибирующего медиатора центральной нервной системы. Действие ГАМК в ЦНС осуществляется путём её взаимодействия со специфическими ГАМКергическими рецепторам Глутаминовая кислота является нейромедиаторной аминокислотой одним из важных представителей класса возбуждающих аминокислот. Эндогенные лиганды глутаминатных рецепторов глутаминовая кислота и аспарагиновая кислота.
81581. Нарушения обмена биогенных аминов при психических заболеваниях. Предшественники катехоламинов и ингибиторы моноаминооксидазы в лечении депрессивных состояний 108.33 KB
  Предшественники катехоламинов и ингибиторы моноаминооксидазы в лечении депрессивных состояний. Например резерпин – понижающее артериальное давление средство специфически тормозит процесс переноса катехоламинов в специальные гранулы нейронов и тем самым делает эти амины доступными действию эндогенной МАО. Многие антидепрессанты вещества снимающие депрессию увеличивают содержание катехоламинов в синаптической щели т. К таким веществам в частности относятся имипрамин блокирует поглощение норадреналина нервными волокнами амфетамин...
81582. Физиологически активные пептиды мозга 109.08 KB
  Нейропептиды осуществляют контроль за экспрессией вторичных клеточных мессенджеров, цитокинов и других сигнальных молекул, а также за запуском генетических программ апоптоза, антиапоптозной защиты, усиления нейротрофического обеспечения. Такие регуляторные (модуляторные) влияния устраняют общую дезинтеграцию во взаимодействии сложных и часто разнонаправленных молекулярно-биохимических механизмов
81583. Предмет и задачи биологической химии. Обмен веществ и энергии, иерархическая структурная организация и самовоспроизведение как важнейшие признаки живой материи 106.91 KB
  Обмен веществ и энергии иерархическая структурная организация и самовоспроизведение как важнейшие признаки живой материи. Она изучает химическую природу веществ входящих в состав живых организмов их превращения а также связь этих превращений с деятельностью клеток органов и тканей и организма в целом. Из этого определения вытекает что биохимия занимается выяснением химических основ важнейших биологических процессов и общих путей и принципов превращений веществ и энергии лежащих в основе разнообразных проявлений жизни. Важнейшим...
81584. Гетеротрофные и аутотрофные организмы: различия по питанию и источникам энергии. Катаболизм и анаболизм 106.04 KB
  Живые клетки постоянно нуждаются в органических и неорганических веществах а также в химической энергии которую они получают преимущественно из АТФ АТР. Гетеротрофы например животные и грибы зависят от получения органических веществ с пищей. Так как большая часть этих питательных веществ белки углеводы нуклеиновые кислоты и липиды не могут утилизироваться непосредственно они сначала разрушаются до более мелких фрагментов катаболическим путем. Процесс обмена веществ определяется двумя сопряженными процессами: анаболизма и...