London. The history of London


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

London stands on the river Thames. The City of London is the centre of British business and commerce. Westminster is to the west of the City of London.



38.5 KB

0 чел.

The text about London

London is the capital of Great Britain, the city great and ancient, large industrial and cultural centre. London stands on the river Thames. One of the eldest buildings is the Tower. Its old is for nearly a thousand years. In its long history the Tower has been a palace, a fortress and a prison. William the Conqueror built it. Now it is a museum.

One of the different bridges across the Thames is the Tower Bridge built in 1894.

The City of London is the centre of British business and commerce. It’s also famous for its greatest monument St. Paul’s Cathedral. It was built in 1708.

Westminster is to the west of the City of London. The House of Parliament (or the Palace of Westminster) stands on the bank of the Thames. The national flag over the Victoria Tower indicates that the Parliament is sitting. The Clock Tower of the House of Parliament contains the hour-bell called “Big Ben”.

Buckingham Palace is used now as an official London residence of the Queen. It is also in the part of London known as Westminster.

Piccadilly Circus is the London theatre-land. Piccadilly Circus is the symbol of London wealth.

London has many other famous places such as Westminster Abbey, Trafalgar square and others.

From the history of London.

 London was born hundreds of years before our era. On the banks of the Thames was a small settlement named Llyn-din. To this place, in the year 55 before our era Yulins Caesar and his troops came from Rome.

 Britain was conquered, and for 400 years remained a Roman province. Llyn-din became Londinum. Althouth Londinium was quite an important Roman town, it was Winchester that was the capital of Anglo-Saxon England.

 In the 5 century the Romans left Britain and other invaders came. During 400 years Londinium lay in ruins. Only in the 9th century the Saxon kings began to rebuild Londinium.

 In 1066 William the Conqueror settled in Londinium which now became London - the capital of Norman Britain. For 500 years the Normans were masters of Britain. They brought with them Latin and French civilization, built new palaces, churches and cathedrals in or near London. William the Conqueror built the Tower of London and Westminster Abbey where he was crowned the king of Britain.

 In 1666 a great fire hit the city destroying most of buildings. In commemoration of the fire a tall column 202 ft high was erected not far from St. Paul's Cathedral. They were built by the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren.   After the fire houses were built of brick and stone, the streets were made much wider, a new London became one of the largest cities of the world.


1. London:

 London is before us the capital of Great Britain, the city great and ancient, and a large industrial and cultural center.

2. The Thames:

  London stands on the river Thames. For centuries the River Thames was the main highway of London. It runs for some 300-km. 300 km of docks, fortresses and palaces established on or near its banks.

3. The Tower:

  For nearly a thousand years history has been made in the Tower of London. William the Conqueror built this massive fortress. In its long history the Tower has been a palace a fortress and a prison. Now it is a museum.

4. Tower Bridge:

  There are 12 different bridges across the Thames. One of them is the Tower Bridge built in 1894. It consists of 2 steel towers joined by footbridges over 150 feet high but they are not used nowadays.

5. St. Paul’s Cathedral:

  The City of London is the oldest part of London. It has the area of a square mile. The City of London is the center of Britain business and commerce. It also famous for its greatest monument - St. Paul’s Cathedral. It was built in 1708 by the greatest English architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is the largest in England and second in the world. Christopher Wren and Admiral Nelson were buried there.

6. Fleet Street:

  There is a street in London which leads from St. Paul’s Cathedral down to the Thames. It is Fleet Street named after the Fleet river that doesn’t exist now. Fleet Street is the center of the British newspaper industry and press.

7. The Houses of Parliament:

  Westminster is to the west of the City of London. This part of the capital is now a governmental one. The Houses of Parliament (or the Palace of Westminster) stand on the bank of the Thames. The present building dates only from the 19-th century but stands on the place of the ancient Westminster Palace. The national flag over the Victoria Tower indicates that the Parliament is sitting.

8. “Big Ben”:

  The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament contains the hour-bell called “Big Ben” after Sir Benjamin Hall, the manager of the Houses’ reconstruction works. The clock is known the world over.

9. Westminster Abbey:

   Westminster Abbey was laid down in the middle of the 11-th century. The building we have today dates from about 1480. This church contains the tombs and memorials of Britain’s greatest citizens: Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Walter Scott and many others. Near the West Door of the Abbey there is a simple tomb of the Unknown Warrior.

10. Buckingham Palace:

    Buckingham Palace is used now as an official London residence of the Queen. It is also in the part of London known as Westminster. The large monument in front of it is the Queen Victoria Memorial who made the Palace her residence in 1837.

11. Downing Street, 10:

  Downing Street is named after its builder, Sir George Downing. House number 10 is  the official residence of the Prime Minister. Numbers 11 and 12 belong to the chief government leaders.

12. Trafalgar Square:

 Trafalgar Square is the center of modern London. It was laid down to commemorate Nelson’s victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1841. The total height of the Nelson Column in the center is 184 feet. The four bronze lions at the base decorate the column. Trafalgar Square has become famous for its meetings and political demonstrations.

13. Piccadilly Circus:

  The West End of London covers a large area of shopping centers, rich cinemas, theatres and clubs. At its heart is Piccadilly Circus – London theatre-land. In The center there is the bronze fountain with the sculpture erected in 1893. Piccadilly Circus is symbol of London wealth.

14. The East End:

  There are many ways of spending money. But the city must eat. The British wealth is being made in a working area-known as the East End. The working Londoners live here.

  It is a country of dockers. London docks are closed now. All workers are sacked. Unemployment rules here. Three million workers living in the East End, give Britain its wealth.    

London’s Parks

London has more parkland than any other world capital. The open spaces of London provide a welcome contrast to the great built up area. All the parks belong to the Royal family but are open to the public. Besides the most famous parks as St. James’s Park, Hyde Park, Regent’s Park, Richmond Park there are many small local parks, play grounds and public gardens around London. In the past this parkland was part of the royal hunting forest but nowadays it is a very popular place to rest in.

One of the most delightful of London’s “lungs” is St. James’s Park, which extends from Buckingham Palace to White hall. Its principal feature is a small but beautiful lake where all kinds of birds find a home.

Regent’s Park, like St. James’s Park was designed by the great architect Wash who was also responsible for many of the Classical terraces which surround the park. In summer open-air performances of Shakespeare’s plays are given in the natural atmosphere. One section of the park forms the Zoological Gardens where a comprehensive collection of animals from all parts of the world is displayed.

Kew Gardens, 288 acres in extend, are devoted to the practical development of botany and forestry. Many sorts of exotic and rare plants were discovered, cultivated and grown there.

Hyde Park, the most popular of London’s parks, and Kensington Gardens, formerly part of the Royal Palace of Kensington are linked by the Serpentine where boating and bathing may both be enjoyed.

Visitors may enjoy great freedom in Hyde Park. One can walk or lie on the grass, play games, take an exercises, etc. Hyde Park is the greatest Public Park in Europe but in spite of that many aristocratic traditions are maintained in Hyde Park. In summer you can watch guardsmen exercising their horses along the roads. Traditionally there early-morning exercises are an etiquette strictly observed in this season. Hyde Park is also famous for its “Speaker Corner”. It is there that every body has the right to speak out everything he or she wants to.

Londoners love their parks and are proud of them. Walking in the parks you have the feeling that you are far away in the country but not in the centre of one of the largest capitals of the world.



А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

81910. Мотивационная теория подкрепления 40.74 KB
  Теория подкрепления исходит из того что у любого действия или поведения есть последствия: негативные и позитивные. При этом люди повторяют поведение которое приносило удовольствие было позитивно подкреплено и избегают поведения которое доставило им неприятности. Подкрепление определяется как любые действия которые вызывают повторение или напротив подавление определенных образцов поведения. Позитивное подкрепление представляет собой вознаграждение желательного для руководства организации поведения с целью формирования или закрепление у...
81911. Контроль как функция менеджмента 41.93 KB
  Существует три аспекта управленческого контроля: установление стандартов точное определение целей которые должны быть достигнуты в определенный отрезок времени. Необходимость контроля обусловлена следующими обстоятельствами: потребностью организации процесса производства в соответствии с имеющимися резервами и ресурсами; требованиями потребителей к качеству стандарту и сертификации выпускаемой продукции; изменяющимися внутренними и внешними условиями производства необходимостью выявления тенденций меняющегося спроса и предложения...
81913. Этапы контроля в менеджменте 39.29 KB
  Независимо от типов и количества контрольных систем необходимых организации существует четыре основных этапа любого процесса контроля. Первый этап в контрольном процессе установление стандартов. Второй этап в процессе контроля измерение фактических результатов деятельности контролируемого объекта. На этом этапе необходимо определить качественные и количественные методы измерения.
81914. Новейшие тенденции в менеджменте в области контроля 37.86 KB
  Современные тенденции развития контроля. Контрольные функции традиционно осуществляемые централизованно в коммерческой фирме ее руководством а в государстве центральными органами постепенно перераспределяются между: верхними звеньями управления; сторонними организациями специализирующимися на функциях контроля; потребителями продукции; низовыми звеньями управления Часть контрольных функций передается внешним организациям. Изменение содержания контроля и новые методы его осуществления.
81915. Информация как основа коммуникаций и ее значение в менеджменте 38.97 KB
  Процесс управления рассматривается как процесс восприятия преобразования и передачи информации. Основой управления является принятие решений которые основаны на использовании информации. Степень обоснованности решений зависит от полноты достоверности и своевременности информации. происходит передача информации для принятия и реализации решения.
81916. Сущность и виды коммуникаций 40.32 KB
  Установить взаимосвязь между людьми в организации. Сформулировать общие взгляды на внутреннюю среду организации. Организовать совместную работу коллективов с целью выполнения задач организации. Виды коммуникаций: Вертикальная ϶ᴛᴏ обмен информацией между руководителем и подчиненными; Горизонтальная представляет собой процесс передачи информации между сотрудниками одного уровня; Вербальная процесс общения с целью передачи информации при помощи слов; Невербальная общение с помощью мимики жестов взглядов; Формальная Неформальная...
81917. Коммуникативный процесс в менеджменте 55.81 KB
  Декодирование это перевод символов отправителя в уме получателя. Если символы избранные отправителем имеют точно такое же значение для получателя последний будет знать что именно имел в виду отправитель когда формулировалась его идея. Получатель становится отправителем и проходит через все этапы процесса обмена информацией для передачи своего отзыва начальному отправителю который теперь играет роль получателя. Эффект коммуникационного процесса ϶ᴛᴏ изменение в поведении получателя кᴏᴛᴏᴩые происходят в результате принятия сообщения.
81918. Коммуникативные барьеры и способы их преодоления в менеджменте 41.28 KB
  Содержательные барьеры проблемы в понимании смысла и значения отправленного или полученного сообщения Они делятся в свою очередь на: фонетические использование элементов из других языков и диалектов дефекты речи и дикции невнятность речи нарушения темпа речи наличие значительного количества звуков и словпаразитов; семантические вложение различного содержания использования жаргонов и слешей; стилистические несовпадение стиля речи коммуникатора отправителя с содержанием сообщения; логические различные логические системы...